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BC Wine Territory Identity Buschert, Kim; Mooken, Malida; Pesme, Jacques-Olivier; Sugden, Roger; Valania, Marcela 2018

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BC Wine  TerritoryIdentityubckedgewine.caFUNDING ACKNOWLEDGMENTIn 2015, UBC-KEDGE received funding support from Western Economic Diversification Canada (WD) for its work with the British Columbia wine industry, in particular regarding the international positioning of the industry. This report is produced as part of the WD project.Kim Buschert  Malida Mooken  Jacques-Olivier Pesme  Roger Sugden Marcela ValaniaOctober 2018Contact:Kim Buschert, Project Coordinatorkim.buschert@ubc.caCopyright © 2018  Kim Buschert, Malida Mooken, Jacques-Olivier Pesme, Roger Sugden, Marcela ValaniaContentsEXECUTIVE SUMMARY 5 1. INTRODUCTION 9 2. ACTIVITIES TO DATE 11 3. THE IMPORTANCE OF IDENTITY 13  3.1 What is ‘identity’ about? 13      3.2 Why does identity matter? 14      3.3 How does BC’s identity relate to elsewhere?  14   4. FINDINGS 15  4.1 Five focal points for action 15      4.2 The need to question 16      4.3 Common narrative and storytelling 20      4.4 Practices shape identity 21    5.  CONCLUDING REMARKS: SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS AND NEXT STEPS 23 REFERENCES 26 5BC WINE TERRITORY IDENTIT YThe Okanagan campus of the University of British Columbia (UBC) and KEDGE Business School, Bordeaux, have been working with the British Columbia wine industry to develop its sense of identity for a number of years. More recently, we have partnered with the Innovation School at the Glasgow School of Art (GSA) to create and deliver participatory workshops in November 2017, and we included a full-day workshop on identity as part of the 2018 Wine Leaders Forum. These workshops stimulated thinking about aspects of identity, including terroir, authenticity, expression, and the overall narrative presented by the BC wine territory.This report outlines our activities to date, introduces the idea of identity, discusses its importance for wine regions, analyzes findings, recommends actions for wineries, growers, industry organizations and regional associations, and concludes with our commitment. It complements GSA’s (2018) report of the workshops. Identity is about who we are, how others perceive us, and what we aspire to do and become (Staber and Sautter, 2011). It is shaped by distinct characteristics, and refers to commonalities and dif ferences, in and across sub-regions as well as BC as a whole. Across the wine industry each behavior, choice, and action matters – individually and collectively. More generally, a shared identity may lead to enhanced:•  Recognisability: to project a wine region’s “character”, the “where it is” and “what it seeks to become” (Taplin, 2015; Beebe et al., 2012).Executive  summary6•  Sales: e.g. more people may visit the wineries in the region, to experience the specific characteristics of the place that contribute to the expression of the wines.•  Collaboration: to enable people to find a common purpose, and identify areas of interest that they can pursue together.•  Publicity and government support: as a basis for media and policy-makers to understand what a wine region does and could of fer. Workshop participants acknowledged that they are good at telling individual stories, but that there is a need for a coherent BC story (GSA, 2018). The identity of the BC wine territory must be understood in relation to the region, Canada, and the rest of the world. A shared identity allows the industry to develop a common narrative, and be confident in what it represents, and how it is communicated. The GSA report on the identity workshops describes five key aspects of the identity of the BC wine territory, according to the 2018 Forum participants. These are reproduced in Table 1.TABLE 1: KEY ASPECTS OF THE IDENTITY OF THE BC WINE TERRITORYDIVERSITY in the people, cultural heritage, terroir, business models and wines being producedWELCOMING by aligning with tourism and enhancing experiences for visitors and new wineriesFREE SPIRITreflecting the youth of the wine territory, with the fresh and lively wines produced, and the personalities that produce themBOUTIQUErecognising the many small wineries across BC’s sub-regions of fering face-to-face experiences and specialized wines‘COOL NORTH’ celebrating the distinctive climate and glacial-influenced terroir that also of fers a spectacular destinationSource: GSA (2018, p.1)The workshop discussions clearly reveal that, underlying such notions as “diversity”, “welcoming”, “free spirit”, “boutique”, and “cool north”, there are rich veins of commonality and undoubted dif ference across the BC wine territory. The commonalities and dif ferences imply that the five focal points must be challenged, on multiple fronts, anchored in:u Three critical questions about identity • Who are we?• How do others perceive us? • What do we aspire to do and become? 7BC WINE TERRITORY IDENTIT Yu An enhanced understanding of terroirDuring the workshops, participants identified divergent practices across the sub-regions, notably in wine-making techniques (GSA, 2018). Sharing know-how and best practices would strengthen a shared identity. Relationship building, confidence and trust are all critical to ensuring that actors within an industry learn from each other. This typically requires strong support from various institutions and organizations, and networking opportunities.Following discussions in the workshops and subsequent analysis around the identity of the BC wine region, the recommended actions are: Recommended Actions  for Wineries, Growers, Industry Organizations and Regional Associations1.  Use the findings, recommendations and commitments in this report, as well as the GSA report describing the identity workshops, to help to build relationships across the industry, and to stimulate a cohesive voice.2. Collaborate across the wine territory and within the sub-regions to challenge and shape notions of “diversity”, “welcoming”, “free spirit”, “boutique”, and “cool north” in the context of commonalities and dif ferences across the territory.Do so bearing in mind the human factors of terroir and their interaction with the natural science of grape growing and wine-making, and how they relate to who we are, how others perceive us, and what we aspire to do and become.3.  Collaborate across the wine territory and within the sub-regions to develop a deeper narrative that conveys substance and meaning.4.  Collaborate across the wine territory and within the sub-regions to share best practices and learn from experiences elsewhere, including by collectively experiencing in situ in international wine regions.8OUR COMMITMENTIn support of the development of the BC wine territory, we immediately commit to a next step:•  To organize a series of workshops across the sub-regions of BC in December 2018. In the context of the other findings considered here and in the GSA report (2018), as well as the industry response to these documents, we undertake that:• The 2018 workshops will focus on recommendations 2, 3 and 4.•  As part of that activity, we will listen to industry perspectives on how its emergence onto the global stage can be supported by UBC and its partnerships. 9BC WINE TERRITORY IDENTIT Y1 INTRODUCTIONThe wine sector is part of the fabric of British Columbia (BC), and is significant to its development. The Okanagan campus of the University of British Columbia (UBC) and KEDGE Business School, Bordeaux (KEDGE) have been working together to gain insight into the sector since fall 2012. The partnership brings together the expertise of UBC in socio-economic development in peripheral regions, and of KEDGE on regional development in general, and the global wine industry in particular. The aims are to understand the needs, interests, and development of the BC wine territory, especially in terms of its international standing, and how best to support that development.Early in our work, discussions with winery owners revealed a fragmented industry – a finding consistent with Hira and Bwenge (2011) and Cartier (2014) – yet also a desire to move forward. Participants at our 2014 Wine Leaders Forum identified collaboration, quality, and identity as the pillars for developing the BC wine territory (Mooken, Sugden and Valania, 2018). In 2015, these pillars were included as action areas in a project supported by Western Economic Diversification Canada (WD), Position the British Columbia Wine Industry for International Growth.We have supported the industry by organizing knowledge – by providing opportunities for people to learn from each other and from the expertise and experiences of others, wherever in the world that can be found, in academia, government, and practice, and to create new knowledge together. To do this, we have developed forums, task forces, town halls, exhibitions, public talks and workshops. We have encouraged broad engagement, e.g. by holding workshops in sub-regions across the province, 10If BC is to secure current markets and develop new ones, it needs to establish itself as a world-recognized wine territory. To achieve that, the wine industry must shape an authentic and shared identity, which it has to communicate clearly to multiple stakeholders.to remove distance as a barrier to participation, and by inviting those with an interest in the BC wine industry to participate alongside industry actors.As BC develops, the global wine industry continues to change. There are ever more producers and consumers. The territory is facing international trade challenges af fecting protection and competition; these threaten the domestic market. Argentina, Australia, France, Spain, Italy, and New Zealand have all joined on-going World Trade Organization (WTO) consultations on BC’s governance of the sale of wine (WTO, 2017). There are also impending changes resulting from the international trade agreement between Canada and the United States that will have an impact (Guly, 2018). If BC is to secure current markets and develop new ones, it needs to establish itself as a world-recognized wine territory. To achieve that, the wine industry must shape an authentic and shared identity, which it has to communicate clearly to multiple stakeholders.Working with the industry to develop its sense of identity has been the focus of our activity for a number of years. We have partnered with the Innovation School at the Glasgow School of Art (GSA) to create and deliver participatory workshops in November 2017, and we included a full-day workshop on identity as part of the 2018 Wine Leaders Forum. These workshops stimulated thinking about aspects of identity, including terroir, authenticity, expression, and the overall narrative presented by the BC wine territory.This report outlines our activities to date, introduces the idea of identity, discusses its importance for wine regions, analyzes findings, recommends actions for wineries, growers, industry organizations and regional associations, and concludes with our commitment. It complements GSA’s (2018) report of the workshops. Both reports are being shared across the industry, to stimulate further thinking, and to prompt action on the shared BC wine territory identity. They are available for download at  ubckedgewine.ca/identity/.11BC WINE TERRITORY IDENTIT YSince 2012, we have engaged with the industry to learn from various actors about their strategic concerns. As a result, in 2014 we organized the first Wine Leaders Forum, where participants established that collaboration, identity and quality are integral to the competitive success of the BC wine territory. Participants at the 2015 Wine Leaders Forum learned about the international growth of Argentina and South Africa. Speakers from those regions presented the market factors and opportunities necessitating the development of their national wine identities. Later in 2015, we received funding from WD to partner with the industry on a 3-year project, Position the British Columbia Wine Industry for International Growth. WD is providing $630,000 to UBC, which is giving matching funds along with contributions from industry. This has enabled work on action areas including wine labelling and presentation, sharing experience from international trade fairs, the territory’s identity, and models of organization. These action areas were chosen by participants at the 2015 Wine Leaders Forum. The WD-supported project began in fall 2015, and has recently been extended to the end of March, 2019.Work on identity continued at the 2016 Wine Leaders Forum. Participants learned more about the concept, and how it is collectively formed. They also compared BC to other regions around the world. The Forum included a visual exhibition, whose aim was to provide a creative atmosphere, and stimulate understanding and interactions. In 2017, we obtained funding from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) for an eight-month exhibition and public talks across BC. To deepen our engagement with the industry, in 2017 we partnered with GSA, to introduce creative ways of engaging the industry on the identity of the British Columbia wine territory. Activities to date212The participants showed considerable trust and confidence in the process, and in the prospect of consequent action…To that end, in November 2017 we delivered six workshops across BC, in Langley, Duncan, Kelowna, Osoyoos, Keremeos and Penticton. 45 people from 38 wineries and local winery associations participated in discussions about key aspects of identity: terroir, authenticity, expression, and the overall narrative. The workshops are summarized in our short film, British Columbia Wine Region: A Territory Exploring its Identity, available at  ubckedgewine.ca/identity/. March 2018 marked the 5th Wine Leaders Forum, and we opened the first full day as a workshop for all interested industry actors to explore identity. That day there were 19 participants, from wineries, and from organisations such as the British Columbia Wine Institute and the Okanagan Wine and Orchard Museum. Participants in the remaining two days of the Forum then took forward the workshop discussions. They developed an outcomes document, noting challenges and needs for moving forward, and laying out expectations. Disseminating this report fulfills part of those expectations, as does dissemination of the complementary GSA report that describes in detail the richness of the November 2017 and March 2018 workshops, and their outputs. Some industry participants in the identity workshops have been working with us for many years, while others have joined in more recently. We recognize that the number of participants is limited in relation to all wineries in BC, but it is significant and does include many who are very active in shaping strategy for the industry’s future (Mooken, Sugden and Valania, 2018). The participants showed considerable trust and confidence in the process, and in the prospect of consequent action (perhaps influenced by previous outputs and results, e.g. the steps taken to challenge Cellared in Canada labelling, following the work of the Task Force on Labelling and Presentation organized as part of the WD-supported project). The participants also showed confidence in their own contributions; they addressed challenges, responded with open questioning, and provided enhanced reflections and analysis.13BC WINE TERRITORY IDENTIT Y3.1 WHAT IS ‘IDENTITY’ ABOUT?Identity is about who we are, how others perceive us, and what we aspire to do and become (Staber and Sautter, 2011). It reflects what we value doing, and being. Identity is seen, felt, and lived, and it evolves. Across the wine industry each behavior, choice, and action matters – individually and collectively.Identity is multi-layered. It is shaped by individual and collective characteristics, and refers to dif ferences and commonalities, in and across sub-regions as well as BC as a whole.The identity of a wine territory is of ten associated with terroir, i.e. the interactions between natural  (e.g. soil and climatic conditions) and human factors (e.g. practices that are shaped by cultural traits, knowledge, and core values), which in turn define the typicity of the wines produced in a region (Unwin, 2012):A terroir is a delimited geographical area where a human community develops collective knowledge over time regarding production, based on a system of interaction between a physical and natural environment and a set of human factors. The socio-technical approaches involved demonstrate originality, impart typicity and develop a reputation for a product originating from that geographical region (Vincent, Flutet, and Nairaud as cited in Conseil des appellations réservées et des termes valorisants (CARTV), n.d.). Identity is also associated with territorial cohesion, i.e. the sense of being a territory, a geographical area where local actors “share a set of practices, strategies, and institutions contributing to a local identity”, and 3 the importance  of identity14where players share rules and quality standards “as well as beliefs and representations” (Ditter and Brouard, 2014, p. 10). Identity is developed in the long-run; it requires continuous engagement among actors to build social capital and trust, and define shared values, understanding and interests.3.2 WHY DOES IDENTITY MATTER?A shared sense of identity that draws on agreed characteristics across the industry can help to connect a territory’s wineries, growers and sub-regions. It is consistent with having complementary sub-identities that reflect the specific characteristics of a winery or a sub-region, or of a group of wineries sharing common values and practices. More generally, a shared identity may lead to enhanced:•  Recognisability: to project a wine region’s “character”, the “where it is” and “what it seeks to become” (Taplin, 2015; Beebe et al., 2012).•  Sales: e.g. more people may visit the wineries in the region, to experience the specific characteristics of the place that contribute to the expression of the wines.•  Collaboration: to enable people to find a common purpose, and identify areas of interest that they can pursue together.•  Publicity and government support: as a basis for media and policy-makers to understand what a wine region does and could of fer. A shared identity allows the industry to develop a common narrative, and be confident in what it represents, and how it is communicated. That narrative leads to recognisability, provides a foundation for collaboration, and enhances understanding of the industry by governments, etc. In turn, sales are influenced. A common narrative refers to the territory’s story as a whole, and it has key elements that are present at every level of the storytelling. Developing a common narrative requires knowing your audiences, and how they will experience your story.3.3 HOW DOES BC’S IDENTITY RELATE TO ELSEWHERE?The identity of the BC wine territory must be understood in relation to the region, Canada, and the rest of the world. Appreciation and broader recognition of the territory’s identity by external audiences is crucial in ensuring its legitimacy. To achieve this, the identity needs to be communicated both internally, within the industry and territory, and externally, to local, regional, national and international actors.Identity is multi-layered. It is shaped by individual and collective characteristics, and refers to dif ferences and commonalities,  in and across  sub-regions as well  as BC as a whole. 15BC WINE TERRITORY IDENTIT Y4.1 FIVE FOCAL POINTS FOR ACTIONThe GSA report on the identity workshops describes five key aspects of the identity of the BC wine territory, according to the 2018 Forum participants. These are reproduced in Table 1.At the close of the 2018 Wine Leaders Forum one of the participants drew the five focal-points together, to suggest a description of the BC wine territory: a collection of diverse boutique wineries making crisp cool climate wines on our unique glacial landscape, owned and operated by welcoming people who love to share their youthful attitudes. This illustrates the sort of statement around which the industry might see itself coalescing, to develop a cohesive voice across the territory, consistent with supporting each of its sub-regions to progress; however, we also suggest Findings4TABLE 1: KEY ASPECTS OF THE IDENTITY OF THE BC WINE TERRITORYDIVERSITY in the people, cultural heritage, terroir, business models and wines being producedWELCOMING by aligning with tourism and enhancing experiences for visitors and new wineriesFREE SPIRITreflecting the youth of the wine territory, with the fresh and lively wines produced, and the personalities that produce themBOUTIQUErecognising the many small wineries across BC’s sub-regions of fering face-to-face experiences and specialized wines‘COOL NORTH’ celebrating the distinctive climate and glacial-influenced terroir that also of fers a spectacular destinationSource: GSA (2018, p.1)16that this statement and, as discussed in the next section, the key aspects in Table 1, require critical reflection and discussion by the industry more widely.* Participants at the 2018 Wine Leaders Forum recommended this action in the Outcomes and Actions document produced at the culmination of the Forum.Recommended ActionUse the findings, recommendations and commitment in this report, as well as the GSA report describing the identity workshops, to help to build relationships across the industry, and to stimulate a cohesive voice.*4.2 THE NEED TO QUESTIONCOMMONALITIES AND DIFFERENCESThe discussions in the workshops clearly reveal that, underlying such notions as “diversity”, “welcoming”, “free spirit”, “boutique”, and “cool north”, there are rich veins of commonality and undoubted dif ference across the BC wine territory. That is illustrated by Table 2 shown on the following page.  17BC WINE TERRITORY IDENTIT YThe commonalities and dif ferences imply that the five focal points in Table 1 must be challenged, on multiple fronts. Consider, for instance, the idea of a diverse wine territory:•  Is diversity always positive, for example when considering standards, quality, and application of knowledge? Does it mask adverse variation across the industry?•  Are you suf ficiently aware of elsewhere to know that your diversity is a distinguishing feature, compared to elsewhere in Canada, or the world?•  What do the 240+ wineries that did not participate in the workshops think about diversity, and whether it is an essential element of BC’s wine territory identity? Why do they think that?•  How is diversity in BC perceived across Canada, and elsewhere in the wine world, and how do you know?•  Exactly how is the territory distinct in its diversity, why does that matter, how is it lived in the wine industry, and how is it experienced through the wines?TABLE 2: COMMONALITIES AND DIFFERENCES ACROSS THE BC WINE TERRITORYCOMMONALITIES DIFFERENCES• Some organic clusters, which are self-organised•  A motivation for many wineries starting out is to have an exit strategy• A regional history of agriculture• No orientation when getting started• Learning by doing (entrepreneurial spirit)• Seasonality of labour•  There would be shared benefits from having a strong international reputation • Lack of knowledge sharing, time and resources• Shared need for connectivity• Lack of awareness of each other’s activity• Lack of relationship with Government• Shared commonalities with other regions globally• Desire for more trust, respect and confidence•  Ways of trying to use information and experiences of setting up a winery• Perceptions of quality and perceptions of strategy•  Levels of opportunity across wineries and across regions • Dif ferent stages of development •  Cost of entry for new wineries today, compared to ‘before’  •  Varying business models and ownership models, including from small wineries with multiple owners and large wineries with a single owner• Each winery’s capacity to engage its markets•  Level of participation by wineries, as they’re not obliged to join an association or organisation• People’s backgrounds who run and work in the wineries• Varietals grown in the sub-regions• Export potential of wine produced•  Access to expertise and levels of resource for each sub-region• Dif ference of priorities, visions, aims and objectives Source: GSA ( 2018, p. 43)18Likewise, the other focal points need to be challenged, e.g.:•  If it is more than a personal self-positive judgement, on what criteria and evidence do wineries consider themselves and BC “welcoming”?•  In the eyes of others, does the industry have the supporting infrastructure to be welcoming in practice?•  Might “free spirited” sometimes hide “wild west” and, if so, is that a problem for the wine territory?•  Do all small wineries meet the quality standards implied by “boutique”?•  Can all sizes of winery – micro, small, medium and large – qualify as “boutique”? • Might “boutique” mask “non-professional” in some cases?•  Whilst BC is spectacular and perhaps “cool north”, do other wine regions see themselves as equally spectacular?•  If so, what are the implications, and how is BC dif ferentiated from other “spectacular” regions?•  What are the implications of “cool north” for wineries aiming to produce full-bodied red wines characteristic of warmer climates?IDENTITY AND THE HUMAN FACTORS OF TERROIRIt should also be recognised that the five focal points reported in Table 1 are a summary from many and varied discussions. Inevitably, in order to highlight the most prominent aspects, they do not delve into all of the points that were raised at the identity workshops. That should not imply that those other points are ignored in future inquiry. An even deeper exploration is called for, anchored in:u Three critical questions about identity • Who are we?• How do others perceive us? • What do we aspire to do and become? u An enhanced understanding of terroirThe concept of terroir encompasses the interactions between natural and human factors, which define the typicity of a region’s wines. Although participants at the workshops discussed terroir in terms of soil, landscape and climate, they did not concentrate on the interaction between natural and human factors (GSA, 2018). Terroir is not only about the geology that makes wine production possible but also the relationships between people The concept of terroir encompasses the interactions between natural and human factors, which define the typicity of a region’s wines. Exactly how is the territory distinct in  its diversity, why does that matter, how is it lived in the wine industry, and how  is it experienced through the wines?19BC WINE TERRITORY IDENTIT Yand the land, and amongst people, as well as the history of winemaking, and the history of the territory. All of the factors encompassed in the notion of terroir go to the heart of having a clear identity.  Workshop participants expressed dif ferent perspectives on the region’s history. While some claimed that the region has little or no history, especially of wine-making, others recognized that there is a significant history, which is linked to agricultural practices, among other things. This might be partly due to some having an inadequate understanding of terroir, and indicates a lack of shared knowledge about identity in all of its dimensions.When considering such human activity as viticulture, “the history of the socio-economic environment may be important in understanding why a given vineyard has emerged in a given site and why it has prospered” (Van Leeuwen and Seguin, 2006, p. 2). Terroir is related to history - it is “undergoing a process of cultural re-evaluation whose outcome is still uncertain, but which potentially points towards a future that includes a valued past without becoming either rigid or exclusionary” (Barham, 2003, p. 132). History can serve as a reference point for exploring a region’s identity. A sense of history provides “rootedness”, and can nurture and support collective actions and values (Barham, 2003, p. 132). We would urge an appreciation of a region’s history that is holistic, going beyond wine-making. The culture and contribution of dif ferent groups of people living in the region need to be taken into consideration, and respected. That includes earlier and more recent immigrants, and most notably First Nations, points that were recognized in the workshops. We are aware that some workshop discussions referred to “pioneer” and “pioneering”, and wonder exactly what was intended. A “pioneer” can be defined as someone who first undertakes an activity, and in BC it of ten refers to settlers. Was it used in workshops in the former sense, or was it intended to identify settlers to the exclusion of First Nations?More widely, terroir needs to be recognized as a complex, multi-faceted concept that goes to the heart of a territory’s identity: [Products of the terroir] are synonyms for cultural diversity, reflections of the evolution of a society, of its attachment to certain habits of consumption, and not the guardians of a culture that is fixed and turned in on itself. Locality participates in the construction of identity, it doesn’t suf focate it. (Bérard and Marchenay, as cited in Barham, 2003, p. 132)20Such recognition leads to specific questions, especially when we consider the territory’s particular characteristics, including those that only occur at certain times. For example:•  When there is a forest fire in north-west America, how does the smoke af fect the grapes, and influence the taste and experience of the wine in BC?+ How can and should the influences be presented? •  Are the fragrant oils that are emitted into the atmosphere in extreme temperatures by the pine trees that are cultivated for lumber in BC, expressed in the organoleptic characteristics of grapes and the wines that they are used to produce?More generally, for instance:•  How is the natural environment, influenced by humans, reflected in the chemistry of grapes and in the science of wine-making? •  What implications does that have for influencing the grapes that are grown, and the wine that is made? •  How is all of this revealed in the identity of the wine territory, in terms of who we are, how others perceive us, and what we aspire to do and become?+  Both the 2017 and the 2018 Wine Leaders Forum featured presentations of smoke taint research by Wes Zandberg and colleagues in the Department of Chemistry at UBC’s Okanagan campus.Recommended ActionCollaborate across the wine territory and within the sub-regions to challenge and shape notions of “diversity”, “welcoming”, “free spirit”, “boutique”, and “cool north” in the context of commonalities and dif ferences across the territory.Do so bearing in mind the human factors of terroir, and their interaction with the natural science of grape growing and wine-making, and how they relate to who we are, how others perceive us, and what we aspire to do and become.4.3 COMMON NARRATIVE AND STORYTELLING Workshop participants highlighted storytelling as a common concern for the BC industry, acknowledging that they are good at telling individual 21BC WINE TERRITORY IDENTIT Ystories, but that there is a need for a coherent BC story (GSA, 2018). The dif ferent sub-regions also pointed to dif ferent audiences, showing awareness of the need to have a deeper understanding of who the BC audiences are, and how to reach them. Having a common narrative and telling a BC story implies giving substance and meaning to terms such as “diverse” and “welcoming”, to support what they are intended to communicate in the overall story, and distinguish the terms from their use by other wine regions around the world.4.4 PRACTICES SHAPE IDENTITYWhen considering the identity of a wine territory the practices in the industry matter, because they provide valuable evidence about quality and values associated with the terroir. For instance, sustainable winery practices in (amongst others) viticulture, wine quality, energy ef ficiency, material handling, and water conservation may influence how people perceive and relate to a particular region, its wines, and associated values. These factors may impact wine tourism, sales, publicity and government support.Concerns about irrigation were expressed throughout the identity workshops. This poses a question: where does irrigation sit in the wider context of water shortage and higher temperatures in BC due to climate change? There is on-going work developing best practices about water management in the industry. However, it is not clear to what extent wineries across the territory are aware, and are adopting or intend to adopt those practices. Other things to consider with regards to sustainability include the impacts of wine tourism on host communities (Poitras and Donald, 2006), the ef fects of climate change such as unseasonable rain or hail, or winters with extreme cold snaps. Perhaps also the lack of land in which to plant vineyards, which is in turn related to new practices regarding high-density cultivation.Recommended ActionCollaborate across the wine territory and within the sub-regions to develop a deeper narrative that conveys  substance and meaning.22During the workshops, participants identified divergent practices across the sub-regions, notably in wine-making techniques (GSA, 2018). This may be due to dif ferences in micro-climatic conditions, availability of resources, experience and expertise, and knowledge. It may also be a consequence of the lack of territorial cohesion.Sharing know-how and best practices would strengthen a shared identity. Relationship building, confidence and trust are all critical to ensuring that actors within an industry learn from each other. This typically requires strong support from various institutions and organizations, and networking opportunities.It is also important to learn from external actors. There are invaluable opportunities to explore what is happening outside of BC, across Canada and in the wine regions of the world more widely. That opens possibilities for new ways of doing. It increases awareness of how others perceive wines, winemaking and grape growing in BC. It helps to shape perceptions about the distinguishing features of the BC wine territory, and about its identity. Whilst many in the industry routinely travel to other parts of the world to explore and learn, there are countless advantages when doing so as a group of BC wineries, growers and winemakers. In our experience, when people collectively experience and inquire, they learn uniquely. We are aware that learning might imply action from post-secondary institutions, in partnership with each other (locally, regionally, nationally and internationally), and with industry organizations. That includes UBC, which has a responsibility to respond to industry needs based on its distinctive role as a public university focused on public interests, undertaking rigorous research and research-based learning that aims to be internationally excellent. Because it is consistently ranked as one of the leading universities in the world, UBC is also uniquely positioned to nurture partnerships with institutions throughout the world; it could benefit the BC wine territory by bringing to bear the highest levels of international expertise and experience to support the territory’s emergence on the  global stage.Recommended ActionCollaborate across the wine territory and within the sub-regions to share best practices and learn from experiences elsewhere, including by collectively experiencing in situ in international wine regions.23BC WINE TERRITORY IDENTIT YConcluding remarks:  Summary of recommendations and next stepsParticipants at the 2018 Wine Leaders Forum stressed the importance  of disseminating this report, and the complementary report by GSA,  to help to:  •     Stimulate a cohesive voice across the BC wine territory•     Build relationships and trust across the industry and wider communities•     Allow a deeper narrative for industry organizations, regional associations and individual wineries to build upon•     Inform what customers experience•     Engage and challenge across the entire industry, and further shape understanding and practice as they relate to identityThis report is written with precisely those objectives in mind. It makes no attempt to set anything in stone about the identity of the BC wine territory. It is for discussion, comment and critique. Through that discussion, based upon reason and evidence, as well as sensitivity for the people and wines of BC, the territory’s identity will be better understood, and more action will be taken. As a result, the territory’s identity will be better seen, felt, and lived. BC wines will be more recognizable, and sales should be enhanced.This report aims to introduce ideas and actions for shaping, adapting and changing, to be taken forward (or not) by the industry in the directions that it sees fit. Participants at the 2018 Wine Leaders Forum have said that they will explore the findings, and those in the complementary GSA report (2018), with regional wine associations, and with their peers in the industry more widely. We hope that all workshop participants, and all readers of this report, will do the same. The more that people across the industry are 524Recommended Actions  for Wineries, Growers, Industry Organizations and Regional Associations1.  Use the findings, recommendations and commitments in this report, as well as the GSA report describing the identity workshops, to help to build relationships across the industry, and to stimulate a cohesive voice.2. Collaborate across the wine territory and within the sub-regions to challenge and shape notions of “diversity”, “welcoming”, “free spirit”, “boutique”, and “cool north” in the context of commonalities and dif ferences across the territory.Do so bearing in mind the human factors of terroir and their interaction with the natural science of grape growing and wine-making, and how they relate to who we are, how others perceive us, and what we aspire to do and become.3.  Collaborate across the wine territory and within the sub-regions to develop a deeper narrative that conveys substance and meaning.4.  Collaborate across the wine territory and within the sub-regions to share best practices and learn from experiences elsewhere, including by collectively experiencing in situ in international wine regions.involved in these discussions and, in the words of participants at the 2018 Wine Leader Forum, “walk the walk”, the better.Our recommendations for immediate action are listed below. They are followed by our own commitment.OUR COMMITMENTIn support of the development of the BC wine territory, we immediately commit to a next step:•  To organize a series of workshops across the sub-regions of BC in December 2018. In the context of the findings considered here and in the GSA report, as well as the industry response to these documents, we undertake that:2 5BC WINE TERRITORY IDENTIT Y• The 2018 workshops will focus on recommendations 2, 3 and 4.•  As part of that activity, we will listen to industry perspectives on how its emergence onto the global stage can be supported by UBC and its partnerships. Barham, E. (2003). Translating terroir: the global challenge of French AOC labeling. Journal of rural studies, 19(1), 127-138.Beebe, C., Haque, F., Jarvis, C., Kenney, M., and Patton, D. (2012). Identity creation and cluster construction: The case   of the Paso Robles wine region. Journal of Economic Geography, 13(5), 711-740.Cartier, L. (2014). The British Columbia wine industry: Can it compete with the big guys. American Association of Wine   Economists, Working Paper, 147.Conseil des appellations réservées et des termes valorisants (CARTV). (n.d.). Questions around the notion of terroir.   Retrieved 6 September 2018 from: https://www.cartv.gouv.qc.ca/en/questions-around-notion-terroirDitter, J. G. and Brouard, J. (2014). The competitiveness of French protected designation of origin wines: a theoretical   analysis of the role of proximity. Journal of Wine Research, 25(1), 5-18.Glasgow School of Art. (2018). Exploring Identity in the British Columbia Wine Region. Activities and Outcome   Report. Retrieved from: https://ubckedgewine.ca/identityGuly, C. (2018, October 3). How Trump’s new trade deal pushes aside BC wines. The Tyee. Retrieved from:   https://thetyee.ca/News/2018/10/03/Trump-Trade-Deal-BC-WinesHira, A. and Bwenge, A. (2011). The wine industry in British Columbia: A closed wine but showing potential. Simon    Fraser University, Department of Political Science. Retrieved from: https://summit.sfu.ca/item/10366Mooken, M., Sugden, R., and Valania, M. (2018). University Impact on the Development of Industries in   Peripheral Regions: Knowledge Organization and the BC Wine Industry. BC Studies, 198, 125-152.Poitras, L., and Donald, G. (2006). Sustainable wine tourism: The host community perspective. Journal of Sustainable   Tourism, 14(5), 425-448.Staber, U., and Sautter, B. (2011). Who are we, and do we need to change? Cluster identity and life cycle. Regional   Studies, 45(10), 1349-1361.Taplin, I. M. (2016). Craf ting an iconic wine: the rise of “cult” Napa. International Journal of Wine Business Research, 28(2),   105-119.Unwin, T. (2012). Terroir: at the heart of geography. In P. H. Dougherty (Ed.). The Geography of wine: regions, terroir, and   techniques. Springer: London, 37- 48.Van Leeuwen, C. and Seguin, G. (2006), The concept of terroir in viticulture. Journal of Wine Research, 17(1), 1-10.WTO. (2017). DS520: Canada — Measures governing the sale of wine in grocery stores. Retrieved July 1, 2018 from:   https:// www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/cases_e/ds520_e.htmReferences26ubckedgewine.ca

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