UBC Faculty Research and Publications

Scaling-up an efficacious school-based physical activity intervention: Study protocol for the ‘Internet-based… Lonsdale, Chris; Sanders, Taren; Cohen, Kristen E; Parker, Philip; Noetel, Michael; Hartwig, Tim; Vasoncellos, Diego; Kirwan, Morwenna; Morgan, Philip; Salmon, Jo; Moodie, Marj; McKay, Heather; Bennie, Andrew; Plotnikoff, Ron; Cinelli, Renata L; Greene, David; Peralta, Louisa R; Cliff, Dylan P; Kolt, Gregory S; Gore, Jennifer M; Gao, Lan; Lubans, David R Aug 24, 2016

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata


52383-12889_2016_Article_3243.pdf [ 2.17MB ]
JSON: 52383-1.0362012.json
JSON-LD: 52383-1.0362012-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 52383-1.0362012-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 52383-1.0362012-rdf.json
Turtle: 52383-1.0362012-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 52383-1.0362012-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 52383-1.0362012-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

Scaling-up an efficacious school-based physicalactivity intervention: Study protocol for the‘Internet-based Professional Learning to helpteachers support Activity in Youth’ (iPLAY) clusterrandomized controlled trial and scale-upimplementation evaluationLonsdale et al.Lonsdale et al. BMC Public Health  (2016) 16:873 DOI 10.1186/s12889-016-3243-2STUDY PROTOCOL Open Accessphysical activity, fundamental movement skills and cardiorespiratory fitness. The ‘Internet-based Professional Learning todeliver theary schoolse sample ofll assessry outcomemeters),mance onby theinterventionLonsdale et al. BMC Public Health  (2016) 16:873 DOI 10.1186/s12889-016-3243-2Edward Clancy Building 167-169 Albert St, Strathfield, NSW 2135, AustraliaFull list of author information is available at the end of the article* Correspondence: chris.lonsdale@acu.edu.au1Institute for Positive Psychology and Education, Australian Catholic University,Kindergarten – Year 6). These activities will be supported by online learning and resources. Teachers will theniPLAY intervention components in their schools. We will evaluate iPLAY in two complementary studies in primacross New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT), involving a representativ20 schools within NSW (1:1 allocation at the school level to intervention and attention control conditions), wieffectiveness and cost-effectiveness at 12 and 24 months. Students’ cardiorespiratory fitness will be the primain this trial. Key secondary outcomes will include students’ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (via accelerofundamental movement skill proficiency, enjoyment of physical education and sport, cognitive control, perforstandardized tests of numeracy and literacy, and cost-effectiveness. A scale-up implementation study guidedRE-AIM framework will evaluate the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of thewhen delivered in 160 primary schools in urban and regional areas of NSW.(Continued on next page)help teachers support Activity in Youth’ (iPLAY) study will focus largely on online delivery to enhance translational capacity.Methods/Design: The intervention will be implemented at school and teacher levels, and will include six components: (i)quality physical education and school sport, (ii) classroom movement breaks, (iii) physically active homework, (iv) activeplaygrounds, (v) community physical activity links and (vi) parent/caregiver engagement. Experienced physical educationteachers will deliver professional learning workshops and follow-up, individualized mentoring to primary teachers (i.e.,scale up and evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention preScaling-up an efficacious school-basedphysical activity intervention: Study protocolfor the ‘Internet-based Professional Learningto help teachers support Activity in Youth’(iPLAY) cluster randomized controlled trialand scale-up implementation evaluationChris Lonsdale1* , Taren Sanders1, Kristen E. Cohen2, Philip Parker1, Michael Noetel3, Tim Hartwig4,Diego Vasoncellos1, Morwenna Kirwan5, Philip Morgan2, Jo Salmon6, Marj Moodie7, Heather McKay8,Andrew Bennie9, Ron Plotnikoff2, Renata L. Cinelli10, David Greene4, Louisa R. Peralta11, Dylan P. Cliff12,Gregory S. Kolt9, Jennifer M. Gore13, Lan Gao7 and David R. Lubans2AbstractBackground: Despite the health benefits of regular physical activity, most children are insufficiently active. Schools areideally placed to promote physical activity; however, many do not provide children with sufficient in-school activity orensure they have the skills and motivation to be active beyond the school setting. The aim of this project is to modify,viously shown to be efficacious in improving children’s© 2016 The Author(s). Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, andreproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link tothe Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver(http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.meadRer pLonsdale et al. BMC Public Health  (2016) 16:873 Page 2 of 16Despite convincing evidence of their effectiveness, fewstudies have implemented and evaluated comprehensiveschool physical activity programs. [15] Instead, most in-terventions have focused on one component of theschool day (e.g., PE or recess/lunch breaks) [16, 17] andhave neglected to address the multiple opportunities forphysical activity promotion that exist within and be-yond the school setting [18]. Among interventions thatembraced a multi-component approach, few objectivelymeasured effects on children’s physical activity (e.g., vianess of a modified version of the SCORES intervention.The modified intervention centres around online deliveryof professional learning to teachers. This customized, web-based delivery system was initially developed for a school-based physical activity intervention also led by our researchteam [28]. Teachers will deliver the intervention to studentsand parents and engage with community sport and recre-ation organizations. The modified intervention will beknown as iPLAY (Internet-based Professional Learning tohelp teachers to support Activity in Youth) and will be(Continued from previous page)Discussion: This project will provide the evidence and a frathroughout NSW primary schools and a potential model forTrial registration: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials3, 2016.Keywords: Cardiorespiratory fitness, Physical activity, TeacheOnline, InternetBackgroundPhysical inactivity is a global pandemic, with “far-reach-ing health, economic, environmental and social conse-quences” [1]. Among children, the health benefits ofphysical activity are extensive and include improvedphysical fitness and bone health as well as reduced riskof obesity and cardiometabolic precursors of diseasessuch as type II diabetes [2, 3]. Physical activity may alsoimprove psychological well-being and prevent mentalhealth disorders such as depression and anxiety [3–5].Recent evidence also indicates that, compared with theirless active peers, physically active children can exert bet-ter cognitive control [6], are more engaged with school[7], and perform better on standardized tests of aca-demic achievement [8].The International Society for Physical Activity andHealth [9] considers schools to be among the seven “bestinvestments” for evidence-based physical activity promo-tion. Unfortunately, many schools are failing to providechildren with sufficient opportunities to be active atschool and do not equip them with the necessary skillsand motivation to be active beyond the school setting[10, 11]. In systematic reviews, multi-component, flex-ible models were deemed more effective than singlecomponent models [12, 13]. Similarly, the US Centersfor Disease Control and Prevention recommend schoolsdeliver comprehensive school physical activity programs[14] that involve coordination across five components:(i) quality physical education (PE), (ii) activity during theschool day, (iii) activity before and after school, (iv) staffinvolvement and (v) family and community involvement.accelerometers) [19].The SCORES intervention was a comprehensive, multi-component physical activity and fundamental movementwork for government to guide physical activity promotionoption in other states and countries.gistry (ACTRN12616000731493). Date of registration: Junerofessional development, Teacher professional learning,skills program for primary schools [20–22]. A socio-ecological model [23] provided the framework for the 12-month intervention, which consisted of componentsdesigned to engage teachers, students, parents and com-munity sport organizations. Implementation strategiesincluded: (i) professional learning and mentoring forteachers, (ii) feedback for teachers based on the quality oftheir PE and school sport, (iii) lesson resources forteachers, (iv) physical activity equipment, (v) school phys-ical activity policy review and recommendations, (vi)training student leaders, (vii) parent engagement via news-letters, homework and information sessions, and (viii) en-gagement with local community sport. Our efficacy study[21] showed significant intervention effects at 12 monthsfor cardiorespiratory fitness (5.4 laps; 95 % CI, 2.3 to 8.6),daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (12.7 mins/day; 5.0 to 20.5), and overall movement skill competency(4.9 units; -0.04 to 9.8). In addition, SCORES was deliveredwith a high degree of fidelity and teachers and studentsreported high satisfaction with the program.There is a considerable gap between successful interven-tions like SCORES, and widespread dissemination in realworld contexts [24, 25]. This is crucial, as to improvehealth of populations, interventions that have been effect-ive in research settings must be delivered more broadly[26] and with less lag time between evidence generationand implementation. Indeed, there has been a prolifera-tion of school-based physical activity intervention efficacytrials in recent years [18], yet these studies have made littleimpact on policy and practice [27].In our project we will scale up and evaluate the effective-among the first comprehensive school-based physical activ-ity interventions with a large proportion of the programdelivered online. A web-based delivery system is attractiveLonsdale et al. BMC Public Health  (2016) 16:873 Page 3 of 16as it may support scaling up and sustainability, and recentevidence indicates that online professional learning forteachers can be as effective as face-to-face training [29].Aims and hypothesesWe will conduct two complementary studies involvingprimary schools across New South Wales (NSW),Australia. In the first study, we will conduct a clusterrandomized controlled trial (RCT) with a sample of 20schools. The aim of this trial will be to evaluate theeffectiveness and cost-effectiveness of iPLAY at 12 and24 months, with cardiorespiratory fitness as theprimary outcome. Key secondary outcomes will includeobjectively-measured moderate-to-vigorous physicalactivity, fundamental movement skills, cognitive controland student performance on standardized tests ofnumeracy and literacy. We hypothesize that:1. compared with the control condition, the iPLAYintervention will produce positive effects on children’soutcomes in the short-term (post-intervention,12 months after baseline, primary endpoint for thetrial),2. these benefits will be maintained 12 months after theend of the intervention (24 months after baseline), and3. the intervention will represent value-for-money.The aim of the second study will be to evaluate the inter-vention’s wide-scale implementation (scale up). To achievethis goal we will adopt the RE-AIM framework and assessReach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Main-tenance of iPLAY in 160 NSW primary schools (i.e.,Kindergarten – Year 6).MethodsDesignWe will concurrently conduct two complementary eval-uations (see Fig. 1):1. A cluster RCT involving 20 schools (1:1 allocationto intervention and attention control conditions)to evaluate the Effectiveness and incrementalcost-effectiveness of the iPLAY intervention, withcardiorespiratory fitness as the primary outcome.2. A scale-up implementation study will examine iPLAY’sReach, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenancewith a reduced examination of Effectiveness andcost-effectiveness. These aspects will be measuredin 160 schools.All teachers in each school selected for the cluster RCTand scale-up implementation study will be invited tocomplete the iPLAY intervention (or attention controlintervention for 10 schools in the cluster RCT). However,only the student cohorts in Years 3 and 4 at baseline willcomplete outcome assessments (i.e., students in Years 3and 4 at baseline, students in Years 4 and 5 at post-intervention [12 months], students in Years 5 and 6 atmaintenance [24 months]). These students will be avail-able for assessment at all time-points (c.f. most Year 5 and6 students will leave the school by 24 months), and willhave the cognitive ability to complete the questionnaires(c.f., Years 1 and 2). In addition, these years represent theideal period to develop fundamental movement skill com-petency [30], which may help prevent the decline in phys-ical activity typically observed during the transition fromchildhood to adolescence [31].Recruitment, selection and randomization for bothinvestigationsAll government-funded NSW primary schools (N = 1,600)[32] will be invited to participate in the project. Allschools will be eligible to participate in the scale-upimplementation study, but those designated as ‘Schools forSpecific Purposes’ (i.e., for students who require intensivelevels of support) will not be eligible for the cluster RCT.Schools that participated in the original SCORES efficacystudy [21] will be eligible for the scale-up implementationstudy, but will be excluded from the cluster RCT.Schools will be recruited via presentations at confer-ences and meetings (e.g., regional meetings of the NSWPrimary Principals Association) and advertisements sentby the NSW Department of Education and the AustralianCouncil for Health, Physical Education and Recreation.We will also advertise via the NSW Department of Educa-tion Twitter feeds and Facebook pages. We aim to recruita total of 180 schools (>10 % of the total number of NSWgovernment-funded primary schools). From the schoolsthat express interest prior to May 2016, we will use acomputer-generated algorithm to randomly select 90 toform Cohort 1. Recruitment will continue through toMarch 2017 at which point we will randomly select 90schools to form Cohort 2.From within each cohort, we will select 10 schools toparticipate in the cluster RCT; the other 80 schools willparticipate in the scale-up implementation study. Select-ing schools for the cluster RCT will involve a four-stepapproach. The aims of this process are to ensure thatschools in the cluster RCT are: (i) broadly representativeof schools in NSW and (ii) assigned to trial arms suchthat most school-level covariates (e.g., socioeconomicstatus [SES], geographic location) are balanced, therebyincreasing the likelihood that children in the two condi-tions are similar on the outcome variables at baseline.The four steps are:1. Stratification: All schools that express interest in thestudy and are among the 90 selected to participateLonsdale et al. BMC Public Health  (2016) 16:873 Page 4 of 16in each cohort will be stratified according to SESand geographic location. Given the number ofschools is small, the stratification process will requirerelatively coarse groupings. The Index of CommunitySocio-educational Advantage (ICSEA) will serve asthe SES variable. This index includes information re-garding parental SES and Indigenous representation[33]. The index has a median of 1000 and rangesAustralia-wide from 300 to 1300 indicating heavynegative skew [33]. NSW has a similar distributionranging from 582 to 1202 with a median of 1003. Wewill split the sample into a higher SES stratum(ICSEA < =1003) and a lower SES stratum >1003.These strata will be further split by geographicdistribution using the Australian Bureau of Statisticsremoteness index by postcode. The index has 12categories but this will be reduced to two: urban (lessremote) and provincial (more remote). This processwill produce four strata: (i) urban-higher SES, (ii)Fig. 1 Modified CONSORT Flow Diagramurban-lower SES, (iii) provincial-higher SES, and (iv)provincial-lower SES.2. Match-pairing: We will employ a Euclidian distanceminimization strategy to create pairs of similarschools from within strata. The variables used in thisminimization process will be: (i) ICSEA, (ii) schoolsize (number of students enrolled), (iii) average scoreson national standardized test of numeracy and literacythat are completed by all NSW children (seeoutcomes section for further details) and (iv) schoolparticipation (or not) in a state-wide physical activityand nutrition program, known as Live Life Well atSchool [34], that took place from 2008 to 2015.3. Pair selection: Once schools have been matched usingthe minimization procedure, we will select the two orthree most similar pairs of schools from within eachstratum to participate in the cluster RCT. Throughthis process, four schools will be selected from each ofthe provincial strata and six schools are chosen fromLonsdale et al. BMC Public Health  (2016) 16:873 Page 5 of 16each of the urban strata. This strategy will allow forcalculation of average treatment effects anddifferences in treatment effects by strata.4. Randomization: Following baseline data collection,schools will be randomly assigned from within eachpair to the experimental or control arm of the clusterRCT. An experienced statistician who is not part ofthe research team will conduct the randomizationprocedure using a computer-generated algorithm.From within each cohort of 90 schools, the 80 schoolsnot selected for the cluster RCT will be included in thescale-up implementation study.InterventionThe intervention design and delivery will be identicalfor schools in the cluster RCT and the scale-up im-plementation study. iPLAY will include six compo-nents to promote physical activity participation andfundamental movement skill competency (see Table 1).An ‘iPLAY Mentor’ (employed by the project) will de-liver a professional learning workshop and follow-upindividualized mentoring to primary teachers. Theseactivities will be supported by an online learning andresource platform (see implementation strategies inFig. 2). Teachers within the schools will then deliverintervention components. All classroom teachers willdeliver curricular components of the intervention(e.g., quality PE and school sport). Within each schoolthe principal will identify up to three classroomteachers as ‘iPLAY Leaders’. Leaders will deliver non-curricular components of the intervention (e.g., activeplaygrounds) and support other teachers with imple-mentation of curricular components.iPLAY mentorsMentors will be current and recently retired teachers withNSW Board of Studies Teaching and Educational Standards(BOSTES) specialist accreditation in Health and PE. Thesespecialist teachers are ideally placed to deliver iPLAY asprimary school teachers will regard them as credible. Inaddition to holding BOSTES accreditation in Health andPE, inclusion criteria for mentors will include: (i) smart-phone ownership, (ii) basic computer skills, (iii) a validdriver’s license and (iv) access to a vehicle to travel toschools. Mentors will be recruited via professional associa-tions (Australian Council for Health Physical Educationand Recreation), NSW Department of Education socialmedia advertising and the project team’s existing profes-sional networks.The project will provide funding to schools to coverthe cost of a substitute teacher when current teacherswho become mentors are seconded to work on iPLAY.Current teachers will receive no direct payment, buttheir training and participation will earn them credittowards designation as a BOSTES ‘Highly AccomplishedTeacher’. Achieving this level of accreditation increasesteachers’ salaries and is required for those seeking schoolleadership roles (e.g., Principal).The project will pay retired teachers a rate ($400/dayor $200/half-day) that is equivalent to the rate for substi-tute teachers in NSW. All mentors will be reimbursedfor travel expenses when travelling to schools more than25 km from their home.iPLAY mentor training During two 7-h face-to-faceworkshops, the project team will train mentors todeliver the intervention. Workshops will include: (i)familiarization with the intervention components andprocedures and their rationale, (ii) review of answers topredetermined ‘frequently asked questions’, (iii) discus-sion regarding methods to establish mentors’ credibility,‘relatability’ and likeability [35], (iv) problem solving ex-ercises regarding likely challenging scenarios, and (v)role-playing exercises.iPLAY mentor delivery As shown in in Fig. 2, mentorswill complete the following tasks in each school:1. Meet with iPLAY leaders to facilitate implementationof non-curricular intervention components (4 × 1 hourmeetings – 1 per term). In most cases, these meetingswill be conducted face-to-face on the same day asmentors visit schools to observe teachers’ delivery ofPE and school sport lessons. However, in somecircumstances (e.g., very small schools in whichmentors only need to visit once or twice to observe allclassroom teachers’ PE/school sport lessons), ateleconference or internet-mediated videoconferencemay be chosen to complete this meeting.2. Deliver a 2-hour workshop at the school to allteachers. The workshop will focus on the curricularcomponents of the intervention. It will include a1-hour classroom session in which the mentorswill present information videos with iPLAYcontent and then facilitate discussion andactivities using presentation slides provided by theproject. The workshop will also include a 1-hourpractical session in which the mentor willdemonstrate quality teaching using a lesson planprovided by the project.3. Observe one PE or school sport lesson for eachteacher and provide feedback to the teacher during a30-minute meeting. This observation and feedbackprocess will require mentors to visit each school,with the number of visits determined by the numberof teachers in the school. On average, we expectmentors to visit once per term.PE orAFE pjoyabtimeeek)mewLonsdale et al. BMC Public Health  (2016) 16:873 Page 6 of 16Table 1 iPLAY Intervention ComponentsCurricular Components DescriptionQuality PE andschool sport• Teachers will deliver 150 minutes of plannedsport each week.• Lessons will be delivered according to the SA(Supportive, Active, Autonomous, Fair and En• Students will spend >40 % of PE/sport lessonphysically active (i.e., in MVPA).Classroom movementbreaks• Teachers will deliver 2 × 3-minute classroomenergizer activities per day (30 minutes per wPhysically active • Teachers will provide one physically active hoMethods to ensure high quality and consistent deliveryof the workshop and the observation feedback meetingsinclude:1. At the end of the training workshops and beforedelivering the intervention in schools, mentors willcomplete an examination regarding projectprocedures and workshop content (e.g., answers tofrequently asked questions).2. During the face-to-face workshops, mentors willdeliver all content to teachers using videos producedby the project team.3. Discussion of video content and learning activities forteachers during the workshop will be based on slidesand a lesson plan provided by the project team.homework activity per week (except in schools that have a‘no homework’ policy)Non-CurricularComponentsDescriptionActive playgrounds • Children will spend >40 % of recess and lunchbreaks in MVPA.Community physicalactivity links• Schools will utilize the ‘Sporting Schools’ funding toffer after-school physical activity programat least once per week across two school terms.• During the intervention at least one teacher ineach school will complete accreditation/trainingprocedures with a recognized sporting bodythat will allow them to deliver the SportingSchools’ program in their school.Parent and caregiverengagement• Schools will deliver 1 × newsletter item perfortnight, which will include a link to theparent portion of the iPLAY website.• Schools will deliver 2 × iPLAY update presentationsto parents per year during existing parent-teacherevents.• Schools will organize one physically active schoolfundraising event each year.Note: MVPA moderate to vigorous physical activityImplementation Measurementschoolrinciplesle).being• Classroom teachers will self-report delivery of PE andSchool Sport on eight occasions during the interventionat the start of each online learning module.• Mentors will observe and rate each teacher’s deliveryusing the SAAFE checklist once during the intervention.• Monitored using the class activity tracking systemprovided to each school.• Teachers will self-report at the start of each of the eightonline learning modules.• Teachers usage of the video-based classroom movementbreaks on the website (resources section) will bemonitored.ork • Teachers will self-report at the start of each of the eight4. Mentors will access videos and presentation slidesthrough the project website. Thus, the project teamwill be able to verify if and when each componentwas accessed.5. The project team will provide mentors with answersto frequently asked questions for each workshop,and update this list as the project progresses.6. Mentors will upload their lesson observations usinga structured template within the project website orsmartphone app (iOS and Android versions will beavailable).7. Mentors will participate in bi-annual meetingsthat will provide them with ongoing professionallearning and support. The project team will leadthese face-to-face meetings.online learning modules.Implementation Measurement• Leaders will rate via the website their implementationof active playground strategies. Ratings will occur threetimes during the intervention (during meetings withmentors).• Student physical activity during breaks will be measuredvia accelerometry at each assessment time-point (baseline,12 months, 24 months), but will not be measured duringthe intervention.o • Principals will report on all non-curricular sport andrecreation in each school.• Teachers will report the sport accreditation/training theycomplete.• Leaders will record via the website the frequencyof newsletter distribution and parent meetings.• Parent access to the iPLAY website will be monitored.• Leaders will provide evidence of school fundraiser events.Lonsdale et al. BMC Public Health  (2016) 16:873 Page 7 of 16Fig. 2 iPLAY Intervention Implementation StrategiesCurricular components – classroom teachersClassroom teachers will participate in professional learningdesigned to help them implement the curricular interven-tion components. This training will involve a 2-h workshop(face-to-face), 4 h of online learning (8 × 30 minutemodules), a mentoring meeting, a peer observation, and adiscussion at a staff meeting focused on iPLAY implemen-tation. Completion of these activities will provide eachclassroom teacher with 14 h of professional learning that isregistered with NSW BOSTES. To maintain their accredit-ation, NSW teachers are required to accumulate 50 h ofBOSTES registered professional learning every five years.The project team will provide this professional learningfree of charge. The project team will not offer any othercompensation to teachers.Professional learning for classroom teachers Profes-sional learning will assist teachers to implement three com-ponents: (i) quality PE and school sport, (ii) classroommovement breaks (known as ‘energizers’), and iii) physicallyactive homework. To begin, an iPLAY mentor will facilitateone 2-h face-to-face workshop or two 1-h workshops onseparate days at each school. After the initial workshop,teachers will complete eight online modules designed toreinforce and extend knowledge and skills gained in theinitial workshop. During the workshop, mentors willencourage teachers to complete the online modules insmall groups approximately once per month (e.g., at stagemeetings). This collaborative approach is intended to fosterdevelopment of an iPLAY community of practice withineach school [36]. However, modules can also be completedindependently.At the end of the face-to-face workshop, each teacher willcreate an individualized learning plan. The learning planwill describe when each teacher intends to complete eachof eight modules. The website/app will suggest to teachersthat the learning plan accommodates at least one weekbetween modules. This one-week interval will allowteachers time to implement and reflect on each teachingstrategy. Upon completion of each module, the website/appwill prompt teachers to reflect on their learning planand adjust target dates, as required. Teachers will alsohave the ability to modify this learning plan at anytime – i.e., without prompting. During the intervention,teachers will be prompted via a notification on theirsmartphone and/or an email when a new module is duefor completion (according to each teacher’s self-selected,individualized learning plan).Online learning activities will include brief instruc-tional videos and engaging tasks that allow teachers tounderstand the rationale behind each teaching strategy[28]. Each module will be designed to take 30 min tocomplete, but teachers will be able to stop and startmid-module. Each module will include an action planLonsdale et al. BMC Public Health  (2016) 16:873 Page 8 of 16task in which teachers will set implementation goals fortheir PE and sport lessons. At the beginning of eachonline module, teachers will reflect on their progresstowards goals set in the action plan from the previousmodule. In addition to the website, professional learn-ing will also be available via a smartphone app on bothiOS and Android platforms. In our recent professionallearning trial [28], 109 of 110 NSW teachers owned asmartphone with one of these two operating systems.Thus, we expect most teachers in the proposed studywill be able to access the app.An iPLAY mentor will be assigned to each school andwill observe one 30-min PE or sport lesson delivered byeach consenting classroom teacher. Mentors will thenmeet individually with each teacher for 30 min topromote and guide self-reflection and provide feedbackconcerning the observed lesson. Feedback frommentors will be guided by an online observation check-list that prompts mentors to discuss the SAAFE (Support-ive, Active Autonomous, Fair and Enjoyable) teachingprinciples [22], which are based on self-determinationtheory tenets [37]. During this conversation, the classroomteacher will answer reflective questions on the website/app.Recently introduced regulations in NSW mandatethat teachers engage in peer lesson observation. IniPLAY, teachers will be observed by one of their peerswhile they teach a 30-min PE or sport lesson. After-wards, the pair will use a SAAFE checklist hosted onthe project website/app as the basis for a 30-min peerdiscussion activity. As in the iPLAY mentoringsession, classroom teachers will answer reflectivequestions on the website/app during the peer discus-sion activity.The final training component for teachers will involve a30-min small group discussion led by one of their school’siPLAY leaders. During this meeting teachers will use thewebsite/app to answer reflective questions regarding theirimplementation of iPLAY components. These meetingswill likely take place during regularly scheduled ‘StageMeetings’ involving teachers from (i) Early Stage 1 andStage 1 – Kindergarten, Years 1 and 2, (ii) Stage 2 – Years3 and 4 and (iii) Stage 3 – Years 5 and 6.Teachers who join a school after the iPLAY interventionhas started and/or miss the face-to-face workshop will beable to complete an online version of that component.They will complete all other aspects of the program asusual unless they join the school after the iPLAY interven-tion has finished and an iPLAY mentor is not available forthe lesson observation component. In this instance, iPLAYleaders will be asked to facilitate this component.Classroom teacher delivery Support for classroomteachers’ implementation of the curricular componentswill include smartphone prompts, teaching resources, aclass activity monitoring system and the mentoring de-scribed previously. The iPLAY smartphone app will pro-vide reminders for teachers to implement strategies fromtheir action plan. Teachers will be able to choose theinterval for these reminders. The website and smartphoneapp will allow teachers to download resources (e.g., lessonplans, activity descriptions, and classroom movementbreak videos) that support intervention implementation.Also, when teachers set their action plan in each mod-ule, the web-based platform will identify resources thatare specifically relevant to the skills/activities that theteacher has planned for the coming weeks. Links tothese resources plus the action plan will be emailed tothe teacher.In the original SCORES intervention, teachers usedYamax digital pedometers (Yamax, Eagle Farm,Australia) and an Excel spreadsheet with an evidence-based algorithm [38, 39] to calculate the meanproportion of time their students spent being activeduring PE lessons. We have developed an activitytracking system that provides this information instant-aneously to teachers at the end of a lesson. Thesystem utilizes inexpensive pedometers ($20USD)(SmartLAB Move ANT+ pedometer, HMM, Dossenheim,Germany) that communicate wirelessly with a smart-phone app. Each school will be provided with oneactivity tracking system which includes 25 pedometers,a smartphone pre-loaded with the app, and a carryingcase that includes a charging station. Mentors willdemonstrate the system to teachers in the school-basedworkshops and provide clarification as required whenthey observe each teacher’s lesson. An instructionalvideo will form part of one of the online modules. Acomplete user manual will be available in the resourcesection of the website. In the action plans that teacherscomplete during online learning modules, they will beasked to indicate how many times they plan to use thephysical activity monitoring system in their upcominglessons. They will also have the option to set a goal fortheir students’ activity levels during these monitoredlessons.iPLAY leader training We will work with school prin-cipals to recruit up to three iPLAY Leaders per school.These teachers will deliver the non-curricular compo-nents of the intervention (e.g., active playgrounds) andsupport other teachers with their implementation of thecurricular components.Each iPLAY leader will complete a series of four onlinelearning modules (30 mins × 4 modules = 2 hours)designed to teach them how to implement the non-curricular components of the intervention (see Table 1for details).Lonsdale et al. BMC Public Health  (2016) 16:873 Page 9 of 16iPLAY leader delivery Once all leaders in a school havecompleted the online training, the leaders will meet as agroup with their school’s iPLAY mentor. The purpose ofthis 1-h meeting will be to set implementation goals foreach non-curricular component and to determine thespecifics of how leaders will support classroom teachers’delivery of the curricular components (i.e., who will dowhat and when). The iPLAY leaders’ implementationplan for each school will be recorded on the website. Asleaders make implementation progress in their schools,they will log this information, including reflections onfacilitators and barriers.In addition to recording their implementation ofthe non-curricular components on the website/app,leaders will be asked to meet with their school’siPLAY mentor for one hour once per term to discussprogress and set new implementation goals. Thismeeting will also provide an opportunity for leadersand mentors to discuss classroom teachers’ imple-mentation of the curricular components. Checklists toguide these meetings will be available on the websiteand mentors will be responsible for ensuring theseare logged at the end of the meeting.Finally, iPLAY leaders will facilitate at least one 30-minsmall group discussion session (~10 teachers/group)during which teachers in their school will reflect on theirimplementation of iPLAY components. Mentors willsuggest to leaders that these meetings take place inthe final term of the intervention.Implementation timelineWithin each cohort, the main iPLAY intervention will bedelivered in four phases that roughly equate to 3.5 schoolterms (see Fig. 2), which is approximately 10 months. Inthe RCT, the five iPLAY intervention schools from Cohort1 will begin the intervention starting in August 2016(Term 3), while Cohort 2 is scheduled for June 2017 (Term2). In the scale-up implementation study, the 80 schools inCohort 1 will be divided into 4 groups that will beginthe intervention on a rolling basis – Group 1 (June2016 – Term 2), Group 2 (August 2016 – Term 3),Group 3 (November 2016 – Term 4) and Group 4 (March2017 – Term 1). A similar roll-out is scheduled for Cohort2, starting in June 2017. See Fig. 3 for details.Ongoing implementationAt the end of the main intervention period (3.5 schoolterms = approximately 10 months), teachers will con-tinue to have access to the iPLAY website and will havethe ability to set action plans and access resources asoften as they like. They can also re-visit online learningmodules. Finally, iPLAY leaders in each school willhave the option to lead up to 4 × 30 min iPLAY discus-sions with classroom teachers each year. Thesediscussions will focus on iPLAY action planning andwill include discussion of facilitators and barriers toimplementation. Classroom teachers who participatein these discussions and complete a reflection task andan action plan via the website will earn up to an extratwo BOSTES registered professional learning hours peryear on top of the 14 h earned in the main iPLAYintervention.Cluster randomized controlled trialWe will conduct a cluster RCT with an allocation ratio of1:1 (intervention : attention control) that conforms withCONSORT guidelines [40]. We will perform assessmentsat baseline, post-intervention (12 months after baseline)and maintenance (24 months after baseline).Attention control ArmTeachers in the 10 schools allocated to the attentioncontrol arm will be offered teacher professional learn-ing designed to improve their delivery of the NSWKindergarten–Year 6 Science and Technology curricu-lum. This program, known as My Science, has beenshown to increase teacher confidence and studentengagement in science [41]. Teachers who completethe My Science program will receive 10.5 h of BOSTES-registered teacher professional learning credit. They willalso have the option to complete the iPLAY program atthe end of the study, and earn an additional 14 h of regis-tered professional learning credit.The primary purpose of employing an attention con-trol intervention is to limit principals’ and teachers’disappointment at not receiving the iPLAY interven-tion, thereby increasing participation during datacollection at the post-intervention and maintenancephases.ParticipantsAs noted previously, schools designated as ‘Schools forSpecific Purposes’ will not be eligible for the clusterRCT. Schools that participated in the original SCORESefficacy study will also be excluded from the clusterRCT. All teachers in each school selected for the clusterRCT will be invited to participate in the intervention,but only students in Years 3 and 4 will complete out-come assessments.ProcedurePrincipals and teachers will provide written informedconsent to participate in the cluster RCT. Students willprovide assent and parents will provide written in-formed consent for their child to participate. Trainedresearch assistants will collect all student level out-comes in the cluster RCT. These data collectors willnot be informed of schools’ allocation to theLonsdale et al. BMC Public Health  (2016) 16:873 Page 10 of 16intervention or control condition; however, due to theuse of social marketing within iPLAY schools (e.g., post-ers), our ability to meaningfully blind these researchersis significantly diminished. Despite this limitation, thepotential risk of bias for many measures in this study islow (e.g., objective measures of physical activity) andstatisticians will be blinded to each school’s allocation.Primary outcome measure – entire RCT sampleCardiorespiratory fitness will be assessed using the 20 mmultistage fitness test [42], which has demonstratedstrong validity in studies worldwide [43] and is consideredto be the most appropriate field-based measure [44]. Wewill measure cardiorespiratory fitness for all physicallyable children in the cluster RCT.Fig. 3 iPLAY Randomised Controlled Trial and Implementation Study TimeSecondary outcome measuresStudent level measures – entire RCT sampleStudent physical activity (objective measure) We willmeasure students’ physical activity behavior over aperiod of eight days using GENEActiv accelerometers(Activinsights, Cambridge, United Kingdom) worn onthe non-dominant wrist. GENEActiv accelerometers arevalid for children [45], and wrist-based accelerometrymay be more acceptable for children compared withhip-worn monitors, resulting in greater compliance andreducing missing data [46]. Data will be reduced usingevidenced-based, best-practice procedures at the time ofanalysis. At present, this involves using the Euclideannorm minus one (ENMO) method to apply cut-pointslinesLonsdale et al. BMC Public Health  (2016) 16:873 Page 11 of 16[45] to the data, providing estimates of time in differentintensities of activity (e.g., moderate vs. vigorous). Accel-erometry data will be used to examine: (i) within schoolactivity, (ii) recess and lunch activity, (iii) after-schoolactivity, (iv) weekend activity and (v) total activity.Anthropometry We will measure all students’ heightand weight, using stadiometers (Surgical and Medical Prod-ucts No. 26SM, Medtone Education Supplies, Melbourne,Australia) and digital scales (UC-321, A&D Company LTD,Tokyo, Japan), respectively. We will then calculate bodymass index (BMI) and BMI z-scores using the Centers forDisease Control and Prevention methodology [47].Student characteristics Students will self-report theirsex and date of birth. They will also indicate the countryin which they were born and the language they speak athome. We will use this information to categorize stu-dents into one of seven ethnic backgrounds (English,European, Middle Eastern, Asian, African, South Pacificor ‘other’), based on the Australian Bureau of Statistics’Standard Classification of Languages [48]. We will alsoask students to indicate if they are of Indigenous origin(i.e., Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander). We will assessstudent-level socioeconomic status through the child’sself-reported home suburb, children’s perception of thenumber of books in their home (as measured in Trendsin International Mathematics and Science Study) [49],and a single-item question on perceived socioeconomicstatus [50].Student physical activity (self-report) We will measurestudents’ activity behaviors using single item measuresof (i) typical physical activity participation [51], (ii) phys-ical activity participation last week [51], (iii) organizedsport participation in the past year with team andindividual sports measured separately [52] and (iv) activecommuting to school [52].Teachers’ interpersonal style during PE and schoolsport We will use a 4-item scale to assess students’ per-ceptions of their teacher’s support of students’ psycho-logical needs. This will involve two items from an adaptedversion of the Teacher as Social Context questionnaire[53], one item adapted from the Health Care ClimateQuestionnaire [54] and one item from the ControllingTeacher Scale [55].Student behavior, affect and cognition during PE andschool sport We will assess effort through three items, in-cluding two items from the Student Engagement in Schoolquestionnaire [56] and one item from the effort subscale ofthe Intrinsic Motivation Inventory [57]. Enjoyment will beassessed using three items adapted to PE and school sportfrom the Student Engagement in School questionnaire.Three items will be used to assess students’ concentrationin the lessons [58]. Three items from the Use of Strategiessubscale of the Cognitive Processes Questionnaire inPhysical Education [59] will measure strategies studentsemploy when learning in PE and school sport.Subjective well-being We will measure students’ per-ceived well-being using 10 items from the WHO’s HealthBehavior in School-aged Children questionnaire [50].Academic achievement We will work with NSWBOSTES to obtain students’ Year 3 and 5 NAPLANnumeracy and literacy standardized test scores [60].Student level measures – sub-sampleWithin each school, we will randomly select one class toform a sub-sample. We expect 18 students per class tovolunteer; therefore, the subsample will include approxi-mately 360 children. Children in the sub-sample willcomplete the following measures in addition to the pre-viously described measures.Fundamental movement skill competencyStudents’ fundamental movement skill competence willbe measured using three object-control skills from theTest of Gross Motor Development-2 [61]. From the 12skills available, we selected the overarm throw, catch,and kick due to their transferability into a variety ofdifferent sports that are popular among Australianchildren. Moreover, object control skills are most stronglyassociated with physical activity levels in comparison tolocomotor and stability skills [62, 63].Cognitive controlWe will measure children’s working memory and inhib-ition using a modified AX-Continuous Performance Task(AX-CPT) [64]. The tests will be administered by trainedresearch assistants and completed by participants using acomputer. The AX-CPT requires participants to correctlyrespond to target trials that occur when the letter ‘X’(correct-probe) is immediately preceded by the letter’A’(correct-cue). Non-target trials occur when probes areletters other than X (collectively referred to as’Y’) and/orcues are letters other than A (referred to collectively as’B’).Thus, participants encounter four types of trials: AX, AY,BX, and BY [65].Principal level measures – entire sample (onlinequestionnaires)Principal characteristicsPrincipals will self-report their demographic information(age, sex, ethnicity, and number of years teaching).Additionally, we will ask principals to declare if they haveevaluate leaders’ and teachers’ utilization of strategies inLonsdale et al. BMC Public Health  (2016) 16:873 Page 12 of 16ever been accredited as a specialist PE teacher, and toself-report their physical activity [51] and sportparticipation [52].School characteristicsPrincipals will complete items measuring the number ofclasses, number of students per class, number ofemployed teaching staff within their schools, number ofPE specialist teachers and bell times for the school (e.g.,school start, recess, lunch, and school end times).School physical activityWe will assess principals’ perceptions of facilities, equip-ment, time allocation, and support for physical educationin their school using 13 items from the NSW SchoolPhysical Activity and Nutrition Survey [66]. A single-itemmeasure will be used to determine if schools currentlyreceive ‘Sporting Schools’ funding for external providers torun sport programs within the school.Teacher level measures– entire sample (onlinequestionnaires)Teacher characteristicsAs with principals, teachers will self-report their demo-graphic information (date of birth, sex, ethnicity, andnumber of years teaching). We will also ask teachers toreport the stage they are currently teaching, and theircurrent level of BOSTES accreditation. Additionally, wewill ask teachers to declare if they have ever beenaccredited as a specialist PE teacher, and to self-reporttheir physical activity [51] and sport participation [52].Teacher confidenceWe will assess teacher confidence in teaching PE andschool sport, as well as other key learning areas (e.g.,English, Mathematics, Science and Technology), byadapting a measure of non-specialist primary teachers’confidence to teach PE [67].Student conductA single item measure will be used to assess teachers’perceptions of their students’ behavior [56].Perceived student engagementWe will measure teachers’ perception of their students’engagement in PE and school sport lessons, as well asother key learning areas (e.g., English, Mathematics,Science and Technology) using an adapted version ofthe Student Engagement in School Questionnaire [56].Internet self-efficacyAn eight-item Internet self-efficacy scale will be used toassess teachers’ beliefs in their ability to utilize internettools [68].their schools (as per Table 1).Linear mixed models will be also used to examinepotential mediating processes. For example, in ourefficacy study we found that changes in fundamentalmovement skills mediated the effect of the interventionon children’s physical activity and cardiorespiratoryfitness. Mediating effects will be estimated using aJob satisfaction, burnout and absenteeismSingle-item measure of overall job satisfaction [69]and burnout [70] will be used. Additionally, we willseek permission from teachers to collect from theirprincipal the number of days absent from work dueto illness.Statistical analyses and sample size We will test forbetween-arm differences in changes in student outcomesusing linear mixed models with standard errors correctedfor clustering. We will analyze data according to intentionto treat principles (main analyses) and per-protocol princi-ples (sensitivity analyses). We conducted a power analysisusing procedures appropriate for complex nested designs[71]. In this analysis the effect size for between-arm differ-ences in cardiorespiratory fitness (primary outcome) wasconservatively set to .35 (note: effect in our efficacy trialwas .54) with intraclass correlations based on our efficacytrial [21] (class = .09, school = .01). Analysis indicated that1080 students from 60 classes in 20 schools (i.e., 3 classesper school) would provide power of .91.We will explore potential moderators of interventioneffects including children’s age, sex, ethnicity, weight statusand SES, as well as baseline levels of cardio-respiratoryfitness, physical activity and fundamental movement skillcompetence. As with the main analyses, we will employ amixed modeling approach to explore moderation hypoth-eses by including appropriate interaction terms in theregression models. The trial is not powered to detectinteractions; thus, we will employ a significance levelof p < 0.1 to explore potential moderators. We willexplore significant interaction terms by testing sub-groups differences on the primary outcome andselected secondary outcomes. We will also explorepotential moderating effects of principal and teachercharacteristics (e.g., specialist PE accreditation) onstudent outcomes.Per protocol analyses will investigate the influence ofiPLAY leaders’ and other teachers’ adoption and imple-mentation of the intervention on student outcomes.Adoption will focus on the proportion of interventiontraining components completed (e.g., workshops attendedand online tasks completed), while implementation willcluster-bootstrapped based product-of-coefficients testthat is appropriate for cluster RCTs.Lonsdale et al. BMC Public Health  (2016) 16:873 Page 13 of 16Economic evaluation We will conduct an economicevaluation to determine if iPLAY represents ‘value-for-money’ measured incrementally against the attentioncontrol arm. This allocative efficiency focus will deter-mine whether the cost of the intervention is justified bythe benefits derived from it, measured against usualpractice. Costs in each arm of the trial will be estimatedfrom a societal perspective using detailed pathwayanalysis to identify resource use, measurement andvaluation processes for the reference year 2018. Theincremental differences in costs will be combined withthe behavioral and biophysical outcomes observed in thetrial to produce a range of incremental cost effectivenessratios. In addition to a ‘trial-based evaluation’ (costs andoutcomes exactly as per the trial), depending on theoutcomes, a modelled economic evaluation with theextended time horizon may be undertaken to furthertranslate the benefits observed in the trial into finalhealth benefits, assessed as disability-adjusted life years(DALYs) averted. The modelled economic evaluation willsimulate the impact of increased physical activity andmovement skill competency on overall well-being overthe lifetime of the cohort compared with usual practice.A Markov model [72] consisting of health statesassociated with different levels of physical activities/movement skill competency will be used to accruecosts and benefits over the time horizon. The long-termimproved outcome may translate into cost savings whichoffset the increased cost associated with the implementa-tion of iPLAY project. Simulation-modelling using the@RISK software package will be used to calculate 95 %uncertainty intervals around the epidemiological probabil-ities and cost estimates.Scale-up implementation evaluationRunning alongside the cluster RCT will be a scale-upimplementation study. This evaluation will be a multiplecohort design, with all schools receiving the intervention.Measurement will be guided by the RE-AIM framework[73] and will occur at baseline, 12 and 24 months for eachcohort.Participants and proceduresParticipants will include principals, teachers and studentsat government-funded primary schools in NSW. Therewill be no exclusion criteria for principals or teacherswithin these schools. To be included in the study at least50 % of Stage 2 (Years 3 and 4) teachers must be willingto participate in the program, at least one staff membermust be willing to be an iPLAY leader, and the principalmust provide consent for the program to run in theschool. All students who are enrolled in Years 3 or 4(Stage 2) at baseline and who are able to participate inphysical activity will be eligible for the study, except forstudents enrolled in ‘Schools for Specific Purposes’(i.e., for students who require intensive levels of sup-port). In these schools, teachers will be eligible toparticipate in the study, but students will not beasked to complete outcome assessments.Principals and teachers will provide written informedconsent to participate in the scale-up implementationstudy. Passive consent procedures will be used regardingstudent participation; newsletters will be sent home andwill ask parents to indicate if they do not wish theirchild to participate in the study.MeasuresReach We will examine the extent to which participat-ing schools are representative of the NSW population, interms of school size, SES, and location. Once a school isrecruited into the study we will employ a questionnaireto ask the principal to identify the “single most import-ant reason for your decision to participate”. At the endof recruitment, we will purposively sample 100 schools(according to size, SES, and location) that do not volun-teer and follow-up by telephone to determine reasonsfor non-participation.Effectiveness We will conduct a reduced examinationof effectiveness in the scale-up implementation studycompared with the cluster RCT. Assessments willinclude all questionnaires and standaridized tests ofnumeracy and literacy from the cluster RCT. Other mea-sures (e.g., 20 m multistage fitness test, accelerometers,fundamental movement skills, and cognitive control) willnot be obtained in the scale-up implementation study.Principals and teachers will complete online question-naires. Classroom teachers will also administer an onlinequestionnaire to their students to complete self-reportmeasures. Questionnaires will be administered to princi-pals, teachers, and students at baseline, post-intervention(12 months) and maintenance (24 months).Adoption We will examine the proportion of schoolsfrom the NSW population that volunteer and participatein the program. We will assess teacher level adoption byexamining the proportion of teachers who completeeach aspect of the training, including attendance atface-to-face workshops and completion of online compo-nents, as well as participation in mentor meetings, peerobservations and small group discussions.Implementation We will monitor implementation asper Table 1 (curricular and non-curricular components).Maintenance Using the procedure described above,we will re-examine effectiveness and implementationLonsdale et al. BMC Public Health  (2016) 16:873 Page 14 of 1624 months after baseline. To further understand barriersand facilitators to implementation, we will conduct semi-structured interviews with purposively selected principals(n = 15), teachers (n = 15) and students (n = 15). Samplingwill ensure that interview participants are drawn fromschools in which the intervention had strong effects, weakeffects and no effects. Thematic analysis of transcripts willindicate ways to improve implementation prior to furtherdissemination.Statistical analysesThe scale-up implementation study will be assessed with afocus on descriptive statistics concerning reach, adoption,implementation, and maintenance. We will also use linearregression to explore the impact of school and communitycharacteristics on program reach. We will use linear mixedmodel analysis to examine changes in outcome variablesfrom baseline to 12-months and 24-months (i.e., effective-ness). These effects will be estimated for the entire sampleas well as in key sub-populations (e.g., across teacher sex,school average SES, teachers with high vs low internet self-efficacy). Where possible, we will compare iPLAY schoolswith expected values within the population (e.g., NAPLANscores in similar schools, physical activity participation)from other data sources such as NSW School Physical Ac-tivity and Nutrition Survey [66]. We will also compare out-comes at 12 months (post-intervention) for Cohort 1 withbaseline levels for Cohort 2, taking advantage of the naturalexperiment that is inherent in the design of the study.Economic evaluationThe research question for economic evaluation of thescale-up implementation study will be to assess, froma societal perspective, the cost-outcome of scaling upthe iPLAY project (rollout and implementation to 160schools) in primary schools within NSW to assessintervention affordability and sustainability.The economic analysis will be a cost-outcome descrip-tion as the one-arm design of the scale-up implementationstudy does not include a control arm (which is necessaryfor determination of comparative cost-effectiveness). Theprimary economic analysis will comprise three compo-nents: a cost analysis; an outcome analysis and the rela-tionship between cost and outcomes for the intervention.Costing of the intervention using opportunity cost princi-ples will involve the following steps: Identification of costs to be included, using ‘pathwayanalysis’, where activities in all stages of the roll outof the iPLAY project are fully specified; A societalperspective and steady state operation of theintervention will be assumed (up and running to itsfull effectiveness potential). Costs will largely relateto the time costs of specialist mentors, leaders,classroom teachers, and school principals (usingopportunity cost principles). Any administrativeresources used at the program management levelalso will be identified and included, althoughresearch-driven activities will be separated from theactivities that would be carried out should theprogram be adopted by primary schools; Measurement of the resources consumed in naturalunits (number of hours spent by specialist mentors/leaders within school/principals to deliver theintervention, number and length of school visits, etc.); Valuation of these resources in monetary units(using 2018 as the reference year).In addition, variations in delivery costs of the iPLAYintervention between participating schools will be identi-fied in order to determine any factors that may impacton the roll out of this program throughout NSWprimary schools and its adoption in other jurisdictions.The economic outcomes for the scale-up implementationstudy will be presented as total costs, average costs perchild and per school, separately from the intervention andmaintenance periods. The relationship between costs andoutcomes will be reported as average cost per outcome.DiscussionThe purpose of this study is to evaluate the extent to whichan existing, efficacious physical activity intervention can bescaled-up and disseminated widely using online learningmethods alongside face-to-face implementation support. Aweb-based delivery system is attractive as it may supportscaling-up and sustainability. However, little, if any, evi-dence exists regarding the effectiveness of comprehensiveprimary school-based physical activity interventions deliv-ered using online methods. Using two concurrent studies,and guided by the RE-AIM framework, our project willhelp provide evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of teacher professional learning deliveredlargely via the Internet to address the issue of physical in-activity among primary school-aged children.AbbreviationsBMI, body mass index; BOSTES, Board of Studies, Teaching and EducationalStandards; iPLAY, Internet-based Professional Learning to help teacher supportActivity in Youth; MVPA, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; NAPLAN, NationalAssessment Program – Numeracy and Literacy; PE, Physical Education;RCT, randomized controlled trial; RE-AIM, Reach Effectiveness – AdoptionImplementation Maintenance; SCORES, Supporting Children’s Outcomesusing Rewards, Exercise and Skills; SES, socioeconomic status; WHO,World Health OrganizationAcknowledgementsNone.FundingThis project is funded by a Partnership Project Grant from the National Healthand Medical Research Council (APP1114281) and a grant from the New SouthWales Department of Education’s School Sport Unit. PP is supported by anLonsdale et al. BMC Public Health  (2016) 16:873 Page 15 of 16Australian Research Council Discovery Early Career Researcher Award(DE140100080). JS is supported by a NHMRC Principal Research Fellowship(APP1026216). MM is supported by a NHMRC Centre for Research Excellencein Obesity Policy and Food Systems (APP1041020). DPC is supported by anAustralian Research Council Discovery Early Career Researcher Award(DE140101588). DRL is supported by an Australian Research Council FutureFellowship (FT140100399).Availability of data and materialNo data has been collected.Authors’ contributionsCL and DL conceived the idea for the study and led the design of all aspects.CL and TS drafted the manuscript. TS, KC, MN, TH, MK, PM, AB, RC, LP, GK, andJG contributed to the intervention development. TS, PP, JS, DV, MM, RP, DG, DCand LG contributed to the study design. HM provided advice on study designand implementation strategies. All authors edited the manuscript and approvedthe final version prior to submission.Authors’ informationNone.Competing interestsThe authors declare that they have no competing interests.Consent for publicationNot applicable.Ethics approval and consent to participateEthical approval for this study was provided by the Australian Catholic UniversityHuman Research Ethics Committee (Ref:2014185 N) and the NSW Department ofEducation (Ref: SERAP2014260). Principals, teachers and parents will providewritten consent in the cluster RCT. Students will provide written assent in thecluster RCT. Principals and teachers will provide written consent in the scale-upimplementation study. Parents will have a written opportunity to declineparticipation (i.e., opt out) in scale-up implementation study. Students willprovide oral assent in the scale-up implementation study.Author details1Institute for Positive Psychology and Education, Australian Catholic University,Edward Clancy Building 167-169 Albert St, Strathfield, NSW 2135, Australia.2Priority Research Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Education,University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia. 3Institute for PositivePsychology and Education and School of Exercise Science, Australian CatholicUniversity, Edward Clancy Building 167-169 Albert St, Strathfield, NSW 2135,Australia. 4School of Exercise Science, Australian Catholic University, EdwardClancy Building 167-169 Albert St, Strathfield, NSW 2135, Australia. 5PhysicalActivity Research Group, School of Human Health and Social Sciences, CentralQueensland University, Building 18, Yaamba Road, Rockhampton, QLD 4702,Australia. 6Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Exerciseand Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia. 7Deakin HealthEconomics, Centre for Population Health Research, Faculty of Health, DeakinUniversity, Geelong, VIC, Australia. 8Center for Hip Health and Mobility,University of British Columbia, 7/F, 2635 Laurel Street, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1 M9,Canada. 9School of Science and Health, Western Sydney University, Locked Bag1797, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia. 10School of Education, Australian CatholicUniversity, 250 Victoria Parade East, Melbourne, VIC 3002, Australia. 11Faculty ofEducation and Social Work, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.12Early Start Research Institute, School of Education, University of Wollongong,Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia. 13Teachers and Teaching Research Centre,School of Education, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia.Received: 8 June 2016 Accepted: 20 June 2016References1. Kohl HW, Craig CL, Lambert EV, Inoue S, Alkandari JR, Leetongin G,Kahlmeier S, Group LPASW. The pandemic of physical inactivity: Globalaction for public health. Lancet. 2012;380(9838):294–305.2. Strong WB, Malina RM, Blimkie CJ, Daniels SR, Dishman RK, Gutin B,Hergenroeder AC, Must A, Nixon PA, Pivarnik JM. Evidence based physicalactivity for school-age youth. J Pediatr. 2005;146(6):732–7.3. Janssen I, LeBlanc AG. Systematic review of the health benefits of physicalactivity and fitness in school-aged children and youth. Int J Behav Nutr PhysAct. 2010;7(40):1–16.4. Biddle SJ, Asare M. Physical activity and mental health in children andadolescents: a review of reviews. Br J Sports Med 2011:bjsports90185.5. Babic MJ, Morgan PJ, Plotnikoff RC, Lonsdale C, White RL, Lubans DR.Physical activity and physical self-concept in youth: Systematic review andmeta-analysis. Sports Med. 2014;44(11):1589–601.6. Drollette ES, Shishido T, Pontifex MB, Hillman CH. Maintenance of cognitivecontrol during and after walking in preadolescent children. Med Sci SportsExerc. 2012;44(10):2017–24.7. Owen KB, Parker PD, Van Zanden B, MacMillan F, Astell-Burt T, Lonsdale C.Physical activity and school engagement in youth: A systematic review andmeta-analysis. Educ Psychol 2016;51(2):1–17.8. Singh A, Uijtdewilligen L, Twisk JWR, van Mechelen W, Chinapaw MJM. Physicalactivity and performance at school: A systematic review of the literatureincluding a methodological quality assessment. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012;166(1):49–55.9. International Society for Physical Activity and Health. Investments that workfor physical activity. Br J Sports Med. 2012;46(10):709–12.10. Crawford D. The future of sport in Australia. Canberra: Commonwealth ofAustralia; 2009.11. Office for Standards in Education Children’s Services and Skills. Beyond 2012– outstanding physical education for all: Physical education in schools.Manchester, UK: Office for Standards in Education Children’s Services andSkills; 2013. www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/120367. Accessed 8 June 2016.12. van Sluijs EMF, McMinn AM, Griffin SJ. Effectiveness of interventions topromote physical activity in children and adolescents: Systematic review ofcontrolled trials. Br Med J. 2007;335(7622):703.13. Kriemler S, Meyer U, Martin E, van Sluijs E, Andersen L, Martin B. Effect ofschool-based interventions on physical activity and fitness in children andadolescents: A review of reviews and systematic update. Br J Sports Med.2011;45(11):923–30.14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. School health guidelines topromote healthy eating and physical activity. In: Morbidity andMortality Weekly Report. Volume 60, 5th edn. Atlanta, GA: Centers forDisease Control and Prevention; 2011.15. Hills AP, Dengel DR, Lubans DR. Supporting public health priorities:Recommendations for physical education and physical activity promotion inschools. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2015;57(4):368–74.16. Lonsdale C, Rosenkranz RR, Peralta LR, Bennie A, Fahey P, Lubans DR. Asystematic review and meta-analysis of interventions designed to increasemoderate-to-vigorous physical activity in school physical education lessons.Prev Med. 2013;56(2):152–61.17. Lonsdale C, Rosenkranz RR, Sanders T, Peralta LR, Bennie A, Jackson B, TaylorIM, Lubans DR. A cluster randomized controlled trial of strategies toincrease adolescents’ physical activity and motivation in physical education:Results of the Motivating Active Learning in Physical Education (MALP) trial.Prev Med. 2013;57(5):696–702.18. Dobbins M, DeCorby K, Robeson P, Husson H, Tirilis D. School-based physicalactivity programs for promoting physical activity and fitness in children andadolescents aged 6-18. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;3(2):1–260. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007651.pub2.19. Metcalf B, Henley W, Wilkin T. Effectiveness of intervention on physicalactivity of children: Aystematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trialswith objectively measured outcomes. Br Med J. 2012;345:1–11.20. Cohen KE, Morgan PJ, Plotnikoff RC, Barnett LM, Lubans DR. Improvementsin fundamental movement skill competency mediate the effect of theSCORES intervention on physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness inchildren. J Sports Sci. 2015;33(18):1908–18.21. Cohen KE, Morgan PJ, Plotnikoff RC, Callister R, Lubans DR. Physical activityand skills intervention: SCORES cluster randomized controlled trial. Med SciSports Exerc. 2015;47(4):765–74.22. Lubans DR, Morgan PJ, Weaver K, Callister R, Dewar DL, Costigan SA, Finn TL,Smith J, Upton L, Plotnikoff RC. Rationale and study protocol for the supportingchildren’s outcomes using rewards, exercise and skills (SCORES) group randomizedcontrolled trial: A physical activity and fundamental movement skills interventionfor primary schools in low-income communities. BMC Public Health. 2012;12(1):427.Lonsdale et al. BMC Public Health  (2016) 16:873 Page 16 of 1623. McLeroy KR, Bibeau D, Steckler A, Glanz K. An ecological perspective onhealth promotion programs. Health Educ Behav. 1988;15(4):351–77.24. Durlak JA, DuPre EP. Implementation matters: A review of research on theinfluence of implementation on program outcomes and the factorsaffecting implementation. Am J Community Psychol. 2008;41(3-4):327–50.25. Naylor P, Nettlefold L, Race D, Hoy C, Ashe MC, Higgins JW, McKay H.Implementation of school based physical activity interventions: A systematicreview. Prev Med 2015;72:95–115.26. Milata AJ, Newsonb R, Kingb L, Risselb C, Wolfendenc L, Baumanb A, RedmancS, Giffina M. A guide to scaling up population health interventions. PublicHealth Research & Practice 2016;26(1):e2611604.27. Kessler R, Glasgow RE. A proposal to speed translation of healthcare researchinto practice: Dramatic change is needed. Am J Prev Med. 2011;40(6):637–44.28. Lonsdale C, Lester A, Owen KB, White RL, Moyes I, Peralta L, Kirwan M,Maeder A, Bennie A, MacMillan F, et al. An internet-supported physicalactivity intervention delivered in secondary schools located in Low socio-economic status communities: study protocol for the Activity andMotivation in Physical Education (AMPED) cluster randomized controlledtrial. BMC Public Health. 2016;16(1):1.29. Fishman B, Konstantopoulos S, Kubitskey BW, Vath R, Park G, Johnson H,Edelson DC. Comparing the impact of online and face-to-face professionaldevelopment in the context of curriculum implementation. J Teach Educ.2013;64(5):426–38.30. Gallahue D, Ozmun J. Understanding motor development: Infants, children,adolescents, adults. 6th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill; 2006.31. Dumith SC, Gigante DP, Domingues MR, Kohl HW. Physical activity changeduring adolescence: a systematic review and a pooled analysis. Int J Epidemiol.2011;40(3):685–98.32. Centre for Education Statistics and Evaluation. Schools and students: 2014statistical bulletin. Sydney: NSW Department of Education andCommunities; 2015.33. Australian Curriculum and Reporting Authority. Guide to understanding 2013Index of Community Socio-educational Advantage (ICSEA) values. In.; 2014.34. Healthy Kids: What is Live Life Well @ School? https://www.healthykids.nsw.gov.au/teachers-childcare/live-life-well-@-school.aspx. Accessed 8 June 2016.35. Morgan PJ, Young MD, Smith JJ, Lubans DR. Targeted health behaviorinterventions promoting physical activity: A conceptual model. Exerc SportSci Rev. 2016;44(2):71–80.36. Vescio V, Ross D, Adams A. A review of research on the impact ofprofessional learning communities on teaching practice and studentlearning. Teach Teach Educ. 2008;24(1):80–91.37. Owen KB, Smith J, Lubans DR, Ng JY, Lonsdale C. Self-determinedmotivation and physical activity in children and adolescents: A systematicreview and meta-analysis. Prev Med. 2014;67(10):270–9.38. Scruggs PW, Beveridge SK, Eisenman PA, Watson DL, Shultz BB, Ransdell LB.Quantifying physical activity via pedometry in elementary physicaleducation. Medicine & Science in Sport & Exercise. 2003;35(6):1065–71.39. Guagliano JM, Lonsdale C, Kolt GS, Rosenkranz RR, George ES. Increasinggirls’ physical activity during a short-term organized youth sport basketballprogram: A randomized controlled trial. J Sci Med Sport 2015;18:412–17.40. Campbell MK, Elbourne DR, Altman DG. CONSORT statement: Extension tocluster randomised trials. Br Med J. 2004;328:702–8.41. Forbes A, Skamp K. Secondary science teachers’ and students’ involvement in aprimary school community of science practice: How it changed their practicesand interest in science. Research in Science Education 2015;46(1):91–112.42. Welk G, Meredith MD. Fitnessgram/Activitygram reference guide. Dallas: TheCooper Institute; 2008.43. Tomkinson GR, Leger LA, Olds TS, Cazorla G. Secular trends in the performanceof children and adolescents (1980-2000): An analysis of 55 studies of the 20mshuttle run test in 11 countries. Sports Med. 2003;33(4):285–300.44. Pate R, Oria M, Pillsbury L (eds.). Fitness measures and health outcomes inyouth. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2012.45. Hildebrand M, Van Hees VT, Hansen BH, Ekelund U. Age-group comparabilityof raw accelerometer output from wrist-and hip-worn monitors. Med SciSports Exerc. 2014;46(9):1816–24.46. Fairclough SJ, Noonan R, Rowlands AV, van Hees V, Knowles Z, Boddy LM.Wear compliance and activity in children wearing wrist and hip-mountedaccelerometers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2015;48(2):245–53.47. Flegal KM, Cole TJ. Construction of LMS parameters for the Centers forDisease Control and Prevention 2000 growth charts. National HealthStatistics Report. 2013;63:1–4.48. Australian Standard Classification of Languages (ASCL), 2011. Australian Bureauof Statistics. 2011. http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/1267.02011. Accessed 8 June 2016.49. International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement.TIMSS 2003 user guide for the international database. Boston: Lynch Schoolof Education, Boston College; 2005.50. Roberts C, Freeman J, Samdal O, Schnohr CW, De Looze M, Gabhainn SN, et al.The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: Methodologicaldevelopments and current tensions. Int J Public Health. 2009;54(2):140–50.51. Ridgers ND, Timperio A, Crawford D, Salmon J. Validity of a brief self-reportinstrument for assessing compliance with physical activity guidelinesamongst adolescents. J Sci Med Sport. 2012;15(2):136–41.52. Active Healthy Kids Australia. Is sport enough? The 2014 Active Healthy KidsAustralia report card on physical activity for children and young people.Adelaide: Active Healthy Kids Australia; 2014.53. Belmont M, Skinner E, Wellborn J, Connell J. Teacher as social context: Ameasure of student perceptions of teacher provision of involvement,structure, and autonomy support. Rochester: University of Rochester; 1988.54. Vlachopoulos SP, Katartzi ES, Kontou MG. Fitting multidimensional amotivationinto the self-determination theory nomological network: Application in schoolphysical education. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci. 2013;17(1):40–61.55. Jang H, Reeve J, Ryan RM, Kim A. Can self-determination theory explainwhat underlies the productive, satisfying learning experiences ofcollectivistically oriented Korean students? J Educ Psychol. 2009;101(3):644.56. Lam S-F, Jimerson S, Wong BP, Kikas E, Shin H, Veiga FH, Hatzichristou C,Polychroni F, Cefai C, Negovan V. Understanding and measuring studentengagement in school: The results of an international study from 12countries. Sch Psychol Q. 2014;29(2):213.57. McAuley E, Duncan T, Tammen VV. Psychometric properties of the intrinsicmotivation inventory in a competitive sport setting: a confirmatory factoranalysis. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1989;60:48–58.58. Standage M, Duda JL, Ntoumanis N. A test of self-determination theory inschool physical education. Br J Educ Psychol. 2005;75(3):411–33.59. Solmon MA, Lee AM, Lee AM. Development of an instrument to assess cognitiveprocesses in physical education classes. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1997;68(2):152–60.60. Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority. NAPLANAchievement in Reading, Persuasive Writing, Language Conventions andNumeracy: National Report for 2014. http://www.nap.edu.au/_resources/National_Assessment_Program_Literacy_and_Numeracy_national_report_for_2014.pdf. Accessed 8 June 2016.61. Ulrich DT. Test of gross motor development Examiner’s manual. 2nd ed.Austin: Pro.Ed; 2000.62. Barnett LM, Van Beurden E, Morgan PJ, Brooks LO, Beard JR. Childhoodmotor skill proficiency as a predictor of adolescent physical activity.J Adolesc Health. 2009;44(3):252–9.63. Cohen KE, Morgan PJ, Plotnikoff RC, Callister R, Lubans DR. Fundamentalmovement skills and physical activity among children living in low-incomecommunities: A cross-sectional study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2014;11(1):49–58.64. Paxton JL, Barch DM, Racine CA, Braver TS. Cognitive control, goal maintenance,and prefrontal function in healthy aging. Cereb Cortex. 2008;18(5):1010–28.65. Braver TS, Barch DM. A theory of cognitive control, aging cognition, andneuromodulation. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2002;26(7):809–17.66. Hardy LL, King L, Espinel P, Cosgrove C, Bauman A. NSW Schools Physical Activityand Nutrition Survey (SPANS): Full report. Sydney: NSW Ministry of Health; 2010.67. Morgan P, Bourke S. Non-specialist teachers’ confidence to teach PE: Thenature and influence of personal school experiences in PE. PhysicalEducation and Sport Pedagogy. 2008;13(1):1–29.68. Eastin MS, LaRose R. Internet self-efficacy and the psychology of the digitaldivide. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 2000;6(1):0-0.69. Wanous JP, Reichers AE, Hudy MJ. Overall job satisfaction: How good aresingle-item measures? J Appl Psychol. 1997;82(2):247.70. West CP, Dyrbye LN, Sloan JA, Shanafelt TD. Single item measures ofemotional exhaustion and depersonalization are useful for assessingburnout in medical professionals. J Gen Intern Med. 2009;24(12):1318–21.71. Westfall J, Kenny DA, Judd CM. Statistical power and optimal design inexperiments in which samples of participants respond to samples of stimuli.J Exp Psychol Gen. 2014;143(5):2020.72. Norris JR. Markov chains. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press; 1998.73. Glasgow RE, Vogt TM, Boles SM. Evaluating the public health impact ofhealth promotion interventions: the RE-AIM framework. Am J Public Health.1999;89(9):1322–7.


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items