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Towards a taxonomic classification of humus forms : third approximation Klinka, Karel; Krestov, Pavel; Fons, Jaume; Chourmouzis, Christine 1997

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Horizon designations and definitionsMaster horizonSubordinate horizonFreely-drained upland horizonsL (litter); a surface horizon that consists of relatively fresh plant residues readily identifiable as to their origin.Ln  (new); an L horizon that consists of newly accreted and essentially fresh, non-fragmented plant residues.Lv  (variative); an L horizon that consists of the plant residues showing initial decay and strong discolouration.S (bryophytes); a surface horizon that consists of tissues of living bryophytes (commonly Sphagnum spp.) intermixed to a minorextent with litter.G (graminoid); a thin surface horizon that consists of tissues of living graminoids intermixed to various extents with their residues.F (fermented); an organic horizon in which partly decomposed plant residues predominate; the partial structures of plant residuesare macroscopically discernible.Fm (mycogeneous); an F horizon in which more or less disintegrated plant residues are aggregated in a compact-matted,banded fabric interwoven by fungal hyphae (mycelia), with a  tenacious consistence. If present, faunal droppings arevery infrequent and localized.Fr (root residues); an F horizon in which fine root residues constitute nearly all fabric; fungal mycelia are infrequent andlocalized.Frm (root residue, mycogeneous); an Fm horizon in which fine root residues constitute nearly all fabric; fungal mycelia arecommon and frequently abundant.Fs (bryophytes); an F horizon that consists of partly disintegrated tissues of Sphagnum spp.; residues are weakly aggregated,fungal mycelia absent or very infrequent and localized.Fsm (bryophytes, mycogeneous); an Fs horizon with fungal mycelia but rarely as common and frequent as in the Fm horizon.Fz (zoogenous); an F horizon in which residues are weakly aggregated with a loose or friable consistency as result fragmentationand comminution by soil fauna; faunal droppings and dropping residues are numerous, fungal mycelia are infrequent andlocalized.Fsz (bryophytes, zoogeneous); an Fs horizon with faunal droppings but rarely as common and frequent as in the Fz horizon.Fa (amphi); an F horizon that has the characteristics of both Fm and Fz horizons; plant residues are aggregated into a weakto  moderate, non-compact-matted fabric.Fsa (bryophytes, amphi); an Fs horizon with both fungal mycelia and faunal droppings but rarely as common and frequent asin the Fa horizon.Scientia Silvica Extension Series,  Number  9, 1997Towards a Taxonomic Classification of  Humus Forms:Third ApproximationThe importance of humus form or forest floor as a principal component of terrestrial forest ecosystems has led to the developmentof a taxonomic classification of humus forms for BC (first approximation: Klinka et al. 1981; second approximation: Green et al.1993). This classification, as all others, is  based on the  field-observable  (morphological)  features  because we expect that  theyreflect differences in the nature and development of humus forms. However, there is a continuing need to test (1) whether humusforms  that  appear different are in  fact  different in  their  physical, chemical, and biotic properties, and (2)  the  portability of  theclassification outside the area in which it was developed. As a result of recent studies of the biotic component of humus forms andrecent testing of the classification outside British Columbia (Scandinavia, southeastern Russia, and northeastern China), we haverecognized several new diagnostic horizons, and hence new taxa. In this pamphlet, we present synopsis of the third approximationof the classification for review and testing. For more detailed information on the background, methodology, and classification ofhumus forms, the readers should consult Green et al.  (1993).Each humus form is represented by the sequence of organic and mineral horizons that constitute the humus form profile. Identificationof a humus form, i.e., giving it a name, requires description of the humus form profile ? the identification of master and subordinatehorizons. For this reason we have included a description of the horizon designations as well as a synopsis of the classification anda key to the identification of humus forms.Freely-drained upland horizons continuedH (humic); an organic horizon in which well decomposed plant residues (fine substances) predominate; the original plant structuresare not macroscopically discernible.Hf (fine); an H horizon that has a very fine granular structure; very small faunal droppings predominate in the fabric.Hg (granular);  an H horizon that  has a fine  (to  medium) granular structure;  small  faunal  droppings predominate in  thefabric.Hh (humic); an H horizon that has a massive (ancient) or weak, coarse, blocky structure; the colour is typically dark gray(black), the material is greasy and stains fingers when rubbed.Hc (recalcitrant); an H horizon that contains macroscopically recognizable plant residues (roots, bark, and/or wood) imposingyellow,  brown, or particularly red  colours; fine  substances predominate and the  material is  slightly greasy but doesstain fingers when rubbed.Poorly-drained, waterlogged, wetland horizonsO(organic); a wetland organic horizonOf (fibric); a surface O horizon that consists of poorly decomposed plant residues readily identifiable as to their origin.Om(mesic);  an O horizon that  consists of partly decomposed plant residues  at a stage  of decomposition intermediatebetween Of and Oh horizons.Oh (humic); an O horizon that consists of well decomposed plant residues which for the most part have been transformedinto  humic materials.Mineral horizonsA the uppermost  mineral horizon that contains < 17% organic C (about 30% organic matter) by weight.Ah (humic); an Ah horizon enriched with organic matter.Other designationsw (wood); any organic horizon containing >35% of the  volume of solids) of coarse woody debris in  various stages ofdecomposition.Third Approximation: Synopsis of humus form taxaOrder Characteristic humus form profiles  1 Variation from the Orthic or true formGroupMorLignomor L, Fmw or Fsw, Hw Tenuic, Pachic,Hemic, HumicHemimor L, Fm, (H) Tenuic, PachicRhizomor L, Frm, (H) Tenuic, PachicSphagnomor S, Fs and/or Fsm, H Tenuic, PachicHumimor L, Fm, Hh Pachic, Hemic, PerhumicResimor L, Fm, Hc Pachic, HemicModermor L, Fm and/or Frm, Hf and/or Hg Hemic, HumicLamimor L, Fm and/or Frm, Hf and/or Hg and Hh and/or Hc Hemic, HumicFibrimor S, (F, H), Of, Om, Oh Hemic, SapricMesimor S, (F, H), Of, Om, Oh Fibric, SapricModerLignomoder L, Faw and/or Fzw, Hw Tenuic, Pachic, Hemic, HumicMormoder L or G, Fa, H Tenuic, Pachic, Hemic, HumicSphagnomoder S, Fs and/or Fsa and/or Fsz, H Hemic, HumicLamimoder L, Fm, Frm, Fs and/or Fsm, Fa, Fsa, Fz and/or Fsz, H Hemic, Humic, SphagnoL, Fa, Fsa, Fz, and/or Fsz, Fm, Frm, and/or Fsm, HLeptomoder L or G, Fz, H Tenuic, Pachic, Hemic, HumicMullmoder L or G, Fa and/or Fz, H, Ah Hemic, HumicSaprimoder S or G, (Of, Om), Oh Fibric, MesicMullVermimull (L, F), Ahz Tenuic, Pachic, Ochric, Pellic, Micro, Meso, MicroRhizomull G, (F), Ahg Tenuic, Pachic, Ochric, PellicParamull (L, F), Ah Tenuic, Pachic, Ochric, Pellic1 Diagnostic horizons are printed in bold fonts; less commonly occuring, non-diagnostic horizons are given in parentheses.Explanation of adjectives used to designate variations from the Orthic (true)variation that is thought to typify a humus form groupG24G47G4dG48G46._G57G4cG59G48G3 G26G52G51G51G52G57G44G57G4cG52G51G3G33G44G46._G4bG4cG46._G3G3 G35G48G4fG44G57G4cG59G48G4fG5cG3G57G4bG4cG46._G4eG3G4bG58G50G58G56G3G49G52G55G50G56G11G3G3G37G48G51G58G4cG46._G3G3 G35G48G4fG44G57G4cG59G48G4fG5cG3G57G4bG4cG51G3G4bG58G50G58G56G3G49G52G55G50G56G11G3G2bG48G50G4cG46._G3 G29G3G4bG52G55G4cG5dG52G51G56G3G53G55G48G47G52G50G4cG51G44G57G48G3G4cG51G3G57G4bG48G3G4bG58G50G58G56G3G49G52G55G50G3G53G55G52G49G4cG4fG48G11G3G2bG58G50G4cG46._G3G3 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groupsScientia Silvica  is published by the Forest Sciences Department,The University of British Columbia, ISSN 1209-952XEditor: Karel Klinka  (klinka@interchange.ubc.ca)Research: K. Klinka, Jaume Fons (jfons@filnet.es), and Pavel Krestov (farrex@vtc.ru)Production and design: Christine Chourmouzis (chourmou@interchange.ubc.ca)Financial support: Forest Renewal British Columbia and the Spanish Government (Ministerio de Education y Ciencia)For more information contact: K. KlinkaCopies available from: www.forestry.ubc.ca/klinka or K.Klinka, Forest Sciences Department, UBC,3036-2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4Green, R.N., R.L. Trowbridge, and K. Klinka. 1993. Towards a taxonomic classification of humus forms. 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