UBC Faculty Research and Publications

ViDeX : A Platform for Personalizing Educational Videos Fong, Matthew; Dodson, Samuel; Zhang, Xueqin; Roll, Ido; Fels, Sidney 2018

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ViDeX: A Platform for Personalizing Educational VideosMatthew FongUniversity of British Columbiamfong@ece.ubc.caSamuel DodsonUniversity of British Columbiadodsons@mail.ubc.caXueqin ZhangUniversity of British Columbiaxueqin@ece.ubc.caIdo RollUniversity of British Columbiaido.roll@ubc.caSidney FelsUniversity of British Columbiassfels@ece.ubc.caABSTRACTAs video-based learning is increasingly used in all sectors of educa-tion, there is a need for video players that support active viewingpractices. We introduce a video player that allows students to markup video with highlights, tags, and notes in order to personalizetheir video-based learning experience.CCS CONCEPTS• Information systems→Video search; •Applied computing→ Interactive learning environments; Annotation;KEYWORDSactive viewing, annotation, personalization, video-based learningACM Reference Format:Matthew Fong, Samuel Dodson, Xueqin Zhang, Ido Roll, and Sidney Fels.2018. ViDeX: A Platform for Personalizing Educational Videos. In JCDL ’18:The 18th ACM/IEEE Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, June 3–7, 2018, FortWorth, TX, USA. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2 pages. https://doi.org/10.1145/3197026.32038651 INTRODUCTIONVideo has become a popular medium for learning, especially asdigital libraries [e.g., 4] and online learning platforms, such asedX, continue to grow their video collections. There are manyadvantages of video. For example, video allows students to controlthe pace of their learning by adjusting the playback speed andreplaying the content as necessary. Video is now used in all sectorsof education; however, video players usually encourage one-wayinteraction between students and content. How can digital librariesbetter support learning from video?To support active viewing practices, we created ViDeX, a videoplayer that allows students to personalize video with highlights,tags, and notes. By active viewing, we refer to the interactionsbetween students and video that may suggest greater levels oflearning than passively watching video from start to end. Providingstudents with a set of video annotation tools could better supportstudents’ different learning styles.Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for personal orclassroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributedfor profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citationon the first page. Copyrights for third-party components of this work must be honored.For all other uses, contact the owner/author(s).JCDL ’18, June 3–7, 2018, Fort Worth, TX, USA© 2018 Copyright held by the owner/author(s).ACM ISBN 978-1-4503-5178-2/18/06.https://doi.org/10.1145/3197026.32038652 PREVIOUS WORKWhile there has been work on creating video players to supportlearning from video [e.g., 2, 3, 8], most do not allow students to addtheir own content to videos. In other media, students can easilypersonalize their learning materials. When reading a textbook, forexample, many students highlight and take notes. The practice ofannotating is considered a part of active reading and is associatedwith increases in learning outcomes [1]. While annotating is apopular and effective reading practice, most video players do notallow students to highlight, tag, or take notes within the video. Byproviding students with a set of tools for annotating video, ViDeXmay be able to support more active viewing practices.3 VIDEXViDeX is a video player designed for video-based learning. Studentscan annotate video in a way that is similar to marking up text usinga digital reading environment, such as the Amazon Kindle platform.ViDeX is comprised of three elements: the Player, the Filmstrip, andthe Transcript. In addition to these, ViDeX has a note taking areabelow the Filmstrip. Students can write a note that is timestampedto the current video time. Notes are organized by video time.3.1 PlayerThe Player is similar to other video players in that it has a toolbarthat allows students to play, navigate forwards and backwards, andadjust playback speed, closed captioning, and volume. The Player isunique in its support for creating and (re)playing video annotations.The Player toolbar also allows the student to tag, highlight, takenotes, and play previously highlighted content. Clicking the “PlayHighlights” button allows students to replay previously highlightedcontent. When this button is clicked, the playhead jumps from onehighlight to the next until all highlights of a specified color havebeen played. The Player also displays the highlights and tags thathave been created in the video to give the student a visual overviewof their personalized video.3.2 FilmstripThe Filmstrip provides a visual overview of the video. The Filmstripis made of thumbnails, where each thumbnail represents a part ofthe video. By moving their cursor across the Filmstrip, students canpreview the frame corresponding to the part of the video the cursoris on. Students can click on the Filmstrip to navigate to that part ofthe video. Students can also select content by clicking and draggingtheir mouse across the thumbnails. When students make a selection,the annotation widget appears allowing them to add a highlight orJCDL ’18, June 3–7, 2018, Fort Worth, TX, USA Matthew Fong, Samuel Dodson, Xueqin Zhang, Ido Roll, and Sidney FelsFigure 1: A screenshot of ViDeX with highlights and tags visible. The Player is displayed at the top left, the Filmstrip at themiddle left, the commenting area at the bottom left, and the Transcript at the right.tag to the specified content. Like the Player, the Filmstrip showsthe highlights and tags students have added to the video. At thebottom of the Filmstrip, a graph displays the amount of times astudent has watched specific parts of the video.3.3 TranscriptA record of the spoken content of the video is provided by theTranscript. The content of the Transcript is synced with the videoplayback, allowing students to click content in the Transcript tonavigate to that part of the video. The currently spoken word isdisplayed in a different color than the rest of the Transcript, actingas a text-based playhead. Students can skim the video by scrollingup and down the Transcript. Because each word in the Transcript ismapped to a time in the video, highlighting, tagging, and note takingis synced between the Player, Transcript, and Filmstrip. Studentscan highlight and tag by clicking and dragging across the text andusing the annotation widget.3.4 PersonalizationPersonalization allows students to enhance video with their owncontent. The video annotation tools made available to studentsthrough ViDeX may be beneficial to their video-based learning.Video annotations may support the same functions of text annota-tions identified by Marshall [5]. Highlighting and tagging could beused for bookmarking content to be (re)viewed, while notes mayprovide students with an in situ area to collect their thoughts andreflections when and where they occur. By providing these toolsfor video annotation, video players could support students as theyengage in more active viewing practices.4 FUTUREWORKTesting ViDeX with students is needed to evaluate the usefulnessand usability of video annotation and its effects on active viewing.This semester, we have deployed ViDeX in multiple undergraduateclasses in multiple faculties. The analysis of log data and follow-upquestionnaires and interviews will be used to identify how andwhy students use ViDeX. In addition to testing the latest versionof ViDeX, we are working towards supporting social interactionswithin video by i) allowing students to share their annotationswith peers and teachers and ii) the identification of consensusannotations using the “wisdom of the crowds” [7]. The former issupported by constructivist learning theory and the latter has beenused for text annotations [5, 6].Acknowledgements. This work was supported by the Universityof British Columbia Teaching and Learning Enhancement Fund,the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada,and Microsoft Corporation.REFERENCES[1] Thomas H Anderson and Bonnie B Armbruster. 1984. Studying. In Handbook ofReading Research. Pearson, New York, NY, 657–679.[2] Elena L Glassman, Juho Kim, Andrés Monroy-Hernández, and Meredith RingelMorris. 2015. Mudslide: A spatially anchored census of student confusion foronline lecture videos. In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on HumanFactors in Computing Systems. ACM, New York, NY, 1555–1564.[3] Juho Kim, Philip J Guo, Carrie J Cai, Shang-Wen Daniel Li, Krzysztof Z Gajos, andRobert CMiller. 2014. Data-driven interaction techniques for improving navigationof educational videos. In Proceedings of the 27th Annual ACM Symposium on UserInterface Software and Technology. 563–572.[4] Gary Marchionini, Barbara MWildemuth, and Gary Geisler. 2006. The open videodigital library: a Möbius strip of research and practice. Journal of the Associationfor Information Science and Technology 57, 12 (2006), 1629–1643.[5] Catherine C Marshall. 1997. Annotation: from paper books to the digital library. InProceedings of the Second ACM International Conference on Digital Libraries. ACM,New York, NY, 131–140.[6] Frank Shipman, Morgan Price, Catherine C Marshall, and Gene Golovchinsky.2003. Identifying useful passages in documents based on annotation patterns.In Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries, Traugott Koch andIngeborg Torvik Sølvberg (Eds.). Springer, Berlin, Germany, 101–112.[7] James Surowiecki. 2004. The wisdom of crowds: why the many are smarter than thefew and how collective wisdom shapes business, economies, societies, and nations.Doubleday, New York, NY.[8] Sarah Weir, Juho Kim, Krzysztof Z Gajos, and Robert C Miller. 2015. Learnersourc-ing subgoal labels for how-to videos. In Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conferenceon Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing. 405–416.


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