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Scholars of Hellenistic Uruk Monroe, M. Willis Nov 17, 2017

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Poll: Religious Group (v5) Published on: 17 November 2017Date Range: 330 BCE - 125 BCERegion: UrukRegion tags: Middle East, MesopotamiaThe city of Uruk under the Seleucid dynasty.Scholars of Hellenistic UrukData source: Database of religion history (DRH)By M. Willis Monroe, University of British ColumbiaEntry tags: Religion, Mesopotamian Religions, Babylonian ReligionsThe cuneiform scholars of the Hellenistic period attached to the temples in the city of Uruk in southernMesopotamia.Status of Participants:✓ Elite ✓ Religious SpecialistsSourcesPrint sources for understanding this subject:Online sources for understanding this subject:Relevant online primary textual corpora (original languages and/or translations):General VariablesMembership/Group InteractionsSource 1: Steele, J. “Astronomy and Culture in Late Babylonian Uruk.” In “Oxford IX” International Symposiumon Archaeoastronomy Proceedings IAU Symposium, edited by C. Ruggles, 331–41. 278, 2011.—Source 2: Clancier, P. “Cuneiform Culture’s Last Guardians: The Old Urban Notability of Hellenistic Uruk.” InThe Oxford Handbook of Cuneiform Culture, edited by K. Radner and E. Robson, 752–73. Oxford Handbooks.Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.—Source 3: Beaulieu, P. “The Astronomers of the Esagil Temple in the Fourth Century BC.” In If a Man Builds aJoyful House: Assyriological Studies in Honor of Erle Verdun Leichty, edited by A. Guinan, M. de J. Ellis, A.Ferrara, S. Freedman, M. Rutz, L. Sassmannshausen, S. Tinney, and M. Waters, 5–22. Cuneiform Monographs,v. 31. Leiden: Brill, 2006.—Source 1 URL: http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/cams/gkab/—Source 1 Description: Geography of Knowledge - Corpus of Ancient Mesopotamian Scholarship—Source 1 URL: http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/cams/gkab/corpus/—Source 1 Description: Geography of Knowledge - Corpus of Ancient Mesopotamian Scholarship—DOI: URL: https://religiondatabase.org/browse/354You are free to use this document for non-profit purposes as long as it is properly cited and not modified.Please see our Terms of Use here:https://religiondatabase.org/about/creditsPage 1 of 25© 2017 Database of Religious History.The University of British Columbia.For any questions contactproject.manager@religiondatabase.orgAre other religious groups in cultural contact with target religion:Notes: Hellenistic Babylonia is a melting pot of cultures and religions from around the wider Middle East andEastern Mediterranean.Does the religious group have a general process/system for assigning religious affiliation:Notes: Usage of dual names and mixed identity make understanding this process difficult in the Hellenisticperiod. There are certainly official titles within the temple which must preclude membership, but a generalaffiliation is more difficult to ascertain. The members of this group in Uruk would use the title "sons of Uruk",but this title is not always present in the textual record (Clancier, 757).Does the religious group actively proselytize and recruit new members:Notes: Not sure what recruitment would look like in this period.Does the religion have official political supportYes—Is the cultural contact competitive:Notes: During the Neo-Babylonian period sources like the Book of Daniel might hint at competitivecultural contact, but during this period this is little evidence that the scholars were competing withanother religious group.Is the cultural contact accommodating/pluralistic:Notes: There is no evidence that belief in Greek gods competed with native deities in the minds of thescholars of Uruk.Is the cultural contact neutral:Is there violent conflict (within sample region):Notes: During this period the scholars are not involved in any violent clashes with other religious groups.Is there violent conflict (with groups outside the sample region):Notes: There is conflict on a polity level, but no violent conflict within the religious group.No—Yes—Yes—No—No—Field doesn't know—Field doesn't know—Monroe, Database of Religious History, 2017 Page 2 of 25Notes: While it is not the belief of the Hellenistic rulers themselves, there seems to be some relation betweenthe Seleucid kings and the temple officials (Clancier, 761). There certainly was patronage of the Mesopotamianscholars by the Seleucid kings.Is there a conception of apostasy in the religious group:Notes: The closest we have to abandonment of religion is the "Poem of the Righteous Sufferer" where thespeaker talks of neglecting the gods.Size and StructureNumber of adherents of religious group within sample region (estimated population, numerical):Notes: We can posit a small group of scholars working on tablets, but the size of their extended families isYes—Are the priests paid by polity:Is religious infrastructure paid for by the polity:Notes: Antiochus I restores temples in Babylon and BorsippaAre the head of the polity and the head of the religion the same figure:Are political officials equivalent to religious officials:Notes: Although in some cases they might be related through familial ties.Is religious observance enforced by the polity:Polity legal code is roughly coterminous with religious code:Polity provides preferential economic treatment (e.g. tax, exemption)No—Yes—No—No—No—No—Yes—No—Field doesn't know—Monroe, Database of Religious History, 2017 Page 3 of 25unknown. Beaulieu (20) cites 14 astronomers working for the temple at one point in time, but we don't knowthe number of their dependents and extended family, who presumably had some stake in the religious practice.Number of adherents of religious group within sample region (% of sample region population,numerical):Nature of religious group [please select one]:Are there recognized leaders in the religious group:Field doesn't know—Small religious group (one of many small religious groups in sample region)—Yes—Is there a hierarchy among these leaders:Are leaders believed to possess supernatural powers or qualities:Are religious leaders chosen:Notes: Leaders of the religious group are hired by the temple, often these roles are passed downthrough families. "... the position was hereditary, yet subject to some examination to evaluate thecandidate's competence..." (Beaulieu, 17)Are leaders considered fallible:Yes—A single leader of a local community:No—No—Yes—A leader chooses his/her own replacement:A leader’s retinue or ministers chooses the new leader:Other leaders in the religious group choose that leader:Yes—Yes—Yes—Monroe, Database of Religious History, 2017 Page 4 of 25ScriptureDoes the religious group have scriptures:Scripture is a generic term used to designate revered texts that are considered particularly authoritative andsacred relative to other texts. Strictly speaking, it refers to written texts, but there are also “oral scriptures”(e.g. the Vedas of India).Are close followers or disciples of a religious leader required to obediently and unquestionablyaccept the leader's pronouncements on all matters:Field doesn't know—Field doesn't know—Yes—Are they written:Are they oral:Are the scriptures alterable:Notes: Texts like the Epic of Creation were altered in the past, substituting one god for another.Are there formal institutions (i.e. institutions that are authorized by the religious communityor political leaders) for interpreting the scriptures:Is there a select group of people trained in transmitting the scriptures:Yes—No—Yes—Yes—Can interpretation also take place outside these institutions:Interpretation is only allowed by officially sanctioned figures:Notes: There is a formal language around secrecy and those initiated into the cult havingaccess to knowledge.Yes—Yes—Yes—Monroe, Database of Religious History, 2017 Page 5 of 25Architecture, GeographyIs monumental religious architecture present:Are there different types of religious monumental architecture:Notes: There are many religious structures and compounds throughout Mesopotamian cities, these can be assmall as wall niches in households to large complexes dominating the center of urban space.Is iconography present:Notes: The scribes of this period spent their lifetime learning how to read, interpret, and transmit thereligious texts of their belief and profession.Is there a codified canon of scriptures:No—Yes—Yes—Temples:Altars:Devotional markers:Mass gathering point [plazas, courtyard, square. Places permanently demarcated using visibleobjects or structures]:Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Where is iconography present [select all that apply]:Are there distinct features in the religious group's iconography:On persons—At home—All public spaces—Monroe, Database of Religious History, 2017 Page 6 of 25Are there specific sites dedicated to sacred practice or considered sacred:Are pilgrimages present:Notes: Gods and priests will process to visit other gods.BeliefsBurial and AfterlifeIs a spirit-body distinction present:Answer “no” only if personhood (or consciousness) is extinguished with death of the physical body. Answering yesdoes not necessarily imply the existence of Cartesian mind/body dualism, merely that some element of personhood(or consciousness) survives the death of the body.Yes—Supernatural beings (zoomorphic):Supernatural beings (anthropomorphic):Supernatural beings (abstract symbol):Humans:Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Are sacred site oriented to ecological features:Yes—Yes—Yes—Spirit-mind is conceived of as having qualitatively different powers or properties than otherbody parts:No—Monroe, Database of Religious History, 2017 Page 7 of 25Belief in afterlife:Reincarnation in this world:Are there special treatments for adherents' corpses:Are co-sacrifices present in tomb/burial:Notes: While there are examples from earlier in Mesopotamian history, during this period there is no suchpractice.Are grave goods present:Are formal burials present:Supernatural BeingsSpirit-mind is conceived of as non-material, ontologically distinct from body:No—Yes—Is the spatial location of the afterlife specified or described by the religious group:Yes—Afterlife in specified realm of space beyond this world:Afterlife in vaguely defined “below” space:No—Yes—No—Yes—No—Yes—Valuable items:Yes—Field doesn't know—Monroe, Database of Religious History, 2017 Page 8 of 25Are supernatural beings present:Yes—A supreme high god is present:Yes—The supreme high god is anthropomorphic:The supreme high god is a sky deity:The supreme high god has knowledge of this world:Notes: The gods in many cases can see everything, but care little about human affairs.The supreme high god has deliberate causal efficacy in the world:Yes—Yes—Yes—The supreme god's knowledge is restricted to particular domain of humanaffairs:The supreme high god's knowledge is restricted to (a) specific area(s) withinthe sample region:The supreme high god's knowledge is unrestricted within the sample region:The supreme high god's knowledge is unrestricted outside of sample region:The supreme high god can see you everywhere normally visible (in public):No—No—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—The supreme high god can reward:Monroe, Database of Religious History, 2017 Page 9 of 25Previously human spirits are present:The supreme high god has indirect causal efficacy in the world:The supreme high god exhibits positive emotion:The supreme high god exhibits negative emotion:The supreme high god possesses hunger:Is it permissible to worship supernatural beings other than the high god:The supreme high god communicates with the living:The supreme high god can punish:Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—In dreams:Through divination practices:Only through religious specialists:Only through monarchYes—Yes—No—No—Monroe, Database of Religious History, 2017 Page 10 of 25Non-human supernatural beings are present:Does the religious group possess a pantheon of supernatural beings:Yes—Human spirits can be seen:Human spirits can be physically felt:Yes—Yes—Yes—These supernatural beings can be seen:These supernatural beings can be physically felt:Non-human supernatural beings have knowledge of this world:Non-human supernatural beings have deliberate causal efficacy in the world:These supernatural beings have indirect causal efficacy in the world:Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Organized by kinship based on a family model:Organized hierarchically:Power of beings is domain specific:Yes—Yes—Monroe, Database of Religious History, 2017 Page 11 of 25Supernatural MonitoringIs supernatural monitoring present:This refers to surveillance by supernatural beings of humans’ behaviour and/or thought particularly as it relates tosocial norms or potential norm violations.Notes: I wouldn't say that supernatural beings had a internal list of behaviors they monitor. Rather, they areinvoked to care about something through an oath or ritual which then makes it their concern. What I havemarked below are the most common items they are used to monitor.Yes—Yes—There is supernatural monitoring of prosocial norm adherence in particular:Prosocial norms are norms that enhance cooperation among members of the group, including obviously“moral” or “ethical” norms, but also extending to norms concerning honouring contracts and oaths,providing hospitality, coming to mutual aid in emergencies, etc.Supernatural beings care about taboos:Supernatural beings care about murder of coreligionists:Supernatural beings care about murder of members of other religions:Supernatural beings care about murder of members of other polities:Yes—Yes—Food:Sacred space(s):Sacred object(s):Yes—Yes—Yes—Field doesn't know—Field doesn't know—Field doesn't know—Monroe, Database of Religious History, 2017 Page 12 of 25Do supernatural beings mete out punishment:Notes: Supernatural beings can punish members in anyway they see fit.Supernatural beings care about honouring oaths:Supernatural beings care about sorcery:Supernatural beings care about proper ritual observance:Supernatural beings care about performance of rituals:Supernatural beings care about conversion of non-religionists:Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—No—Yes—Is the cause or agent of supernatural punishment known:Yes—Done only by high god:Done by many supernatural beings:Done through impersonal cause-effect principle:Notes: There are times when you might associate a general negative event in your lifepotentially with the actions of a supernatural being.Done by other entities or through other means [specify]Notes: Demons and spirits have the power to pursue and punish humans.No—Yes—Yes—Yes—Monroe, Database of Religious History, 2017 Page 13 of 25Is the reason for supernatural punishment known:Supernatural punishments are meted out in the afterlife:Supernatural punishments are meted out in this lifetime:Yes—Done to enforce religious ritual-devotional adherence:Done to enforce group norms:Done to inhibit selfishness:Done randomly:Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—No—Yes—Supernatural punishments in this life are highly emphasized by the religious group:Punishment in this life consists of bad luck:Punishment in this life consists of political failure:Notes: While members of this group are mostly not involved in politics they would understandpunishment as being related to potential political failure.Punishment in this life consists of defeat in battle:Notes: See the above comment, these members are not involved in armed combat, butpunishment could consist of defeat if they were.Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Monroe, Database of Religious History, 2017 Page 14 of 25Do supernatural beings bestow rewards:Notes: Supernatural beings can reward members in any way they see fit.Punishment in this life consists of crop failure or bad weather:Punishment in this life consists of disaster on journeys.Punishment in this life consists of mild sensory displeasure:Punishment in this life consists of extreme sensory displeasure:Punishment in this life consists of sickness or illness:Punishment in this life consists of impaired reproduction:Punishment in this life consists of bad luck visited on descendants:Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Is the cause/purpose of supernatural rewards known:Supernatural rewards are bestowed out in the afterlife:Notes: Generally rewards in the afterlife are provided by your descendants observance of funeraryrights.Supernatural rewards are bestowed out in this lifetime:Yes—Done by many supernatural beings:Yes—No—Monroe, Database of Religious History, 2017 Page 15 of 25Messianism/EschatologyYes—Reward in this life consists of good luck:Reward in this life consists of political success or power:Reward in this life consists of success in battle:Reward in this life consists of peace or social stability:Reward in this life consists of healthy crops or good weather:Reward in this life consists of success on journeys:Reward in this life consists of mild sensory pleasure:Reward in this life consists of extreme sensory pleasure:Reward in this life consists of enhanced health:Reward in this life consists of enhanced reproductive success:Reward in this life consists of fortune visited on descendants:Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Yes—Monroe, Database of Religious History, 2017 Page 16 of 25Are messianic beliefs present:Is an eschatology present:Norms and Moral RealismAre general social norms prescribed by the religious group:Is there a conventional vs. moral distinction in the religious group:Are there centrally important virtues advocated by the religious group:PracticesMembership Costs and PracticesDoes membership in this religious group require celibacy (full sexual abstinence):Does membership in this religious group require constraints on sexual activity (partial sexualabstinence):Does membership in this religious group require castration:Does membership in this religious group require fasting:Notes: No form of ritualized regular fasting.Does membership in this religious group require forgone food opportunities (taboos on desired foods):No—No—Field doesn't know—Field doesn't know—Yes—No—No—No—No—No—Monroe, Database of Religious History, 2017 Page 17 of 25Does membership in this religious group require permanent scarring or painful bodily alterations:Does membership in this religious group require painful physical positions or transitory painfulwounds:Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of adults:"Adults" here referring to an emic or indigenous category; if that category is different from the popular Westerndefinition of a human who is 18-years-old or older and who is legally responsible for his/her actions, then pleasespecify that difference in the Comments/Sources: box below.Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of children:"Children" here referring to an emic or indigenous category; if that category is different from the popular Westerndefinition, please specify that different in the Comments/Sources: box below.Does membership in this religious group require self-sacrifice (suicide):Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of property/valuable items:Notes: Occasionally donations of material are made to the gods of the temples, but not thought of as sacrifice.Does membership in this religious group require sacrifice of time (e.g., attendance at meetings orservices, regular prayer, etc.):Notes: Members of this group serve roles within the temple but they are compensated for their time.Does membership in this religious group require physical risk taking:Does membership in this religious group require accepting ethical precepts:Does membership in this religious group require marginalization by out-group members:No—No—No—No—No—No—No—No—Field doesn't know—No—Monroe, Database of Religious History, 2017 Page 18 of 25Does membership in this religious group require participation in small-scale rituals (private,household):Does membership in this religious group require participation in large-scale rituals:I.e. involving two or more households; includes large-scale “ceremonies” and “festivals.”Are extra-ritual in-group markers present:E.g. special changes to appearance such as circumcision, tattoos, scarification, etc.Yes—What is the average interval of time between performances (in hours):Performances here refers to large-scale rituals.Field doesn't know—Yes—On average, for large-scale rituals how many participants gather in one location:What is the average interval of time between performances (in hours):Performances here refers to small-scale rituals.Are there orthodoxy checks:Orthodoxy checks are mechanisms used to ensure that rituals are interpreted in a standardized way, e.g.through the supervisory prominence of a professionalized priesthood or other system of governance,appeal to texts detailing the proper interpretation, etc.Are there orthopraxy checks:Orthopraxy checks are mechanisms used to ensure that rituals are performed in a standardized way, e.g.through the supervisory prominence of a professionalized priesthood or other system of governance,appeal to texts detailing the proper procedure, etc.Is there use of intoxicants:Field doesn't know—Field doesn't know—No—No—No—No—Monroe, Database of Religious History, 2017 Page 19 of 25Does the group employ fictive kinship terminology:Society and InstitutionsLevels of Social ComplexityThe society to which the religious group belongs is best characterized as (please choose one):Notes: Uruk is a city within the Seleucid Empire.WelfareDoes the religious group in question provide institutionalized famine relief:Is famine relief available to the group's adherents through an institution(s) other than the religiousgroup in question:Does the religious group in question provide institutionalized poverty relief:Is poverty relief available to the group's adherents through an institution(s) other than the religiousgroup in question:Does the religious group in question provide institutionalized care for the elderly and infirm:Is institutionalized care for the elderly and infirm available to the group's adherents through aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:EducationDoes the religious group provide formal education to its adherents:Notes: Scribes would start with a general education in reading and writing, specialist scholars would follow inNo—An empire—Field doesn't know—Field doesn't know—Field doesn't know—Field doesn't know—Field doesn't know—Field doesn't know—Yes—Monroe, Database of Religious History, 2017 Page 20 of 25their fathers' footsteps and learn their specialized craft from their family members or related scholars (see:Gesche, P.D. "Schulunterricht in Babylonien im ersten Jahrtausend v. Chr.").Is formal education available to the group’s adherents through an institution(s) other than thereligious group:BureaucracyDo the group’s adherent’s interact with a formal bureaucracy within their group:Notes: They serve within the temple hierarchy.Do the group’s adherents interact with other institutional bureaucracies:Notes: Some members interact with the authorities of the Seleucid Empire. Anu-uballiṭ/Nikarchos was thegovernor of Uruk and decended from these temple officials (Clancier, 759)Public WorksDoes the religious group in question provide public food storage:Is public food storage provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than the religiousgroup in question:Does the religious group in question provide water management (irrigation, flood control):Is water management provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than the religiousgroup in question:Is formal education restricted to religious professionals:Is such education open to both males and females:Yes—Field doesn't know—Field doesn't know—Yes—Yes—No—Field doesn't know—No—Yes—Monroe, Database of Religious History, 2017 Page 21 of 25Notes: Mesopotamia has had water management since the beginnings of settlement in the region.Does the religious group in question provide transportation infrastructure:Is transportation infrastructure provided for the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than thereligious group in question:Notes: Maintenance of public infrastructure fell to the Seleucid rulers.TaxationDoes the religious group in question levy taxes or tithes:Are taxes levied on the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than the religious group inquestion:Notes: They would have paid taxes to the Seleucid rulers.EnforcementDoes the religious group in question provide an institutionalized police force:Do the group’s adherents interact with an institutionalized police force provided by an institution(s)other than the religious group in question:Notes: The scholars were obliged to follow Greek law.Does the religious group in question provide institutionalized judges:Notes: The temples contained courts which could rule on issues beyond just religious matters (Clancier, 766-777).Do the group’s adherents interact with an institutionalized judicial system provided by an aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Notes: There seem to have been Greek courts of justice as well.No—Yes—Field doesn't know—Yes—No—Yes—Yes—Yes—Monroe, Database of Religious History, 2017 Page 22 of 25Does the religious group in question enforce institutionalized punishment:Are the group’s adherents subject to institutionalized punishment enforced by an institution(s) otherthan the religious group in question:Notes: They were bound to follow Greek law as well.Does the religious group in question have a formal legal code:Notes: There are many law codes from Mesopotamia (See Roth, M. "Law Collections from Mesopotamia and AsiaMinor"), including one Neo-Babylonian law code from the 7th c. BCE.WarfareDoes religious group in question possess an institutionalized military:Notes: At this point the military power is controlled by the governing Seleucid kings.Do the group’s adherents participate in an institutionalized military provided by institution(s) otherthan the religious group in question:Are the group’s adherents protected by or subject to an institutionalized military provided by aninstitution(s) other than the religious group in question:Notes: They are subjects under the Hellenistic rulers, and therefore protected by them.Written LanguageYes—Do the institutionalized punishments include execution:Notes: In one case a death penalty is handed out by a temple in Babylon (Clancier, 767).Do the institutionalized punishments include seizure of property:Notes: Most of the temple cases involve legal recording of ownership, so presumably they alsoadjudicated disputes on that ownership.Yes—Yes—Yes—Field doesn't know—No—Field doesn't know—Yes—Monroe, Database of Religious History, 2017 Page 23 of 25Does the religious group in question possess its own distinct written language:Notes: The scholars write some of their texts in cuneiform, a script nearly 3,000 years old by this point.Is a non-religion-specific written language available to the group’s adherents through an institution(s)other than the religious group in question:Is a non-religion-specific written language used by the group’s adherents through an institution(s)other than the religious group in question:CalendarDoes the religious group in question possess a formal calendar:Notes: They use the Babylonian lunar calendar.Is a formal calendar provided for the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than the religiousgroup in question:Food ProductionDoes the religious group in question provide food for themselves:Notes: While some are involved in agriculture this is primarily a business venture rather than a subsistencepractice.Notes: The temples themselves held large tracks of land and wages were generally paid in the form of volumesof barley.No—Yes—Yes—Yes—No—No—Please characterize the forms/level of food production [choose all that apply]:Large-scale agriculture (e.g., monocropping, organized irrigation systems)—Yes—Please characterize the forms/level of food production [choose all that apply]:Large-scale agriculture (e.g., monocropping, organized irrigation systems)—Monroe, Database of Religious History, 2017 Page 24 of 25Is food provided to the group’s adherents by an institution(s) other than the religious group inquestion:No—Monroe, Database of Religious History, 2017 Page 25 of 25

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