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Community Hosts’ Perspectives of CSL Placements : Supporting Good Partnerships Between Community and… Henry, Elizabeth; Butterwick, Shauna J. May 1, 2014

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CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 1 of 31  Community Hosts’ Perspectives of CSL Placements: Supporting Good Partnerships Between Community and UBC  Prepared by Shauna Butterwick with Elizabeth Henry   Table of Contents  Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 2 Research Questions and Data Collection .................................................................................2 EDST 520: Perspectives on Adult Education/Community Service Learning ......................... 3 Course Structure ......................................................................................................................3 Funding ...................................................................................................................................4 Student placements ..................................................................................................................4 Major Themes ........................................................................................................................... 7 Matching and Clarifying Expectations .....................................................................................8 Communication ..................................................................................................................... 10 Time Constraints ................................................................................................................... 11 A Commitment to Learning ................................................................................................... 12 Reciprocity ............................................................................................................................ 14 Recommendations and Suggestions ........................................................................................ 17 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................... 19 Appendix A .............................................................................................................................. 21 Appendix B .............................................................................................................................. 28 Appendix C .............................................................................................................................. 29 Appendix D .............................................................................................................................. 31 CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 2 of 31   Introduction   This report outlines the findings of a small scale study, funded by the UBC Community Learning Initiative (CLI) (now the Centre for Community Engaged Learning or CCEL) that focused on exploring Community Service Learning (CSL) hosts’ perspectives. Particular attention is given to their view of the benefits of CSL student placements, the role hosts play in students’ learning, and hosts’ views on what UBC might do to more fully support the creation of respectful and mutually beneficial partnerships between UBC and community groups. Those interviewed were hosts of graduate students who took EDST 520: Perspectives on Adult Education/Community Service Learning in Winter Term II (2011) taught by Shauna Butterwick and Jennifer Chan (see appendix A for the course syllabus). We also interviewed two hosts of CSL students who took EDCP 585c Theories and Dimensions of Place-based Learning: Ecohumanist, Critical and Indigenous Lenses taught by Tracy Friedel in 2012.   Research Questions and Data Collection  Our key research questions were as follows:    How do CSL partnerships contribute to community organizations’ capacity to meet their mandate, goals, and serve their constituencies?   How are community organizations/agencies impacted by CSL student placements?   What roles do community partners play in supporting students’ learning?  As a result of this study, what recommendations can be made to UBC to build respectful and mutually beneficial partnerships?  Data for this study was gathered through semi-structured interviews with 14 individuals in various organizations who served as hosts for CSL graduate students who took the above mentioned courses (see appendix B for interview schedule). Audio-taped interviews were conducted by Shauna Butterwick and Elizabeth Henry, lasting between 30 minutes to one hour, and were completed in the summer and fall of 2012. While most of the interviewees spoke about the students doing their CSL placements through EDST 520 and EDCP 585c, some offered comments that were broader in perspective including reflections on community engagement and CSL generally.   Audiotaped interviews were transcribed by a professional transcriber. Analysis of the transcripts began when we listened to the tapes and reviewed the transcripts for accuracy (copies were sent to those hosts who requested them). After listening to the tapes and reading the transcripts, we each wrote summary memos where we noted the responses to the main interview questions and key themes that emerged in relation to the broad research questions. We each exchanged these memos and co-determined some key themes which we then used to code transcripts. Some of the initial themes included: matching hosts and students, clarifying meaning of CSL, time challenges, commitment to learning, achieving reciprocity, and hosts’ recommendations. CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 3 of 31   Before moving on to discuss the results of this study, we begin by briefly outlining the structure of EDST 520 and the agencies where students were placed, noting organizations’ mandates and the work completed by the CSL student. The remainder of the report provides a discussion of key themes that emerged from our analysis of the interview data. We conclude the report with recommendations that emerged from the data for ways to build, strengthen, and sustain partnerships with community hosts/partners.   EDST 520: Perspectives on Adult Education/Community Service Learning  This course was a graduate level course offered as part of the Adult Learning and Education (ALE) Program in the Department of Educational Studies at UBC. The focus was on CSL as a growing area of practice in adult and higher education. In the course, students read about CSL and also undertook CSL placements with various organizations. To help determine those placements, prior to classes starting in January 2011, we sent a questionnaire to students (see Appendix C) asking them to identify their current and past work experiences, education background, and the skills and knowledge they could bring to working with a community agency. Students also identified their learning goals for the course and the kind of organization or agency with which they wanted to connect (or if they were unsure, the area/sector where they would like to be placed). Students were also asked to identify (and provide contact information) of those community organizations or agencies they had already connected with for their placements. The two instructors also generated a list of the different agencies and organizations with which they were familiar. Based on the instructors’ previous experiences and connections, plus the information provided by students, the matching process began. Letters were sent to potential hosts outlining what the CSL placement would involve; some individual meetings with potential hosts were also held (see Appendix D).  Course Structure  In EDST 520, a one term (13weeks) course, students spent most of their time in community at the agencies and organizations they had chosen or to which they were assigned. Before students began their placements, three face to face campus-based classes were held. Originally it had been estimated that students would spend about 25 hours with their hosts; most students spent more time (we comment on this further in our findings discussion). Prior to their placements, students read and discussed articles about CSL. They were exposed to writing about the history of CSL and to literature that addressed the benefits as well as its challenges. Course topics included the differences between a charity and a social justice approach to CSL, and students also read articles that challenged the helping approach common to orientations that had a deficit perspective of community.   During the course, students were oriented to how building a relationship and co-determining with their hosts their actual tasks and projects were as important as any material end product they would create. For most students, it took several weeks of negotiation with their hosts to CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 4 of 31  determine what work they would undertake. The two instructors attended some of these initial meetings to help facilitate the exchanges. Students were required to prepare and submit to the instructors a proposal in which they outlined why they chose that specific placement, background on the agency, any supports the agency would provide (meetings, orientation, office space), their objectives and focus for their placement, what specific ‘products’ they would produce, and a timeline. They also reflected on the matter of reciprocity and mutuality. These proposals were shared with hosts. During their placements students also wrote reflective memos where they described their activities and experiences and offered critical reflections. A final paper was required where the students reported on their CSL activities.  In addition to these first three classes, two classes were held off campus. Mid-way in the term, the class visited the UBC Learning Exchange in the Downtown Eastside where Margo Fryer, its first director, spoke about its history and her perspective on the benefits of community-university partnerships1. The final class, which included a supper, was held at MOSAIC, a local settlement and immigration service agency where two students had been placed. All the placement hosts were sent invitations to attend the supper. The Executive Director of MOSAIC welcomed the class and gave a brief talk about that organization. Students and hosts2 then discussed their experiences and perspectives.   Funding  Expenses are incurred for both faculty and students in CSL. The instructors searched for funding that might support the costs students incurred during their placements (e.g. travel)3 and to cover the cost of supper and to acknowledge the support from MOSAIC. The Department of Educational Studies provided some support to cover costs of the final MOSAIC class. There were no other sources of support as funding was only available to those faculties which had designated CSL units and coordinators.4 Student placements   As outlined below in Table 1, students were placed in a wide variety of organizations and agencies, with some students working with organizations that had offices and staff, while others were working with grassroots organizations run by volunteers with no paid staff, offices and little infrastructure. The size and structure of organizations makes a difference to students’ experiences as it does to community partners’ experiences, interests and capacity to host students. While their mandates were wide ranging, most of the students in EDST 520 were placed in agencies that provided services for adults and were involved in some way with the provision of adult learning (broadly conceived). Students in EDCP 585c were mostly placed in Indigenous agencies.                                                          1 Two workshops were also held for students conducting research as part of their placements; students learned about the UBC ethical review process, interviewing, creating surveys, data analysis and reporting. 2 Six hosts were able to attend the final class; all attested to the value of CSL. One commented that if these were the kind of learning experiences to which students were exposed, they were considering graduate study. 2 3 One student had to personally cover her travel costs to Alberta to work with her host because the travel funding offered to UBC graduate students only covers student travel to conferences, not these kinds of activities.  4 There is no designated CSL unit or coordinator in the Faculty of Education CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 5 of 31   Name of Organization Mandate  Work Completed by Student Literacy BC promotes and supports literacy and learning in BC  Reviewed HRSDC’s Essential Skills Framework & wrote plain language (jargon free) description and identified resources for instructors teaching these skills  La Leche League Canada-BC/Yukon, North Shore Group provides breastfeeding support for women  reviewed existing brochures & posters; recommend changes for improved communication  surveyed current & potential participants  offered advice on using social media Kitsilano Neighborhood House Serves west side of Vancouver; focused on facilitating community development based on meeting changing community needs  Documented history/stories of KNH  Provided information for display in new building5 Philippine Women’s Centre Activist/advocacy group for Filipina women, especially domestic migrant workers  Assisted with writing press releases  Trained members in video production Frontier College* (2 students worked at this organization) national literacy organization which recruits & trains volunteers tutors to provide literacy instruction for children, youth, and adults  Placement #1: explored the possibilities of bringing theatre processes into literacy training  Placement #2: Reviewed orientation process & identified ways to make it more sensitive to the experiences of Filipino domestic workers Brittania Community Outreach to Latin American  Researched effective                                                         5 This was Elizabeth Henry`s (co-author of this report) placement which later led to her MA thesis study entitled “Learning our histories at kits house – A search for decolonizing place-based pedagogies”  CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 6 of 31  Centre – Latin American Youth Project youth; create opportunities for dialogue & networking outreach strategies  Assisted with diversification of outreach  locations  Created movie night for Latino girls Stage Left Theatre Company in Calgary Applied arts-based performance company in Canmore, AB Using arts for anti-oppression work  Co-facilitated week long intensive program for youth facing barriers to employment MOSAIC  Provide settlement services for immigrants  Assessed past participants’ experiences of the Cultural Connections program (group interview using visual art) UBC/ISL (International Service Learning) Develop curricular or course-based CSL activities and Community Based Research Validate and strengthen CSL pedagogy  Helped to implement CSL in the faculty of arts at UBC West Vancouver Literacy Now Subcommittee Identify local literacy needs & create & implement a literacy action plan.   Worked with committee on sponsorship, program design, language coach recruitment, & planning of a literacy program at local mall. Provincial Mental Health Metabolic Program at BC Children’s Hospital Providing services to youth who use atypical anti-psychotic medications  Developed & evaluated handout for parents & youth using psychotic medications who are newly diagnosed or at high risk for Type 2 Diabetes Canadian Mental Health Association – BC Division Promotes the mental health of all & supports the resilience & recovery of people experiencing mental illness   Advised on Healthy Minds, Health Campuses initiative   Reviewed & summarized other student mental health initiatives    Advised on bringing a CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 7 of 31  student-centred perspective to planning & implementation Philosophers’ Café Interdisciplinary Programs in Simon Fraser University (SFU) Continuing Studies.   Coordinated Philosopher Cafes where people gather in comfortable public venues & engage in intelligent & deep discussions about relevant issues of the day  Created & distributed survey to obtain feedback from participants for an evaluation of the Philosophers’ Cafés Talking Stick Festival Create annual aboriginal festival of arts   Attended meetings and events & provided report on audience perspective UBC Farm A farm located at UBC where school children and the public participate in growing food.  Helped in garden and with guiding school children  Table 1: List of organizations & students’ contributions Major Themes  This research project reflects our interests in how CSL can be a mutually beneficial learning process for both hosts and students. Mutuality and reciprocity are also of concern in UBC’s commitment to Community Engagement6 which is a key pillar in the Strategic Plan:  UBC exists for the communities it serves: local, provincial, national, and global. An integral part of those communities, the University enters into relationships where decisions about means and ends are made collaboratively, costs and benefits are shared, and learning is reciprocal. (http://strategicplan.ubc.ca/the-plan/community-engagement)  Matters of mutuality are also being raised in CSL research. However, while studies that focus on communities’ perspectives are growing, CSL research continues to focus mainly on the benefits of CSL for students. Through this study, we seek to bring recognition of the important work community partners are doing with respect to teaching and supervision of UBC students, and to acknowledge community partners as sources of knowledge, not just recipients of service. We see the direction of knowledge exchange as bilateral, one where both the university and community organizations contribute and are producers of knowledge. Viewing CSL and community partners as co-learners and co-contributors is beginning to receive acknowledgement in the CSL literature. It is important to also note that the interest and capacity of community partners with respect to their sharing knowledge with UBC students varies.                                                           6 For more information about Community Engagement at UBC go to Community Partnership Unit http://communityengagement.ubc.ca/community-engagement-at-ubc/  CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 8 of 31  In the following section, we outline the themes that emerged from our analysis. These themes are discussed separately but they are interconnected and interdependent. We begin by discussing matching expectations, a key factor in successful partnerships. Our interviewees had a number of ideas about what supported and also what got in the way of aligning students’ and community hosts’ interests. Closely associated with creating a good match is the matter of communication; hosts commented on how important it was to begin early, check in regularly, and clarify who to contact. The matter of time constraints was another strong theme as interviewees reflected on the different temporal realities of universities and community organizations. The fourth theme was a commitment to student learning, something that all our interviewees expressed. We then turn to explore the issue of reciprocity with hosts offering important insights and perspectives on that concept moving beyond a focus on short term impact of students’ placements to consider longer term and broader outcomes. We conclude the discussion of thematic findings with recommendations for building stronger partnerships with UBC.  Matching and Clarifying Expectations   Matching or aligning students’ interests with the specific tasks and schedules of host organizations is central to a successful placement for both students and hosts. For most of the placements in these two courses, there was a good fit, but in a few cases, there was not. Aligning students’ and hosts’ interests took a lot of time and attention and in some instances was quite challenging.   Those placements that worked well shared some characteristics. An important aspect of aligning host agencies’ and students` skills and expectations was the matter of a philosophical match between the student and the host organization. As one host noted, there a strong alignment between the student and the organization: “[there was] a very strong congruence with the ethos, the ethics, the way orient ourselves  philosophically here”. Previous connections that either the instructors or the student had made with community hosts played a role in creating a good match, but did not guarantee success. In one case a host had a prior connection with Shauna who had raised the idea of having a student work with the agency. For this host, that personal connection was a significant factor in accepting another student. “Why did I accept this placement? It was personal contact. You said, ‘Hey, I’ve got this student…’  And I had this [project] in mind and I could see how that would [work]”.   Another factor that contributed to creating a good match was developing profiles of the students and their interests and skill sets prior to assigning placements. Anticipating, appreciating and devoting the time required for the negotiations between students and hosts to determine their mutual needs and interests are also crucial to creating shared expectations. One suggestion made was that students should be helped by UBC faculty and instructors to identify and articulate their goals and skills and this should be included in courses ahead of time because it could be intimidating for some students when negotiating with hosts. Several hosts commented on how important it was for students to be assertive and clear about what they hoped to achieve from their placements. Some felt that the best match was made when students selected and chose their own placements; this resulted in a greater sense of ownership of the learning process.   CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 9 of 31  There were two placements where neither student nor host had their needs met. For one of the hosts, she learned that, in retrospect, she should have spent more time working with the student to understand what they wanted from the placement. In this case, the student felt that the work assigned did not increase her skills or learning. The host commented that for the future, it was important “to be much more explicit … and to go with my instincts right from the get-go [to] get a sense of what someone really wants to do and is capable of doing”. Another host commenting on the difficulties of the placement noted that there was a lack of clarity about the role of CSL students. This organization was quite large; the initial contact had been made with a senior staff member, but another staff member lower in the hierarchy was assigned the task of working with the student; she was less clear on what was involved and expected. “I think the biggest challenge that we both had was neither one of us truly understood what was it - Community Service Learning - so I think that in a sense [that] almost put up barriers because we were trying to figure out what can we do to accommodate [the student’s ] needs for that?”   For several hosts, their organizations had always worked with practicum and co-op students; working with CSL students was a new experience for them. One host who was familiar with co-op students noted that these students stayed for several months with set hours of work and fairly clear objectives; they were in his words “hybrid student-employees”. His organization had received a lot of co-op students, but this was his first CSL experience and he was on a learning curve, comparing his knowledge of coop students with the CSL placement.  Another host also commented on having practicum students who would come weekly with a clear understanding of their responsibilities: “I’m coming here for this three hour chunk or two hour chunk, and this is what I’m doing.” For the agency, there was clarity about their role: “And then while they’re there, you actually have either a series of tasks for them, or a specific project that they’re supporting. So they’re either part of a team doing something, or they’ve got their own particular task that they’re putting together”. Another host who worked with an organization that had a lot of volunteers, indicated that, for her agency, these different kinds of student placements would all be considered one category. “We could talk about service learning, we could talk about internship, we could talk about co-op students [but] I’m sorry, as an agency, I think we’re gonna have to treat all of that as one”.    Hosts noted the different expectations they had for graduate CSL students compared with undergrads or college students. “Most of our students or interns that we get are at the college level, especially at the first year college level, where they’re a lot more, um, just doing basic frontline work … and just kind of getting their feet wet. Having a higher-level UBC student to come in to do, you know, to do a project with us was enticing”.  Another host suggested that it would have been helpful to have students come in and do a presentation on CSL:  Having somebody come in and even do a half hour or an hour presentation or more about what community service learning is and have that person … share their experience or share their learnings, not necessarily even about community, but just what about community service learning in general is, I think would be a fantastic opportunity for them to be able to CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 10 of 31  relate to each other.  I think it’s important to empower students to give back and share their experience as well.”  The idea of presenting case studies of CSL placements was identified by other hosts as well. “A case study [of] what worked … and this what they did and … how they did it … how they worked [and] what the student managed to do … and what sort of things the organization did to support that. So that might be helpful.” In addition to these reports, another host also suggested that there be midway check-ins. “[If] there was a check-in from an external person, from Shauna, from [host agency director] just to say, ‘Is this still working?’… maybe one month in … [exploring whether] priorities have shifted and changed, is there still a role for the CSL student. Because no one wants to just have make work projects.”  In one placement where there had not been a good match, this mid-way connection might have helped. “I just wished I … had known about it earlier because then I could have partnered her up, or provided more support”.   One suggestion made was that CSL students should sign a more a more formal contract. “I wish it had been a little bit more formal and that [the organization] should have also put it down in writing what we would do—what we would do for her”.  While hosts commented that it was important that goals and expectations be articulated by students, they also pointed out that there had to be some flexibility as things will change. “It’s about being a little bit adaptable to that, and having them work with someone from the program … to be able to change what their goals and what their outcomes might end up being”. This need for adaptability and flexibility contrasts with students’ experiences with traditional course work where the syllabus, assignments, and due dates are often predetermined, although there is certainly some room for adjustments to be made.  Communication  Many participants in this study also pointed to communication as a key aspect of building good partnerships; something that is closely associated with the matter of matching and clarifying expectations. The need for clarity regarding who was responsible for facilitating this matching process and who to call for assistance was a recurring theme in our conversations. Having someone who is the main person at UBC liaising with community partners was also recommended. “Having somebody who’s really doing a good job to place people appropriately”.  Another suggestion was for a one stop shopping kind of service which listed students’ skills and interests that community groups could access and then find a student to help them. It was noted that community workers often do not have a lot time so this kind of information would be highly valuable.  We as community workers don’t have time [to gather statistics], you know, in our capacity, so we need a student to be the data collector.  So we should have a website, like a match.com for masters and PhD theses … we could look and say, this person is interested in these four things—you would put in what are my likes and dislikes, like match.com—and the organization could pick.  CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 11 of 31  Related to the matter of clear lines of communication, hosts also recommended contact occur well ahead of the time when students are to be placed to give the organization time to undertake a kind of internal review of their capacity and needs.  I do think it’s valuable, going to organizations in advance to say, “Do you have time to—are you interested in hosting a student, or students—it can be groups of students?”  And giving them some of that lead time that organizations can look internally to see where they might have gaps or would benefit from having and external resource and having that thinking process to then come back to that table to meet with a faculty”  Another matter related to communication is how making student placements must involve exploring with community agencies if they have existing staff, structure and policy for placing students. In some cases the processes are quite involved.   Community service learning people should be going through the same processes … when somebody wants to get involved with the project in a capacity different than a normal volunteer, that they still have to go through the same process. They have to apply[and] I need to talk to them, either by phone or in person, because I need to have a sense about who they are and what their skills are and maybe also where some of their areas that are less strong are so that I can place them appropriately, and support them appropriately.  And then, they have to do a criminal record check.”    Another agency which operated mainly by the work of volunteers, also had procedures and protocols that they had to follow when working with all student volunteers including CSL students. Hosts, as already noted, valued face to face meetings. They also valued when CSL students reported out to the community partner as this information needed to be fed back to the larger community. “I think it’s important … that we get the results back”.   Time Constraints  A key factor in creating mutually beneficial partnership between host and CSL student is the matter of time. Students’ capacity to fully engage in their CSL work and be flexible as things shifted and changed was a challenge hosts noted; they observed students juggling their CSL placements (that did not follow the traditional 3 hour a week class) with other course commitments including assignments and exams. For one host, how students juggled these commitments became a concern. “I remember that she was like, she arrived super late … it was not easy for her … she had a requirements like finishing a paper, you know, I think she had like a lot of—a lot of pressure”. In another situation the hosts had an event to put on which happened in the evenings and there was no time to orient or to train the students. While there were lots of tasks associated with the event which could have been assigned to the student placement, the short time students had to give and the time restrictions of staff made it difficult for students to make a productive contribution. Given these conditions, the agency staff had suggested a fairly minimal kind of engagement. “They were supposed to come in and participate as much as possible and then see a show and give us feedback on what they wanted as an audience member.” However, students were not clear on what they should do. “I couldn’t give them, with that limited time, a set job because it takes much more time for all of the tasks involved with CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 12 of 31  running the festival.” She concluded that what they needed were students who were already able to jump into the tasks so they didn’t have to ”bring up them to speed”.   Another dimension of time relates to the temporal structure of university courses which do not match the way community organizations operate. Several of our community hosts commented on this reality with one noting the disjuncture between her program and the dates students were available: “I remember … there wasn’t a lot of overlap between our program and the dates for when they were doing their community service learning”. Both hosts and students have busy schedules. One host commented on this and wondered if her busy schedule limited the student’s learning: “I was really busy with lots of other projects, so time was the only thing that was limiting the progress of the project?  So—I think maybe more frustrating on her end than on my end.” She went on to speak about how her work involved fast and slow period where she was sometimes hurrying to meet deadline and then other times there was little to do: “Like, there’s a deadline and then there’s a lull, and then there’s a big deadline and then a lull.  So, I think she caught me in a deadline”. As has been noted, the timing of the projects often does not match with CSL students’ availability. For one host, CSL students were engaging somewhat late in the process. “[It] would have been easier if we’d connected a little bit earlier”. This host links the issue of time to the matter of achieving reciprocity and when time is not available, then quick fixes tend to be the norm. “To be reciprocal, to have that reciprocity, I think that the partnerships [need to ] have a chance to develop  When there’s really tight timelines to make something happen, what you end up [with] a quick recipe that you whip up “  A Commitment to Learning   In all interviews we found hosts expressing a strong commitment to students’ learning. “As a host partner, you want to give them something even if it’s small but still meaningful”. Another host commented on an international student who had been struggling in her other courses, but in her placement she found she could make a contribution: “I was really happy … to see her … shining and not being so stressed, because she was really struggling with the course.  I think that was really good for her”.   One host was concerned that she has not provided a substantive learning experience for the student: “maybe looking back, there wasn’t enough … in my portfolio to keep [name of student] … to actually contribute to our work?  We could have found other things for her to do, more broadly within the organization or the unit at that time. This same concern for providing good learning experiences for students was raised by another host who spoke about feeling some pressure in that regard.   The reality is [that] everybody is working really hard to make it successful, but I think it can be a little intimidating because there’s like a deadline and a report due. You wanna have something for them so that they’re gonna be successful … because it feels like a failure on your end if they can’t do it.  The theme of co-learning was seen by one host as a way to achieve reciprocity. This host worked for a large organization that worked with many different kinds of student placements including internships:  CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 13 of 31   We wanna make sure it’s gonna be a reciprocal relationship where we’re learning from them and they’re also learning from us. I think that by having interns it also reinvigorates our staff on a regular basis as well because it gives them an opportunity as well to see different uh ways of viewing things”.   He went on to say that the organization would definitely be keen to host another student because “we can … provide a lot of teaching and opportunities for somebody else.  I think that we have tons of history here and constantly have something going on and um, I think there’s lots of opportunities”.    An important insight was offered by one host who spoke about how learning to deal with disappointment was another important lesson for CSL students. “Part of the learning experience is that sometimes things don’t work and that in real life, that happens  …  but also it’s important to learn—to be disappointed!”  Another host had similar comment although in this case she was speaking about how both she and the student learned that some projects, no matter how good the idea might be, just never get off the ground. “I think she did learn quite a bit on how much work it is and how slow the process can be … she learned how the community wasn’t working very well, but she also could see from a community developer’s standpoint, the challenges”. This student learned a lot about community development and that not everything that is laid out in theory will happen in practice.   It was a good practical piece for her that some communities are ready and ready to engage and ready to go, and some are not.  And you have to just wait sometimes. So that was good for her to see.  ‘Okay, this is how it’s going to be.  In one of the placements which had not worked well for the student (she had encountered a lot of friction with one staff member), the host reflected on the value of that situation.   I remember [that placement] … because unfortunately it was one of the practicums that didn’t really work out.  So it does stick out in my mind.  But it also had me revisit the whole community service learning. If the possibility or opportunity ever comes around again to host somebody, and see how we can make it better and improve on the relationship that we have with it, I’m very open to it.   He continued on to comment that he hoped that UBC would continue to connect with the agency despite the difficulties of this placement.   The notion of a bridge between the learning happening in community and its link to academic content was also raised. While students learn from the hosts and students provide service, there needed, one host thought, to be a bridge, a way to help CSL students link their practice-based learning to their academic studies. She felt that she could not be this bridge.  We can be the community part, and they can do service, and they’ll learn, but they’re gonna learn from my perspective of what I think there is to learn in this setting, but not CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 14 of 31  necessarily bridging …[with]  the concepts that are part of what it is that they’re studying.  The notion of bridging was seen in a different way by another host who noted how the work undertaken by student placed in her agency had provided professional development to staff, and how it had brought some theory to their practice. She pondered how future CSL placements might involve setting up some in-service for staff. Community agencies rarely have time nor resources to support professional development. In one case, the CSL student had created a literature review that was useful to the organization, something they would never have time for. As the host noted: “it was really, really very phenomenal to have this as a resource and a legacy that will [carry] on”.   CSL was seen as an exchange of knowledge by this host:  Community service learning is an exchange of knowledge.  And the students, they need … to see themselves as participants … but also they are teaching. They are being role models … the knowledge exchange is both ways. And [when] I’m grading student segments … and when they are doing the reflection on what they did, I’m learning about stuff that I didn’t know, because of them, because they are sharing … their previous experiences.  In a similar vein, one host felt like she learned more than the student. “I don’t feel like I taught her anything. I feel like I learned from her as opposed to the other way around.” This host went on to say: “she just brought a whole different perspective into the development of a resource that I never had [and so] if people are open to like trying new things and to learning new things, then it’s a huge benefit”. Another host also spoke about the value of the CSL student bringing in a different worldview, most particularly with CSL students who are graduate students and have some knowledge to share.   It’s really great to have someone else come into your organization and for you to have to explain to them what you are and what you do. Sometimes we have the same kind of thinking [and] we don’t want to get stuck in groupthink.  And it’s nice to have someone who’s intelligent and inspiring from a whole other world come in and say, “Here’s a way of looking at this. If I was writing a guidebook, here’s how I would organize it” Oh my God, we never thought of that, because we always do it this way. So I think there is a lot of benefit from that.  And that’s why it excited me to be working with a university, particularly a graduate-level student, to bring in that kind thinking.  In one instance where the partnership was not a good match, the host described how the organization was operating at a more macro level with respect to policy and provision of support for front line workers; the agency itself was not involved in front line work in the field. She realized that the latter kind of placement was what the student wanted. “I think in the way we were able to guide her, is to tell her the [bigger] picture … and how it works, what role we play”  Reciprocity  CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 15 of 31  Closely linked to the above theme of co-learning is the matter of reciprocity. Indeed, the commitment to providing a space for student learning was regarded by one host who worked in a large community centre as a form of reciprocity. While his organization`s mandate was not education per se, by sharing their experience, he considered his organization as committed to education and the staff as educators. “It’s important for us to be able to convey that to up and coming students who may be interested in working in our field, or who are definitely interested in working in this field”.  Another host commented that the learning process should be thought of in broader terms, not just what occurred between the student and their community partner:   The learning is … more widely situated. [It’s] between other networks with community partners  - to hear some of the work that they’re working on, see potential synergies for collaborations, hear [about] students’ own experiences.  And so it’s not … [just] reciprocal between the student and the organization, [but rather] the larger group between myself and Education, or the CLI and Education.  I think it’s kind of a wider reciprocity that takes place.  Another host recognized that hosting CSL students took time, but as he noted, “For us, we think it’s a worthwhile investment of time because, you know, it’s someone who’s truly interested and keen in our—in working in our field”. This same host told a story of another placement where a middle aged student who was a mother worked with a youth program; initially the match between the student’s interests and those of the youth in the program student were not aligned. Things shifted, however,  in surprising ways.   The kids were like, “Why’s she in here?  Why is she hanging out?  Why is she trying to play pool with me?” It was really awkward for a long time.  And then … she came up with this baked potato idea.  All she wanted to do was show the kids how to bake a potato in the microwave—and the next thing you know, all of these kids are following her and doing it. We watched her transform … she walked out of here with way more confidence and big personality and some of these rough kids and these rough guys and girls who, you know, were all of a sudden like giving her hugs and, “Why are you leavin?”    Another host noted how important it was for the wider community to see that the student was from UBC. “The more out there in the community the universities can be, the better … [they see that] it’s not the ivory tower anymore … you need to see that it’s part of the community and … the research that they’re doing is connected”. She found that those she was working with had a very positive response when they learned the student was from UBC. She went on to note that having a UBC student involved in her project brought prestige. ”Like that’s a good thing … the partner receives prestige from having UBC graduate student with them”.   One host found the end of course supper event very meaningful.   Well I think the area of reciprocity I think that comes to mind … was actually attending that end of class event ... it’s a great way to … your own individual partnership with the student magnified into kind of a much larger situation [by] having a chance to hear and CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 16 of 31  see situations and that different kind of learning experiences that come out [and] how different partners … had benefited and impacted by having a student and vice versa—students being impacted by connecting with community partners.  In two placements, students brought their knowledge and skills as ESL and health education professionals. This was very welcomed by the hosts, as has been noted earlier in this report, who found that the interaction with the student contributed to their professional knowledge “To have somebody else with that perspective, and to be able to bounce ideas off—is really, it’s just really nice”. Another host who worked in an immigrant and settlement services agency highly valued the student placement and her background in ESL. “it was really, really very phenomenal to have this as a resource and a legacy”. The report written by this student has become a key aspect of the agency’s request for funding in addition to providing a resource for staff. “It’s become a benchmark within the agency … as well as resourcing our staff, our volunteers, it’s actually been resourceful to the agency for procuring funding potentially.”   There were two students placed in the above mentioned multicultural agency. The other project involved the student conducting interviews with participants in one of the agency’s programs. The host noted how the student used images in interviews which had worked very well given the different English language abilities of the participants. With respect to reciprocity, the host felt that the student improved his skills in using images as a research and teaching tool, something he had encountered in his own graduate learning. The agency also benefitted by using the images as they promote the program to the wider community and when they apply for funding. “We got some really great pictures and images and we’re looking at bringing that forward in different ways … as we promote the program or as we talk to the program about funders”.   Another host who worked in a large community agency noted that the work done by the CSL student pointed to some aspects of their services that were weak or missing; this information, he believed, was as valuable as hearing about their successes.   People are doing research on our community … and the majority of the time we end up with some incredible results … both in the in the positive work that we do, but also in areas that whether we need to improve on or communities that are getting missed.  The matter of power inequalities was raised by some hosts as an issue that made working reciprocally and collaboratively more challenging. Students are positioned lower in hierarchy.   You don’t want to take advantage of someone [because] it’s free labour. I’m telling you … there’s always work to do.  So there’s a temptation to say, ‘Great!  Great, you’re here.  Do this!’ You know?  And before you realize it, you’ve burned somebody out.   This concern about exploiting students `free labour` was also shared by another host whose organization had hundreds of volunteers. She reflected on one student who felt this quite strongly and it had a negative impact on her learning and relationships with the agency.   CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 17 of 31  Another host spoke about how the CSL student placed with her organization came with some knowledge of the issues and the struggles of their members, but through the placement, this student acquired a deeper appreciation.   She learned a lot more about [the issue the agency was working on]. She knew of it … because she works in news [and] she recalled seeing news stories about it. But for her to actually meet with the women and learn more about their issues, I think was helpful for her. Hopefully if our story ever comes to the newsroom then … she would have a better understanding of it and maybe be able to advocate for us within the media.   This partnership involved a CSL student who brought her experience of working with news media; she provided some workshops on that topic. The workshop participants benefitted by developing a better understanding of how the newsroom worked.   Recommendations and Suggestions  In our final question to study participants, we explored what recommendations they would make to us and to UBC regarding developing future partnerships between community and the university. In addition to asking this specific question, participants made numerous suggestions throughout the interview. Below we have listed these recommendations in point form. While they have been separated, many of these suggestions are interlinked:   1. Clarify Expectations: Establishing solid partnership requires that both UBC staff and faculty and the CSL host share the same understanding and expectations. Thus it is imperative that a clear statement regarding CSL and the responsibilities of students and hosts be developed, one that differentiates these kinds of placement from other student roles found in co-op programs, practica, and volunteer requirements.  Some of the strategies for establishing clarity are:  a. Prepare and Present Case Studies: To help clarify what is involved with CSL, case studies of previous CSL placements and projects could be prepared and presented to both staff in community agencies, as well as students before they begin their placements. This would help give a sense of what takes place in these partnerships, what students could do, and the role of staff in the agency.   b. Make Early and Regular Contact: UBC must contact organizations earlier in the process to ascertain their ability to host a student and to determine upcoming projects to which the student could contribute. Once a placement is made, UBC faculty/instructors should check in mid-way or at regular intervals with the host to evaluate the placement. Face to face meetings are preferable for these connections. For all CSL placements clear information must be provided about who should be contacted if there are questions or concerns.   CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 18 of 31  c. Clarify and Follow Agency Policy: It is important that UBC staff involved with CSL placements ascertain if agencies already have structures, staff and policies for working with student volunteers and follow those policies and procedures.  d. Clarify Lines of Power and Authority: UBC staff working to establish a partnership with a community organization should explore the structure, lines of decision-making connect and accountability, and make connection with the staff member who is the main contact for the CSL student in order that she/he is fully informed and included in discussions of expectations.  e. Consider Creating Formal Contracts: Creating a more formal contract between community agencies, CSL students and UBC instructor or faculty overseeing CSL placements should be considered. These contracts should allow for some flexibility and include times for review and opportunities for adjustments to be made.   2. Extend CSL Placements: It takes time to establish partnerships, clarify the relationships, and complete the work; most CSL projects cannot be completed in the time frame of a one term academic course. In most cases, students’ placements and their CSL partnerships should extend across two regular terms (e.g. each 13 weeks).   3. Establish Central Office: UBC should consider creating a central office or clearinghouse of some kind, one that community agencies and organizations could contact if they had questions or were seeking to have CSL placements. Given the size of UBC and the diversity of units, such an office must be staffed by those who are knowledgeable of the campus, its diverse faculties and units, and what kinds of community engagement is already taking place and who is involved. A central office, if established, must be linked to the different faculty and units on campus which should each have a point person or office to receive these queries and find the appropriate person to respond.  4. Avoid Saturation: Many potential community partners receive multiple requests to place students. UBC faculty and staff need to anticipate that some community partners may feel inundated and saturated by such requests from faculty and students, as well as non-students who are seeking volunteer experiences. Early communication is important as is exploring whether this is the case.   5. Secure Sources of Funding: CSL involves out of pocket expenses, such as travel, for both students and UBC faculty. Other costs can arise that relate to providing support and resources for placement hosts. When undertaking CSL initiatives, UBC staff and faculty should determine what funding is available to cover these expenses and also advocate for wider access to existing resources as well as increased funding.   6. Avoid One Size Fits All: It is important to appreciate that each partnership and placement is unique and that organizational life is dynamic and faces many challenges and changes. It is thus important to avoid using a one-size-fits-all approach to building CSL partnerships. Any protocols that are put in place need to be revisited and adjusted.   CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 19 of 31  7. Include Community Partners: as UBC moves forward with expanding students’ CSL experiences, it needs to keep in regular contact with community agencies and include their perspectives when making policy, undertaking research, and implementing CSL activities. Given the wide variety of community organizations who partner with UBC and their different capacities and needs, outreach needs to be flexible and dynamic and a diversity of community partners should be involved in decision making.   Conclusion  In this study we sought to understand hosts’ perspectives about how CSL partnerships contribute to their community organizations’ capacity to meet their mandates, how their organization was impacted by CSL student placements, what roles they played in supporting students’ learning, and what recommendations they would make to UBC to build respectful and mutually beneficial partnerships? We appreciate the time given by the hosts/partners to support students during their placements and to speak with us for this research project.  In summary, all hosts spoke positively about having a CSL student, most particularly having graduate students who come to their placements as they bring more experience, knowledge and skills than most undergraduate students. In a few cases, the student’s project made a significant contribution to the organization and enhanced their capacity to provide services and access funding. Hosts noted how having a graduate student who brought considerable knowledge and expertise was an opportunity for their own professional development. Even in those cases where there were difficulties with the placement or a mismatch between hosts’ and students’ interests, the partners spoke about learning from these engagements and wanting to work again with CSL students.  Hosts devoted a lot of time and energy on creating a good match or aligning students’ skills and interests with their organization’s needs. They provided some useful feedback on how these partnerships and matching can be facilitated such as the importance of UBC faculty and staff connecting early, as well keeping in touch throughout the placement. Clearer information about what CSL students are expected to do is needed as well as an appreciation that many hosts receive a variety of requests from students for volunteer, co-op and practicum placements. Several organizations already had procedures and policies for how they responded to student inquiries and these procedures need to be understood by UBC.   Time is an ongoing issue that impacts making the most of these partnerships given that academic schedules and students’ schedules often do not match the temporal realities of community organizations. Some CSL projects can be completed in one term but most projects need more time, indeed many of the CSL students in EDST 520 spent far more hours than the 25 hours that were initially suggested and extended their connections with their community partner past the end of the course. As noted above, hosts suggested that UBC faculty and staff connect with them early so that organizations can inform UBC of the time line of their projects.  We were impressed with the hosts’ commitment to supporting students’ learning and their concern for students’ complicated lives and schedules. There is a lot of co-learning occurring CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 20 of 31  whereby community hosts and CSL students are learning from and teaching each other. Students learned about the organizations’ mandates, the needs of their constituents, and of the ebb and flow of community services, including how some initiatives, despite good planning and intentions, do not get off the ground. Many students came with theories and then learned about practical realities.   In our analysis of the interviews, we were struck by an overarching theme of relationality, that is, the relationships between UBC faculty/instructors, students, and the agencies. We see relationships as a key dimension of building partnerships that are mutually beneficial and where there is reciprocity. CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 21 of 31  Appendix A  EDST 520 Perspectives on Adult Education Practice:  Focus on Community Service Learning  January 2011 5 Tuesdays 4:30pm – 7:30pm*  Location: Scarfe Building Room 202 plus some off campus locations TBD INSTRUCTORS:  Shauna Butterwick, email: shauna.butterwick@ubc.ca; PH: 604-822-3897: OFFICE: Rm 104 Ponderosa H Jennifer Chan: Jennifer.chan@ubc.ca; PH: 604-822-5353; OFFICE: Rm G31     *NB: The course will include five classes, three on campus and two (we hope) at a community location (to be determined); these classes will be at intervals throughout the course. Students will be working with local community agencies and organizations for the remainder of the course hours plus there will be some activities/discussions on the web. Field placements will be determined early in the course.   Course Overview: The purpose of this course is to explore the meaning and practice of Community Service Learning (CSL), an important arena of adult learning and higher education. CSL is defined as “a method under which students learn and develop through active participation in thoughtfully organized service experiences that meet actual community needs, that are integrated into the student’s academic curriculum or provide structured time for reflection, and that enhance what is taught in school by extending student learning beyond the classroom and into the community (Rhoads & Howard, 1998 as cited in Richter-Hauk, R., 2003, p.405). CSL has been fully embraced in US post secondary institutions and is rapidly becoming an approach to student development in Canadian universities. Here at UBC, while CSL is a relatively new development, it is expanding rapidly through the Learning Exchange which, in 2009, had over 1000 students involved in some form of CSL (Fryer, 2009) who were from a wide variety of disciplines (e.g. Engineering, Arts, Biology) and who studied with and in a variety of communities.   CSL research points to how students develop deeper cultural understanding, more active civic engagement, and accrue both vocational and personal benefits. While CSL seems to offer great benefit to students, little attention has been given to what benefits communities receive (how community is defined), and also how community agencies undertake a pedagogic role. In adult education research, CSL has only recently begun to receive attention.   Course Objectives: By the end of the course students will have:  CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 22 of 31  1. reviewed and developed a deeper understanding of the major approaches to and models of CSL.  2. examined CSL as a key arena of adult learning  3. explored what meanings are given to community in CSL discourse and practice 4. considered how CSL addresses goals of social justice 5. experienced a CSL placement and through that examined the benefits and challenges for both themselves as students and for their host agency.   Course Materials:  The readings assigned for this class are all available on the web (see schedule for web links identified with this icon . If these links don’t work, go into the UBC library system and search from there.  Scholarly Integrity  The integrity of academic work depends on the honesty of all those who work in this environment and the observance of accepted conventions such as acknowledging the work of others through careful citation of all sources used in your work. Plagiarism - including self-plagiarism - and other forms of academic misconduct are treated as serious offences at UBC, whether  committed by faculty, staff or students. You should be aware of the sections of the University Calendar that address academic integrity ( http://students.ubc.ca/calendar/) and plagiarism ( http://www.vpacademic.ubc.ca/integrity/policies.htm/  ). The UBC library also has a useful web-based Plagiarism Resource Centre that  explains what plagiarism is and how to avoid it  ( www.library.ubc.ca/home/plagiarism/). If you have questions or concerns about any of these policies or conventions in relation to how they apply to the work you do in this course, please discuss them with me.  Minimum Expectations   Each student is expected to:  1. Participate actively in class sessions. Active participation means that you engage with others in discussions of the ideas found in the readings and presented in class. It also means that you are responsive to the contributions of others, that you do not dominate the limited discussion time and that you respect the right of others to hold and express views different from your own. Because much of the course content will be discussed in class, attendance at each class session is considered very important.    2. Carefully read “required” materials prior to the sessions at which they will be discussed. As a student in a graduate-level course you will be expected to identify, acquire, read, and critically analyse other materials related to course assignments. Reading materials necessary to complete assignments will be placed on reserve in the Education Library, Scarfe Building, but you are encouraged to use other materials as well.     CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 23 of 31  3. Submit written assignments to the instructor within agreed-upon time limits. UBC has no grade of “incomplete” so if the final deadline passes for submitting assignments and you have not submitted yours, your mark will be based on only the work you have submitted. Grades can be “deferred” only if you submit a note from a physician.    4. Assist in improving the course by providing constructive criticism to the instructor and by participating in formal evaluation of the course.  Keeping a Journal:  We strongly encourage students in this class to keep a journal or log of activities starting from the very beginning of their CSL placements and including early communications with potential hosts, determining projects and tasks, etc.  In that journal or log, also note any concerns or issues arising, any insights or skills/knowledge developing and personal reflections.  Include descriptive notes as well as reflective notes about how you are feeling (nervous, anxious, excited, upset, joyful etc). This log or journal will be very helpful to our discussions when we meet as a whole class; you can refer to them as we discuss your placements. Furthermore, keeping a log or journal will help you to prepare your assignments. We won’t be asking you to submit your journals but the information you keep and share with us will help us to determine the practicalities of CSL course.  Assignments:  There are four assignments for this course including critical reflection of readings (20%), CSL proposal (25%), postcards (15%) and final report (40%). These assignments will be evaluated on their comprehensiveness (all aspects of the assignment have been completed); critical reflexivity (extent of your critical engagement with the issues and their relationship to your experiences and learning), and quality of writing and organization.  1. Critical Reflection on Readings (20%): The purpose of this assignment is for students to document their understanding of the readings (and information provided by the guest speaker) assigned to the first two classes. In your paper create a narrative that integrates the key arguments being made in the assigned six readings and include your reflections on these arguments from your perspective and lived experience e.g. what insights did you gain, what questions remain, what elements to you agree or disagree with. Your paper should be written in an essay form which includes an introduction, use of subheadings, conclusion, and reference list. The essay must provide: (1) a summary of the arguments in the reading(s), (2) your own critiques of the reading(s) and (3) a critical reflection on the ideas and your experiences.   Prepare a typed (no smaller than 12 point please) 5 page 1.5 to 2.0 spaced paper. Post this paper on the course website.   CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 24 of 31  Due: Tuesday, January 18th Marks: 20%  2. Proposal for CSL placement (25%): The purpose of this assignment is to have students outline their proposed plan for the work to be undertaken with the chosen organization during the CSL placement. The proposal provides a roadmap for yourself, the organization, as well as your faculty supervisors. These proposals should be signed off by your CSL placement host. Include in your 5 page report the following: I)     Introduction/Context – WHY do you choose this specific organization and area? II)   Organization – give a brief description of the organization and community you have chosen to engage with. III) Objectives and Focus– what do you plan to do during your 8-10 weeks there? Why?  What specific ‘products’ will you produce for the agency? IV) Location/Ethics of Engagement- who you are and where you are located in relation to the agency and the communities it serves, and any other issues of ethical engagement and reciprocity. Note what kinds of supports that the agency will be providing (meetings, orientation, work space (if appropriate)) – this will vary considerably and will depend on the project or tasks/activities you will be undertaking. IV) Timeline for your work there V)   Conclusion: Issues/Concerns  Prepare a typed (no smaller than 12 point please) 5 page 1.5 to 2.0 spaced paper. Post this paper on the course website.   NB: The proposal should be agreed to by your CSL host. To provide evidence of this,  send them the proposal and ask that they respond to you (via email)and to both of the course instructors, and in their email indicate that they agree with the proposal.  Due: Friday, February11th  Marks: 25%  3. Postcards from the field (5 marks each = 15%): The purpose of this assignment is to document what you are learning about the organization or agency, about community-university relationships, and about the particular work or tasks you are undertaking during your CSL placement.  Each of these postings to be put on the course website should be 1-2 pages long. They should be partly descriptive (e.g. describe the work you have undertaken, the connection with the agency and the nature of the relationships), and partly reflective (reflect on how you are learning and matters of reciprocity and mutuality, issues of difference and power).  Complete and post on the course website three of these memos or postcards.  Due Dates*: Feb 22 & March 11 & 25th CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 25 of 31  (*Due dates for these reflections might differ depending on the timing of work you are undertaking; please contact that instructors about this) Marks: 15% (5 marks each)  4. Final CSL Report (40%): For your CSL placement report, reflect upon your experience of the past semester. In your 10-page CSL report, focus on the work completed, what you’ve learned, your relationship with the CSL host, and your understanding of the issues/challenges facing the community organization. In particular, reflect upon the relationships between CSL and the concepts we have explored in class through the readings and class discussions including (but not limited to ) such notions as social justice, interdependence, experiential learning, charity, reciprocity, mutual benefit, the meaning of community, and the idea of CSL hosts as educators.   Post this assignment on the course website and also bring a hard copy to class. Due Tuesday, April 5th Marks: 40%  Schedule  Tuesday, January 4th Introduction to course, overview of CSL                                                    In this first class, we will review the meaning of CSL, the various approaches to its conceptualization and discuss the requirements for the course. Please come having read the course syllabus and the required readings.  Cooks, L.; Scharrer, E. & Castaneda Paredes, M. (2004). Toward a social approach to learning in community service learning. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 44-56.   http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/EJ852918.pdf   Bruce, J. & Brown, S. (2010). Conceptualising service-learning in global times. Critical Literacy: Theories and Practices,  4(1), 6-15.    http://criticalliteracy.freehostia.com/index.php?journal=criticalliteracy&page=article&op=viewFile&path%5B%5D=49&path%5B%5D=36  Verjee, B. (2010). Service-Learning: Charity-Based or Transformative? Transformative Dialogues: Teaching and Learning Journal, 4(2), 1-13. http://kwantlen.ca/TD/Current_Issue.html  Tuesday, January 11th Community Service Learning, Knowledge Production, and Social Justice CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 26 of 31  In this second class, we will continue to examine the theories applied to CSL, how it has been linked to notions of citizenship and social justice.  NB: Special Guest: Susan Grossman, UBC CSL Coordinator  Crabtree, R.D. (2008). Theoretical foundations for international service-learning. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 15 (1), 18-36. http://eric.ed.gov/PDFS/EJ831380.pdf   Mitchell, T. D. 2007. Critical Service-Learning as Social Justice Education: A Case Study of the Citizen Scholars Program. Equity and Excellence in Education, 40 (2), 101-112.   http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?hid=18&sid=f558c26b-1d33-45b0-87ec-fd9777e49a5b%40sessionmgr12&vid=2   Mitchell, C. & Humphries, H. (2007). From notion of charity to social justice in service-learning: The complex experience of communities. Education as Change, 11(3), 47-58  http://www.informaworld.com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/smpp/title~db=all~content=g915315300  February 1  Location, Reciprocity, and Community Engagement In this class, we will be considering the notions of reciprocity and the different social locations of CSL students and the communities where they are placed.  Keith, N.Z. (2005).Community service learning in the face of globalization: Rethinking theory and practice. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 11(2), 5-24.   http://eric.ed.gov/PDFS/EJ848468.pdf   McCabe. M. (2004). Strengthening pedagogy and praxis in cultural anthropology and service-learning: insights from postcolonialism. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 10 (3), 16-29.  http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=mjcsl;view=toc;idno=3239521.0010.302  Endres, D. & Gould, M. (2009). I am also in the position to use my whiteness to help them out: The communication of whiteness in service learning. Western Journal of Communication, 73(4), 418-436   http://pdfserve.informaworld.com/452998_917248827_916214774.pdf CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 27 of 31    Tuesday, March 1st  Issues: Power Relations and Mutual Benefit  Butin, Dan W. (2003). Of what use is it? Multiple conceptualizations of service learning within education, Teachers College Record, 105 (9), 1674-1692.  http://jazzoetry.net/msu_docs/grabill/al841/multiple%20concepts.pdf  Blouin, D. D. and Perry, E. M. (2009). Whom does service learning really serve? Community based organizations’ perspectives on service learning, Teaching Sociology, Vol 37, 120-135.  http://tso.sagepub.com/content/37/2/120.full.pdf+html Bickford, D.M. & Reynolds, N. (2002). Activism and service-learning: Reframing volunteerism as acts of dissent. Pedagogy: Critical approaches to Teaching Literature, Language, Composition and Culture, 2(2), 229-252 http://pedagogy.dukejournals.org/cgi/reprint/2/2/229  Ivan Illich (1968) “To Hell With Good Intentions” Speech given to Conference on InterAmerican Student Projects (CIASP) in Cuernavaca, Mexico, on April 20, 1968.  http://www.swaraj.org/illich_hell.htm   Tuesday, April 5th  Final class: reports In preparation for today’s class read your classmates report (posted on the web) and come ready to present a short overview of your CSL placement and to discuss some themes emerging from these experiences. We hope to invite the CSL hosts to this  final class.  CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 28 of 31  Appendix B Interview questions  (Version date October 10, 2012)  1.What community or communities does your organization work with? What programs do you offer?   2.How often do you get approached to host a student in your organization or agency? If yes, how do you handle these requests? Does your organization have policies or procedures for working with students and volunteers?  3.Thanks for hosting [add name of CSL student] at your organization last year. Can you tell me what she did during her placement?   4.In most cases we approached you (or the student did), and asked if you would be willing to host a student. How did you decide to say yes to our request? What motivated you to respond positively?   5.How does community service learning (CSL) contribute to your organization’s work?   6.One of our interests in this research is how organizations are teaching students and are sites of learning. What was your role in the student’s learning? How did your organization act as a learning environment for the student?   7.What did your staff or clients learn from hosting a CSL student? How did this learning contribute to your organization?   8.In general, what were the benefits you, your organization and your clients gained from working with the student? Were there any challenges working with the student?   9.We are interested in determining how to create service learning partnerships where both the student and the organization benefit. Related to this, do you see the relationship between your organization and the student as reciprocal and if so can you tell a story about this?   10.What recommendations do you have for successful partnerships and for working with UBC students in the future? How would you describe a successful partnership?   11.Do you have any other feedback or reflections you would like to share with me?    CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 29 of 31  Appendix C Letter to Students  Dear Students: The EDST 520 course that you are enrolled in for next term will focus on Community Service Learning as a site of Adult Learning and in that respect it will involve time working with a community agency - the location of your CSL work will be determined in the beginning of the course. Students should anticipate about 20-25 hours for their CSL component of the course.   Please review the summary of the course available on the EDST course schedule website:  http://edst.educ.ubc.ca/current/courses/courses-winter-20102011   Jennifer Chan will be co-teaching this course with me. Jennifer has experience with CSL in her courses and connections with a variety of community groups; we are looking forward to working together on this course.  CLASSROOM LEARNING: Please note that we will be meeting in class for five sessions during the term. Please note that two of the class meetings will be held off campus (at a central location accessible by bus) - the latter location is still to be determined. Here is a list of dates for the classes: January 4 January 11 February 1 March 1 April 5   COMMUNITY-BASED LEARNING: For the remainder of the time in this course you will be mainly working with an agency or organization and also working online mainly posting reflections about CSL experiences on the course website.  The actual CSL tasks you will undertake will be determined in negotiation with the staff of the agency or organization (with some assistance from us). We hope that you can bring some of your existing skills and knowledge and help the organization undertake a piece of work that is important to them. We anticipate that you should be spending about 20 hours on these projects. For those who are working full time, this might involve an initial connection with the agency and then undertaking some tasks that do not require you to be present at the agency or organization. For others who have more time, some of the CSL experience could be spent at the site of the organization.  COMMUNITY SERVICE LEARNING PLACEMENTS:  To help us plan ahead and help you find an organization to work with, we would appreciate you sending us your responses to the following questions:  1. Background: please tell us a bit about where you currently work, other work experiences, and your education background. Tell us what skills you have that you can bring to working with a CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 30 of 31  community agency e.g. planning, designing, research, etc.  2. What do you want to learn from this course?  3. What kind of organization or agency would you like to engage with during the CSL component? If you are unsure at this point, tell us which area/sector you would like to work in...  4. If you already have some connections with a community organization or agency (e.g. through your volunteer or paid work) where some of the other EDST 520 students might undertake their CSL work, please list them here with contact names and emails or phone numbers.  Please send this information by November 22, 2010 to shauna.butterwick@ubc.ca and Jennifer.chan@ubc.ca     CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 31 of 31  Appendix D Letter to Hosts  T H E  U N I V E R S I T Y  O F  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A   Department of Educational Studies Mailing address: 2125 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C.  Canada  V6T 1Z4 Tel:  604-822-3897 Fax: 604-822-4244 http://www.edst.educ.ubc.ca  January 2011  We hope this note finds you well! We are writing to you as faculty members in the Department of Educational Studies in the Adult Education Program in the Faculty of Education at UBC. We are offering a community service learning (CSL) course starting January 2011 for graduate students in adult education and other educational fields. We are writing to invite you to join us for this collaboration. The purpose of this course is to provide students with opportunities to read about CSL, look at research done on this area of practice, and also have a CSL 'placement' experience. We are focusing on Community Service Learning (CSL) as it's an important arena of adult learning and higher education. CSL is defined as a method under which students learn and develop through active participation in thoughtfully organized service experiences that meet actual community needs.  Would your organization be interested in hosting a non-paid student part-time for about 20 to 25 hours over 8-10 weeks, between January-early April 2011? CSL provides a great opportunity for community organizations to work with a student to begin or complete a punctual task/project, train the next generation of community service workers, and get the word out about your organization's activities and mission. At the same time, students benefit greatly from working on an actual project in a community setting, making connections between adult education knowledge and praxis, and becoming the bridge between the community and UBC.  The graduate students usually have a wide range of academic and practitioner's background in health, sociology, women's studies, economics, and political science etc. as well as rich life skills. The CSL placement will take occur under our supervision as faculty members. Students are required to submit both a proposal at the beginning of the semester and present their final report in early April. We will be inviting the CSL hosts to our final class on Tuesday February 5th (more details about the evening time and location will follow). There will also be opportunities to prolong the engagement should both parties desire to do so. Most of the students are working as well as attending school so the time commitment and tasks to be completed need to be negotiated between you and the student (with our help if needed.  If you or your colleagues are interested in exploring this collaboration opportunity, please do not CLI Report/ Version Date: May 1, 2014 Page 32 of 31  hesitate to contact us. We will be happy to meet with you and/or talk to you on the phone on the details. Our contact information is as follows: Shauna Butterwick/ shauna.butterwick@ubc.ca; 604-822-3897 Jennifer Chan/ Jennifer.chan@ubc.ca/ 604-822-5353  Thank you in advance for considering this exciting opportunity. We hope to hear from you soon!   

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