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Beyond Learning for Earning : The Long-term Outcomes of Course-based and Immersion Service Learning Raykov, Milosh; Taylor, Alison, 1959- 2018

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Beyond Learning for Earning The Long-term Outcomes of Course-based and Immersion Service Learning      Milosh Raykov and Alison Taylor          1              Beyond Learning for Earning The Long-term Outcomes of Course-based and Immersion Service Learning     Milosh Raykov and Alison Taylor                     Vancouver / Antigonish 2018   2     Acknowledgements  We would like to thank the former service learning students from the St. Francis Xavier University who participated in our online survey and interviews. We owe our appreciation to the former Manager of the Service Learning program at StFX, Marla Gaudet, the current Manager, Megan Turner, and also to Ann Bigelow, the former Academic Director. As well, we would like to appreciate to the service learning office staff for their support during this study. Finally, we gratefully acknowledge research assistance from Kristine Johnson, Nasim Peikazadi, Stephanie Glick, Joe Corrigan and Gabriella May Spiteri.   Funding for this study was provided by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) Grant No. 435-2012-0301                 Title:  Beyond Learning for Learning. The Long-term Outcomes of Course-Based and Immersion Community Service Learning  Authors:  Milosh Raykov and Alison Taylor Publisher:  University of British Columbia / St. Francis Xavier University Place:  Vancouver / Antigonish  Year:   2018   1    Table of Contents  Executive Summary .......................................................................................................... 2 The long-term outcomes of course-based and immersion service learning  ........ 5 Background and aims ...................................................................................................... 5 Immersion service learning (ISL) ...................................................................................... 5 Course based service learning (CBSL) .......................................................................... 6 Objectives of our study .................................................................................................... 6 Previous studies of service learning ............................................................................... 7 Research questions ........................................................................................................... 9 Methodology ................................................................................................................... 10 Participants ...................................................................................................................... 10 Data analysis .................................................................................................................... 12 Findings ............................................................................................................................. 14 Socio-demographic characteristics of SL survey participants ................................ 14 Characteristics of service learning experiences ....................................................... 20 Motivations for participating in CBSL and ISL ............................................................. 24 Outcomes of CBSL participation .................................................................................. 26 Outcomes of ISL participation ...................................................................................... 29 Outcomes of combined CBSL and ISL participation ................................................ 32 Influence of CBSL on students' university programs .................................................. 33 Influence of ISL on students' university experiences ................................................. 35 Influence of CBSL on students' skills development .................................................... 36 Comparing CBSL to other university courses .............................................................. 38 Influence of immersion service learning on student development ....................... 44 Effects of CBSL and ISL on participants attitudes and involvement  in the community ............................................................................................................ 46 Educational aspirations of participants   .................................................................... 47 Employment experiences of SL participants .............................................................. 49 Conclusions ...................................................................................................................... 55 References ....................................................................................................................... 56 Appendix .......................................................................................................................... 61  2         Executive summary  This study reports on survey and preliminary interview findings of students who participated in course based service learning (CBSL) and immersion service learning (ISL) at St. Francis Xavier (StFX) University between 2000 and 2015. In total, 448 former SL students partially completed the survey and 313 former SL students fully completed the survey and provided the information required for our analysis. Survey responses include 173 former CBSL students, 90 ISL students, and 50 students who participated in both ISL and CBSL at StFX.  Our research questions examined the socio-demographic features of students who enrol in CBSL and ISL, what kind of experiences they have, and what are the effects on their university experiences, aspirations, and life post-graduation?  Who participates, in what activities, and why?  Our findings suggest the average age of the participants of this study was 28 years. Only 2% of all SL participants were international students and the vast majority (96%) were born in Canada. Comparisons of participants in course-based service learning, immersion service learning and those who participated in both CBSL and ISL found no differences regarding their gender, international student status, marital status, and country of origin.   For slightly more than half of the CBSL participants, engagement in community was optional and for the others it was a course requirement. The majority (61%) participated in only one SL course. The most common type of experience for ISL students was in educational institutions (39%) followed by activities related to agriculture (28%). A significant number of students participated in two or more different service learning activities.  Our survey asked participants what activities their SL experience involved (with multiple responses possible). Findings suggest that during the course of their studies the majority of the participants in CBSL were involved in 3   teaching or mentoring (51%), frontline work with clients (43%), education related activities (33%), and research and evaluation (28%).  CBSL students participated in order to contribute to the community (79%); to develop their employability skills (49%); and to learn more about social issues in their communities (46%). In comparison, the primary motivation for most ISL participation was for cross-cultural learning (90%). A large number of participants were interested to learn more about social or global issues (83%) and more than two thirds (69%) were motivated by a desire to contribute to the community.  Effects of CBSL and ISL on further education, career, and community involvement  Our survey asked both CBSL and ISL participants about how it affected their career plans. More than a half of CBSL participants (57%) indicated that their involvement in SL had a significant impact on their career plans. Among these respondents, approximately two thirds (64%) became more interested in working with the community and more than a half (53%) became interested in working with certain types of populations. Slightly more than half of ISL participants indicated that it had an influence on their career plans. Of these, 61% indicated that they became interested in working internationally or in the not-for-profit sector (52%).   More than a third of CBSL participants (38%) reported that service learning was influential in their university programs. Among these students, 40% decided to take more SL courses, while 27% took other courses related to their experience in the community. Approximately 23% decided to pursue graduate studies as a result of their CBSL participation.  Similarly, 40% of ISL participants indicated that service learning had an influence on their university program: 37% said they took other courses related to their ISL, approximately one quarter took more SL courses, and one quarter decided to pursue graduate studies because of ISL. Three-quarters indicated that ISL was beneficial for making further decisions related to education, and more than two thirds (69%) indicated that it was important for making their career decisions.  CBSL also increased participants' understandings of vulnerable populations, enhanced their ability to work effectively with others, and contributed to the development of their leadership skills. In addition, ISL respondents indicated that their experiences helped them to become more active global citizens, and helped them develop their personal 4   code of values and ethics. Overall, service learning tended to increase respondents' motivation to learn.  Almost a quarter (24%) of students continued to volunteer with organisations where they conducted their SL after they completed their courses. Furthermore, a small number (6%) reported being involved in paid work with their SL partner organisations after their courses were completed.   In addition to academic and career related benefits, service learning had a positive impact on students' social engagement. For example, a considerable number of students became involved or intensified their involvement in the community or voluntary work. Approximately one-third of the former CBSL (34%) and ISL (33%) became more involved in their communities after participating in SL while almost two-thirds (61%) of the participants remained involved to the same extent.  Overall, 80% of participants were employed at the time of our survey. Approximately half of the former SL participants were employed in the public sector, one third were employed in the private sector, and 11% were employed in not-for-profit organisations. In terms of the participants' current employment at the time when the survey was conducted, most were employed in Canada with a small proportion (6%) employed abroad.  5     The long-term outcomes of course-based  and immersion service learning  Background and aims  The Service Learning (SL) program began at St. Francis Xavier (StFX) in 1996. Building on the university's tradition of social responsibility, the program brings an element of community outreach to the undergraduate experience. The program includes Course Based and Immersion Service Learning options for students. Each year, over 1,000 StFX students are involved in some kind of SL opportunity.  Immersion service learning (ISL)  StFX was the first Canadian University to offer an ISL Program.  Since the inception of the ISL program in 1996, over 700 students have traveled to Belize, China, Cuba, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Jamaica, Kenya, Mexico, Montreal, Peru, Romania, and in Canada, inner city Halifax as well as L'Arche Daybreak in Ottawa and Toronto (see Appendix 1 for a list of offerings in 2016-2017). Recently, experiences were added in Ecuador, Germany and Poland.  ISL offers StFX students an intense experiential learning opportunity involving travel to diverse communities in national and international locations. The program's focus is on service learning experiences that provide a framework for reflection on social justice and community development issues.  Led by a StFX Faculty member, each group learns first hand about the culture and development issues within the particular community context.  While being immersed in the local culture, students work with community organizations, meet with community leaders, visit sites of historic and political importance, and participate in education sessions facilitated by local community leaders.  Service experiences and reflection activities often relate to issues of social justice. Students can become involved in ISL as an extra-curricular activity, or with academic permission and oversight, can participate for course credit.    6   Course based service learning (CBSL)  ISL and Course-Based Service Learning (CBSL) were introduced to StFX around 1996. Since then, CBSL has grown to become the largest part of the SL Program at StFX. Last year, approximately 1,000 students participated in CBSL. In CBSL, academic assignments place students in service settings in the local community as a way to enrich their classroom learning. CBSL experiences may involve direct service to clients and the public, providing administrative support, doing consulting projects, assisting with resource production, or completing community-based research on behalf of a community partner organization.   Students can also include SL as a directed study option, as the basis for an honours thesis or major paper, or through an interdisciplinary course. CBSL works with over 100 community groups annually and SL courses are offered in almost every department at StFX.   The Service Learning program demonstrates St. Francis Xavier University's (StFX) commitment to promoting innovative teaching and to improving student learning and overall student experience (see: www.stfx.ca/academics/service-learning). The program at StFX is the oldest service learning program in Canada.   Students who participate in SL courses are encouraged to reflect on their experience in the community and the relationship between their community and classroom learning (Bringle & Hatcher, 1996). Service learning at StFX is based on the idea that the process of learning should not be confined to a classroom. When learning in community, students learn through experience while contributing to organizations.   Overall, SL can be an empowering approach to learning due to its experiential component. Students who complete SL often develop a sense of commitment to their community hosts since they are encouraged to take responsibility. Through SL involvement, most students develop a variety of skills and are rewarded with a strong sense of fulfilment as they see the outcomes of their involvement in community work.  Objectives of our study  The primary objective of this study was to learn more about the long-term impacts of participation in CBSL and ISL on university students. Our survey of students at StFX aimed to provide information about who engages with service learning, and how students see it contributing to 7   their long-term outcomes (OECD, 2011; Stewart, 2011). Universities are increasingly implementing programs like service learning, community-based research and work-integrated learning to encourage students' connections with the community and to develop their employability skills as labour markets become increasingly competitive (Lenton et al. 2014; Council of Ontario Universities, 2014). These programs are seen as particularly relevant for students in liberal arts whose transitions to the labour market can be more challenging than those of students in applied programs (Adamuti-Trache et al., 2006; Finnie & Frenette, 2003, Lin et al., 2000).  SL usually includes a “course-based, credit-bearing, educational experience in which students participate in an organized service activity that meets identified community needs and reflect on the service activity in such a way as to gain further understanding of course content, a broader appreciation of the discipline, and an enhanced sense of civic responsibility” (Bringle & Hatcher, 1996, p. 222). It can be distinguished from work-integrated learning programs in the type of community partners involved (usually not-for-profit sector) and the aims of learning (e.g. learning for citizenship as well as employment). However, as Butin (2010) suggests, a spectrum of programs fall under the rubric of SL including those that give more emphasis to the service component and others that focus more on student learning.   While there is a significant body of evaluation literature that aims to document the benefits of Community Service Learning (CSL) and International Service Learning (ISL) programs and best practices, much of this work is descriptive and mainly focused on quantitative measures, or reports on student experiences based on small or specific populations of students. There is a paucity of research that is grounded in learning theories, and which documents the processes through which positive SL outcomes can be fostered. As a result, practitioners cannot learn from others in developing effective service learning opportunities, it is difficult for program leaders to present evidence to assert its value, and policy-makers cannot identify research-based promising practices.  This study examines the profiles, experiences, and post-graduation outcomes of university students who participated in curricular and immersion service learning. Our mixed-methodology approach generates insights for SL partners and university administrators. Overall, it helps to develop the case for service learning by identifying some of the positive effects of both ISL and CBSL.  8   Previous studies of service learning  Experiential learning programs and other community engagement initiatives represent, in part, the academy's response to critics of the 'disengaged academic' and an attempt to return to the 'civic mission of higher education' (Butin, 2010, p. 125). They are also seen as a way to address graduates' education-jobs mismatch and a way of increasing the marketability of liberal arts and other 'non-applied' degrees.   Since the publication of Kolb's (1984) general discussion of experiential learning, there has been a proliferation of publications about the scholarship of engagement (Barker, 2004, Beckman, Penney & Cockburn, 2011, Boyer, 1996, Cox, 2006, Jay, 2010, Van de Ven, 2007, Zlotkowski, Longo & Williams, 2005). Proponents of service learning argue that it often has important benefits for students during their studies in terms of their persistence and university experience, and after graduation, their continuing engagement with community (civic engagement), as well as development of social networks and employability skills (Ash, Clayton, & Atkinson, 2005).   Policy-makers tend to be particularly interested in how such engagement helps prepare youth for the labour market, since youth transitions to the labour market have become longer and more complex over time (OECD, 2000). Work-integrated learning programs are seen as particularly valuable for students in more general studies; for example, liberal graduates who enrolled in a co-operative education program had better labour market outcomes and higher job satisfaction than non-participants (Lin et al. 2000). Our study makes an important original contribution to discussion about the value of experiential learning by exploring the range of outcomes for students associated with SL programs.   At the same time, it is important to note that SL can be approached in different ways (Taylor et al., 2015). Butin (2010) refers to technical, cultural, political, and anti-foundational perspectives informing SL. The technical perspective highlights linkages between service learning and student outcomes and proposes 'best practice' principles. Cultural perspectives emphasize individuals' meaning making within and through the context of the innovation, while political perspectives are concerned with issues of competing constituencies and their manifestations. The anti-foundational perspective begins from the premise that truths are always local, contingent and inter-subjective, and therefore SL provides opportunities for rethinking our taken-for-granted world. Different aims for 9   SL are likely to result in different outcomes. While our survey did not specifically ask about Butin's typologies of SL, it does provide important comparisons between local and immersion (usually international) service learning.   Reports that discuss the outcomes of SL and experiential learning include some US mixed method (NSSE, 2010), and Canadian quantitative (Somerville & Banack, 2011, Banack, 2011) and qualitative studies (Bell & Ocampo, 2011). SL outcomes include positive impacts on students' teamwork, civic responsibility, academic development and educational success (AACC, 2010), dialogue (Keen & Hall, 2009), cognitive and affective development (Astin et al., 2000, Vogelgesang & Astin, 2000) and career development (Keen & Baldwin, 2004). Several studies also emphasize the highly important role of reflection in helping students make connections between the service experience and academic learning (Kitchener et al., 1993, Ash & Clayton, 2004, Denson, Vogelgesang & Saenz, 2005, Eyler, 2009).   Vygotsky's concept of zone of proximal development (Vygotsky, 1978), which emphasizes the importance of learner interactions with more knowledgeable group members, helps us understand how students learn from community as well as instructors and each other. The contradictions between university and community systems can act as vital forces for change and development (Taylor, 2017) since students are required to reconstruct as well as translate knowledge as they move from classroom to community (Stetsenko, 2010). Their development of connective skills helps students engage in 'boundary crossing' (Akkerman & Bakker, 2011, Guile & Griffiths, 2001, Guile, 2010).  The literature cited above situates our study within broader debates about higher education and provides conceptual tools for understanding how service learning can make a difference for students, instructors, and community partners.   Research questions  Reflecting on issues raised by literature discussed above, our key questions are: 1. Who enrolls in SL courses and why? 2. What skills and dispositions do students develop through SL? 3. Does SL participation impact students' subsequent knowledge of and involvement in their local community? 10   4. How do students compare their SL learning to learning in other classes? 5. How does participation in SL impact students' future education and career plans? Methodology  This study builds on and expands our prior research of the CSL program at the University of Alberta based on qualitative (e.g., Taylor, 2012) and quantitative research (e.g., Raykov, Taylor & Dorow, 2012; Raykov & Taylor, 2014) exploring the short-term and long-term outcomes of community service learning. It adopted a mixed method approach that combines the strengths of quantitative and qualitative research (Creswell, 2013, Gorard & Taylor, 2004, Plowright, 2011) to better understand the processes and outcomes of service learning. The online survey provided the opportunity to gather a variety of data in an economical and ethically responsible way (Lin & Van Ryzin, 2012); research ethics boards at University of Alberta, UBC, and StFX universities approved the study.   The survey design was based on the relevant research literature and our analysis of data from our previous evaluations of community-service learning. The aim was to examine students' SL experience and the consequent long term-outcomes of participation in this form of learning. It included a core group of questions relevant to all students, modules specific to participation in CBSL and ISL, and a set of questions that examine employment-related outcomes of SL. The online survey also collected data about socio-demographic characteristics and other factors that may influence participation in SL including education and career aspirations and forms of SL involvement. This report includes comparisons of the long-term outcomes for CBSL and ISL students to contribute to better understanding of service learning as a distinct pedagogical approach. Interviews were also conducted with 45 survey respondents between October 2016 and January 2017. Since analysis of the interview data is still in process, this report focuses mainly on the survey results.  Participants  Former participants in CBSL and ISL from St. FX who agreed at the time they participated in service learning to be contacted for a follow-up study were invited to participate. This study was approved by Research Ethics Boards at UBC and StFX. 11    The sample of the participants in this study consists of former StFX students who participated in SL classes between 2000 and 2015. In total, 448 former SL students partially completed the survey and 313 former SL students fully completed the survey and provided the information required for our analysis. Completed survey responses include 173 former CBSL students, 90 ISL students, and 50 students who participated in both ISL and CBSL at StFX.  Figure 1 shows that the majority of students (59%) were involved in CBSL. Approximately one quarter (26%) were involved in ISL, and a relatively small number (15%) were involved in both course-based CBSL and ISL. Almost two-thirds of the CBSL students were involved in direct services while a small proportion participated in consulting services aand nearly a quarter were involved in both direct services and consulting.   Figure 1. Frequency of participation in different types of SL courses and projects     As Figure 2 (below) shows, most ISL students participated in experiences in Cuba, Guatemala, Mexico, Grenada, and Jamaica. A small number were based in Romania and in 'other' countries. Almost two thirds (63%) of the CBSL students who participated in this study participated before 2011 while a higher proportion (almost three-quarters) of ISL respondents participated in that period (Figure 3). This difference in time since graduation for CBSL and ISL participants is important to keep in mind when examining findings.   12   Figure 2. Location of ISL    Figure 3. When respondents participated in service learning at StFX     Interviews were conducted with 23 survey respondents who participated in CBSL and 22 ISL participants for a total of 45.   Data analysis This report focuses primarily on survey results with a few references to preliminary analysis of transcripts; future writings will focus more on the interview data and make comparisons with survey findings.  13   Quantitative analysis of the online survey data applies the basic descriptive statistical analysis, percentages, averages, bivariate cross-tabulations and inferential statistics. Graphical representations are used to describe collected data and to compare different forms of service learning. Quantitative survey data analysis maps service learning provision from student perspectives, profiles students, and provides information about learning outcomes.   Qualitative analysis of the open-ended responses from our online survey was undertaken to enrich explanations of the quantitative survey findings and to broaden understandings of these findings. Thematic qualitative analysis identifies key themes emerging from participants' open-ended responses and establishes links between quantitative and qualitative results emerging from our online survey (Braun & Clarke, 2006, 2013). Our analysis of open-ended questions thus provides more in-depth understanding of dynamics within service learning experiences, learning processes, and possibilities for intervention. Follow up interviews were partially or fully transcribed and thematically analysed with attention to connections (areas of complementarity and differences) between quantitative and qualitative data.  14    FINDINGS  Socio-demographic characteristics of SL survey participants  In total, 313 students provided complete socio-demographic data. The average age of the participants of this study was 28.3 ranging from 21 to 41 years. As Figure 4 shows, the majority of participants were 24 years or older (87%). Overall, similar to other studies of community service learning in Canada (see Taylor & Raykov, 2014), most participants (81%) in SL programmes were female; only 19% were male. This is identical to the gender representation of participation in CBSL overall in 2014-2015, the last year students enrolling in CBSL were asked to identify their gender. In the most recent program statistics for ISL (2017-2018), an even higher proportion (85%) were female. At StFX overall, males made up 37% of the full time undergraduate population in 2015.1  Overall, service learning program statistics for 2017-2018 suggest that almost two-thirds of participants are in third and fourth years of undergraduate programs and that the same proportion is registered in a BA or BSc degree. Most of the participants in this study were Faculty of Arts (35%) and Faculty of Science (33%) students. An additional 13% were involved in some of the combined Faculty of Arts and Faculty of Science programs (e.g. Psychology, Human Kinetics or Health Science) and remaining students were from Faculty of Business (10.9%) and Faculty of Education (4.5%). A small number of the participants (3.8%) did not respond to this question.  A small proportion of the participants in this study (4%) declared as visible minority and the same proportion (4%) self-identified as Aboriginal (Status Indian, Non-status Indian, Inuit, Métis). Interestingly, none of the ISL students identified as visible minority. Only 2% of all SL participants were international students. This is perhaps not surprising since only 4.4% of StFX undergraduate students were on a student visa in 2015 (see institutional research cited in footnote 1). The majority of the former SL participants (96%) were born in Canada, and among a small fraction (4%) of non-Canadians, the majority were from the U.S, Germany, UK and Australia. A                                                             1 Institutional research statistics were found at: https://www.mystfx.ca/institutional-analysis/sites/mystfx.ca.institutional-analysis/files/StFX%20ACUDS%20October%2031%2c% 202016_0.pdf 15   small proportion of the participants declared as persons with a disability (5%).   Figure 4. Socio-demographic profile of service learning participants (%)    Comparisons of the participants in course-based service learning, immersion service learning and the participants who participated in both CBSL and ISL found no differences among the participants regarding their gender, international student status, marital status, and country of origin. Also, the participants in various types of SL were similar with respect to self-reported disability, parents' educational attainment, and family income at the time they were growing up. The similarity in parental background for CBSL and ISL students is important because ISL is sometimes seen as attracting students from more privileged backgrounds because of the costs.  Statistically significant differences were evident regarding participants' age and self-reported visible minority status. Our results indicate that ISL students (Mean =31 years) are slightly older than CBSL students (Mean=27 years) and those who participated in both ISL and CBSL (Mean=28 years) (F=18.100, p < .001). Results also show that members of a visible minority group were more frequently involved in both ISL and CBSL (Chi-Square = 18.542, p < .001) and that ISL students were more frequently living with their parents and less often with their friends at the time when they participated in CSL (Chi-Square = 35.033, p < .001).  At the time they participated in an SL course (CBSL and/or ISL), most of the participants lived with friends (58%) or by themselves (20%). A smaller proportion overall lived with their parents (13%) (see Figure 5).  16   Figure 5. Students' living arrangements    Regarding their academic achievement, more than half of the former service learning participants (55%) reported that their average grade was 80% or higher (Figure 6). The remaining 40% reported grades between 70-79%, and only a small proportion (5%) reported grades below 69%.   Figure 6. Student academic achievement (%)   The great majority of the participants (98%) in this study were full-time students when they participated in service learning courses. Almost all respondents (99%) had completed their degree by the time they completed this study, but despite having graduated, almost one out of five (17.4%) were involved in some type of academic studies at the time they participated in this research (usually graduate studies). Of these, 80% were engaged in full time study.   Almost half of the students had parents with a post-secondary degree (fathers 44% and mothers 46%) (see Figure 7). More than a quarter (28%) 17   of participants were 'first generation,' that is, neither parent had completed a university degree. Overall, a slightly larger proportion of mothers had higher educational attainment but this difference is not statistically significant.  Figure 7. Parents' highest educational attainments (%)    Figure 8. Mothers' educational attainment compared to the 2011 NSSE Survey (%)   Figures 8 and 9 compare parents' education to the averages reported in National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) data from the University of Alberta (Taylor & Raykov, 2014). NSSE is widely used to measure student engagement in the US and Canada (Kuh, 2009). More StFX 18   parents had completed college, trade or CEGEP than in NSSE overall, and more StFX students' fathers had not completed high school.  Figure 9. Fathers' educational attainment compared to the 2011 NSSE Survey (%)    Almost half of the participants in this study (45%) indicated that their family income when they were growing up was average, and more than a third of participants (38%) indicated that their family income was above average (Figure 10). A relatively small number of the remaining participants indicated that the family income at the time when they were growing up was below (14%) or significantly below average (3%).   Figure 10. Self-reported family income when students were growing up (%)   19    Although we are unable to compare these findings to the student population overall at StFX, as noted earlier, it is noteworthy that differences in family income between ISL and CBSL students are not statistically significant (given concerns about ISL costs). It is also interesting that a smaller proportion of students (17%) reported below or significantly below family incomes than reported being first generation (28%). Other research indicates that parental education plays a greater role than family income in children's academic outcomes (Finnie & Mueller, 2008).  Our survey asked about how students funded their studies. The majority of survey respondents indicated that they paid for university studies from their own savings or earnings (65%), and a similar proportion (63%) indicated that their parents paid for their studies (Figure 11). Half indicated that they took student loans to pay for their studies, and slightly more than a third (38%) said they received scholarships from a post-secondary institution. A very small percentage of participants in SL paid for their studies from grants received from a government agency (14%) or other sources (6%).   Figure 11. How did you pay for your university studies (%)    ISL participants reported more frequently (77%) than CBSL participants (59%) and those who did both (63%) that savings/earnings were a way of paying for their university studies (Chi-Square = 8.188, p < .05. Other differences are not statistically significant.  20   Not surprisingly, first generation students less frequently received financial support from their parents than other students (44% vs. 61%), and more frequently took student loans (52% vs. 31%). The fact that first generation students still participate in CBSL in similar numbers given greater financial pressure is therefore noteworthy.  Characteristics of service learning experiences   For slightly more than half of the CBSL participants (53%), engagement in community was optional, while for the remaining 47% it was a requirement for the courses they were taking. The majority of students participated in only one SL course (61%) while the remaining 39% participated in more than two courses.    Figure 12. Frequency of participation and the type of CBSL participation    The most common type of experience for ISL students was in educational institutions (39%) (see Figure 13). Approximately one quarter (28%) participated in activities related to agriculture. A small number (7%) participated in health-related ISL, and the remaining quarter (27%) participated in other types of services.  21      St FX service learning students in schools 22   Figure 13. Type of experiences for ISL students     As Figure 14 shows, the majority of the participants in CBSL were involved in teaching or mentoring (51%), frontline work with clients (43%), education related activities (33%), and research and evaluation (28%). A significantly smaller number were involved in administrative projects (18%), organisation of special events (12%), communication (9%) and organisation of voluntary work (7%).   Figure 14. Type of experiences for CBSL students    23       St FX service learning faculty members and students in local community 24    Motivations for participating in CBSL and ISL   The majority of the students were interested in participating in CBSL for the following reasons: to contribute to the community (79%); to develop their employability skills (49%); and to learn more about social issues in their communities (46%) (Figure 15).   Figure 15: Student motivations for participation in CBSL     A smaller proportion indicated that the courses allowed them to explore other career options (34%), to learn through an informal method (27%) and to enhance their graduate school applications (21%). Finally, a very small number of students thought CBSL would be easier than a standard university course (12%).   In comparison, the primary motivation for most ISL participation was for cross-cultural learning (90%) (Figure 16). A large number of participants were interested to learn more about social or global issues (83%) and more than two thirds (69%) were motivated by a desire to contribute to the community. A considerably smaller proportion of ISL participants wanted to explore different career options (29%). Others preferred to learn informally (28%), and a relatively small number of the former ISL participants indicated they were motivated by the desire to develop employment-related skills (20%) or to enhance their graduate school applications (13%).  25      St FX service learning students as tutors in schools and local community 26   Figure 16: Comparing the motivations of CBSL and ISL students     Outcomes of CBSL participation  More than a half of the participants (57%) indicated that their involvement in SL had a significant impact on their career plans (Figure 17).   Among these students, approximately two thirds (64%) became more interested in working with the community and more than a half (53%) claimed that they became interested in working with certain types of populations. A smaller number indicated that they became more interested in working in the public sector (41%) and not-for-profit sector (35%), whilst approximately 10% indicated other interests.  27   Figure 17. Influence of CBSL on students' career plans    Our analysis of open-ended responses shows that many CBSL students felt that their participation in SL had an impact on their career exploration and choices as well as their understanding of particular occupations. For some students, CBSL was their first encounter with professional work and was critical for their thinking about a career.   CBSL provides the opportunity for students to explore different career options:  It allowed me to experience something outside of the classroom setting and be able to reflect on it; seeing I was interested in the placements I had, I was able to determine what kind of career I would be most interested in and would work well with my skills. [SL, 214, female]  Students commonly claimed that their SL experience 'was pivotal'—it was the 'aha' moment' in thinking about a career [e.g., SL, 255, female]. One student shared why CBSL was so important for her:  My first SL placement changed my perspective and deeply impacted my [university] experience and eventual career path. I was connected with an organization that I continued to volunteer with for the duration of my time at [St FX]. I am now studying to be a social worker, largely because of the impact of this first SL placement [SL, 277].  An interview participant who was running a non-profit organization at the time of our interview shared that her combined CBSL and ISL experiences helped her expand her ideas about future work:  I really don't think so [that I would've thought about a non-profit] and I don't think I would've had the confidence to follow any ideas I had about it either [If it was not for SL]. (5) 28    In a few cases, involvement in the community was a crucial factor in students' decisions to choose a teaching career. This may be related to the fact that teaching or mentoring was the most common type of service learning placement (see Figure 15 above). One respondent explained, 'SL helped me confirm my future goals of pursuing an education degree by gaining further experience working with children' [SL, 252, female]. Another student pointed out, 'I knew that my goal was to become a teacher. SL offered me so many invaluable opportunities that were directly related to teaching and I think have largely impacted my teaching practices today' [SL, 259, female]. Another student in an education program shared, 'SL played a huge role in pursuing my B.Ed. at [the university] and becoming a teacher.' This finding demonstrates the importance for university students of trying out different kinds of work.  Other students reported that SL influenced a change in their focus of studies and motivated them to consider a different career path. One respondent acknowledged the impact of SL on her studies and eventual career: 'It changed my focus from secondary to adult education. I have been working with adults ever since' [SL, 151, female]. Another respondent shared, 'I participated in SL to test out working with kids and what I learned through my placement was more what did not suit me' (SL, 116, female).   Taking a CBSL course related to their studies often reinforced students’ career choices and increased confidence in their ability to achieve their goals after university. As one student notes, 'It helped me assure myself that my studies were in the field I wanted to pursue a career in' [SL, 112, male]. Students felt that their SL experience added a sense of reality 'that was essential in order to be prepared for the workplace' [SL, 325, female].   Respondents described CBSL as useful for the development of both general and specific work-related skills. For example, 'It helped me develop valuable time management skills. It got me out of my comfort [zone]' [SL, 309, female]). Another student claimed that her CBSL work enriched her personal experience, improved her ability to reflect, and was helpful for increasing self-confidence:  It allowed me to get involved in a community that was new to me, build my confidence when working with the public, and reflect on my experience and how it related to my course work. [SL, 204, female]  29   Other students indicated that their SL engagement provided them with specific skills that were highly relevant to their career. For instance, a student who wanted to become a teacher shared that the program offered relevant experiences [SL, 259, female]. Overall, SL was seen as 'an opportunity to engage in learning that led to professional and personal growth' [SL, 221, female].   In addition to providing excellent work experience, SL acted as an 'eye-opener' to an important sector of the economy for many respondents. For example:   '[It] improved my understanding and perception of how organizations (both profit seeking and non-profit sector) function, which was not something that my studies provided much insight on.' [SL, 218, female]  Many students saw SL as highly valuable experiences to document on CV's and job applications as they transitioned to the workplace:   I kept all 3 certificates I received from my SL experiences and keep them in my portfolio and often draw back to these experiences during school and job applications as well as interviews [SL, 148, female]  In sum, although developing employability skills is not the primary focus of CBSL, many students are interested in such experiential learning because it helps them make connections between what they are learning in the classroom and their future career options while contributing to community. CBSL thus plays a key role in preparing students for their lives beyond university. It provided many students with an opportunity to broaden their ideas about future work to include the non-profit sector and to see the usefulness of their academic learning. The unique focus of CBSL on integrating classroom and community learning makes it particularly attractive for helping students to see connections between their formal and informal learning and broadening their horizons for action (Hodkinson, 1998).  Outcomes of ISL participation   Although employability was usually not their primary motivation for participating in ISL, slightly more than half of ISL participants indicated that it had an influence on their career plans (52%). Most of them (61%) indicated that they became interested in working internationally or in the not-for-profit sector (52%) (Figure 18). Approximately one third indicated 30   that this participation increased their interest in working in the public sector and approximately one quarter (27%) indicated that they became interested in working with certain communities.   Figure 18. Influence of ISL on students' career plans     Two-thirds of ISL participants indicated that this participation was very important for developing their employability skills (66%), and most of the remaining students (31%) indicated that their participation in SL was somewhat important for this purpose. Similarly, almost all of the participants in both ISL and CBSL (95%) indicated that participation broadened their professional networks or contacts with professionals in their occupation (Figure 19).    Figure 19. Effects of participation in service learning    In open-ended responses, one student described service learning experience as 'pivotal in personal and professional life,' adding that the ISL experience 'put me on a different trajectory than I may have pursued 31   otherwise' [ISL, 7, female]. Several ISL participants felt that their experience was helpful when making career plans. As one notes:   SL definitely has the opportunity to affect one's career choices and help people figure out areas of interest… I was already aware of mine prior to participating in SL; SL just solidified this some more. [CBSL/ISL, 385, female]  An interview participant who did ISL (Interview 20) felt that her experience was also a critical incident in her university career. She was taking kinesiology degree at St. FX, but after her ISL experience in Guatemala, changed course and started moving towards becoming a doctor. She now works as a physician in northern Canada.   For other students too, ISL was the highlight of their academic experience at university. One respondent underscored that ISL happens at a time when students are making highly important personal and professional decisions:   I can confidently say my ISL experience was incredibly enriching and influential during a (obviously) very formative time in my own education and personal development. ISL is such a rich asset to St. FX! [ISL, 7, female]   Another student added that ISL experiences are beneficial for students' future lives, including but not limited to their paid work:  It was one of my highlights from my experience at X. It shaped my career path, formed friendships, offered opportunities for mentorship, further community involvement and ongoing connections with social justice work. [ISL, 13, female]  Some students went as far as to say that their ISL experience was the most influential form of learning they had at university. For example, 'I learned more through ISL than through the books I read in undergrad. It allowed me to see the challenges and rewards of development work and working in cross-cultural contexts more generally' [ISL, 46, female].   In addition to several other academic and career related outcomes of participation in ISL, a significant number of students mentioned that it expanded their social contacts. ISL provided participants with the opportunity for networking: 'Being able to work with students who were currently in the BEd program was great and we have formed some lasting friendships and mentorships with these aspiring teachers' [ISL, 52, female]. 32   In some cases, networking through ISL also impacted participants' life course. For example:  I become close to those I travelled with and I made some lifelong friends. Also it allowed me to get close to the professors who supervised the trips, allowed me to be more comfortable and confident talking to my own professors. Also my [international] trip … allowed me to understand my course material and the determinants of health …in a human nutrition program, which focused much on social science. Once I returned from [country] these concepts really made sense and were passionate to me.  Now I am a Registered Nurse! [ISL, 75, female]  For several students, ISL was seen as enhancing their university experience because of their interactions and collaboration with students in other disciplines. One commented, 'ISL was an opportunity to link with students in other programs that I would otherwise not interacted with (I was in the sciences, most participants were in arts)' [ISL, 19, female]. Another shared:  It allowed me to meet people from a variety of programs at St. FX who I would not otherwise have met, and opened my eyes to how people in different areas of study view and respond to issues. It made me more open to exploring social issues back home, as well as globally. (ISL, 15, female)  In sum, it is clear that ISL had a variety of influences on participants in terms of their academic and career plans and broader social engagement. Open-ended responses suggest the importance of ISL participation on students' understanding of their place in the world and how they might be involved in social change through paid and unpaid work.  Outcomes of combined CBSL and ISL participation  Given that CBSL and ISL are structured differently, often involve different motivations, and may have differing effects, more research on how these programs can best complement each other and on their combined effects for students is needed. Our research suggests that students who participated in both forms of SL were able to make connections between local and global issues as well as between classroom and community learning. The broadening of these students' horizons often included learning about new career possibilities. For instance, one participant reported that through her CBSL and ISL 33   experience, they were able to increase their knowledge about the entire not-for-profit sector, and through this experience, they 'became more interested in working in community and local organizations':  Through Service Learning I became more interested in working in community efforts and local organizations rather than focusing on international development, which was my original intention. I learned about the workings of NGO's and non-profits and about many groups I didn't know existed before that [SL/ISL, 362, female].   Another student shared that participating in both CBSL and ISL 'consolidated my career choice and made me more aware of the programs and services that the town of Antigonish has to offer' [CBSL/ISL, 370]. In sum, students who participate in both SL and ISL often find that these experiences 'affect one's career choices and help people figure out areas of interest' [SL/ISL, 385, female].  Influence of CBSL on students' university programs  More than a third of SL participants (38%) reported that service learning was influential (Figure 20). Among these students, 40% indicated that they decided to take more SL courses, whilst 27% took other courses related to their experience in the community. Moreover, approximately 23% of SL participants indicated that as a result of their participation, they decided to pursue graduate studies. A considerable number of students, more than a third (33%), indicated other influences, for example, changing their majors (5%) or degree programs (5%).  Figure 20. Influence of CBSL on Students' University programs       34   In open-ended responses, students often emphasized that the process of making links between theory and practice was a powerful form of learning. For instance:   My SL experience allowed me to see how the theory I was learning in class could be applied in my community. Such application was essential to shaping my future career interests. I knew I loved what I was studying but I didn't know how much I would enjoy applying theory and knowledge to better support my community until I had an opportunity to do so. [SL, 117, female]  Several students expressed that they began to understand the value of classroom knowledge through SL. For example, a student reported, 'the SL component in my ... class greatly improved my experience in that course. It certainly helped me think about the practical applications of what I was learning' [SL, 167, female]. In other cases, students mentioned that community knowledge contributed in key ways to their learning.  Perhaps one reason SL has so much impact is because the process of reflection encourages students to pause and think more deeply about what they're doing. For example, a former student affirmed: 'The reflective process is critical and I appreciate that aspect more now that I am away from the course and working in the real world. I think the experience is invaluable and more courses should have an SL component' [SL, 221, female]. Another respondent added that SL 'forced me to really reflect on what I was learning /experiencing in my placements, as well as how they connected to what I was learning in class. SL provides that "hands on" experience that tends to be lacking ... but that can be very beneficial to many students!' [SL/ISL, 385, female].   Others shared that SL had a profound long-lasting impact of this experience on their values and career. As a student confirms: 'This experience shaped much of what I believe as an educator as well as deepened understandings of education, pedagogy and adult ed' [SL, 254, female].  In sum, survey data suggest that most students who participate in ISL and CBSL acknowledge the impact it has had on their university experiences in terms of deepening their understanding of course content through links with community knowledge. The small number of respondents who were less positive about service learning most often pointed to a lack of support from instructors as the main reason.  35   Influence of ISL on students' university experiences  Similar to CBSL, 40 % of the ISL participants indicated that service learning had an influence on their university program (see Figure 21 below). Among students who claimed that ISL influenced their university studies, 37% said they took other courses related to their ISL, approximately one quarter (26%), indicated that they took more SL courses, whilst an additional quarter (25%) indicated that they decided to pursue graduate studies. Further, 9% indicated that they changed their degree program and another 5% indicated that they opted for another major. Quite a large number, almost one-third (32%), cited other impacts.  Figure 21: Impact of ISL on students' university program      Participation in ISL had a profound influence on students' academic plans and motivation, as well as on their personal development. For example, in open-ended responses, a respondent stated:  Following the ISL experience I was a changed person - I was more motivated to complete my degree and pursue international learning opportunities. I have now lived/worked on three continents and I honestly believe that my ISL trip … was a huge catalyst towards the flow of my life. [ISL, 55, female]  Such responses confirm survey findings indicating that many participants changed their studies due to their participation in SL. In some cases, they adjusted their studies to complement their involvement in SL. For instance, one student mentioned: 'I changed the direction of my studies to include more international studies courses so I'd be more useful in the international community' [ISL, 49, female]. In addition, some students indicated that their ISL experience influenced their choice to pursue further studies following an undergraduate degree.   36   Similar to CBSL, the international experience was helpful for students' development while enriching their university experience overall. For instance, one student claimed: 'This experience [ISL] helped to improve my leadership skills and allowed me to grow as an individual. Overall, one of the best memories of my... [university] experience!!' [ISL, 89, female]. Another student described ISL as 'immeasurable in terms of cultural awareness, leadership skills and working with others' [ISL, 80, male]. Yet another student spoke about the impacts of ISL personally, academically, and professionally: 'I made life-long friends, I chose my thesis topic because of my ISL experience, I expanded my network of faculty and student supporters' [ISL, 33, female].  One of the students who participated in both course-based and immersion service learning, described the experiences gained through this form of learning:  My experiences from SL are what I remember best from [the university]. SL shaped me as a learner and engaged me. I developed academically, personally, and professionally. I think about the friendships I built during my placements and am so thankful that SL allowed me to become a part of the local community. Until I took part in SL learning I was living in a bubble on campus. The opportunity to learn about community development and social issues was extremely valuable. I was able to see theories or things I was learning in class come to life. The reality is, if what I was learning in class didn't have a real life connection, it's probably something I haven't retained. If someone asked me to describe my favourite memories from [the university], SL would be at the top of my list! [SL/ISL, 384, female]  Overall, it is apparent that ISL helps to expand students' horizons for action:   [ISL] provided experience that impacted decisions after my degree.  I pursued [an international] internship the following year and then graduate studies. It definitely kick-started a passion and interest. [ISL, 39, female]  Influence of CBSL on students' skills development  When students who participated in CBSL and both CBSL and ISL were asked to reflect back on their experience in SL and its effects, the majority of respondents indicated that it helped shape their understanding of vulnerable populations (52%), and refined their ability 37   to incorporate reflection in their learning and to work effectively with others (44%) (Figure 22).   Figure 22. Participation in CBSL and student development     A significant number of participants indicated that their participation increased their interest in community engagement (42%), contributed to the development of their leadership skills (40%), and to their values and ethics (32%). Several participants indicated that this participation increased their motivation to learn (37%) and improved their ability to respond to complex real life situations (35%). A smaller percentage indicated that their participation in classroom-based SL contributed to the development of their research skills (18%), while more than a quarter (28%) indicated that this participation contributed significantly to their ability to think critically.  These findings are consistent with John Dewey's idea that effective learning requires context through application and experience (Fredericksen, 2000, Hugg & Wurdinger, 2007). Vygotsky's theory of cultural mediation further suggests that we learn about our worlds and what we can do in interaction with others and with materials created by others (Edwards & Mackenzie, 2005). It is therefore not surprising that the process of reflecting on the relationship between community and classroom learning in service learning has a strong positive effect on students' development (cf. Bringle & Hatcher, 1996).  38   In open-ended responses, students often noted that the experience helped develop confidence as they realized they could meet the demands of the placement. For example, 'I was given the opportunity to step outside of my comfort zone or to take a full responsibility role during my placement' [SL/ISL, 385, female]. Interestingly, developing research skills was relatively less common in classroom-based SL, indicating a need to think about whether there is room for such opportunities in future service learning.   Open-ended descriptions of students' SL experience confirm that it was valuable partly because it is challenging. For example, a former SL student commented that SL courses were 'often were more work and challenging but I remember and still refer back to my service learning experience even 6 years later' [SL, 255, female]. Another student expressed, 'SL was hard work but it was an exciting way to contribute to the community, develop leadership skills, and learn more' [SL, 148, female]  Comparing CBSL to other university courses  In addition to the positive academic and employment-related outcomes, our survey examined student attitudes towards SL using a six-item, five-point semantic deferential scale. Overall, results demonstrate that the participants hold very positive attitudes towards SL (Figure 23). The majority perceive CBSL to be a highly valuable form of learning (65%), over half also believe it is relevant to their programme of study (58%) and promotes reflexivity. Almost half of the participants (47%) believe that SL empowers them although only 4% believe that it is an easy form of learning.   Figure 23. Students' attitudes toward service learning courses   39   As Figure 24 shows, in contrast to the very positive perception of SL (see Figure 24), results obtained from the same five-point semantic differential scale show that only 18% of students considered other university courses to be highly valuable, relevant (18%) or reflective (13%). A very small percentage of students perceived other courses as empowering (10%). However, a significantly greater number of students perceived other courses as more difficult than SL courses (36%).  The majority of respondents perceive CBSL courses to be highly beneficial (Figure 25). Two thirds (77%) indicated that their participation in SL was beneficial when making education related decisions, and a similar number (74%) found it beneficial for making a career decision. A slightly smaller number indicated that SL was helpful in improving their job performance (70%), for finding a job (64%) and for keeping a job (56%).  Figure 24. Students' attitudes toward other university courses     Open-ended responses confirm that SL was seen as an important factor in developing students' professional interests through its focus on learning in practice. One student stated: 'My SL experience allowed me to see how the theory I was learning in class could be applied in my community. Such application was essential to shaping my future career interests' [SL, 117, female].  When we compare responses about the benefit of SL based on the year of the respondent's first participation (see Table 1) we see that students who graduated before 2005 evaluated their participation in service learning more favourably in terms of its helpfulness for making education-related decisions (Chi-Square = 13.282, p < .039) and improving their job performance (Chi-Square = 12.482, p < .052). There were some small 40   differences that were not statistically significant in the areas of making career-related decisions, as well as finding and keeping a job.   Figure 25. Self-reported benefits of service learning (CBSL)    Table 1. Benefits of service learning by year of first participation in service learning courses   Self-reported benefits of service learning for making education decisions First CBSL and  ISL experience Very beneficial Fairly beneficial Not beneficial Not at all beneficial      Before 2005 47.6% 23.8% 26.2% 2.4% 2006-2010 36.0% 48.0% 11.0% 5.0% After 2011 34.1% 36.3% 20.9% 8.8% Total 37.3% 39.1% 17.6% 6.0% Chi-Sq. = 13.282, p < .05           Self-reported benefits of service learning for improving job performance First CBSL and  ISL experience  Very beneficial Fairly beneficial Not beneficial Not at all beneficial Before 2005 35.7% 28.6% 33.3% 2.4% 2006-2010 28.0% 47.0% 17.0% 8.0% After 2011 18.9% 47.8% 22.2% 11.1% Total 25.9% 44.0% 22.0% 8.2% Chi-Sq. = 12.482, p < .05     41    These findings suggest that students who attended StFX earlier have had more time to transition into careers than students who have just graduated. For example, an interview participant who graduated in 2004 later co-founded a non-profit organization and worked in a wide range of jobs including teacher, consultant, yoga teacher and Doula. She reflects on how CBSL and ISL affected her at the time and afterwards as follows:  I grew up in a very small rural community in Cape Breton with pretty limited volunteer opportunities … I think I did two course based service learning [courses] at St. of X and then I also did one immersion, so I believe it was in my first year there and I had the opportunity to do the course based and so that was like an awesome way to get experience.  I was at a nursing home and that was just like a really, really neat for me to see some ways to connect academics to volunteerism because prior to that, any volunteer experience I had, I don't think I ever really understood how beneficial it could be for your learning, your career, connecting with your academic studies, things like that. And then somebody came in to present to one of my classes about an immersion experience and I had never travelled outside of Canada or the US prior to that and very minimally even with those two, hadn't done a lot of travel at all and I was just like, 'wow this sounded so amazing,' and I was so excited to volunteer at an international level. And it honestly, both of those experiences opened so many doors for me and it was a way to get experience that you might want that you're not perhaps able to get in a paid role. But if you get experience in a volunteer way that I could then apply to any kind of career building. (Interview #5) CBSL also informed students' career choices, as this respondent notes in an open-ended response:   It allowed me to experience something outside of the classroom setting and be able to reflect on it; seeing I was interested in the placements I had, I was able to determine what kind of career I would be most interested in and would work well with my skills [SL, 214, female].  Similarly, an ISL student explained: 'I learned a lot and had an enjoyable experience, which played a significant role in shaping my future career and educational decisions' [ISL, 35, male].  42   Our analysis of the open-ended responses also demonstrates that students appreciate the time it takes to develop effective experiential learning opportunities:   I now work as an educator and I look for opportunities to engage students in SL-type of experiences. My perspective while at St. FX is that the university values SL and gives it attention - faculty involvement and community engagement were also key to the success of the program (in my experience). [SL, 221, female]  In addition to other benefits that SL provides, half of the participants (50%) indicated that they were involved in some form of self-directed (informal) learning that was related to their participation in the community. Almost a quarter (24%) of students continued to volunteer with organisations where they conducted their SL after they completed their courses. Furthermore, a small number (6%) reported being involved in paid work with their SL partner organisations after their courses were completed.   Figure 26. Overall evaluation of SL   The majority of respondents had a very positive impression of SL as a learning strategy (88%) (Figure 26). Most felt that SL helped them to integrate in-class and out-of-class learning (80%) and they valued the academic support that they received through SL (80%). More than three quarters (78%) of the participants appreciated the opportunity to apply 43   their knowledge and almost 60% indicated that SL provides opportunities to reflect on issues within communities.  The overall evaluation of CBSL (Figure 27) demonstrates that the great majority of participants highly value this form of learning at university. When asked whether they would recommend participation in service learning to other students, 97% indicated that they would probably recommend this form of learning to other students. Furthermore, the great majority of students would consider participating in a service learning placement in the future if they had the opportunity (92%).   Figure 27. CBSL students' readiness to participate and recommend participation in service learning     Figure 28. Immersion Service Learning students' readiness to participate and recommend participation in service learning   As Figure 28 shows, the majority of ISL students also reported a highly positive experience and readiness to participate again in this form of learning (92%). An even greater number (99%) indicated their readiness to recommend ISL to other students.   44   Coding of the emotional tone of open-ended comments about service learning indicate that students have a highly positive attitudes toward both course-based and international service learning –64% of comments were categorized as very positive and another 30% were positive.  Several students would take more classes if opportunities were available and felt that more university courses should include a service learning component.  Influence of immersion service learning on student development  As previous studies of ISL demonstrate (e.g., Bringle, Hatcher & Jones, 2011), the students who participated in this form of learning highly valued this experience. As a result of their participation in ISL, respondents indicated that they could better understand members of vulnerable populations (96%), they became motivated to become a more active global citizen (88%), increased their interest in community engagement, and developed their personal code of values and ethics (87%) (Figure 29). Most respondents felt that their participation in ISL enhanced their ability to work effectively with others (79%), stimulated them to take an active role in their learning (76%) and increased their motivation to learn (75%).   Figure 29. Participation in ISL and student knowledge, skills, and personal development   45   Additionally, a significant number of students indicated that ISL contributed to the development of their ability to respond to complex real life social issues (74%) and ability to think critically (70%). A significant number (56%) indicated that through this participation, they improved their ability to communicate clearly and effectively, and almost two thirds (65%) indicated that it contributed to their leadership skills. In contrast, only a quarter (23%) of the participants indicated that this participation improved the development of their research skills.   A great majority of respondents perceive participation in ISL as highly beneficial for their education as well as for their employment decisions and job performance (Figure 30). A great majority (75%) indicated that ISL was beneficial for making further decisions related to education, and more than two thirds (69%) indicated that it was important for making their career decisions. More than half of the participants (52%) indicated that participation in ISL was beneficial for improving their job performance, and the same number of the participants (52%) reported that it was beneficial for finding a job or keeping a job (42%).   Figure 30. Self-reported benefits of international service learning (%)    An even greater proportion of ISL participants (compared to CBSL) reported that it was beneficial for their academic progress (Figure 31). Nine out of ten participants (94%) indicated a positive impression of ISL as a learning strategy, and 90% also indicated that they received support from their faculty members. In addition, the majority of the students (80%) indicated that they broadened their knowledge of ISL, and two thirds (69%) indicated that this participation increased their awareness of SL.  46   Figure 31. Perceived academic benefits of international service learning    Effects of CBSL and ISL on participants’ attitudes and involvement in the community  In addition to academic and career related benefits, service learning has a positive impact on students' social engagement. For example, a considerable number of students became involved or intensified their involvement in the community or voluntary work. As Figure 32 shows, overall, half of the participants indicated that they were involved to the same extent, 38% became more involved with the community and 9% of the participants became involved in voluntary work in different community organizations.  Figure 32. Service learning and the extent of students' involvement in the community   47    The overwhelming majority of all former service learning students (98%) indicated that their participation in SL increased their awareness of social issues in the community (Figure 33). More than three quarters of students (78%) indicated that SL was very important and an additional 21% indicated that this form of learning is somewhat important for overall social development. Similarly, more than two thirds of the participants (71%) indicated that SL played an important role in understanding the need to reduce social and economic inequality.  Two-thirds also indicated that it was very important for increasing their employability skills (66%) and the development of their professional networks (63%). These findings suggest that service learning has wide-ranging aims and effects on students' lives during and after their programs.  Figure 33. The impact of service learning on students' awareness of social issues and employability    Educational aspirations of participants  While we cannot assume that service learning increases students' educational aspirations, it is noteworthy that students who engage in this kind of experiential learning are no less interested in further academic study (or more practically focused) than other students. In fact, in many cases, service learning led to particular further education choices. For example:  I think it definitely, from the time I did service Learning, shaped what I did going forward. So, I knew I wanted to work in the field 48   and do applied work and continue to learn more. And I've been drawn to programs that let me do that. So, doing the college program and getting a chance to do two placements and then working and then realizing, I want to do more of that and going back to do my masters. So, I think it really did shape my motivation to learn in that way then seeking out those opportunities to learn in the future. [CBSL, female, interview #2]  In fact, a very a large proportion of participants indicated high academic aspirations. Almost two-thirds (62%) of the participants reported a desire to complete a master's degree and approximately a quarter (25%) indicated wanted to complete a PhD or a professional degree. Only a small proportion (13%) expressed no desire to pursue further studies. The relationship between participating in service learning and educational aspirations needs to be explored further. It could be that engagement in community generates interest in community-based participatory research through graduate studies.   A preliminary look at our interview data suggests that this was true for some participants. For example, a respondent who did a Master's degree following his BSc at StFX stated:  [A]s a grad student (MSc) I did community based research which I didn't need to be doing, I could have found some secondary data, but I chose to be in the community doing research with human participants. That was an incredible learning opportunity. [CBSL, male, interview #9]  Survey data suggest that the aspirations of StFX students are high (Figure 34). They are slightly higher than those found in our similar study at the University of Alberta (Taylor & Raykov, 2014); more than half (54%) of the StFX participants were interested in completing a master's degree and a quarter (24%) were interested in completing a PhD or a professional degree. A greater number of former participants in community service learning at U of A demonstrated no interest in pursuing studies beyond bachelor's level (22%). This difference is perhaps explained by differences in Alberta's labour market, particularly its lower youth unemployment rate at the time when survey was conducted.   The analysis of the association between the time of first participation in service learning and students' academic aspiration found no statistical differences among recent graduates and students who graduated before 2005. This analysis identified a tendency among ISL students, including students who participated in both forms SL to demonstrate 49   higher aspirations than CBSL students, but this difference was not statistically significant (Chi-Square = 6.113).  Figure 34. StFX respondents' educational aspirations   Employment experiences of SL participants  All respondents had graduated from university: 80% of them were employed by the time that this study was completed, 5% were unemployed and the remaining 15% were involved in some other activities, mainly graduate studies (Figure 35).   Among the employed, 84% were full-time and 16% were part-time employees. Also, most of the former service learning participants (75%) were 'permanently' employed, 22% were 'temporarily' employed, and only a small proportion (2%) were 'seasonally' employed.  A large proportion of the participants changed several jobs since they graduated and more than 40% have had five or more different jobs since they graduated.  Figure 35. Employment of SL participants   50   As expected (See Table 2), comparing employment-related outcomes with the year students were first involved in service learning shows that those who participated after 2011 were more frequently unemployed than the previous cohorts (10% vs. 2.6% and 2.3%) and are more likely to be involved in other activities, most frequently full time or part time studies (24% vs. 10.5% and 10.2%). This difference is statistically significant (Chi-Square = 20.058, p < .001).  Table 2. First service learning experience and employment outcomes   Period of graduation Employment status ... employed ... unemployed ... other Before 2005 86.8% 2.6% 10.5% 2006-2010 87.5% 2.3% 10.2% After 2011 66.0% 10.0% 24.0% TOTAL 80.3% 4.9% 14.8%  In addition, Table 3 shows that recent graduates are more frequently employed in the private sector than their counterparts who graduated before 2005 (41.8% and 35.1% vs. 19.7%).   Table 3. First service learning experience and sector of employment    Period of graduation Sector of employment status ... a non-profit organization ... the public sector ... the private sector ... other Before 2005 15.2% 59.1% 19.7% 6.1% 2006-2010 6.3% 55.9% 35.1% 2.7% After 2011 13.4% 35.8% 41.8% 9.0% TOTAL 10.7% 51.2% 32.8% 5.3%  It is also evident that students who participated in service learning during the 2006-2010 period were less frequently employed in the non-profit sector (6.3% vs. 15.2% and 13.4%). These differences are statistically significant (Chi-Square = 16.522, p < .011).   Differences regarding the timing of the first service learning experience and the type of employment contracts (permanent, temporary, or seasonal), the type of employment (full-time or part-time), and working abroad are not statistically significant. Further comparisons of participants in CBSL, ISL and those who participated in both found no statistically significant differences regarding employment status, the self-51   reported role of SL experience in getting a job, education-job match, personal yearly income, average grades, and graduation rates.  However, statistically significant differences were found regarding the participants' types and sectors of employment, whether they were working abroad, and their involvement in the community. Participants who were involved in CBSL were more frequently employed in continuing positions (not contract) (81%) compared to participants involved in ISL (74%) and both (58) types of SL (Chi-Square = 9.904 p < .042). In contrast, former participants in ISL (24%) and both CBSL and ISL (40%) more frequently reported temporary employment than the participants in CBSL (16%). In addition, former ISL students (11%) and those who participated in both ISL and CBSL  (8%) were employed abroad more frequently than the former CBSL students (3%) (Chi-Square = 5.969, p < .051).  Also, former students who participated in both ISL and CBSL were more frequently employed in a non-profit (27%) than their counterparts who were involved in CBSL (6.4%) and ISL (10.8%).   One of our interview participants, who did both ISL and CBSL, expresses a common aspiration when she says:  I had always thought that my dream job was to work in a leadership role in a non-profit organization that did international development and that I would have a career that I'd spend time in a developing country, but also maybe have a balance of working locally and doing a bit of travel as well. (Interview #5, female) In contrast (see Table 4), CBSL and ISL students were more frequently employed in public and private sectors (Chi-Square = 18.037. p < .006) than those who participated in both CBSL and ISL.  Table 4. Participation in SL and Sector of Employment     Type of SL Sector of Employment ... a non-profit organization ... the public sector ... the private sector ... other, please specify CBSL 6.4% 51.1% 36.9% 5.7% ISL 10.8% 54.1% 32.4% 2.7% CBSL and ISL 27.0% 43.2% 18.9% 10.8% Total 10.7% 50.8% 32.9% 5.6%  52   Overall, roughly half of the former SL participants were employed in the public sector, one third were employed in the private sector and 11% were employed in not-for-profit organisations. In terms of the participants' current employment at the time when the survey was conducted, most of them (94%) were employed in Canada and the remaining 6% were employed abroad (Figure 35).   One objective of this study was to examine the impact of participation in SL on the students' subsequent involvement in their local community, reflecting the broader social aims of this kind of experiential learning. Findings in Table 5 demonstrate that approximately one-third of the former CBSL (34%) and ISL (33%) became more involved in their communities after participating in SL while almost two-thirds (61%) of the participants remained involved to the same extent (Chi-Square = 21.099, p < .002). Results also indicate that a considerable number of CBSL (10%), ISL (5%), and students who participated in both CBSL and ISL (10%) became involved with a different community or population following their SL experience.   Table 5. Participation in SL and subsequent involvement in community      Type of SL Involvement in Community following SL Became more involved in community Remained involved to the same extent Became less involved in community Became involved with a different community or population CBSL 34.3% 52.0% 3.4% 10.3% ISL 33.3% 61.1% 0 5.6% CBSL & ISL 61.2% 28.6% 0 10.2% Total 38.2% 51.0% 1.9% 8.9%  A particularly interesting finding is that a large proportion of students who participated in both ISL and CBSL (61.1%) became more involved in the community after their university experience with service learning. This finding seems to suggest that engaging in more and different kinds of service learning (local and regional or international) encourages greater interest in and long-term commitment to the social issues in communities. These results confirm our previous findings (Raykov & Taylor, forthcoming) that the intensity of involvement in CSL (the number of CSL courses) is significantly associated with the positive outcomes of this form of learning.  53       Involvement in Community  54     Regarding the direct impact of service learning on graduates' employment (Did your SL experience play any role in getting a job?), more than a quarter of participants (28%) mentioned that their SL experience helped them find paid employment. Previous responses (reported above) suggest that both CBSL and ISL help students to develop a range of skills, provides experiences which are often documented on CV's, and allows students to develop close relationships with peers, professors, and community partners (professional networks), all of which are likely to play a role in graduate employment. This was further reinforced in interviews:   I would say having a working relationship with someone in the community you may otherwise not have connected with has its own merit. Seeing what's required or expected in that kind of social or working relationship is helpful. Because going to university, you have a relationship with professors that is a lot like the one with teachers. If you haven't had a job, you might not get that kind of relationship, professional working relationship. [CBSL, Female] The majority of the former SL participants were employed in occupations (jobs) that are closely (66%) or somewhat (20%) related to their formal education. A considerable number of them were employed in jobs that were closely (19%) or somewhat (42%) related to their SL experience.   Since a common problem for many Canadian university graduates is underemployment, our survey asked former SL participants about this area of their employment too. Regarding the utilisation of on-the-job skills, two thirds (67%) felt they were adequately qualified for their jobs and a relatively small proportion felt very (8%) or somewhat (24%) overqualified for their jobs. One out of five (20%) of the participants of this study wished they had learned more job-related skills during their SL placements. While this is not the explicit purpose of SL, our study indicates that it is an area of concern for students and is an important part of SL outcomes (for example, see Figure 30).   Despite the fact that most of the participants were employed for a relatively short period of time (5-10 years), the majority of respondents reported average (40%) or above average (42%) income.    55    Conclusions  The preceding discussion suggests that CBSL and ISL are important features of the university experience at StFX. Some of the former students who participated in our study had graduated more than ten years earlier and were able to describe the long-term effects.  Despite the common assumption that immersion (often international) service learning is likely to attract different students, our comparison of participants found no differences between CBSL and ISL students regarding their gender, international student status, marital status or country of origin. The most common type of experience for ISL students was in educational institutions and the most common activity was teaching or mentoring.  More ISL students were primarily motivated to participate for cross-cultural learning and to learn more about global issues while CBSL students were primarily motivated to contribute to the community.  More than half of CBSL and ISL participants indicated that their involvement in SL had a significant impact on their career plans, in particular, working in community or internationally respectively. It was also influential for just under half of CBSL and ISL students for their university programs, including taking more courses or increasing their interest in graduate studies. Finally, several CBSL and ISL students became more involved in their communities after their participation.  CBSL also increased participants' understandings of vulnerable populations, enhanced their ability to work effectively with others, and contributed to the development of their leadership skills. ISL respondents indicated that their experiences helped them to become more active global citizens, and helped them develop their personal code of values and ethics. Overall, service learning tended to increase respondents' motivation to learn.  In sum, findings suggest that in many cases, service learning was critical in helping them find their place in the university and later in the world of work and society.     56    References   AACC, American Association of Community Colleges. (2010). 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Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind and society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Zlotkowski, E., Longo, N. V., & Williams, J. R. (Eds.). (2005). Students as colleagues: Expanding the circle of service-learning leadership. Providence, RI: Campus Compact.  61   Appendix Service-Learning Survey  About Your Community Service-Learning Participation  Thank you for agreeing to take part in this important survey collecting information on long-term outcomes of Service Learning (SL). First, we would like to know about your engagement in SL. For the purpose of this survey, a 'service learning course' refers to any course that offered the opportunity to participate in SL.  To begin, did you participate in ...   ... Course Based Service Learning (CBSL)  ... Immersion Service Learning (ISL)  ... Both   Section 1: Course Based Service-Learning Participation  Q1. Did you participate in a Direct Service or Consulting SL project?   Direct Servic 'hands-on' work in the community; visiting your community placement for a specified time each week (eg. Visiting a daycare)  Consulting 'behind-the-scenes' work with your community placement (e.g. Creating an educational brochure or pamphlet, research, event planning)  Both  Q2. In what years did you PARTICIPATE in SL through a course or courses? [CHECK ALL THAT APPLY]   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006    2007  2008   2009   2010   2011   2012   2013   2014   2015  Q3. I was interested in participating in SL because …[check all that apply]  I prefer to learn informally  I thought it would be easier than classroom-based learning  To contribute to community  To learn more about social issues  To develop employability skills  To explore career options  To enhance my graduate school application  Other, please specify _______________________________  Q4. Did you complete SL in more than one course?   Yes  No  Q5. How many courses did you participate in SL? _______________  Q6. For which courses did you complete an SL component? (List course names and/or codes)   Q7. Please indicate if your participation in SL courses was optional, mandatory or both:   All of my SL placements were optional components of my courses.  All of my SL placements were mandatory components of my courses.  My SL placements were both optional and mandatory. 62   Q8. My SL placement(s) primarily involved: [CHECK ALL THAT APPLY]  Teaching or mentoring  Front-line work with clients  Education and outreach (e.g., workshops, information booths)  Research and evaluation  Administrative projects (e.g. develop resources)  Communications and social media  Special events  Marketing and fund development  Volunteer management  Other, please specify _________________________________   Q9. Did SL have any influence on your university program?  Yes  No  Q10. How did it impact your university program? [CHECK ALL THAT APPLY]   I decided to take more SL courses  I took other courses related to my SL experience  I changed my degree program  I changed my major  I decided to pursue graduate studies  Other, please specify... _____________________________  Q11. Did SL have any influence on your career plans?  Yes  No  Q12. How did it impact your career plans? [CHECK ALL THAT APPLY]   I became more interested in work in the not-for-profit sector (e.g., social service agency, charity, professional association or religious organization)  I became more interested in work in the public sector (e.g., government or school)  I became more interested in work in the private sector (e.g., a company)  I became more interested in work with a certain population  I became more interested in working in community  Other, please specify ______________________________________________________  Q13. Reflecting back on your experience in SL, to what extent did it contribute to your   Very much Quite a bit Some  Very little ... interest in community engagement     ... motivation to learn     ... ability to communicate clearly and effectively     ... ability to think critically     ... research skills     ... ability to respond to complex real life social issues     ... leadership skills     ... ability to work effectively with others     ... understanding of vulnerable populations     ... personal code of values and ethics     ... ability to take an active role in your learning     … ability to incorporate reflection into my learning process     63   Section 2: Experience and Attitudes toward Service Learning  Now we would like to know a bit more about your experience and attitudes toward SL at St. Francis Xavier University (St. FX).   Q1. For each pair of adjectives please SELECT the point which best describes YOUR EXPERIENCE IN A COURSE OFFERING A SL COMPONENT at St. FX.   Exciting       Boring Easy       Difficult Valuable      Worthless Relevant      Irrelevant Empowering      Discouraging Reflective      Unreflective  Q2. For each pair of adjectives please SELECT the point which best describes YOUR EXPERIENCE IN MOST OF THE OTHER COURSES you attended at St. Francis Xavier University (St. FX).   Exciting       Boring Easy       Difficult Valuable      Worthless Relevant      Irrelevant Empowering      Discouraging Reflective      Unreflective   Q3. Please indicate if your experience in a SL COURSE has been beneficial...  Very beneficial Fairly beneficial Not beneficial Not at all beneficial ... for making further education decisions     ... for making a career decision     ... for finding a job     ... for keeping a job     ... for improving job performance       Q4. How would you describe...  Excellent Good Fair Poor … your knowledge about the aims of SL     … your overall impression of SL as a learning strategy     … the academic support you received through SL from your instructor(s)     … your awareness of the Service Learning undertaken by other students     … opportunities to reflect on the issues raised by Service Learning students     … the integration of in-class and out-of-class learning     … opportunities to apply your classroom knowledge      64    q5. Would you consider participating in a SL placement in the future if you have the opportunity?  Definitely yes  Probably yes  Probably no  Definitely no  Q6. Would you recommend participation in SL to other students?  Definitely yes  Probably yes  Probably no  Definitely no   We would appreciate it if you would provide your general comments related to SL.  Q7. How did SL affect your St. FX experience?      Q8. How did SL affect your perceptions of the community and/or world?      Q9. Which other courses or programs would you like to have seen SL in?     65    Section 3: Immersion Service Learning (ISL) Participation  Q1. Please specify which ISL experience(s) you participated in?  Belize  Cuba  Grenada  Guatemala  Ghana  Halifax  Jamaica  LARche Ottawa  Mexico  Montreal  Peru  Romania  Toronto  Other, please specify... _____________________________   Q2. In what year(s) did you participate in an ISL experience? [CHECK ALL THAT APPLY]   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006    2007  2008   2009   2010   2011   2012   2013   2014   2015   Q3. My ISL placement/s primarily involved work in...  ... Health  ... Education  ... Agriculture  ... Other, please specify... _____________________________  Q4. I was interested in participating in ISL … [CHECK ALL THAT APPLY]   Because I prefer to learn informally   For cross-cultural learning   To contribute to community   To learn more about social issues   To develop employability skills   To explore career options   To enhance my graduate school application   Other, please specify... _____________________________   Q5. Did your ISL experience have any influence on your career plans?  Yes  No  Q6. How did it impact your career plans? [CHECK ALL THAT APPLY]  I became more interested in work in the not-for-profit sector      (e.g., charity, NGO, or religious organization)  I became more interested in work in the public sector (e.g., government or school)  I became more interested in work in the private sector (e.g., a company)  I became more interested in work with a certain population  I became more interested in working internationally  Other, please specify 66     Q7. Did ISL have any influence on your university program?  Yes  No   Q8. How did it impact your university program? [CHECK ALL THAT APPLY]  I decided to take more courses with service learning components  I took other courses related to my ISL experience  I changed my degree program  I changed my major  I decided to pursue graduate studies  Other, please specify   Q9. Reflecting back on your participation in ISL, to what extent did it contribute to your…?  Very much Quite a bit Some  Very little ... interest in community engagement     ... motivation to learn     ... ability to communicate clearly and effectively     .. ability to think critically     ... research skills     ... ability to respond to complex real life social issues     ... leadership skills     ... ability to work effectively with others     ... understanding of vulnerable populations     ... personal code of values and ethics     ... ability to take an active role in your learning     … motivation to become a more active global citizen       Q10. Please indicate if your experience in ISL has been beneficial...  Very beneficial Fairly beneficial Not beneficial Not at all beneficial ... for making further education decisions     ... for making a career decision     ... for finding a job     ... for keeping a job     ... for improving job performance      67    Q11. How would you describe...  Excellent Good Fair Poor … your knowledge about the aims of ISL     … your overall impression of ISL as a learning strategy     … the support you received through ISL from your faculty leader     … your awareness of the service learning undertaken by other students     … opportunities to reflect on the issues raised by service learning students       Q12. Would you consider participating in an ISL placement in the future if you have the opportunity?  Definitely yes  Probably yes  Probably no  Definitely no   Q13. Would you recommend participation in ISL to other students?  Definitely yes  Probably yes  Probably no  Definitely no   We would appreciate it if you would provide your general comments related to ISL.   Q14. How did ISL affect your StFX experience?     Q15. How did ISL affect your perceptions of the community and/or world?      68   Section 4: About Your Participation in Community  Q1. Did you participate in the community or volunteer BEFORE your involvement in SL?  Never  Less than once a month  Less than once a week but at least once a month  A t least once a week but not every day  Every day  Other, please specify ______________________  Q2. Please specify the name of the organization(s) and town(s).    Q3. Did you participate in the community or volunteer AFTER your involvement in CSL?  Never  Less than once a month  Less than once a week but at least once a month  A t least once a week but not every day  Every day  Other, please specify ______________________  Q4. Please specify the location/s (name of town/s).     Q5. How did your SL experience at StFX change your involvement in community?  I became more involved in community  I am involved to the same extent  I became less involved in community  I became involved with a different community or a different population  Q6. Did you continue to volunteer with your SL partner organization after the course was completed?  Yes  No  Q7. Did you do any paid work with your SL partner organization after the course was completed?  Yes  No  Q8. Have you done any self-directed (informal) learning related to your participation in community? (e.g. researched information about a particular issue relevant to work you've done in the community; done research for your own learning, not related to course work ).  Yes  No  Q9. In your opinion, how important is participation in community organizations for...  Very important Somewhat important Somewhat unimportant Very unimportant ... overall social development     ... reducing social and economic inequality     ... developing professional networks or contacts     ... developing employability skills     69   Section 5: About Your Education  These questions are about your previous and current educational activities.  Q1. Were you a full-time or part-time student at the time you participated in a SL course at StFX?  Full-time  Part-time  Q2A. What was your faculty? ______________________________________  Q2B. What was your program? _____________________________________  Q3. Did you complete your degree?  Yes  No  Q4. What was(is) your average grade (%)?  Less than 60  60 - 69  70 - 79  80 or higher  Q5. How did you pay for your university studies? [CHECK ALL THAT APPLY]  My savings/earnings  Student loan  Parents  Government agency (e.g. grant)  Post-secondary institution (e.g. Scholarship)  Other, please specify __________________  Q6. Are you currently a student?  Yes, Full-time  Yes, Part-time  No  Q7. What is the highest level of education you have obtained to date?  Attended university or college without earning degree  Completed a bachelor's degree (e.g. B.A., B.Sc.)  Completed a master's degree (e.g. M.A., M.Sc.)  Completed a doctoral degree (e.g. Ph.D.)  Other, please specify ____________________  Q8. What is the HIGHEST level of education you would like to get?  Complete a bachelor's degree (B.A., B.Sc., etc.)  Complete a master's degree (M.A., M.Sc., etc.)  Complete a doctoral degree (Ph.D)  Other, please specify ____________________  Q9. Who had most influence on your decision to enter university?  Parent(s)  Sibling(s)  Teacher(s)  Friend(s)  Other, please specify ____________________  Q10. Were you the first member of your immediate family to attend university?  Yes  No 70   Section 6: About Your Employment  Which of the following best describes your current employment status; are you...  ... employed  ... unemployed [GO TO Q12]  ... other, please specify...  Q1. Are you working full-time or part-time?  Full-time  Part-time  Q2. Is your job permanent (has no specified end date), temporary, or seasonal?  Permanent  Temporary  Seasonal  Q3. What year did you get this job? _______________________  Q4. Did your SL experience at StFX play any role in getting a job?  Yes  No  Q5. Are you working in ...  ... a non-profit organization (e.g., charity, professional association or religious organization)  ... the public sector (e.g., government or school)  ... the private sector (e.g., a company)  ... other, please specify  Q6. Are you working in Canada or abroad?  Canada  Abroad, please specify __________________________  Q7. Counting your current job, how many jobs have you held since graduation from university?  Q8. How closely is your job related to ...  Closely related Somewhat related Not at all related ... your formal education?    ... your SL experience?     Q9. In terms of your schooling, do you feel you are over-qualified, adequately qualified, or under-qualified for your current job?  Very over-qualified  Somewhat over-qualified  Adequately qualified  Somewhat under-qualified  Very under-qualified  Q10. Are there job-related skills or knowledge you wish you had learned in your SL placement?  Yes  No  71    Q11. Please indicate if your personal yearly income before tax, in Canadian dollars is...  ... significantly above average  ... above average  ... average  ... below average  ... significantly below average  Q12. Are there job-related skills or knowledge you wish you had learned in your SL placement?     Q13. Are you looking for a job?  Yes  No  72    Section 7: About You  To analyze data from this survey effectively, we need a bit more information about you. The information is collected to improve student SL experience and increase benefits for students involved in this program. Again, your answers will be kept strictly confidential.    Q1. Please indicate your gender.  Male  Female  Other  Q2. When attending StFX, were you an international student?  Yes  No  Q3A. What is your age? _______________________________  Q3B. What is your marital status? Single  Living with partner  Married  Separated  Divorced   Other, please specify __________________________  Q3C. In what country were you born?  Canada  Other, please specify __________________________  Q4A. Do you consider yourself to be a member of a visible minority?  Yes  No  Q4B. Do you consider yourself to be an Aboriginal person (Status Indian, Non-status Indian, Inuit, Métis)?  Yes  No  Q4C. Do you consider yourself to be a person with a disability?  Yes  No  Q5 Who were you living with when you participated in SL?  One parent  Both parents  By yourself  With friends  With partner/spouse  Other, please specify __________________________  73    Q6. What is the highest level of education that your father completed?  Did not finish high school  Graduated from high school  Some or completed college, trade or CEGEP  Attended university without earning degree  Completed a bachelor's degree (B.A., B.Sc., etc.)  Completed a master's degree (M.A., M.Sc., etc.)  Completed a doctoral degree (Ph.D., etc.)  Q7. What is the highest level of education that your mother completed?  Did not finish high school  Graduated from high school  Some or completed college, trade or CEGEP  Attended university without earning degree  Completed a bachelor's degree (B.A., B.Sc., etc.)  Completed a master's degree (M.A., M.Sc., etc.)  Completed a doctoral degree (Ph.D., etc.)  Q8. How would you describe your family income when you were growing up?  Significantly above average  Above average  Average  Below average  Significantly below average   Thank you for completing this survey!      Beyond Learning for Earning The Long-term Outcomes of Course-based and Immersion Service Learning     Milosh Raykov and Alison Taylor    

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