UBC Faculty Research and Publications

Life in Poblenou : Observing Spaces in Transition Akaltin, D. I.; Chen, J. H. (Jackson Heyuan); Cho, W.; De Haan Bosch, C.; Flock, I.; Grondin, S.; Guzmán, I. A.; King, Stanley; Kinman, A.; McCausland, S.; Oscilowicz, E.; Rachelson, Halina; Roe, J.; Soler Cruz, J.; Kang, Y. K.; Zhu, Julia; Muxí, Zaida; Honey-Rosés, Jordi 2019

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
52383-Akaltin_D_et_al_Life_poblenou.pdf [ 68.16MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 52383-1.0384917.json
JSON-LD: 52383-1.0384917-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 52383-1.0384917-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 52383-1.0384917-rdf.json
Turtle: 52383-1.0384917-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 52383-1.0384917-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 52383-1.0384917-source.json
Full Text
52383-1.0384917-fulltext.txt
Citation
52383-1.0384917.ris

Full Text

LIFE IN POBLENOUO B S E R V I N G  S P A C E S  I N  T R A N S I T I O N2A C K N O W L E D G E M E N TD.I. Akaltin, J.H. Chen, W. Cho, C. De Haan Bosch, I. Flock, S. Grondin, I.A. Guzmán, S. King, A. Kinman, S. McCausland, E. Oscilowicz, H. Rachelson, J. Roe, J. Soler Cruz,  Y.K. Kang, J. Zhu, Z. Muxi, J. Honey-Rosés. 2019. Life in Poblenou: Observing Spaces in Transition. School of Community and Regional Planning. University of British Columbia. Many individuals have provided valuable assistance throughout the development of this project.  We are grateful to those in Barcelona who shared their knowledge, ex-perience and insights about the Poblenou neighbourhood. In particular, we would like to thank Isabelle Anguelovski, Roser Casanovas, Silvia Cassorán, Thomas Daley, Asier Eguilaz, Charlotte Humphries, Josep Munts, Clara Montaner, Josep Maria Montaner, Sara Ortiz, Blanca Valdivia, Albert Valencia, Go Global at UBC, the ETSAB International Mobility Office, Taula Eix Pere IV, and Col.lectiu Punt 6.C I T E  R E P O R T  A S  :LIFE IN POBLENOU: OBSERVING SPACES IN TRANSITIONPLAN 545C Barcelona Planning Studio 20194C O N T E N T SI N T R O D U C T I O NM E T H O D O L O G YS I T E  S T U D I E S P E R E  I V  S U P E R I L L A L A  R A M B L A M A R B E L L AC O N C L U S I O NR E F E R E N C E S A P P E N D I X 061224767884223450605IntroductionW H Y  S T U D Y  P O B L E N O U ?H I S T O R Y  O F  P O B L E N O UP O B L E N O U  P R E S E N T6In the last three decades, Barcelona has emerged as a new global city. The successful urban renew-al projects from the 1980s and 1990s helped consolidate Barcelona’s position as a major Med-iterranean hub and centre for global economic activity. The city boasts several prestigious cul-tural institutions, innovative research centres and has become a global tourism destination.  Alongside the benefits, globalization has gener-ated challenges in Barcelona. The Mediterranean city now confronts pressures seen in other global cities, including a shortage of affordable housing, gentrification, displacement of local residents, and contestation of public space (Anguelovski 2014). Each year, Barcelona welcomes over 30 million visitors from around the world, and the tourism economy brings in €9.7 billion annual-ly, representing 10-12% of the city’s GNP (City of Barcelona 2017). Visitors to Barcelona are diverse: business travellers, culture seekers, lan-guage learners, beach-goers, skateboarders and academics. People come from around the world to enjoy the public amenities, warm climate, attractive urban design and vibrant public life. Many come to visit but end up finding a way to stay, work and live in the desirable city. Residents have expressed concern that the city is becoming a victim of its own success (Picas-so 2017, Montaner et al 2014). Many suggest the city’s carrying capacity for visitors has been reached or exceeded (López 2017). Commercial land uses are rapidly transformed to accommo-date the needs of the visitors, and tourism is displacing everyday life and everyday residents. Meanwhile, the city is struggling to push against residential displacement, raising rents, and the conversion of housing to short term rentals.Barcelona, a city in transition, acts as a valuable case study to understand global urbanism. The authors of this report are students and faculty from planning, architecture or civil engineering who have travelled to Barcelona to examine the city as a case study in global urbanism. We have explored the 2000 year history of the city, from the Roman period to the present day. Learning about the extensive urban history pre-pared us to conduct original research at four sites in the Sant Martí District of Poblenou. Us-ing observational methods, we learned about the flows, movements and patterns of public life in Poblenou. We analyzed the data and reflected on how urban planners might address the chal-lenges observed. Our team observed that life in Poblenou is chang-ing. New residents are arriving, while others feel pushed out. New investments are creating op-portunities in high tech industries, while others aim to prioritize co-operative economies. The transformations in Poblenou are in many ways typical of pressures and threats that confront communities around the world. London, Berlin, Seattle and Vancouver face similar challenges. This report has sought to think about key urban questions. How is the global economy chang-ing public life? What are the material and social manifestations of neighbourhood change? Who occupies different spaces by gender and age? What can planners, architects, designers and engineers learn from watching the choreogra-phy of everyday life in the city? How can tour-ism be managed and integrated into the urban landscape without obstructing the lives, mobility needs, and housing needs of existing residents? What must be done to improve the metabol-ic flows of water, waste, energy and materials? What best practices can we learn from urban planning in Barcelona? And what insights from Vancouver might be applicable in Barcelona?Our work is based on the premise that the ob-servation of daily life can reveal new insights to planners, architects, engineers and urbanists. We have been inspired by the work of Jane Ja-cobs, Willliam Whyte and Jan Gehl. Furthermore, we build on the ideas and work produced by stu-dents in the 2018 edition of the studio course (Andersen et al 2018), which provided a useful starting point for our own analysis. W H Y  S T U D Y  P O B L E N O U ?7H I S T O R Y  O F  P O B L E N O UPoblenou was critical in strengthening the Catalan economy during the Industrial Revolution of the late 1700s until the early 1900s. Poblenou existed as a separate municipality for hundreds of years until Cerdá’s Eixample Plan of 1859 connected Poblenou directly with Barcelona. Throughout much of Poblenou’s history, its structured grid system has been characterised mono-functional industrial specialization.Historic and major roadways include Pere IV, which acted as a main industrial road that connected the Barcelona city centre to the industrial periphery of Poblenou, and la Rambla del Poblenou, a major commercial and residential artery in the neighbourhood. When industry started to leave Poblenou in the 1960s, so did factory workers, leaving many buildings abandoned to degrade over the next thirty years. Throughout the years of Barcelona’s Olympic expansion beginning in the 1980s, city officials and citizens began to cast new vision for the neighbourhood. In 2000, this culminated in a public-led initiative named the “22@ Plan,” a reimagining of the previous 22a land use designation that only allowed for heavy industrial uses. Cerdà’s grid superimposed on the town of Sant Marti. 82 2 @  P L A N22@ was an urban renewal plan with a goal to transform Barcelona’s Poblenou neighbourhood from an industrial district into a flourishing technology and innovation district. The plan outlined the importance of integrating international business talent into Barcelona’s social and professional networks as a way to benefit from the highly educated and trained professionals in the community. Following the 22@ plan, economic activity in Poblenou has included software production, telecommunications, multimedia production, and press artistry.Beyond attracting international business talent to Poblenou, 22@ also focussed on making Poblenou an exciting place to live. Accordingly, they dedicated 220,000 m2 for public facilities, residential social housing and new green spaces. The City of Barcelona’s Ecology, Urban Planning and Mobility Area manages municipal public services to improve the quality of life for inhabitants. Ecological questions are considered throughout Barcelona’s local urban planning, sustainable transportation planning, and water, green areas, waste and energy services planning. Urban metabolism is a useful concept to understand the physiology of cities, including input and output flows for energy, resources, raw materials, emissions, and waste. It allows planners to consider issues such as savings, efficiency, recycling, flexibility, proximity, and adaptation. The metropolitan region of Barcelona has taken interest in urban metabolism due to concerns about water, waste, air quality, and energy dependence. In addition to regional plans that deal directly with urban metabolism concerns, the City of Barcelona’s other guiding plans influence planning decisions at a neighbourhood and site-specific level. These plans include the Climate Plan 2018-2030, Urban Mobility Plan 2018-2030, and Green Infrastructure and Biodiversity Plan 2020. U R B A N  M E T A B O L I S M  & B A R C E L O N A ’ S  P L A N N I N G  G O A L SSpatial extent of the 22@ innovation district. Barcelona Infrastructure and Biodiversity Plan 2020 9P O B L E N O U  P R E S E N TThe arrival of new knowledge-based industry and other social pressures provide evidence of socio-demographic change in Poblenou. For example, the average monthly rent per dwelling unit was 664 € in 2014, just slightly above the mean city rental rate of 653 €.Between 2014 and 2018, rents in Poblenou increased by 37% while in Barcelona the average rental unit increased by 30%. This increase positioned the Poblenou neighbourhood just above the 75th percentile for average rental rates, indicating that it is within the top 25% most expensive neighbourhoods to live in. Meanwhile, measures of household income have not maintained pace with rising rents. Using indices for gross disposable household income by neighbourhood and per household figures for Barcelona, we determined that household incomes in Poblenou increased by 6.4% from 2014 to 2016. In the same period, Barcelona experienced an almost identical 6.3% increase in household income. Assuming a constant increase in incomes through 2018, an approximate 24.2% gap would exist between rent and income increases since 2014 in Poblenou. While our analysis has limitations, the data suggests that on average, residents are spending a greater proportion of their after-tax income on rent, and that average rent may be increasing three times the rate of average household incomes.In short, living in Poblenou is becom-ing increasingly unaffordable.Housing unaffordability in Poblenou may be driven in part by trends observed throughout Barcelona, especially the consequences of the short-term rental market. Since the early 2010s, Barcelona’s residential realm has been heavily impacted by Airbnb and related short-term hospitality services, and trends show no evidence of a decrease in demand (Mead, 2019).In April 2015, Poblenou registered 307 Airbnb listings, which include private rooms, shared rooms, and entire apartments. In June 2019 there were 430 listings, a 40% increase compared to a 52% city-wide increase. Perhaps more concerning is the ratio of Airbnb host revenue to rent: a landlord, at current average listing prices and full occupancy, could receive up to 3.5 times more revenue in one month if they rent to Airbnb users than if they charge residents the average rental price. This is an especially attractive option for many residents of Barcelona who need to finance mortgages. It is also popular during the summer, Barcelona’s peak tourist season, but around 71% of listings as of May 2019 were classified as “highly available” throughout the year (Inside Airbnb, 2019). Valuable as they are, third party data sources can only accommodate generalizations about social life in Poblenou and a brief overview of the struc-tural forces shaping it. We can conclude, based on Poblenou’s industrial history and the current pressures, that it is a neighbourhood coloured by dynamism and change. 10Rent increases by neighbourhood: Q1 2014 to Q1 2018+30.8% Barcelona +37.6% Poblenou  €913€855Airbnb listing counts by neighbourhood:2015 to 2019+52% Barcelona +40% Poblenou  430 listings18.302 listingsIncome increases by neighbourhood: 2014 to 2016+6.4% Barcelona +6.5% Poblenou  €32.645€33.10911M ethodologyT I M E L I N ES T U D Y  S I T E SP U B L I C  L I F E  S T U D Y M E T H O D O L O G YP O B L E N O U B Y  T H E  N U M B E R S12S T U D Y M A Y J U N E J U L YV A N C O U V E RB A R C E L O N ABarcelona Past & PresentStudying Public LifeObserving Public Life in VancouverObserving Public Life in BarcelonaFinal Presentation at Biblioteca PoblenouData Preparation for Final Report  Analyzing Collected Data & Design CharetteVisiting Neighbourhoods in BarcelonaLit. ReviewWalking TourField WorkPresentationStudioMethodsField WorkReportFinal Report13SUPER ILLASPERE IVLA RAMBLAMAR BELLAAVINGUDA DIAGONALRONDA LITORALP O B L E N O U  S T U D Y  S I T E SS T U D Y  S I T E S14S I T E  S E L E C T I O NP E R E  I VL A  R A M B L AM A R B E L L A  S K A T E P A R KS U P E R I L L AWe used observational methods to study four sites in Poblenou: (1) Pere IV at Trullàs, (2) Superilla, (3) la Rambla del Poblenou and the (4) Mar Bella Skatepark. These chosen sites represent four distinct neigh-bourhood typologies in Poblenou. The Pere IV site represents Poblenou’s industrial past, currently in transition and under high develop-ment pressure, but still without the residential density, commercial land uses, or pedestrian flows found in other parts of the neighbourhood. The Rambla is a central artery within the older and historic village, that has high residential densities and diverse commercial uses.The coastal promenade of Mar Bella is the primary tourist attraction of the neighbourhood, and is a distinguishing feature of Poblenou in comparison to other Barcelona neighbourhoods.Superilla is an innovative planning experiment that is valuable to study to understand how people are responding to the design changes introduced (Speranza, 2018).S T U D Y  S I T E S15This research was designed and implemented by a team of 16 students and two faculty members from the School of Community and Regional Planning at the University of British Columbia and the Escola Tècnica Superior d’Arquitectura de Barcelona (ETSAB). During the first week of June 2019, we worked in teams of four students. We observed public life in 4-hour intervals, from 08:00 to 12:00; 12:00 to 16:00; 16:00 to 20:00 and 20:00 to 24:00 during weekdays. The study collected four types of data: (1) pedestrian flow by gender and mobility type; (2) staying behaviour; (3) social cohesion indicators and (4) public space indicators (CP6 indicators). The data collection on pedestrian flow and staying behaviour followed the methods proposed by the Gehl Institute and public life protocol (Gehl Institute, 2017; Gehl & Svarre, 2013). Our research team developed the social cohesion indicators based on work from 2018 (Anderson et al., 2018). The CP6 indicators were adopted by the work published by Col.lectiu Punt 6 (Ciocoletto 2014). P U B L I C  L I F E  S T U D Y  M E T H O D O L O G YF L O W  C O U N T SS T A T I O N A R Y  C O U N T SWe used the measurement protocol from the Gehl Institute to measure pedestrian flow through the site (Gehl 2017). Each team select-ed one or more transects for measurement. We counted people on foot, bicycles, scooters, wheelchairs or strollers for exactly 10 minutes. When measuring people on foot, we also es-timated age and gender. From the 10 minute count, we extrapolated hourly flows.We also used the Gehl Institute protocol to un-derstand who was staying in the study area and what they were doing. We counted the total number of people in the area, by age, gender and group size according to the following staying behaviour criteria. The data was collected elec-tronically through a mobile form.  • Posture: standing, sitting public, informal  sitting, commercial sitting• Activity: in conversation, passive recre-ation, active recreation, attending to chil-dren, using electronics, eating/drinking, cultural activity, civic work, playing, exer-cise, skateboardingFLOW DATA TRANSECT16S O C I A L  C O H E S I O N  I N D I C A T O R SC P 6  I N D I C A T O R SThese indicators aim to provide information about the social connectedness of the individ-uals using public space. We were inspired to collect this information because counting indi-viduals staying and moving through the site does not capture a qualitative element about the rela-tionships between individuals. These social cohesion indicators aim to provide a more complete picture of how the public space is used, including the affection, substance use and salutations occurring in the area. These indicators also aimed to quantify the presence of tourists and tech workers at the site. Measure-ments were collected for exactly 10 minutes. We looked for the presence of each indicator and noted the individuals’ gender and age. The data are comparable across sites because they were collected systematically on the same days for ex-actly 10 minutes in each measurement. Col.lectiu Punt 6 (CP6) are a group of feminist architects and planners who have developed qualitative indicators to assess public gathering spaces across four dimensions. These indicators served as a useful backdrop for our analysis and helped us think about the social and physical el-ements that support high quality public spaces. The indicators work across four dimensions: di-versity, vitality, autonomy, and proximity.  We scored each space using the tool provided, which consisted of questions such as:• Are there signalled public washrooms?• Does the space have continuous pedestri-an lighting?• Is the space within a 10 minute walking distance to a bus stop? Does the design of the space allow for simultaneous activ-ities?  For a complete list of the questions used to cal-culate the indicators, see Ciocoletto (2014).SUPER ILLASPERE IVLA RAMBLAMAR BELLAProximityDiversityVitalityAutonomySocial Cohesion IndicatorsWork Work BadgeTourism Selfsticks, SuitcaseSalutation Handshake, Kiss, Wave, Nod, High-FivePhotographs Objects, Landscape, People, SelfAffection Kissing, Hug, LaughingSubstance Use Smoking, Drinking Alcohol17P O B L E N O U  B Y  T H E  N U M B E R S  S T U D Y  R E S U L T SF L O W  C O U N T SLa Rambla received the highest volume of pedes-trian and non-motorized vehicle traffic in every observation period at all hours of the day and evening. In all cases, the predominant age group was adults in the 25-64 group, with minimal vari-ation in other age ranges between groups.  S T A T I O N A R Y  C O U N T SHouring stationary counts revealed again that La Rambla had the greatest patronage. La Rambla, Mar Bella, and Superilla sites all observed peak staying activity near 19:00.F L O W  C O U N T S  B Y  H O U RS T A T I O N A R Y  C O U N T S  B Y  H O U R18S O C I A L  C O H E S I O NS O C I A L  C O H E S I O NOf the observed social cohesion activities at all sites, over 45% of activities were signs of affec-tion. There was not much tourism activity at any site (selfie sticks, suitcases, cameras), suggesting that tourism does not have an overwhelming presence at these four sites, at least according to the measures used. C P 6  I N D I C A T O R SC P 6  I N D I C A T O R SLa Rambla performed best on average measures of vitality, autonomy, diversity and proximity, while Pere IV scored lowest. This is largely due to La Rambla’s mixed land use, presence of ameni-ties, transport options and gender balance. In con-trast, the Pere IV intersection lacked the presence of many similar traits and received lower scores.P E R E  I V3.72 /5.02.7 /5.03.85 /5.04.14 /5.0S U P E R I L L AR A M B L AM A R B E L L A19A  S P A C E  I N  T R A N S I T I O NP E R E  I V      S U P E R I L L A        R A M B L A         M A R  B E L L A2021Pere IV -Passatge TrullàsC O N N E C T  I VWonjun ChoSuzanne KingJorge Soler CruzCarlota de Haan22CARRER DE PALLARSSTATIONARY &SOCIAL COHESIONFLOW DATATRANSECTSCARRER DE PERE IVCARRER D’ ÁVILA123(a)(b)The spatial scope of this study extends from the intersection at Carrer de Pallars, Carrer d’Ávila, and Carrer de Pere IV, continuing along Carrer de Pallars ending at Passatge Trullàs. Our analysis focuses on the improvement of two public spaces: (a) curb extension at the intersection; and (b) Passatge Trullàs. In the study area, flow data are measured at three transects along the streets of the following: 1 - Carrer de Pallars, 2 - Carrer de Pere IV, and 3 - In Front of Passatge Trullàs.  This area exhibits a unique street pattern where Carrer de Pere IV, a main corridor since the Roman Empire, and Cerdà’s square block plan meets. This neighbourhood is under a social and economic transformation due to the City of Barcelona’s 22@ Plan. Incoming knowledge-based businesses are replacing the manufacturing industry, but co-ops, hotels, and informal scrap metal gathering also exist in the neighbourhood.  In 2016, grassroots community organization members of Bogatell Neighbourhood Association and La Taula Eix Pere IV transformed an abandoned parking space, Passatge Trullàs, into a self-organized and self-managed park. Although the park is currently zoned as a street and is under consideration of redevelopment according to the 22@ Plan, it serves as an underutilized social space. Informed by the existing plans and through our observations, we propose design interventions to enhance connectivity not only between the two spaces in our study area, but also among diverse community stakeholders. The aim of our proposal is to improve connectivity, accessibility, and safety for all community members.S I T E  C O N T E X TS T U D Y  A R E A S  O F  T H E  P E R E  I V  S I T ES O U R C E :  G O O G L E  I M A G E R Y233.1% ofPedestrians UsePassatge TrullàsHourly Flow Count at Transect #3          (In Front of Passatge Trullàs)M A L E -D O M I N A T E DS P A C E SS T A T I O N A R YB E H A V I O U R :C U R B  E X T E N S I O N(a) IS 100% PRIVATE vsPA S S ATG E  T R U L L À S (b)  IS  100% PUBLIC O N L Y  3 . 1 %  O FP E D E S T R I A N SU S E  P A S S A T G ET R U L L À S8 6 . 3 %  O FU S E R S  A R EA D U L T SA V E R A G E  #O F  C P 6I N D I C A T O R S :2 . 7K E Y  I N S I G H T SPERE IVSUPERILLANote: 1.  All flow count graphs related to Pere IV have different scale relative to other sites.2.  The difference in the scale of these graphs is due to the low number of people that flow through the intersects of this study site. The lack of bike     trails and accessible sidewalks for people with visual and physical disabilities could explain the small number of observations at Pere IV.17%39%50%50%43%55%39%61%54%29%29%34%45%47%27%41%83%61%50%50%57%45%61%39%46%71%71%66%55%53%73%59%42%58%MaleFemale17%52%49%46%55%44%53%45%39%37%31%37%30%35%36%60%83%48%51%54%45%56%47%55%61%63%69%63%70%65%64%40%42%58%MaleFemaleCounts All Modes030609012015018008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:00Counts All Modes03006009001200150008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:00PERE IVSUPERILLANote: 1.  All flow count graphs related to Pere IV have different scale relative to other sites.2.  The difference in the scale of these graphs is due to the low number of people that flow through the intersects of this study site. The lack of bike     trails and accessible sidewalks for people with visual and physical disabilities could explain the small number of observations at Pere IV.17%39%50%50%43%55%39%61%54%29%29%34%45%47%27%41%83%61%50%50%57%45%61%39%46%71%71%66%55%53%73%59%42%58%MaleFemale17%52%49%46%55%44%53%45%39%37%31%37%30%35%36%60%83%48%51%54%45%56%47%55%61%63%69%63%70%65%64%40%42%58%MaleFemaleCounts All Modes030609012015018008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:00Counts All Modes03006009001200150008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:00PERE IVSUPERILLANote: 1.  All flow count graphs related to Pere IV have different scale relative to other sites.2.  The difference in the scale of these graphs is due to the low number of people that flow through the intersects of this study site. The lack of bike     trails and accessible sidewalks for people with visual and physical disabilities could explain the small number of observations at Pere IV.17%39%50%50%43%55%39%61%54%29%29%34%45%47%27%41%83%61%50%50%57%45%61%39%46%71%71%66%55%53%73%59%42%58%MaleFemale17%52%49%46%55%44%53%45%39%37%31%37%30%35%36%60%83%48%51%54%45%56%47%55%61%63%69%63%70%65%64%40%42%58%MaleFemaleCounts All Modes036912150808:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:00Counts All Modes03006 090012 0150008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:00PERE IVSUPERILLANote: 1.  All flow count graphs related to Pere IV have different scale relative to other sites.2.  The difference in the scale of these graphs is due to the low number of people that flow through the intersects of this study site. The lack of bike     trails and accessible sidewalks for people with visual and physical disabilities could explain the small number of observations at Pere IV.17%39%50% 50%43%55%39%61%54%29% 29%34%45%47%27%41%83%61%50% 50%57%45%61%39%46%71% 71%66%55%53%73%59%42%58%MaleFemale17%52%49%46%55%44%53%45%39%37%31%37%30%35% 36%60%83%48%51%54%45%56%47%55%61% 63%69%63%70%65%64%40%42%58%MaleFemaleCounts All Modes030609012015018008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:00Counts All Modes03006009001200150008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:00PERE IVSUPERILLANote: 1.  All flow count graphs related to Pere IV have different scale relative to other sites.2.  The difference in the scale of these graphs is due to the low number of people that flow through the intersects of this study site. The lack of bike     trails and accessible sidewalks for people with visual and physical disabilities could explain the small number of observations at Pere IV.17%39%50%50%43%55%39%61%54%29%29%34%45%47%27%41%83%61%50%50%57%45%61%39%46%71%71%66%55%53%73%59%42%58%MaleFemale17%52%49%46%55%44%53%45%39%37%31%37%30%35%36%60%83%48%51%54%45%56%47%55%61%63%69%63%70%65%64%40%42%58%MaleFemaleCounts All Modes030609012015018008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:00Counts All Modes03006009001200150008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:00L O W E S T  A M O N G  4 S T U D Y  A R E A S1.92.52.73.7VitalityAutonomyDiversityProximityPERE IVSUPERILLANote: 1.  All flow count graphs related to Pere IV have different scale relative to other sites.2.  The difference in the scale of these graphs is due to the low number of people that flow through the intersects of this study site. The lack of bike     trails and accessible sidewalks for people with visual and physical disabilities could explain the small number of observations at Pere IV.17%39%50%50%43%55%39%61%54%29%29%34%45%47%27%41%83%61%50%50%57%45%61%39%4671%71%66%55%53%73%59%42%58%MaleFemale17%52%49%46%55%44%53%45%39%37%31%37%30%35%36%60%83%48%51%54%45%56%47%55%61%63%69%63%70%65%64%40%42%58%MaleFemaleCounts All Modes030609012015018008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:00Counts All Modes03006009001200150008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:00PERE IVSUPERILLANote: 1.  All flow count graphs related to Pere IV have different scale relative to other sites.2.  The difference in the scale of these graphs is due to the low number of people that flow through the intersects of this study site. The lack of bike     trails and accessible sidewalks for people with visual and physical disabilities could explain the small number of observations at Pere IV.17%39%50%50%43%55%39%61%54%29%29%34%45%47%27%41%83%61%50%50%57%45%61%39%46%71%71%66%55%53%73%59%42%58%MaleFemale17%52%49%46%55%44%53%45%39%37%31%37%30%35%36%60%83%48%51%54%45%56%47%55%61%63%69%63%70%65%64%40%42%58%MaleFemaleCounts All Modes030609012015018008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:00Counts All Modes03006009001200150008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:00AG E  2 5 ~ 6 4( 8 6 . 3 % )AG E  1 5 ~ 2 4( 6 . 8 % )AG E  6 5 +( 6 . 8 % )Fig. 16. Stationary Behaviour Demographics at Passatge TrullàsP E O P L E  W H O  E N T E R E D PA S S ATG E  T R U L L À S ( 3 . 1 % )A L L P E D E ST R I A N  F LO W AT # 3Fig. 15. Hourly Flow Count of All Modes by Gender at Transect #3 (In Front of Passatge Trullàs)24O B J E C T I V E SOur proposal aims to foster community connec-tivity and the existing neighbourhood identity across physical, social and economic dimensions at both sites.  We observed disconnection as a major theme at our site: disconnection between people, spaces and visions for the future. Our recommendations seek to offer holistic solutions to these disconnection problems. We propose cost-effective solutions specific to the context and needs of the different people and groups that coexist and use the public spaces at Pere IV-Trullàs. First, the research team noticed that there is room for improvement in the distribution and accessibility of the physical space. Some of the public spaces are not accessible or safe for cer-tain groups of the population, particularly the disabled and elderly. Second, the research team identified that dif-ferent members of the community (tech work-ers, business owners, youth, etc.) use the public spaces but they do not interact because they use the space at different times of the day. There-fore the space offers an opportunity to build connections and community. Third, the research team identified that there is a disconnection between the community-based, informal and the hi-tech businesses that are lo-cated in this area. connectionE C O N O M I C S O C I A LP H Y S I C A LS T U D Y  F R A M E W O R KC O M M U N I T Y  G R O U P S  I N  T H E  A R E AObjective to foster community connectivity and the neighbourhood identity across physical, social and economic dimensions CARRER DE  PERE  IVCARRER D’ÁVILACA R R E R  D E  PA L L A R S25The intersection and interim public plaza is primarily a space that people move through rather than stay and linger. Males aged 24 to 65 years are the main users of the space, suggesting accessibility issues for seniors, women and young children. The high concentration of  tech offices, as well as industry, imply that there are more working age people moving to and from work. Observation also suggests that women are more likely to utilize the space as part of a group suggesting a lack of safety being alone as a woman. P R O P O S A L S  P E R E  I V  I N T E R S E C T I O NCrosswalks intersecting the interim public plaza are offset and not intuitive for people who are blind or disabled, and are even inconvenient for able-bodied users. Because of this, illegal crossing at the intersection took place throughout the day and at all times. This is of particular risk because this district has high vehicle traffic and annual accidents are increasing. In the evening this safety concern is exacerbated by irregular spacing of street lamps.All stationary activity taking place in the interim public plaza was commercial sitting at the cafe. This provides a barrier to those who do not have the financial means to participate. The people staying in the cafe changed through the day. UPS delivery men and other blue collar workers parked their work vans illegally in the painted median and spent time in the early afternoon. In the evening, adults gathered to drink and smoke. Few seniors, children and women utilize the site despite the neighbourhood being approximately 30% residential. S I T E  1 :  I N T E R I M  P U B L I C  P L A Z A A N D  I N T E R S E C T I O NEXISTINGCARRER DE PALL ARSCARRER DE PERE IVCARRER D ’ÁV ILL A26A :  I M P R O V E  P H Y S I C A L C O N N E C T I V I T Y :The interim public plaza will undergo a curb ex-tension into the unused space of the intersec-tion and will be level with the existing plaza. The crosswalks will be moved forward and aligned straight across the full intersection. These chang-es will increase safety and accessibility while eliminating the need to jay-walk. Public benches, potted plants and trees will be installed in the extended public plaza. Combin-ing public seating and shading will provide areas where everyone can stay and rest. Potted plants along the perimeter of the plaza will create a safe barrier between people and vehicle traffic. The garbage bins will be consolidated to the op-posite side of Carrer de Pere IV thus reducing the unappealing odour and improving aesthet-ics. Adding street lighting at regular intervals will also increase safety and accessibility for minority users. B .  I M P R O V E  S O C I A L C O N N E C T I V I T Y :  The physical infrastructure improvements will facilitate the social connectivity in the space. A public community board with messaging about the Passatge Trullàs and other community events will help connection between the various community groups. Public seating will create a space where everyone can sit, rest and socialize. It will also eliminate the financial barrier current-ly in place to use the Cafe seating. By creating a streamlined and safe crossing at the busy inter-section more user groups will feel comfortable moving through the space. PROPOSEDCARRER DE PALL ARSCARRER DE PERE IV CARRER D ’ÁV ILL A27CP6 indicators revealed low vitality scoring in the Passatge Trullàs. The area is narrow and has a limited sightline to the exit and street from the rear. Overall, the space is underutilized in part because of lack of shade from the sun and oth-er essential facilities, such as washrooms, water fountains and garbage bins. Over the observa-tion period, some adults and few children and seniors came in to sit and undergo passive rec-reation. A homeless man was sleeping most of the day in one of the few shaded areas in the park. During the evening a group of adult men who ran the neighbouring Kebab shop would sit and socialize in the park and before it closes at 21:30 a group of four men were playing dominos in the library located in the portable container at the end of the park. These were the community members responsible for closing the park gate. The fence and gate is a divisive structure that does not invite people inside the park. Most park users appear to be locals who know of its existence. For anyone travelling by on the sidewalk that does not know it is a public space, the fence creates a barrier for entry and there is little signage or messaging inviting them inside. Of every eight pedestrians who travelled by on the sidewalk only one entered and stayed in the park. Further, the fence and the long narrow shape of the park provides a feeling of insecurity when inside and can possibly explain the low fe-male usage rate of only 15%. Finally, the Passatge Trullas provides access to three parcels located in the centre of the block. These parcels are part of the pending devel-opment plan under 22@. It was observed that adults pass through the park to get into the warehouses there. Any intervention done in the site may affect the property value of these par-cels; the community needs to be careful with the type of interventions that they do in this place. Since there are governance and property rights issues in this space, it is necessary to un-derstand that there is an associated risk to the community in the long term. Because, if these problems are not solved only the private owners of these properties are the ones that are going to be benefited by these interventions despite the community efforts to reclaim and turn this parcel into a public space for all members of the community. S I T E  2 :  P A S S A T G E  T R U L L À SP R O P O S A L S  P A S S A T G E  T R U L L À S28Passatge Trullàs is an important historical pas-sage and is currently operated and maintained by local neighbours. The nature of this self-or-ganization management of the site is important to consider when providing proposals for con-necting the community. The group has already done an excellent job of improving the space with seating, planting, wall hanging plants and the library and public children’s toys. Howev-er, the overall aesthetic could be improved and we hope to equip the organizers with the tools required to enhance the use of the space by all members of the community.S O C I A L  C O N N E C T I V I T YMinimal change is proposed in the Passatge Trul-làs as it has already been effectively occupied by the local residents. To invite more people to enter the park we propose installing a visu-ally appealing fence that can fold to open fully. This will be paired with a community board and sign that can be placed outside the entrance to the park. This board could indicate community events, buy and sell, and lay out responsibilities for maintenance of the park. This will put the onus on everyone in the community to help keep the space working. Improved aesthetics can help to draw more people in and encourage them to stay while also building social capital. This can be created through hosting annual mural competi-tions with the local design university or placing tiles along the walls that the community mem-bers can decorate. Spatial changes in the park may also encour-age staying behaviour and create a more invit-ing space for underrepresented demographics. We propose realigning the library crate building parallel to and visible from the street. Adding seasonal sun shade covers will allow people to stay longer and encourage women to bring their children to play safely out of the sun. Addition-al suggestions for the future include installing a water fountain and more garbage bins.Social and community programming can align with the objectives of Passatge Trullas. For ex-ample, using the concepts from urban metabo-lism, composting programs can both eliminate organic waste and provide educational oppor-tunities. Children from nearby schools can come as part of field trips to learn about composting processes and help in community gardens. Finally, we propose maintaining the current park hours. The area has several bars and nightclubs that operate in the evening and it is difficult to surveille the space at night. It is likely that young adults who are using substances would enter the park late at night and destroy some of it, as well as make noise that would disturb neighbours. 29E C O N O M I C  C O N N E C T I V I T YThe Passatge Trullas can serve as a networking and partnership hub in the neighbourhood. To do so it is important to undergo a public   en-gagement process. Again, the community sig-nage board can be used to communicate with the neighbours. The exact nature of this public engagement process should be developed in line with the organization of the neighbourhood association and those currently occupying the park. A process to rezone the park may take place in the future, regardless of the community’s opin-ion on the matter. Because of this, it is advised the community reaches out to the City of Barce-lona to discuss options regarding zoning. During a participatory engagement process the partici-pants should co-create a common vision for the development and future of the neighbourhood. The three parcels of land that exist as warehous-es that are accessed through the park could be leased from the City to cooperative organiza-tions. The cooperatives could help employ locals and maintain the park space, sharing it as a work lunch space. Knowledge and skills sharing between the var-ious community members will help consolidate this economic connectivity. The options are nu-merous for interventions between IT and tech companies, local businesses, residents and other community associations, as well as the transient / homeless population. Tech companies could assist in digital communications and marketing to draw people to use the park. Cooperatives could employ people from diverse backgrounds. Local residents could run workshops on commu-nity gardens. The design university could host open art installations and shows. 30313233A  S P A C E  F O R  T H E  P E O P L E SuperillaPoblenou   Jackson ChenLexi Kinman Emilia OscilowiczHalina Rachelson34S I T E  C O N T E X T Superillas (superblocks) are a government-driv-en attempt to “fill the streets with life” by pedes-trianizing streets and intersections and creating public space in one of Europe’s densest cities. Superillas were designed to act as an intersec-tional solution to tackle many of Barcelona’s problems. These include: limited green space; high rates of private vehicle ownership; prema-ture deaths from air pollution; and high risk of being overweight or obese among youth, partic-ularly in underserved communities. The model design of the superilla involves re-circulating traffic to the perimeter within nine blocks of the Cerdà grid. Accompanying these flow adjustments, planners also intend to con-vert the four central intersections to pedestri-an-only space. Deploying superillas through the Superblocks Programme 2012-2015 involved aligning with Barcelona’s municipal goals as written in the Urban Mobility Plan of Barcelo-na 2006-2012-2018, the Barcelona Climate Plan 2018-2030, and the Barcelona Green Infrastruc-ture and Biodiversity Plan 2020. In the Poblenou context, design interventions in the pedestrianized areas were intended as low-cost and minimal-construction additions to public space. The interventions include two children’s parks (Roc Boronat & Sancho de Avi-la; Ciutat de Granada & Sancho de Avila), several potted trees, large public art structures, public park benches, and public picnic tables. Painted images for decoration and activities  were also included in the pedestrianized zones.The superil la could address Barcelona’s core quality of  l i fe issues l ike lack of  green space, high private vehicle ownership, premature deaths from air pollution, and obesity.. . CARRER DE ROC BORONATCARRER DE SANCHO DE AVILASTATIONARY &SOCIAL COHESIONFLOW DATATRANSECTS O U R C E :  G O O G L E  I M A G E R YS T U D Y  A R E A S  O F  T H E  S U P E R I L L A  S I T E35K E Y  I N S I G H T S Y O U T H  & S E N I O R S  M A Y B E  U N D E R - R E P R E S E N T E D A N  A R E A  I N T R A N S I T I O N 6 , 7 4 4 pedestrians in total 5 2 %eating & drinkingbased on peak times(12-16h and 16-20h)   9 %aged 65+ 2 1 %laughing based on peak times (12-16h and 16-20h) 4 5 %affection among parents attending to children7 5 % aged 25-64 based on all stationary counts 1 6 %aged 15-243 1 %with work badges A  G A T H E R I N G S P A C E  F O R W O R K E R S  & F A M I L I E S 36A N A L Y S I S Workers and families were the largest  users of  the space. Peak hours of  all  use -  Lunch t ime  12:00-  16:00 -early  evening  16:00-20:0037C U R R E N T  L A N D  U S E F U T U R E  L A N D  U S EP R O B L E M  S T A T E M E N T We observed three core issues in the Poblenou Superilla: underutilized space in certain intersec-tions and corridors; low population density; and, lack of diversity among users. We consider the intersection at C Roc Boronat/Cr. Sancho de Avila Superilla to be a successful public space. We conclude that the space has benefited from land uses that provide a diversi-ty of activities and amenities to the users of the space (i.e. a restaurant, an elementary school, and office space). In order to further diversify its users and better serve them, the Roc Boronat and Sancho de Avila intersection would benefit from design interventions to further improve the space.In the future, Poblenou and the Poblenou Supe-rilla will be the focus of considerable neighbor-hood change and development. Preparations for this neighbourhood change in the form of public facilities must be addressed. H o w  w i l l  f u t u re  l a n d  u s e c h a n g e  a ff e c t  p u b l i c  l i f e i n  t h e  s u p e r i l l a ? P R O S P O S A L S  S I T E  S C A L E38P R O S P O S A L S  S U P E R I L L A  S C A L E39U N D E R U T I L I Z E D  S P A C EBased on our observation of the Roc Boronat/Sancho de Avila intersection, we conclude that the Superilla concept has the potential to provide desirable public spaces to users and its surrounding community. Observing the lively intersection, we suggest its success may be dependent on the surrounding land uses. The Roc Boronat/ Sancho de Avila intersection is surrounded by office space, commercial space (popular restaurant with outdoor seating), a school, a museum, a university, and some residential activity. Based on comparative land use analysis, the ‘quiet’ Almogavers/ Ciutat de Granada intersection is not serviced by land uses for everyday life like the ‘lively’ intersection. For example, the commercial land use at Almogavers/Ciutat de Granada include a commercial car dealership and private, gated residences. In addition, this intersection has less public-space friendly infrastructure (e.g., play elements, coloured pavement, etc.) that may enhance the diversity in activities.D I A G N O S T I C S 40L O W  P O P U L A T I O N  D E N S I T YComparison of other existing superilla intersections was critical in our understanding of their vibrancy and liveliness. We were interested in the population density of the neighbourhood surrounding the San Antoni superilla intersection (Cr. de Tamarit/Cr. de Comte d’Urgel) and wanted to compare it to the the population density data of the Poblenou Superilla neighbourhood. Through GIS analysis, we conclude that the population density of the surrounding neighbourhood may have a significant influence on the liveliness of a public space and therefore its success. Higher residential density could contribute to more activity and user diversity in a space. This residential densification will occur within the Poblenou Superilla in the future as 22@ directed residential development occurs. The density of the 4 adjacent blocks surrounding the San Antoni intersection consists of 1,017 dwellings, where as the 4 adjacent blocks surrounding the Poblenou intersection consists of 630 dwellings. These values reveal that the Poblenou Superilla neighbourhood has considerable less population density than that of the San Antoni neighbourhood.L A C K  O F  D I V E R S I T Y  A M O N G U S E R SWe observed that the Roc Boronat/Sancho de Avila intersection is predominantly utilized by adults  (25-64). While some youth and seniors frequent the space (15% of all stationary users), these users were not particularly visible in the space . In order to make the space friendly to all generations, we suggest planning and implementation of public facilities in the Poblenou Superilla that would be attractive to users of all ages and backgrounds living in the neighbourhood. This could take the form of a community centre with a sports facility and library. Such a facility would be attractive to users of many ages, but also to users of varying socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds. We suggest the City of Barcelona consider the development of such public facilities in future plans. 41Design solutions to improve everyday life in the spaces Based on our public life observations, site visits, spatial analysis, and other background research, we have proposed the following set of design solutions. The themes that we observed in the spaces and guide our recommendations belong in the following realms: diversity of activities, diversity of users, safety, comfort, and environmental sustainability. We suggest that these recommendations be deployed to complement land use change, such as the incoming development of affordable housing and clinic, and resulting population density changes. Simultaneous development of community facilities should be considered by the municipality in order to serve the residential population and better accommodate all ages of users. These land use types may bring new users to the space and “infrastructure” could reflect this demographic change.Make the “lively” superilla intersection at Roc Boronat/Sancho de Avila even more successful through interventions that address identified site conclusions and align with design themes.Suggest municipal-led planning and implementation of public facilities that would serve the community and make the neighbourhood more attractive to diverse age groups and backgrounds of users. Ensure proposed infrastructure interventions provide a platform for future community-led programming, complement changing land uses, and align with Barcelona’s greater goals for urban metabolism, resilience, and sustainability. O B J E C T I V E S 42Increase mixed public seating and interactive play elements (musical instruments) that can be enjoyed by multiple age groups and promote intergenerational connection.Provide mixed facilities such as public drinking fountain, eco-friendly ‘bio-digester’ washroom, and diverse public seating.Suggest to Barcelona municipality the addition of more public facilities (i.e. gym/activity centre) in the neighbourhood, particularly in underutilized intersections of Superilla.Increase mixed public seating to reduce reliance on commercial seating to allow for leisurely, non-consumptive use of the spaceAdd green benches along perimeter and shading tree for the Roc Boronat playground.Remove statues along Carrer Sancho de Avial. Introduce compost and recycling waste facilities which align with municipal waste management goals. Future affordable housing construction and other urban development near Roc Boronat/Sancho de Avila site could bring youth and seniors to the site.Limited proximity of public amenities/facilities in site (e.g., public toilet facilities, sufficient public seating, libraries, wayfinding) which might explain absence of seniorsResidential density in the surrounding neighbourhood is low which plays a role in the visibility of users in spaces.Limited opportunity for non-commercial seating at peak hours.Limited shaded areas through the corridor and in the playground. Tendency for parents picking up children in the afternoon to gravitate towards informal shaded seating areas along perimeter. Concerns about user perception of safety and comfort at night.Absence of sustainable waste management.Diversity of Activities Comfort Diversity of Users Safety Environmental Sustainability Theme Observation & Findings Recommendation43Environmental Sustainability: Compost &recycling waste facilitiesDiversity of Activities: Interactive play elements Environmental Sustainability:  Urban greening for biodiversity & local food P R O S P O S A L S  S I T E  S C A L EVertical HarpRecycling &Compost BinsFlower & PlantPlantersDrumDiversity of Users: Public facilities offering different activities to serve various users 44Comfort: Formalize seating with green planters  to enhance green spaceDiversity of users: Picnic tables, planters, benches for youth, seniors, groups, and indi-viduals Safety: Lighting along corridor at night and removal of statueP R O S P O S A L S  S U P E R I L L A  S C A L ESafety: Pavement raised and coloured at intersection to represent pedestri-an-priority space 45To provide a bird’s eye view of where these various interventions could be located within the site, we created the design solutions map above. We suggest a few locations for these design solutions based on the public life patterns we observed and the Colectiu Punt 6 indicator analysis. The interactive play instruments intervention could be placed in the corridor, as this is typically where children leaving the school will play. Formalized green bench seating would be placed along the perimeter of the museum. This area also gets just enough sun to allow vegetation to grow in the planters and green benches, but also provides enough refuge from the sun. Currently this area is reserved for iron statues which are frightening at night. Such interventions would make these spaces more welcoming at all times in a day. Finally, the green compost and recycling bins would be strategically placed next to existing picnic benches and commercial seating as well as new seating. The addition of waste managament would foster social practices for sustainability and  help individuals support city-wide urban metabolism goals.  D E S I G N  P R O P O S A L S  F O R  S I T E46Beyond our research site, we also would like to address our diagnostics of low population density and lack of diversity of user ages and backgrounds. We suggest that public facilities be prioritized in future development plans. While the neighbourhood densifies in the future, simultaneous development of community facilities should be considered to serve the residential population and better accommodate all ages of users. One potential development site for such a facility could be the current location of the car dealership in the underutilized intersection shown in yellow. In this location, we proposed a sports facility or activity centre that could be enjoyed by multiple audiences, including youth, families, workers, and seniors.  D E S I G N  P R O P O S A L S  F O R  S U R R O U N D I N G  A R E A S 474849La Rambla del PoblenouP U L S E  O F  P O B L E N O UIan FlockJean RoeJulia ZhuStephen McCausland50S I T E  C O N T E X TEphemeral streams once flowed toward the sea in Barcelona. When the channels were dry, people would walk along the stream path. Eventually, these streams became thoroughfares for locals. Today, these channels have been transformed into Barcelona’s most utilized pedestrian spaces. The word rambla, meaning streambed, comes from Arabic. Ramblas can be found in multiple Barcelona neighbourhoods and they are characterized by a central pedestrian promenade flanked by traffic calmed lanes on either side. Barcelona’s most famous ramblas, Las Ramblas, cut through the old city and separate the Barri Gotic and El Raval. Millions of visitors stroll down Las Ramblas every year. A lesser-traveled rambla is located in Poblenou. La Rambla del Poblenou is the pulse of the neighbourhood, attracting a diversity of users and uses. The design of La Rambla del Poblenou — with a central pedestrian promenade, limited vehicle access, benches placed every few metres, a canopy of street trees, and pedestrian-oriented street lights — provides La Rambla with a unique architectural language (O. Bohigas in T. Marshall, 2004). People read and interact with the language of the space every time they use it.The street is a destination, attracting locals and visitors. People use the Rambla take their children to daycare, run errands, eat at restaurants or just sit and enjoy the space. Beyond La Rambla, many neighbourhood assets are in close proximity, including community led cooperatives and services, acting as anchor points of everyday life. CARRER DE LLULLCARRER DE RAMON TURROLA RAMBLA DEL POBLENOUCARRECARRER DE LA LLANCUNACARRER DE PUJADESCARRER DEL DR. TRUETAS O U R C E :  G O O G L E  I M A G E R YS T U D Y  A R E A S  O F  T H E  R A M B L A  S I T E51K E Y  I N S I G H T SL A  R A M B L AI S  B U S Y2 3  5 0 8projected transect counts in 16 hoursA  G A T H E R I N G S P A C E  F O R E V E R Y O N E1 9 %aged 65+ based on stationary activitiesP E O P L E  F E E L C O M F O R T A B L E5 0 1people holding hands1 7 5people laughing01252503755008h 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 040801201608:159:1510:1511:1512:1513:1514:1515:1516:1517:1518:1519:1520:1521:1522:1523:150-4 5-14 15-24 25-64 65+P R I V A T E  + P U B L I C  U S E S4 9 %commercial sitting2 5 %public sittingH O U R L Y  P E D E S T R I A N  F L O W H O U R L Y  S T A T I O N A R Y  B Y  A G E52A N A L Y S I SThe Rambla del Poblenou is a vibrant and diverse public realm with high and consistent use throughout the day and night. The presence of public life throughout many hours contributes to the pleasant atmosphere of La Rambla. P R O B L E M  S T A T E M E N TDue to La Rambla’s high quality public realm, there is risk that it will become a victim of its own success. As the neighbourhood welcomes new industries, rent costs rise, and Airbnb rentals increase, locals may become displaced by tourists and newcomers. The changing neighbourhood is already reflected in the design and use of public space, including the privatization of public space. For example, three of the four terraces at our study site are restaurants that are clearly oriented to tourists (with English menus and photos of paella on display). These private terraces encroach on the public realm, occupying up to 50 percent of the width of the central promenade.P E D E S T R I A N  T R A F F I C  A N D S T A T I O N A R Y  B E H A V I O U RC Y C L E  T R A F F I CW i l l  l a  Ra m b l a  d e l  Po b l e -n o u  b e c o m e  a  v i c t i m  o f  i t s o w n  s u c c e ss ?Pedestrian FlowStaying ActivityCyclist TracesVehicle DirectionCyclist Direction53With pressures of gentrification, there is risk that tourists and terraces will continue to encroach on the existing public realm. Although public space design will not solve all issues relating to gentrification and neighbourhood change, we believe that certain design strategies will allow locals to have access to, and ownership of, high quality public space. The following proposals aim to enhance community capacity to resist the pressures facing Poblenou and allow for locals to have ownership over how their neighbourhood changes. The guiding question for our work is: How can we place local needs at the forefront of all public realm design decisions? This question is supported by three objectives.O B J E C T I V E SObjective 1.  Make the space accessible for all ages and abilitiesObjective 2. Reclaim public space Objective 3.Build on the community’s assetsAlthough the following proposals focus on phys-ical design interventions, the process of urban design is fundamentally important. To truly place local needs at the forefront of public space de-sign, a participatory process between planners and the community is necessary. 54P R O S P O S A L S  S I T E  S C A L EPaint curbs to increase visibility During our observations, we witnessed two peo-ple fall on the pavement. One elderly woman tripped on the curb and hit her chin. The ele-vation of the curb can be hard to see for those who are visually impaired. For this reason, we propose the curbs to be painted a bright colour, such as a trencadis or another locally designed pattern, to increase visibility. This intervention would make the space safer for those with visual impairments.1 1 4 1 1Level tree pitsThe site is quite accessible for all ages and abili-ties. This is reflected in the diversity of users and the design elements such as frequent placement of benches, bright lighting at night and ramped crosswalks. However, the tree pits were identi-fied as a potential tripping hazard. We suggest the tree pits be leveled by placing cast iron tree pit covers on each tree. The covers would have holes to ensure permeability. Objective Make the space accessible for all ages and abilitiesLa Rambla cross section.55P R O S P O S A L S  B L O C K  S C A L EShift private terrace to public seatingWhile La Rambla is a vibrant public space, the street faces pressure from the volume of us-ers and private terraces encroaching on public space. Approximately 45 percent of the Ramb-la is occupied by private terraces. According to bylaws passed in June 2018 (City of Barcelona, 2018), terraces cannot occupy over 50 percent of the width of the Rambla. We suggest convert-ing the seating at El Tio Che to public seating. This concept could be expanded to other terrac-es with counter service (ice cream shops, falafel stands, etc). This intervention would also act as a symbolic gesture, giving back privatized spac-es of La Rambla to the public. This suggestion is based on our public life observations in Vancou-ver. The City of Vancouver has seen success with public seating in plazas and parklets.PRIVATE TO PUBLIC SEATINGTerrace SpaceProposed Change Rambla del PoblenouCarrer de LlullCURRENTPROPOSEDTurn one lane of traffic circle into pedestrian spaceWe estimate that close to 23,508 people pass through La Rambla on a weekday. The large volume of pedestrians justify expanding public space by reclaiming one vehicular lane from the roundabout at Carrer de Llull. This traffic circle currently allows traffic to flow on either side of the circle, but the traffic goes in the same direc-tion. CURRENT PedestrianCarTraffic FlowService Vehicles OnlyRambla del PoblenouPedestrian FlowCarrer de PallarsRambla del PoblenouCarrer de PallarsPROPOSEDExpand and level the pedestrian curbExpand area of greenery into new pedestrian areaRemove the pedestrian traffic lightPaint road and adjust traffic light to signal lane mergingConnects roundabout with the promenadeAllows continuous pedestrian flow Promotes sense of safety at roundaboutExpands the public realmObjective Reclaim public space56CARRER DE LLULCARRER DE RAMON TURROLA RAMBLA DEL POBLENOUCARRER DE LA LLANCUNACARRER DE ROC BORONATCARRER DE ...CARRER DE PUJADESCARRER DE MARIA AGUILOCARRER DEL DR. TRUETAPROPOSED SITE 2PROPOSED SITE 1STUDY SITECOOPERATIVESExpand public realm beyond La Rambla by designing public space near cooperativesOne of the problems with La Rambla is that it is reaching capacity. We believe one way to resolve this issue is to expand the high quali-ty public realm beyond the street and into the neighbourhood. We propose building parklets near community hubs. This will achieve 2 of our 3 objectives: build on the community’s assets and expand the public realm beyond La Rambla. Parklets have been a very successful intervention in Vancouver and we thought this idea could be implemented in Poblenou. We suggested con-verting 1-2 parking spots into public spaces, with benches, lighting and greenery. The locations we proposed are strategically located near hubs of cooperatives - one by Flor de Maig and the other by Can Felipa. By placing parklets near commu-nity services, we aim to prioritize these spaces for locals instead of visitors. Ideally, this propos-al would emerge from a participatory process in which the adjacent cooperatives play a role in the visioning and operation of the spaces. P R O P O S E DP R O S P O S A L S  N E I G H B O U R H O O D  S C A L EObjectives  Reclaim public space Build on community assetsC U R R E N T57La Ramblas del Poblenou58La Ramblas del Poblenou59Mar BellaSkateparkU R B A N  P L A Y G R O U N D F O R  E V E R Y O N EStephanie GrondinYilang Karen KangDeniz IremIgnacio GuzmanStudy areas of the Superilla site.60S I T E  C O N T E X TParc de la Mar Bella (Marbella park) is a green hub and urban recreational park for Sant Marti district, including the Poblenou neighbourhood. The park provides a number of amenities including a community sports centre - Complex Esportiu Municipal Mar Bella, Mar Bella Skate Park and the famous Mar Bella Nude Beach. It also serves as green passage to beautiful beaches and Barcelona’s waterfront promenade, Passeig Marítim del Bogatell. The Mar Bella skatepark is situated within Parc de la Mar Bella on the southeast edge of Poblenou alongside the Mar Bella Beach. In 2015, the local Architect and Designer Sergi Arenas with SCOB Architecture and Landscape, revamped an existing skatepark to partake in the intervention strategy for Parc de Poblenou by the municipal government. Taking advantage of dynamic topographies, the meandering skatepark courses for various levels expand out in the direction of the sea. When it first opened, the skatepark was advertised for various levels and abilities, with street skate in the upper section connected to a larger advanced bowl by a series of snake-like humps (Leighton 2017).  Notwithstanding to its name, the park is highly utilized by all kinds of wheel activities skateborders, BMX riders, scooters, and inline skaters. In 2006, the average skater age was 71% between the ages of 12 and 17 and by 2018, the number dropped to 45%, showing that age diversity in the skater community is rapidly increasing (Skate Review 2018). Marbella skatepark has been garnering its popularity among skateboard communities from all around the world. Popular skater clothing brands such as Levi’s and Vans bring world-class events to the park, putting the Poblenou Neighbourhood on the map. PLATJA DE LA MAR BELLAAVINGUDA DEL LITORALPASSEIG MARITIM DEL BOGATELLSTATIONARY &SOCIAL COHESIONFLOW DATATRANSECTStudy areas of the Superilla site.S T U D Y  A R E A S  O F  T H E  M A R  B E L L A  S I T E61MAR BELLA SKATE PARK6263K E Y  I N S I G H T SF L O W  C O U N T S C O M P A R I S I O NOur data show an overall increase in flow counts compared to the data collected in 2018 Passive Recreation0100200300Active RecreationUsing ElectronicsSubstance UseEating./DrinkingCultural ActivityRough SleepingCommerceCivic WorkIntoxicationAge group comparision between flow and stationary data reveals that older age groups are likely to walk through the park trail, whereas young adults are more likely to stay in the skatepark. Although gender imbalance in all our data is striking, we also observed a reverse trend where women’s participation in skatepark is increasing compared to 2018 data. W H O ’ S  S T A Y I N G ?StationaryStationaryStationaryStationaryStationaryStationaryStationaryStationaryStationaryFlow CountsFemaleMaleW O M E N  I N  M A R B E L L A  P A R K64A N A L Y S I SOverall, our data indicates that Mar Bella Skatepark is a highligy utilized space. From our observations, the main beach promenade was often used for recreational or commuting purposes, while access was used as a pathway to the beach. Our stationary data highlights more users participating in passive recreation (watching skaters, chatting) than active participants. The skatepark socially came to life as the day progressed with a noticeable increase in both quantity and quality of socially cohesive activites including cheering, clapping and whistling. In terms of Collectiu Punt 6 indicators, even though the skatepark received high scores, there are notable areas of improvements for each indicator. Proximity: The skatepark scored well on proximity to daily needs including restaurants and transit hubs. However, hills and park entrance design create a visible and physical barrier between Poblenou and the Mar Bella Skatepark.  Diversity: The skatepark scored the lowest in diversity, lacking basic public amenities (i.e. public washroom, drinking facilities and public seating). In addition, we found the overall wayfinding in the  Marbella park to be challenging as maps are outdated and only a few clear signages are available. Automony: The area feels generally safe for the users after sunset, but the continuous lighting in the urban residential area does becomes sparse and discontinued moving towards the park and coastline. In addition, the lights in the Mar Bella Skatepark are scheduled to be shut off at 23:00, when the skatepark still stays active passed midnight.   Vitality: The design of the park allows for itinerant activities to occur only sporadically, as the skatepark and beach are weather and seasonally dependent. The overall park design provides little or no protection from rain or harsh weather.    Can Mar Bella Skatepark become urban playground  for everyone? Lighting coverage.Walking distance amenities.65At a site scale, a lack of connectivity in design between the upper street skatepark and lower loop of the skatepark creates an under usage of the upper section. At a park scale, segregation exists between the skatepark and the adjacent green space which is noticeably underutilized due to lack of public amenities. At a neighbourhood scale, when entering the park, the entrance pathways are obstructed by the hill, creating a visual barrier. In general, there is a strong presence of young male adults in the skate-boarding community. Marbella skatepark is not an exception. 69% of the flow data collected at the main transect and 76% of the stationary counts were male. Most of the green space surrounding the skatepark is quiet and underused, creating such a contrast with the vibrant, dynamic social life at the skatepark. It indicates a lack of amenities in the park to provide staying recreation for all age groups and all activities, other than skating, in the park.  The persistent social stigma and stereotypes associated with the “bad boy” image of the skatepark are strenghthed by spontaneous graffities and some design elements of the current site. (fence, podium made with exposed concrete and metal) The main corridor is shared by pedestrians, cyclists, wheels and motor-ized vehicles without clear demarcation. Motorized vehicles and electric wheels move at fast speeds, narrowly dodging pedestrians as no speed limit is posted. Vehicles pass through at all times of the day, even during the park’s busiest hours around 18:00-21:00.S E G R E G A T I O NG E N D E R  I M B A L A N C ES I N G L E  U S EN E G A T I V E  S T E R E O T Y P ET R A F F I C  C O N F L I C TD I A G N O S T I C S66We strongly suggest that the park planning regulations regarding vehicle traffic should be revised to be more limiting. In the meantime, introduc-ing design solutions that prioritize the safety of pedestrian and those on wheels over motorized vehicles on main corridor will be prioritized to achieve both subjective and perceived safety. O B J E C T I V E SWe aim to improve the connectivity of the skate park on all three scales. At a skatepark lelvel, the design improvement can make all sections of skatepark equally utilized and connected. At a park scale, design and policy changes can allow users to enjoy both the green area and skating area. At a neighbourhood scale, urban design and policy can be revisited to create more accessible and integrated park with the rest of the neigh-bourhood, while partaking in Barcelona’s collective effort (22@ plan) to enhance green network throughout neighbourhoods. Our data and site observation clearly indicate the ongoing trend that the skateboard communities are becoming more diversified. Our aim is to encourage diverse communities to actively utilize the skatepark harmoniously. Revisiting overall park planning & introducing urban design solutions based on socially-inclusive design principles along with community engagement strategies, Marbella Skatepark can become an iconic urban skatepark that invites all genders, ages, and levels of skating. The locational significance of the Mar Bella park calls for more inviting and sticky environment not only for skater communities but also for every member of the surrounding neighbourhoods. An overall design improvement is necessary for the under-utilized greenspaces and enhanced accessibility from the neighbourhood throughout the park. The skatepark is the most popular activity in the Mar Bella park. Yet, the negative image about this subculture remains strong. Small-scale design interventions can help dissociate from the negative social stigma and re-establish the skatepark identity to be associated with healthy and positive images. We believe that building healthy and constructive connections among diverse communities can help the Poblenou neighbourhood to become more integrated and self-sustainable.I N T E G R A T I O NG E N D E R  E Q U I T YA L L - U S E R  F R I E N D L YR E D E F I N I N G  S T E R E O T Y P ES A F E T Y  F O R  A L L67P R O P O S A L S  S I T E  S C A L EACBProposal for continuous seating and canopy cover.68To build on the expansion, we propose continuous seating along the entire length of the skatepark for skaters and observers. This will allow for viewing and monitoring along the entirety of each three tier, contrary to the current seating designed for viewing of only the loop bowl. Seating made of rocks surrounding the skatepark is not inviting and comfortable, especially for younger and older age groups. Additionally, lack of sun protection along the seating area deters people from staying longer. In order to create an environment where all-age groups are invited to spend time around the skatepark, we also propose replacing the seating arrangement with softer materials (ex. wood) and green canopies for improved comfort and flexibility.S E A T I N G Our stationary counts and site observation found that there is a noticeable usage difference between the upper park and the lower park, which resulted in the concentration of traffic in the lower park.  An expansion of the skatepark will focus on removing the vehicle parking on the upper side of the skatepark to allow space for a third tier. This third tier of the skatepark will be designed for beginners and learners of all ages, with the intention to create an inviting space for newcomers to the sport. The beginner park will be integrated through a smoother flow to the street skate and into the remaining loop of the skatepark.Our proposal aims to dissociate the identity of skatepark community from the prevailing negative stereotypes via design improvements. Rather than preventive signs or frequent maintenance, subtle design improvements can acheive an integrative space while promoting a welcoming environment for all ages and levels of skaters. The proposed design improvements include:   - Planting vines along the chain fence between the skate park and the sports complex to a) add vegetation diversity to the area; b) soften  the edgy look the park currently has. - Vegetation would also assist in alleviating vandalism by creating an organic surface that is hard to vandalize. For the concrete skating area, we are proposing adding solid colours that would complement the curves in order to give the facade a bright and lively character. S K A T E P A R K  E X P A N S I O NS T E R E O T Y P E ACB69P R O P O S A L S  P A R K  S C A L ESignage for safety is important to reduce hazards in the pedestrian walkway on the access road. We propose setting speed limits and reduce speed signage to decrease chances of collisions, and to also introduce bollards at the entrance of the access road to limit vehicle usage during peak hours, restricting vehicle usage to the mornings and late evenings. In addition, wevv suggest design solutions for barrier-free park to improve accessibility and inclusivity throughout the Mar Bella park.  For cyclists, there are clear marked bike lanes on the main road creating a clear safe divide between pedestrians and wheels, but there are no marked bike lanes on the access road. We propose to have the bike lanes be extended onto the access road, in which it will create a distinct lane for wheels and connect to the main flow in a safe way. We would also suggest having speed limit signage at the intersection of main and access to prevent collisions, as well as Washroom & Water FountainCurrently, the only nearby public washroom is a 5 minute walk down to the beach; located out of sight from the skatepark without clear signage, and it closes at 20:00, which results in public urination and contributes towards problems in sanitation. We are proposing clearly marked public washroom and more water fountains around the skatepark, answering the basic needs of skaters and park users alike.Shaded Resting Area & Public SeatingTo encourage more activities in the less utilized greenspace next to the skatepark, more public amenities for resting areas such as comfortable benches, seatings with canopies, hammocks and picnic tables are necessary.  It will encourage other park-users to spend longer time in the park and provide an inviting environment for all ages and all users. S A F E T Y  F O R  P A R K U S E R SS I G N A G EP U B L I C  A M E N I T I E SFocusing on the safety of the skaters, even though there is a first aid station on the beach, a short five-minute walk from the skatepark, there is no signage that indicates it exists. Seeing how the skatepark revolves around high risk physical activities, having access to first aid is essential, and having clear signage indicating where to go in a moment of crisis is crucial. For the entrance to the beach, we propose to replace the sand with pavement to provide a safer walkway and accessibility to all, along with signage for nude beach to warn the public that clothing is optional.  ACB70ACBA71P R O P O S A L S  N E I G H B O U R H O O D  S C A L EThrough building community relations, the Mar Bella skatepark can be well integrated into the neighbourhood of Poblenou. Our observation confirms that there is an existing strong sense of community in both skatepark communities and the neighbourhood groups. These groups can together facilitate programs and workshops for beginner and female skaters. Our research found successful precedent studies of community programs that bridge communities of different interest. Through collaborative operation of monthly or weekly programming for under-rerpresented skater groups such as minors, seniors and female skaters, we believe the skate communities can be more diverse and harmonized. Our design and policy proposals mainly focuses on integrating the Marbella Skatepark and Marbella Park into Poblenou and other surrounding neighbourhoods. In doing so, the improved design will provide residents with easier access and  opportunities to engage with nature in a playful manner on a daily basis. We hope that the enhanced green corridor networks between neighbourhoods and parks can contribute to Barcelona’s collective efforts to reinstate green infrastructure and biodiversity in urban area via 22@ Barcelona. During our CP6 Indicator studies, our team found that the connection to the Marbella park from surroudning neighbourhoods is limited to a few streets. An overall urban design enhancement to provide safe and clear connection to the neighbourhood corridors is necessary to improve accessibility. We expect that clear pathways to the park will bring more people to the park. The increased foot traffic will create dynamic intersections between the neighbourhood corridors and park entrances, which can be new business opportunities for the neighbourhood. Considering the lack of retail shops along the route to the Marbella Skatepark, these potential business opportunities can be incorporated into bigger neighbourhood planning strategies to revitalize the seafront neighbourhood economy. C O N N E C T I O N  W I T H  O T H E RC O M M U N I I T I E S  I N  P O B L E N O UG R E E N  N E T W O R K  & B A R C E L O N A ’ S  G R E E NI N F R A S T R U C T U R E  P L A NU R B A N  D E S I G N  S T R A T E G I E S72Alignment of pedestrian crossings & remove elevated ramps at the entranceEnhanced accessibility from neighbourhood corridors & green spacesTo Park & Beach22@ BarcelonaTo Park & Beach737475The transformations observed in Poblenou are emblematic of the changes taking place in cities across North America and around the world. Learning about the pressures associated with neighbourhood change resonated with what we have learned in our planning education in Vancouver. The Poblenou neighbourhood provides an entry point for examining how planning practice may respond to the needs of local residents who are confronting global pressures. We heard inspirational stories about neighbours organizing themselves to reclaim abandoned spaces and convert them to green spaces, gardens or resting places. We also saw a city government open to testing innovative ideas about pedestrianization and traffic calming. We saw well used recreational spaces, such as the Mar Bella skatepark, and signs that perhaps more women and girls are increasingly welcome, and the gender gap appears to be narrowing. We were also inspired by the Rambla of Poblenou: a welcoming place for all ages and genders; a place to meet and greet neighbours; and a place where people and community are at the center. For all the inspiring public spaces we observed, we also felt an underlying tension. Our conversation with neighbours in Poblenou revealed competing visions of what the neighbourhood should be. The new city government will need to work closely with neighbours and stakeholders to make important decisions in the near future. Should planners continue to promote the construction of office space geared to attract high tech industries and workers? Is this strategy compatible with promoting alternative co-operative economies and industries?C O N C L U S I O NIn many respects, Poblenou is not too different from Vancouver’s Mount Pleasant neighbourhood, or other post-industrial districts in Seattle and San Francisco. 76 If the 22@ plan stays the course, might the existing workshops and industries be displaced and where would they go? How many more hotel licenses should be granted in Poblenou?  Who benefits and who loses from the current neighbourhood changes?  And what can be done to protect existing residents who are finding it increasingly difficult to afford to live in the neighbourhood where they grew up?Our proposals were unable to answer these large and difficult questions that currently confront Poblenou residents and planners. Yet we hope to contribute in a small way to the discussion with our original research, our observations about the strengths of the neighbourhood, and with a few ideas about how each site might be improved.  We are grateful for the feedback we received from residents of Poblenou. Several of the ideas and suggestions are worth highlighting. For example, someone asked if after several years since the implementation of the Superilla, might it be time for something more bold? The Superilla has been a lightning rod of controversy since its introduction a few years ago. Now that the public has largely accepted the pedestrianization project and municipal elections have passed, is it time for more ambitious changes to the Superilla?  Someone also observed that all groups highlighted the need for protection from the sun and shading and yet we were unable to integrate ecosystem services into our proposals. Future work might think more about the role of urban forestry, or how water is moving through our study areas, or how water might be retained on site, and how innovative stormwater management might reduce the number of combined sewer overflows which damage the coastal ecosystem and hurt the beach economy.Residents from Poblenou also told us that the neighbourhood is in conflict.  We saw multiple and overlapping conflicts at various scales. Building consensus in Poblenou might be even more difficult due to the larger political conflict between Catalonia and Spain. It was clear that this conflict has spilled over into the streets, squares and plazas we visited. We saw the city decorated with yellow ribbons expressing solidarity with the Catalan political prisoners detained in Madrid.And our visit coincided with the final testimony of the political prisoners on trial and with the negotiation between councilmembers over who should be the next mayor of Barcelona. It became evident that Mayor Ada Colau could not escape the political tug of war, as the insurgent and activist mayor made the unexpected move of starting her second term as mayor with a coalition of unusual bedfellows. During these times of unrest, division and disagreement, perhaps it becomes all the more essential that we take care of our public spaces, and ensure that they are places where everyone is welcome. We need to foster public spaces where families, children, students, residents, visitors and people of all origins and beliefs can share an experience, regardless of their underlying differences. 77R E F E R E N C E SAnderson, R., S. Chin, N. Dara, D. Harlos, E. Johnson, S. Labahn, E. LaRocque, G. Lloyd, S. Lone, M. McBurnie, T. Nakao, C. Nesbitt, T. Oswald, L. Raphael, H. Shen, A. van der Veen, S. Zhou, E. Villagomez, J. Honey-Rosés. (2018). Life in Poblenou: Observation and Exploration. PLAN 545C: Barcelona Field Studio. School of Community of Regional Planning. University of British Columbia. 114 pages. http://hdl.handle.net/2429/67589Anguelovski, I. (2014). Neighborhood as refuge: Community Reconstruction, Place-Remaking, and Environmental Justice in the city. Cambridge: MIT Press.Bakici, T., Almirall, E., Wareham, J. (2013). A Smart City Initiative: The Case of Barcelona. Journal of the Knowledge Economy 4, 135–148. doi:10.1007/s13132-012-0084-9Barcelona Institute of Technology and Ajuntament de Barcelona. (2017). Comissió Ampliada de la Comissió de Coordinació del 22@. Barcelona.Beas, D. (2011). How Spain’s 15-M movement is redefining politics. The Guardian.Burgen, S. (2017). Barcelona anti-tourism activists vandalise bikes and bus. The Guardian, 1 August.Borja, J., Z. Muxi. (2003). El espacio público: ciudad y cuidadanía. Electa. Busquets, J & Perez-Ramos, P. (2017). Barcelona: Manifold Grids and the Cerdà PlanBusquets, J. (2005). Barcelona. The urban evolution of a compact city. Harvard University: Graduate School of Design.Cabré E and Andrés A. (2017). La Borda: a case study on the implementation of cooperative housing in Catalonia. International Journal of Housing Policy 1247(June). Taylor & Francis: 1–21. DOI: 10.1080/19491247.2017.1331591.City of Barcelona. (2012). 22@ Barcelona Plan: A programme of urban, economic and social transformation. City of Barcelona. (2017). Barcelona Tourism for 2020: A collective strategy for sustainable tourism. Tourism 2020. Plà Estrategic.City of Barcelona. (2018). Institut Municipal del Paisatge Urbà i la Qualitat de Vida. Ciocoletto, A. (2014). Espacios para la vida cotidiana. Auditoria de Calidad Urbana con Perspectiva de Género. Col.lectiu Punt 6. BarcelonaCol.lectiu Punt 6. (2015). Working Women: Urban Assessment Guide from a Gender \Perspective.Colau, A. & Alemany, A. (2013). Vidas hipotecadas: de la burbuja immobiliaria al derecho a la vivienda. Cuadrilátero de libros. (Spanish)Comissió d’Equipaments del Poblenou. (2016). Propostes per un pla d’actuació Municipal al Poblenou (2016-2019).78Delgado, Manuel. (2007). La ciudad mentirosa: fraude y miseria del “modelo Barcelona” Catarata: Barcelona. (Spanish)Delclòs-Alió, X. and Miralles-Guasch, C. (2018). Looking at Barcelona through Jane Jacobs’s eyes: Mapping the basic conditions for urban vitality in a Mediterranean conurbation. Land Use Policy 75(November 2017): 505–517. DOI: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2018.04.026.Hancox, D. (2016). Is this the world’s most radical mayor? The Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/may/26/ada-colau-barcelona-most-radical-mayor-in-the-world.Hu, W. (2016). What New York Can Learn From Barcelona’s ‘Superblocks’. The New York Times, 30 September. Available at: https://nyti.ms/2dhJ2tu.Hughes, R. (1992). Barcelona. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, NYGarcía-Lamarca, M. (2017). Creating political subjects: collective knowledge and action to enact housing rights in Spain. Community Development Journal: 1–15. DOI: 10.1093/cdj/bsx025.Gehl, J., Svarre, B. (2013). How To Study Public Life. Island Press.Gehl, J. (2017). The Open Public Life Data Protocol  New York, NY.González, R. and Clotet, J. (2012). Spanish Prisoners. The New York Times, 2 October. Available at: https://nyti.ms/SBF2k9.Goodman, P. (2017). Spain’s Long Economic Nightmare Is Finally Over. The New York Times, 28 July.Honey-Rosés, J. (2019). Measuring Neighbourhood Change in Public Space: A Public Life Study in Poblenou, Barcelona. Seminario Internacional de Investigación en UrbanismoInside Airbnb (2019). Available at: http://www.insideairbnb.com. Johnston-Zimmerman, K. (2017). Urban Planning Has a Sexism Problem. Match News.vLópez, H. (2017). ‘El Gòtic no quiere ser Venecia, y el Poblenou no quiere ser el Gòtic ’. El Periódico, 3 August.López, H. (2017). Colau quiere erradicar de la ordenanza las multas por jugar a la pelota. La Vanguardia 31 July.Magrinyà, F. &  Marzá, F. (2017). Cerdà: 150 Years of ModernityMarshall, T. (2004). Transforming Barcelona. Routledge.Mas, A. (2013) A Referendum for Peace. The New York Times, 10 September. Available at: https://nyti.ms/17O5z8M.McDonough, G. & S. Martínez-Rigol. (2018) Barcelona. Polity Press. 79Mead, R. (2019). The Airbnb Invasion of Barcelona. The New Yorker, April 22. Montaner, J. M., Álvarez, F., Muxí, Z., et al. (2014). Reader modelo Barcelona 1973-2013. Barcelona: Comanegra.Muxí, Z. (2018). Mujeres, casas y ciudades. DPR-Barcelona. (Spanish)Nonko, E. (2017). Barcelona Bans Cars and Boosts Tech. Dow Jones. A News Corp Company, August 1.O’Sullivan, F. (2017). Barcelona’ s Old Town Gets A Reboot. Citylab, 31 May.O’Sullivan, F. (2017). Barcelona’s Car-Taming ‘Superblocks’ Meet Resistance. The Atlantic: Citylab. Jan 20.Ortega, M. (2018). Les superilles s’estoven. Ara, 26 February.Ortega, M. (2017). Colau convertirà el carrer Cristóbal de Moura ‘en un gran eix enjardinat. Ara. November 20.Orwell, G. (1938). Homage to Catalonia. Penguin BooksPicazo, S. (2017). McDonald’ s i AirBnB al Carmel. El Crític, 7 June. Barcelona.Reguly, E. (2017). Desperation, hopelessness mark Spain’s economic pain. The Globe and Mail.Rueda, S. (2016). The superblock, a new urban cell for the construction of a new functional and urban model of Barcelona. November.Rowe, P. G. (2006). Building Barcelona: A Second Renaixença. Barcelona, Spain: Barcelona Regional.Sarri, Camargo A. (2017). Catalonia’s time has come — and Spain needs to get out of the way. The Washington Post.Solé, Altimira O. and Franch, S. (2017). El Ayuntamiento de Barcelona no dará la licencia para el hotel de lujo de Drassanes. El Diario, July 11.Solà-Morales, M. (2008). Ten Lessons on Barcelona. 2nd Edition. Barcelona: Col.legi d’Arquitectes de Catalunya. Monclús, F. J. (2003). The Barcelona model: and an original formula? From ‘reconstruction’ to strategic urban projects (1979–2004). Planning Perspectives 18(4): 399–421. DOI: 10.1080/0266543032000117514.Nadal, Agust M. (2016). Projectes resilients en un entorn urbà: Accions a les Superilles de l’Eixample. Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya.80Speranza, P. (2016). Urban Ecological Interaction: Air, Water, Light and New Transit at the Human Scale of Barcelona’ s Superilles. International Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering 10(12): 1593–1603.Speranza, P. (2018). A human-scaled GIS: measuring and visualizing social interaction in Barcelona’s Superilles. Journal of Urbanism, 11(1), 41–62. http://doi.org/10.1080/17549175.2017.1341426Villagomez, E. (2018). The Laws of Settlements: 54 Laws Underlying Settlements across Scale and Culture.Whyte, W. H. (1980). The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces. Project for Public Spaces: New York.Zapata-Barrero, R. (2014). The limits to shaping diversity as public culture: Permanent festivities in Barcelona. Cities 37, 66–72. doi:10.1016/j.cities.2013.11.00781828384AppendixFlow and Stat ionary Data85PERE IVSUPERILLANote: 1.  All flow count graphs related to Pere IV have different scale relative to other sites.2.  The difference in the scale of these graphs is due to the low number of people that flow through the intersects of this study site. The lack of bike     trails and accessible sidewalks for people with visual and physical disabilities could explain the small number of observations at Pere IV.17%39%50%50%43%55%39%61%54%29%29%34%45%47%27%41%83%61%50%50%57%45%61%39%46%71%71%66%55%53%73%59%42%58%MaleFemale17%52%49%46%55%44%53%45%39%37%31%37%30%35%36%60%83%48%51%54%45%56%47%55%61%63%69%63%70%65%64%40%42%58%MaleFemaleCounts All Modes030609012015018008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:00Counts All Modes03006009001200150008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:00F L O W  C O U N T SA L L  M O D E S _ G E N D E RPERE IVSUPERILLANote: 1.  All flow count graphs related to Pere IV have different scale relative to other sites.2.  The difference in the scale of these graphs is due to the low number of people that flow through the intersects of this study site. The lack of bike     trails and accessible sidewalks for people with visual and physical disabilities could explain the small number of observations at Pere IV.17%39%50%50%43%55%39%61%54%29%29%34%45%47%27%41%83%61%50%50%57%45%61%39%46%71%71%66%55%53%73%59%42%58%MaleFemale17%52%49%46%55%44%53%45%39%37%31%37%30%35%36%60%83%48%51%54%45%56%47%55%61%63%69%63%70%65%64%40%42%58%MaleFemaleCounts All Modes030609012015018008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:00Counts All Modes03006009001200150008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:0086RAMBLAMAR BELLA1%1%1%1%1%1%1%2%2%1%2%1%39%43%47%50%49%57%54%48%43%44%49%55%48%46%46%45%61%56%53%49%51%42%45%51%57%56%49%44%49%54%52%54%1%49% 50%MaleFemaleUnsure32%39%34%37%35%30%31%39%25%31%34%30%40%25%35%18%68%61%66%63%65%70%69%61%75%69%66%70%60%75%65%82%32%68%MaleFemaleCounts All Modes03006009001200150008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:00Counts All Modes03006009001200150008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:0087Note: 1.  All flow count graphs (All Modes - Gender, Pedestrians - Gender, Cyclists - Gender, On-wheels - Gende) have been multiplied by 6.Pedestrians - GENDER17%44%56%50%47%54%40%82%56%33%37%34%50%43%30%46%83%56%44%50%53%46%60%18%44%67%63%66%50%57%70%54%45%55%MaleFemale20%43%46%49%55%44%58%40%37%39%32%37%32%40%36%62%80%57%54%51%45%56%42%60%63%61%68%63%68%60%64%38%42%58%MaleFemalePERE IVSUPERILLAPedestrians030609012015018008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:00Pedestrians03006009001200150008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:00F L O W  C O U N T SP E D E S T R I A N _ G E N D E R88RAMBLAMAR BELLA1%1%1%2%1%1%1%1%1%3%1%3%1%45%50%52%52%51%58%54%54%47%44%51%58%50%47%51%46%55%49%48%46%48%40%44%45%52%55%48%42%47%53%47%53%1%52%47%MaleFemaleUnsure37%40%37%39%39%34%34%43%31%36%38%29%44%30%39%13%63%60%63%61%61%66%66%57%69%64%62%71%56%70%61%87%36%64%MaleFemalePedestrians03006009001200150008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:00Pedestrians03006009001200150008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:0089Note: 1.  All flow count graphs (All Modes - Gender, Pedestrians - Gender, Cyclists - Gender, On-wheels - Gende) have been multiplied by 6.F L O W  C O U N T SC Y C L I S T S _ G E N D E RCyclists - GENDER100%33%100%40%25%100%25%100%100%67%100%60%100%100%100%75%100%75%75%60%33%57%46%37%53%50%17%40%29%14%11%36%63%100%25%40%67%43%54%63%47%50%83%60%71%86%89%64%38%39%61%MaleFemale24%76%MaleFemaleNo DataPERE IVSUPERILLACyclists0122436486008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:00Cyclists06012018024008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:0090RAMBLAMAR BELLA11% 8%10%14%24%38%45%51%17%34%46%43%16%15%43%37%45%92%90%86%76%62%55%49%83%66%54%57%74%85%57%63%55%1%34%66%MaleFemaleUnsure17%15%29%6%18%23%33%8%21%23%30%22%15%14%33%100%83%85%71%94%82%77%67%92%79%77%70%78%85%86%67%21%79%MaleFemaleCyclists06012018024008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:00Cyclists06012018024008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:0091Note: 1.  All flow count graphs (All Modes - Gender, Pedestrians - Gender, Cyclists - Gender, On-wheels - Gende) have been multiplied by 6.F L O W  C O U N T SO N  W H E E L S _ G E N D E RO N  W H E E L S   -  G E N D E R33%67%MaleFemaleNo Data33%67%60%33%50%100%40%44%67%33%100%100%100%40%67%50%100%60%56%39%61%MaleFemaleNo DataPERE IVSUPERILLA50%25%50%100%50%75%50%100%100%On-Wheels061218243008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:00On-Wheels02448729612008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:0092RAMBLAMAR BELLA33% 8%22%33%25%57%50%33%13%33%20%33%40%25%27%33%100%92%78%67%75%43%50%67%88%67%80%33%60%75%73%67%1%31%69%MaleFemaleUnsure60%67%40%13%13%17%17%11%40%50%100%40%33%100%60%88%88%83%83%89%100%60%50%100%100%100%22%78%MaleFemaleOn-Wheels030609012008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:00On-Wheels030609012008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:0093S T A T I O N A R Y  C O U N T SA G EStationary - AGERAMBLAPERE IVSUPERILLAMAR BELLAStationary Counts01202403604806000~4 5~14 15~24 25~64 65+563500Stationary Counts01002003004005006000~4 5~14 15~24 25~64 65+33473329456Stationary Counts01002003004005006000~4 5~14 15~24 25~64 65+1545191063538Stationary Counts01202403604806000~4 5~14 15~24 25~64 65+13186273661STATIONARY COUNTSTotal Stationary - GENDER02040608010008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:0002040608010008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:0002040608010008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:0002040608010008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:00MAR BELLA1%23%77%RAMBLA2%49% 49%SUPERILLA53%47%PERE IV37%63%Stationary CountsStationary CountsStationary CountsStationary Counts94S T A T I O N A R Y  C O U N T ST O T A L _ G E N D E RSTA IONARY COUNTSTotal Stationary - GENDER02040608010008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:0002040608010008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:0002040608010008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:0002040608010008:0009:0010:0011:0012:0013:0014:0015:0016:0017:0018:0019:0020:0021:0022:0023:00MAR BELLA1%23%77%RAMBLA2%49% 49%SUPERILLA53%47%PERE IV37%63%Stationary CountsStationary CountsStationary CountsStationary Counts95S T A T I O N A R Y  C O U N T SP O S T U R EStationary - POSTURERAMBLASUPERILLAPERE IVNote: 1.  The stationary-posture graphs related to Pere IV have different scale relative to other sites.12%81%7%1%1%49%25%24%11%1%27%30%31%Stationary Counts0102030405008:00-12:00 12:00-16:00 16:00-20:00 20:00-24:00Standing Sitting-Public Sitting-Commercial Sitting-private Lying down Informal Sitting Stationary Counts010020030040050008:00-12:00 12:00-16:00 16:00-20:00 20:00-24:00Standing Sitting-Public Sitting-Commercial Sitting-private Lying down Informal Sitting Stationary Counts010020030040050008:00-12:00 12:00-16:00 16:00-20:00 20:00-24:00Standing Sitting-Public Sitting-Commercial Sitting-private Lying down Informal Sitting Stationary - POSTURERAMBLASUPERILLAPERE IVNote: 1.  The stationary-posture graphs related to Pere IV have different scale relative to other sites.12%81%7%1%1%49%25%24%111%27%30%31%Stationary Counts0102030405008:00-12:00 12:00-16:00 16:00-20:00 20:00-24:00Standing Sitting-Public Sitting-Commercial Sitting-private Lying down Informal Sitting Stationary Counts010020030040050008:00-12:00 12:00-16:00 16:00-20:00 20:00-24:00Standing Sitting-Public Sitting-Commercial Sitting-private Lying down Informal Sitting Stationary Counts010020030040050008:00-12:00 12:00-16:00 16:00-20:00 20:00-24:00Standing Sitting-Public Sitting-Commercial Sitting-private Lying down Informal Sitting Stationary - POSTURERAMBLASUPERILLAPERE IVNote: 1.  The stationary-posture graphs related to Pere IV have different scale relative to other sites.12%81%7%1%1%49%25%24%11%1%27%30%31%Stationary Counts0102030405008:00-12:00 12:00-16:00 16:00-20:00 20:00-24:00Standing Sitting-Public Sitting-Commercial Sitting-private Lying down Informal Sitting Stationary Counts010020030040050008:00-12:00 12:00-16:00 16:00-20:00 20:00-24:00Standing Sitting-Public Sitting-Commercial Sitting-private Lying down Informal Sitting Stationary Counts010020030040050008:00-12:00 12:00-16:00 16:00-20:00 20:00-24:00Standing Sitting-Public Sitting-Commercial Sitting-private Lying down Informal Sitting 96Stationary - POSTURERAMBLASUPERILLAPERE IVNote: 1.  The stationary-posture graphs related to Pere IV have different scale relative to other sites.12%81%7%1%1%49%25%24%11%1%27%30%31%Stationary Counts0102030405008:00-12:00 12:00-16:00 16:00-20:00 20:00-24:00Standing Sitting-Public Sitting-Commercial Sitting-private Lying down Informal Sitting Stationary Counts010020030040050008:00-12:00 12:00-16:00 16:00-20:00 20:00-24:00Standing Sitting-Public Sitting-Commercial Sitting-private Lying down Informal Sitting Stationary Counts010020030040050008:00-12:00 12:00-16:00 16:00-20:00 20:00-24:00Standing Sitting-Public Sitting-Commercial Sitting-private Lying down Informal Sitting Stationary - POSTURERAMBLASUPERILLAPERE IVNote: 1.  The stationary-posture graphs related to Pere IV have different scale relative to other sites.12%81%7%1%1%49%25%24%11%1%27%30%31%Stationary Counts0102030405008:00-12:00 12:00-16:00 16:00-20:00 20:00-24:00Standing Sitting-Public Sitting-Commercial Sitting-private Lying down Informal Sitting Stationary Counts010020030040050008:00-12:00 12:00-16:00 16:00-20:00 20:00-24:00Standing Sitting-Public Sitting-Commercial Sitting-private Lying down Informal Sitting Stationary Counts010020030040050008:00-12:00 12:00-16:00 16:00-20:00 20:00-24:00Standing Sitting-Public Sitting-Commercial Sitting-private Lying down Informal Sitting MAR BELLA 3%1%40%55%Stationary Counts010020030040050008:00-12:00 12:00-16:00 16:00-20:00 20:00-24:00Standing Sitting-Public Sitting-Commercial Sitting-private Lying down Informal Sitting 979899100

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.52383.1-0384917/manifest

Comment

Related Items