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From dhows to trawlers : a recent history of fisheries in the Gulf countries, 1950 to 2010 Al-Abdulrazzak, Dalal; Pauly, D. (Daniel) 2013

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ISSN 1198-6727Number2013 VolumeFisheries Centre Research ReportsFrom dhows to trawlers:  a recent history oF Fisheries in the GulF countries, 1950 to 2010 21 2ISSN 1198-6727 Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, CanadaFisheries Centre Research ReportsFrom dhows to trawlers:  a recent history of fisheries in the Gulf countries, 1950 to 20102013 Volume 21 Number 2Edited byFisheries Centre Research Reports 21(2)59 pages © published 2013 byThe Fisheries Centre,University of British Columbia2202 Main MallVancouver, B.C., Canada, V6T 1Z4 ISSN 1198-6727 Dalal Al-Abdulrazzak and Daniel PaulyContentA Research Report from the Fisheries Centre at UBCFisheries Centre researCh reports are abstraCted in the Fao aquatiC sCienCes and Fisheries abstraCts (asFa)issn 1198-6727  Fisheries Centre Research Reports 21(2)59 pages © Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, 2013Fisheries Centre Research Reports 21(2)2013Edited byDalal Al-Abdulrazzak and Daniel PaulyDirector’s Foreword iPreface iiMissing sectors from Bahrain’s reported fisheries catches: 1950-2010 1Dalal Al-AbdulrazzakFisheries catch reconstruction for Iran, 1950-2010 7Nardin Roshan Moniri, Nazanin Roshan Moniri, Dirk Zeller, Dalal Al-Abdulrazzak, Kyrstn Zylich and Dyhia BelhabibReconstructing Iraq’s fisheries: 1950-2010 17Dalal Al-Abdulrazzak and Daniel PaulyReconstructing Kuwait’s marine fishery catches: 1950-2010 23Dalal Al-AbdulrazzakTotal fishery extractions for Qatar: 1950-2010 31Dalal Al-AbdulrazzakCatch reconstruction of the fisheries of Saudi Arabia in the Gulf,  1950-2010 39Dawit Tesfamichael and Daniel PaulyEstimating total fish extractions in the United Arab Emirates: 1950-2010 53Dalal Al-AbdulrazzakiIt is with great pleasure that I write this foreword to the Fisheries Centre Research Report titled From Dhows to Trawlers: a Recent History of Fisheries in the Gulf Countries, 1950 to 2010, edited by Dalal Al-Abdulrazzak and Daniel Pauly, on the recent history of fishing in the Gulf between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. These fisheries have grown in importance in recent decades, not only because people cannot eat oil, but also because income from oil is used to propel the demand for fish in the region.In fact, the time has come for the countries around the Gulf to come together and do something about their largely unregulated or ill-regulated fisheries, or they will lose what has now become an important element of their food security.The ‘catch reconstructions’ presented in this report should be useful to the seven countries of the Gulf, because they attempt to document all their fisheries, and not solely those that are covered by the national monitoring systems presently in place.I conclude by congratulating the editors of this report and the authors of the contributions included therein for producing an innovative document for the fisheries of the Gulf. U. R. Sumaila,Director,Fisheries Centre, UBC.director’s ForewordiiWriting the preface to this report should be very easy – once we are past the name of the place that it is about.The place in question is the gulf between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran, long known to English speakers as the ‘Persian Gulf’, recently renamed ‘Arabian Gulf’ (even though there is already a more imposing ‘Arabian Sea’), and which those who want to avoid trouble – including ourselves – name the ‘Gulf’, even though will get complaints from both sides in any case…Be as it may, the Gulf is important, not only because so much of the oil consumed in the world transits through the Strait of Hormuz, its outlet, but also because it is on its shore that much of the history of the Arab and Iranian people unfolded, and where their future will continue to unfold. The waters of the Gulf were not only used for trade – although this was always a very important component of the Gulf’s culture – but also as an important source of seafood.The latter role of the Gulf has become more and more important in recent decades, as the populations and income in the Gulf countries grew. Indeed, a situation has been reached now where the fisheries resources are overexploited in most of the Gulf’s countries, and catches have ceased to increase.So far, reviews of the Gulf’s fisheries have been based on analyses of the ‘catch’ data, which the Gulf countries – all members of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) – submit annually to FAO. However, it is now well established that official data of this sort throughout the world, tend to misreport actual catches (i.e., all the fish and invertebrates killed by fishing), and the Gulf countries are no exception.To compensate for this, the chapters included in this report presents, for each country in the Gulf time series of ‘reconstructed catch’, i.e., of the catches of all their fisheries (industrial, artisanal, recreational, subsistence, etc.) and the discards (fish caught, but discarded at sea). This will allow the impact of the fisheries of the Gulf and its ecosystems to be assessed and realistic management measures to be implemented, which they all need.Finally, we wish to take the opportunity to thank Dr. Dirk Zeller and Ms. Kyrstn Zylich for their crucial advice on several reconstructions, and Mr. Frédéric Le Manach for his assistance with the finalization of this report.Dalal Al–Abdulrazzak and Daniel PaulyMay 2013PreFaceBahrain - Al-Abdulrazzak 1missinG sectors From Bahrain’s rePorted Fisheries catches: 1950-20101Dalal Al-AbdulrazzakSea Around Us Project, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia,  2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canadad.alabdulrazzak@fisheries.ubc.caaBstractThis study applies previously established catch reconstruction approaches to re-estimate total marine catches for Bahrain from 1950 to 2010. Utilizing all available quantitative and qualitative data from both peer-reviewed and grey literature, combined with conservative assumptions and interpolations, the catches for all Bahraini marine fisheries are estimated. When accounting for catches from discards, illegal fishing, recreational catches, and other missing small-scale sectors, these estimates suggest that data supplied to the FAO by Bahrain potentially underestimate catches by a factor of 5 since 1950. Incomplete and under-reported data can lead to mismanaged fish stocks which is particularly problematic in the case of Bahrain, which is small, and thus shares many stocks with other Gulf countries.introductionBahrain is the smallest of the Persian Gulf states and the only island country in the region (Figure 1). Archipelagic in nature, Bahrain consists of about 40 low lying islands, with the 55 km long and 18 km wide Bahrain Island being the largest; consequently, Bahrain has a rich maritime history that includes fishing (CBD 2012) and pearling, as evidenced by its ‘Pearling Trail’, a UNESCO Word Heritage Site. Due to the wide range of seasonal variation in hydrological parameters in the Persian Gulf (Longhurst 2007), as well as the small area of Bahrain’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), a significant number of fish species utilize Bahrain’s waters on a seasonal basis. Consequently, Bahrain shares many of its fish fauna with other Gulf countries (Randall et al. 1978; Carpenter et al. 1997; also see FishBase [www.fishbase.org]).Despite the historical presence of large-scale shrimp fishing, fisheries were of minor economic importance (prior to the discovery of oil in the 1960s) and now are valued mostly for their cultural contribution. Possibly because of the minuscule contribution of fisheries to the economy (0.4% of GDP), their management receives little attention, and regulations are not strongly enforced, and thus largely ineffective.The main fishing gears used are shrimp trawls, gillnets, large wire traps (Arabic: gargoor) and hook-and-line. All commercial fishing is conducted as single-day trips. In the inshore areas, tidal weirs (Arabic: hadrah) are also used. Most of the catch is consumed locally, although some shrimp and crab are exported to neighbouring countries such as Saudi Arabia. A small number of seafood processing companies purchase surplus shrimp not destined for export. Bahrain’s landings do not meet the fish demand of its over 1.3 million inhabitants, and therefore must be supplemented by imports.Habitat destruction from coastal development, compounded with ill-enforced fisheries regulations, has led to a number of challenges for fisheries. Land reclamation is particularly problematic because fishermen are forced to fish further out and into Qatar’s EEZ, leading to illegal catches and violent standoffs (Mahdi 2010). Other challenges include the deployment of banned gears such as driftnets 1 Cite as: Al-Abdulrazzak D (2013) Missing sectors from Bahrain’s reported fisheries catches: 1950-2010. pp. 1-6. In: Al-Abdulrazzak D and Pauly D (eds.) From dhows to trawlers: a recent history of fisheries in the Gulf countries, 1950 to 2010. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 21(2). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727].Manama50°E26°N0 5025 km±Figure 1.  Map of Bahrain; showing the extent of its EEZ in grey; including the joint-regulation zone with Saudi Arabia (stripped area).From dhows to trawlers - Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly2and the operation of unauthorized foreign vessels in Bahrain’s EEZ. Bahrain also has a rapidly growing recreational fisheries sector (Uwate et al. 1994), which may be taking large quantities of commercially important species, but is unregulated and therefore unreported.Species composition of landings has changed over time, masking the decline of traditionally exploited species such as orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) and penaeid shrimps, which have been offset by increased catches of blue swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus), a species that was previously discarded, but is now being retained to meet demand from a growing immigrant community. Catches of more desirable species and shrimp have declined dramatically.methodsThis contribution follows the conceptual framework of the catch reconstruction as outlined by previous studies (Zeller et al. 2006; Zeller et al. 2007; Jacquet et al. 2010; Le Manach et al. 2012).Using Google Earth, Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly (2013), estimate 880 ± 57 hadrah were operating in Bahrain in 2005, generating an annual catch of 17,125 ± 5,147 t. These estimates are 8.7 times larger than what is reported to FAO for Bahrain in 2005. Since the number of hadrah is not known to have substantially fluctuated in the last five decades, the total reported catch from 2005 (1,960 t) was subtracted from all years, and the estimated catch (17,125 t) was added instead. From 1950-1964, reported landings were less than 1,960 t and therefore applying this method resulted in slightly lower overall catches (i.e., less than 17,125 t). Although it is known that hadrah catches have not fluctuated much in the last five decades, less information is known regarding the 1950s. Therefore, we kept the methodology the same for the entire time period, as it is not unreasonable to assume that catches may have been slightly lower in those early years. Species composition was estimated from data supplied by the Ministry of Fisheries in Bahrain (A.H. Al-Radhi, pers. comm., Directorate of Fisheries Resources).To estimate discards by the shrimp trawlers, the shrimp to fish ratio of 1:15 reported by Abdulqader (2002) was applied to obtain the total by-catch. Abdulqader (2002) and Kelleher et al. (2005) estimate that Bahrain’s discard rate was 24% in the 2000s. It was assumed that more discarding occurred at the start of the fishery, thus a conservative discard rate of 80% was applied from 1950-1979, followed by 50% from 1980-1999, and 24% from 2000-2010. A 3-year moving average was applied for smoothing and species composition ratios were applied from the Abdulqader (2002) study.A number of sources reporting on the border disputes between Qatar and Bahrain highlight illegal fishing by Bahraini fishermen in Qatar’s EEZ (e.g., Lessware and Mahdi 2010; Mahdi 2010; Khatri 2012). Here it is assumed that illegal fishing took place since the start of the border dispute in 1980, and that illegal fishing amounts to only 2% of commercial catch in the period from 1980 to 2010. Species composition were applied based on landed catch ratios.Driftnets were banned in 1998 after complaints from trap fishermen that trawlers were operating in shallow water and cutting their floats (De Young 2006). Despite the ban, illegal driftnets for narrow-barred Spanish mackerel continue to be used (Uwate and Shams 1996, 1997; Abdulqader 2010) and pose a significant problem. It is conservatively assumed that since the 1998 ban, illegal catches by driftnets constitute 1% of total reported catch.Uwate et al. (1994) conducted a survey of recreational fishermen and estimated that recreational catch amounts to 4% of commercial catch. It was assumed that this percentage was the same since the start of reporting and therefore was applied from 1950-2010. Because no data were available on species composition, species composition ratios from Kuwait were applied to the reconstructed recreational catch.As in other Gulf countries, fishers are migrant labourers from Southeast Asia and Bahrain who make very little incomes, and therefore have a high incentive to fish for subsistence. From 1960-2010 foreign fishers made up 0.0046% of the population. It was assumed that fishers take 5 kg·week-1 for subsistence purposes, extrapolated from the start of the oil boom in 1960 until 2010. Because these take home catches are composed of less desirable species, subsistence catches were assigned species composition based on discarded species.results and discussionFor the period of FAO reporting, 1950-2010, estimated fisheries catches were almost 5 times what is reported by the FAO on behalf of Bahrain. Reconstructed catches for Bahrain totalled 1,877,300 t over the 1950-2010 period compared to 379,238 t reported by FAO.Catch data as reported by FAO on behalf of Bahrain suggest a steady increase in catches from 800 t in 1950 to a peak of 16,359 t in 2009, before a slight decrease in 2010. In contrast, reconstructed time series data suggest a fluctuating increase in catches throughout, with a sharp peak of 50,600 t in 1996. Catches declined until 2001 and then increased up to 2010.Bahrain - Al-Abdulrazzak 3The catch of recreational fisheries is likely underestimated, for two reasons. First, the study of Uwate et al. (1994), which formed the basis of the estimates presented here, is likely outdated at present. Bahrain’s population has strongly increased in recent years leading us to predict that participation has also greatly increased. Second, the study, which was conducted by people working for Bahrain’s Fisheries Directorate, was only carried out in selected ports, not all ports that service recreational fisheries. Other sources (e.g., Uwate and Shams 1996; De Young 2006) highlight the significance of recreational catches in Bahrain, but without providing tonnage. However, the study estimates catches to be only 4% of all commercial catches. Ultimately, this value was chosen in order to remain conservative.Discards, as reconstructed here, were substantial, and on average accounted for 28% of total estimated catches each year (Figure 2a; Appendix Table A1). Bahrain’s by-catch to trawled shrimp ratio of 15:1 is nearly 3 times the global average and highlights the need for concern regarding the ecological and economic impacts of this wasteful practice (Alverson and Hughes 1996; Kelleher et al. 2005).The four main taxa caught by Bahrain are Siganidae (15.7%), Portunus pelagicus (15.5%), Clupeidae (7.4%), and Pelates quadrilineatus (4.7%) (Figure 2b; Appendix Table A2). Juveniles of commercially important species make up the majority of by-catch and hadrah catches, which may lead to growth overfishing.This reconstruction supports growing concern over the status of Bahrain’s fisheries. Although catches appear to be increasing, it is more likely that the declines are masked by previously discarded species being retained. Masked declines, coupled with shared stocks, unsustainable fishing practices through illegal driftnets and high discard rates all point to stocks that are overfished. In addition, Bahrain’s population has essentially doubled in the last decade, from 638,000 in 2000 to 1.3 million in 2010, placing enormous pressure on the country’s natural resources.In addition, this reconstruction indicates poor data coverage for Bahrain’s officially reported catch series. The reconstruction undertaken here accounts for missing sectors, including discards, illegal and recreational catches, and offers a more complete accounting for hadrah catches. Thus, the reconstructed time series better reflects the catches extracted from Bahrain’s marine ecosystems. Although there is some uncertainty surrounding the estimates, assumptions in this report are conservative throughout and illustrate more likely historical trends and patterns.acknowledGementsThank you to A.H. AlRadhi, from Bahrain’s Directorate of Fisheries Resources, who graciously shared hadrah catch data. This is a contribution of the Sea Around Us Project, a scientific collaboration between the University of British Columbia and The Pew Charitable Trusts. 0102030405060FAOArtisanalIndustrialRecreationalDiscardsa)01020304050601950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Catch (t x 103)YearPortunus pelagicusSiganidaePelates quadrilineatusOthersClupeidaeb)Figure 2.  Total reconstructed catch for Bahrain by a) sector (with comparison to FAO data), and b) major taxa, 1950-2010. Note that subsitence catches were included on the sector graph (a) but are not visible (too small).From dhows to trawlers - Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly4reFerencesAbdulqader EAA (2002) The finfish bycatch of the Bahrain shrimp trawl fisheries. Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research 20(3): 165-174.Abdulqader EAA (2010) Turtle captures in shrimp trawl nets in Bahrain. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management 13(3): 307-318.Al-Abdulrazzak D and Pauly D (2013) Managing fisheries from space: Google Earth improves estimates of distant fish catches. ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi.10.1093/icesjms/fst178.Alverson DL and Hughes SE (1996) Bycatch: from emotion to effective natural resource management. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 6(4): 443-462.Carpenter KE, Krupp F, Jones DA and Zajonz U (1997) Living marine resources of Kuwait, eastern Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), European Commission (EC), Rome. viii+293 p.De Young C, editor (2006) Review of the state of world marine capture fisheries management: Indian Ocean. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 488. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 458 p.Jacquet J, Fox H, Motta H, Ngusaru A and Zeller D (2010) Few data but many fish: marine small-scale fisheries catches for Mozambique and Tanzania. African Journal of Marine Science 32(2): 197-206.Kelleher K (2005) Discards in the world’s marine fisheries: an update. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 470. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). xix+131 p.Khatri S (2012) Families worry as Indian fishermen held in Qatar arraigned on criminal charges. Doha News, edition of October 12, 2012.Le Manach F, Gough C, Harris A, Humber F, Harper S and Zeller D (2012) Unreported fishing, hungry people and political turmoil: the recipe for a food security crisis in Madagascar? Marine Policy 36(1): 218-225.Lessware J and Mahdi M (2010) Trouble waters between Bahrain and Qatar bring suspension of bridge project. The National, edition of June 17, 2010.Longhurst AR (2007) Ecological geography of the sea, 2nd edition. Academic Press, San Diego.Mahdi M (2010) Bahraini fishermen blame development for forcing them into gunsights of Qatar. The National, edition of May 13, 2010. Available at: http://www.thenational.ae/news/world/middle-east/bahraini-fishermen-blame-development-for-forcing-them-into-gunsights-of-qatar [Accessed: February 5, 2013].Randall JE, Allen GR and Smith-Vaniz WF (1978) Regional fishery survey and development project. Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates. Illustrated Identification Guide to Commercial Fisheries. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Rome. v+221 p.Uwate KR, Al-Rumaihi E and Mansoor J (1994) A survey of marine based recreational boating and fishing in Bahrain. Directiorate of Fisheries, Ministry of Commercia and Agriculture, Manama, Bahrain.Uwate KR and Shams AJ (1996) Video technology applied to the management of Bahrain’s marine resources. Naga, The ICLARM Quarterly 19(2): 9-11.Uwate KR and Shams AJ (1997) Bahrain fish stock enhancement: lessons learned and prospects for the future. SPC Live Reef Fish Information Bulletin 3: 9-12.Zeller D, Booth S, Craig P and Pauly D (2006) Reconstruction of coral reef fisheries catches in American Samoa, 1950-2002. Coral Reefs 25(1): 144-152.Zeller D, Booth S, Davis G and Pauly D (2007) Re-estimation of small-scale fishery catches for US flag-associated island areas in the western Pacific: the last 50 years. Fishery Bulletin 105(2): 266-277.Bahrain - Al-Abdulrazzak 5Appendix Table A1.   FAO landings vs. total reconstructed catch (t) for Bahrain, 1950-2010, as well as catch by sector.Year FAO landings Total reconstructed catch Industrial Artisanal Subsistence Recreational Discards1950 800 20,800 400 15,600 0 32 4,8001951 800 20,800 400 15,600 0 32 4,8001952 900 21,300 400 15,700 0 36 5,2001953 900 21,700 400 15,700 0 36 5,6001954 1,000 22,200 500 15,700 0 40 6,0001955 1,000 22,600 500 15,700 0 40 6,4001956 1,000 23,000 500 15,700 0 40 6,8001957 1,200 23,600 600 15,800 0 48 7,2001958 1,200 24,000 600 15,800 0 48 7,6001959 1,200 24,400 600 15,800 0 48 8,0001960 1,500 25,100 700 16,000 2 60 8,4001961 1,500 25,900 700 16,000 2 60 9,2001962 1,500 26,700 700 16,000 2 60 10,0001963 1,800 28,200 900 16,100 2 72 11,2001964 1,800 29,400 900 16,100 2 72 12,4001965 2,000 31,200 1,000 16,200 2 80 14,0001966 2,500 33,800 1,200 16,500 2 100 16,0001967 2,800 35,300 1,300 16,700 2 112 17,2001968 3,000 31,800 1,500 16,700 2 120 13,5001969 3,300 27,700 1,500 17,000 2 132 9,1001970 3,500 23,500 380 18,300 3 140 4,7001971 3,600 23,800 390 18,400 3 144 4,8001972 3,700 24,000 400 18,500 3 148 5,0001973 3,800 24,300 420 18,500 3 152 5,2001974 3,900 24,500 430 18,600 3 156 5,3001975 4,000 25,000 440 18,700 3 160 5,6001976 4,084 25,000 440 18,800 3 163 5,6001977 4,837 24,800 530 19,500 4 193 4,6001978 4,000 23,500 440 18,700 4 160 4,2001979 3,801 22,800 180 18,800 4 152 3,7001980 5,115 25,400 690 19,700 4 205 4,8001981 5,747 26,400 500 20,500 4 230 5,2001982 5,594 27,000 730 20,100 5 224 5,9001983 4,812 27,700 830 19,200 5 192 7,4001984 5,599 30,800 810 20,100 5 224 9,7001985 7,763 35,700 1,330 21,800 5 311 12,3001986 8,057 35,400 1,730 21,700 5 322 11,7001987 7,842 34,700 1,840 21,300 5 314 11,2001988 6,736 32,000 1,120 20,900 6 269 9,7001989 9,207 33,900 1,520 23,000 6 368 8,9001990 8,105 30,800 1,250 22,200 6 324 7,0001991 7,553 32,400 810 22,100 6 302 9,2001992 7,983 33,800 760 22,600 6 319 10,2001993 8,958 37,100 2,130 22,200 6 358 12,4001994 7,628 39,300 1,190 21,800 7 305 16,0001995 9,389 44,600 1,660 23,100 7 376 19,5001996 12,940 50,600 3,570 24,800 7 518 21,7001997 10,050 42,600 2,570 22,800 7 402 16,8001998 9,849 38,600 2,630 22,700 7 394 12,9001999 10,620 34,700 110 26,000 8 425 8,2002000 11,718 33,500 120 27,100 8 469 5,8002001 11,230 32,400 110 26,600 8 449 5,2002002 11,204 32,700 110 26,600 9 448 5,5002003 13,638 34,900 140 29,100 9 546 5,2002004 14,489 36,200 140 29,900 10 580 5,6002005 11,854 34,900 120 27,300 11 474 7,0002006 15,595 40,400 160 31,100 11 624 8,6002007 15,015 41,600 150 30,500 12 601 10,4002008 14,175 42,900 140 29,600 13 567 12,5002009 16,359 47,100 160 31,900 14 654 14,5002010 13,491 46,200 130 28,900 15 540 16,600From dhows to trawlers - Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly6Appendix Table A2.   Total reconstructed catch (t) for Bahrain by major taxa, 1950-2010.Year Siganidae Portunus pelagicus Clupeidae Pelates quadrilineatus Othersa1950 4,000 3,940 2,270 768 9,8001951 4,000 3,940 2,270 768 9,8001952 4,010 3,940 2,270 832 10,2001953 4,010 3,940 2,270 896 10,6001954 4,010 3,940 2,270 960 11,0001955 4,010 3,940 2,270 1,024 11,4001956 4,010 3,940 2,270 1,088 11,7001957 4,020 3,940 2,270 1,152 12,2001958 4,020 3,940 2,270 1,216 12,6001959 4,020 3,940 2,270 1,280 12,9001960 4,050 3,940 2,270 1,344 13,5001961 4,050 3,940 2,270 1,472 14,2001962 4,050 3,940 2,270 1,600 14,9001963 4,060 3,940 2,270 1,792 16,2001964 4,060 3,940 2,270 1,984 17,2001965 4,080 3,940 2,270 2,240 18,7001966 4,120 3,940 2,270 2,560 20,9001967 4,140 3,940 2,270 2,752 22,2001968 4,140 3,940 2,270 2,164 19,3001969 4,190 3,940 2,270 1,453 15,8001970 4,360 3,940 2,270 749 12,2001971 4,380 3,940 2,270 775 12,4001972 4,390 3,940 2,270 800 12,6001973 4,400 3,940 2,270 826 12,8001974 4,420 3,940 2,270 841 13,0001975 4,430 3,940 2,270 903 13,4001976 4,440 3,970 2,270 900 13,5001977 4,530 3,970 2,270 732 13,3001978 4,430 3,970 2,270 673 12,2001979 4,390 3,970 2,270 596 11,6001980 4,660 3,980 2,270 772 13,7001981 4,790 4,070 2,270 828 14,5001982 4,790 4,090 2,270 950 14,9001983 4,710 4,070 2,270 1,188 15,4001984 5,050 4,100 2,270 1,547 17,8001985 5,640 4,460 2,270 1,961 21,3001986 5,270 4,100 2,270 1,878 21,9001987 5,510 4,130 2,270 1,791 21,0001988 5,210 4,130 2,270 1,553 18,8001989 5,420 4,310 2,270 1,431 20,4001990 5,110 4,530 2,270 1,127 17,8001991 5,420 4,540 2,270 1,479 18,7001992 5,090 4,860 2,270 1,628 20,0001993 5,180 4,630 2,270 1,991 23,0001994 5,190 4,760 2,270 2,566 24,5001995 5,490 4,750 2,270 3,120 29,0001996 6,130 4,990 2,270 3,468 33,7001997 5,550 5,230 2,270 2,690 26,9001998 5,470 4,960 2,270 2,066 23,8001999 5,180 6,120 2,270 1,315 19,9002000 6,060 6,320 2,270 935 18,0002001 5,840 6,500 2,270 839 17,0002002 5,950 6,770 2,270 882 16,8002003 6,220 7,460 2,270 826 18,1002004 5,780 8,110 2,270 924 19,2002005 5,740 7,190 2,270 1,182 18,5002006 6,540 7,640 2,270 1,378 22,6002007 5,640 7,190 2,270 1,664 24,8002008 5,550 8,600 2,270 2,087 24,4002009 5,310 8,080 2,270 2,357 29,1002010 5,640 7,850 2,270 2,665 27,700a Others category includes 62 additional taxonomic groups.Iran - Roshan Moniri et al. 7Fisheries catch reconstruction For iran, 1950-20101Nardin Roshan Moniri, Nazanin Roshan Moniri, Dirk Zeller, Dalal Al-Abdulrazzak, Kyrstn Zylich and Dyhia BelhabibSea Around Us Project, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia,  2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canadanazanin.rm@gmail.com; nardin.rm@gmail.com; d.zeller@fisheries.ubc.ca; d.alabdulrazzak@fisheries.ubc.ca; k.zylich@fisheries.ubc.ca; d.belhabib@fisheries.ubc.caaBstractTotal marine fisheries catches were estimated for the Iranian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) waters from 1950 to 2010. All fisheries sectors, i.e., industrial (large-scale, commercial), artisanal (small-scale, commercial), subsistence and recreational, as well as foreign catches were reconstructed to recalculate total catches. Overall, total catches in Iran’s EEZ waters from 1950-2010 were approximately 18.2 million tonnes, of which 14.9 million tonnes were taken by Iranian fishers. It is evident that the data reported by FAO on behalf of Iran (around 5.7 million tonnes in EEZ waters only) represent mainly the large-scale fisheries in this region. Thus, management of artisanal and recreational fisheries is hampered by lack of key data, as is the prevention of illegal fishing.introductionThe Persian Gulf, which separates Iran in the Northeast from the neighbouring countries of Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates in the southwest,  extends from the Shatt al’Arab delta in the west to the Strait of Hormuz in the east (Walters and Sjoberg 1988; Esmaeili 2006; Figure 1). The average depth of this shallow water body is approximately 50 m, and its maximum depth is about 90 m near the Strait of Hormuz (Walters and Sjoberg 1988). The biodiversity in the Gulf is greatly influenced by the high salinity and seasonal temperature fluctuations. In winter, the water temperature can go as low as 3°C; conversely, during the summer, the temperature can rise to 50°C (Anon. 2013d). The main shipping lanes of the world’s largest oil fields pass through the Gulf’s exit, the Strait of Hormuz, and thus, its ecology has been impacted by the pollution caused by multiple oil spills, to which, unfortunately, the effects of mining, a land reclamation project, and largely unregulated fishing must be added (Anon. 2013e). In addition to oil production, fishing plays an important role in many of the economies or societies of the countries surrounding the Gulf region, including in Iran. Khozestan (western coast of Iran), Boushehr (central coast) and Hormozgan (eastern coast) are the three most important Iranian coastal provinces in terms of their contribution to the fishing industry (Esmaeili 2006). Reports show that over 54% of the fish caught in 2003 in Iranian coastal waters of the Gulf originated from the largest province, Hormozgan (Esmaeili 2006). Over 700 species of fish occur in the Persian Gulf (see FishBase; www.fishbase.org), and over 80% are either directly or indirectly associated with coral reefs (Anon. 2013a). Although their catch is declining, mackerels and shrimp are still among the most important target species (Peighambari and Daliri 2012). It seems that overfishing as a consequence of lack of proper management, together with environmental degradation, can explain the observed decline of fish stocks in the Gulf region (Anon. 2013c). Here, we provide re-estimated total marine catches by Iran in the EEZ waters from 1950-2010, using a catch reconstruction approach (Zeller et al. 2007), with the hope of providing a more accurate and comprehensive baseline for the management of the Gulf fisheries of Iran.1 1 Cite as: Roshan Moniri N, Roshan Moniri N, Zeller D, Al-Abdulrazzak D and Belhabib D (2013) Fisheries catch reconstruction for Iran, 1950-2010. pp. 7-16. In: Al-Abdulrazzak D and Pauly D (eds.) From dhows to trawlers: a recent history of fisheries in the Gulf countries, 1950 to 2010. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 21(2). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727].55°E26°N0 200100 km±Figure 1.  Map of Iran showing the extent of its EEZ (in grey), including the contested zone with the United Arab Emirates (stripped area). The ‘Gulf’ ends at the Strait of Hormuz (dotted line). From dhows to trawlers - Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly8methodsFisheries catch data were obtained from the FAO FishStat database, independent studies and government related fisheries websites. As Iran has a substantial and very active tuna fleet operating in the Indian Ocean, we assumed that nine large pelagic species are mainly being caught primarily outside Iranian waters, i.e., albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga), bigeye tuna (T. obesus), black marlin (Istiompax indica), Indo-Pacific sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus),  kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis), longtail tuna (T. tonggol), skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis), swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and yellowfin tuna (T. albacares). Thus, in order to separate catches from within the EEZ from offshore catches in the Indian Ocean, we filtered out reported landings of these nine species from the FAO dataset and used these adjusted data as the reported landings baseline. We identified four sectors of Iranian fisheries, i.e., industrial (large-scale, commercial), artisanal (small-scale, commercial), subsistence (small-scale, non-commercial), and recreational. In addition, we identified discarding and illegal catches as items to be estimated. Data ‘anchor points’ (sensu Zeller et al. 2007) for each of these components were derived and linear interpolations were used between anchor points to provide a complete time series of total catches for 1950-2010. To estimate likely Iranian catches within the Persian Gulf as opposed to outside (i.e., along the coast of the Iranian provinces of Sistan and Balochestan), a complete reconstruction of the six components was produced for both portions of the Iranian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ): within and outside the Persian Gulf (see Figure 1). The reconstruction of marine catches in the Sistan and Baluchestan provinces was facilitated through data provided by the Sistan and Baluchestan province portals (Anon. 2012c).Artisanal catchesThe official data on Iranian artisanal fishing effort distinguish two components: ‘fibreglass’ and ‘wooden’ vessels. In 1991, there were 3,176 fibreglass fishing vessels (Everett 2000). Due to the non-availability of fibreglass vessels in the 1950s and 1960s, we assumed that this represented small wooden crafts during the earlier decades  and that there were 60% fewer such fishing vessels in 1950 compared to 1991. (Table 1). Furthermore, we assumed that total capacity (i.e., vessel numbers) would have been 50% higher in 1977, before the Islamic revolution, than in 1950. We also assumed that vessel capacity was halved during the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq war. For 2001-2010, we were able to obtain capacity information from the official Iranian Fisheries website (Anon. 2012b). We performed a series of linear interpolations to complete the capacity time series from 1950 to 2001.The number of wooden fishing vessels (here interpreted as larger crafts) was reported for 1991 and from 2001 to 2010 by Esmaeili (2006). We assumed the number of wooden vessels in 1950 was 20% lower than in 1991. In 1977 before the Islamic revolution, we assumed capacity was 20% higher than the capacity in 1950. Wooden vessel capacity was also assumed to be halved during the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq war. We interpolated linearly between 1950 and 2001. Esmaeili (2006) lists catch per unit of effort (CPUE) for 1991 and 2003 as 36 t·vessel-1·year-1 and 20 t·vessel-1·year-1, respectively, with a peak of 50 t·vessel-1·year-1 in 1997. Given the high variability of these CPUE estimates, we interpolated them from 1999 to 2003 to smooth the data. We assumed that CPUE in 1950 was equivalent to the peak reported CPUE in 1997 (i.e., 50 t·vessel-1·year-1). Given the known overexploitation of marine resources in coastal waters of Iran (Esmaeili 2006), we reduced CPUE for 2010 by 10% compared to the 2003 value (Table 1). Intervening years were interpolated linearly. Combining the derived capacity time series with the estimated CPUE time series allowed us to estimate a likely catch time series for the artisanal fleet from 1950-2010 in the Iranian EEZ. Then, we multiplied the total estimated artisanal catch by the percentage of catches from the provinces of Sistan and Baluchestan. To obtain these percentages, we divided the reported catch of these provinces (Anon. 2012c) by the reported total landings by Iran to FAO (from FAO Fishstat). This amounted to 42,650 t·year-1 for a total of 236,717 t·year-1 reported by FAO (excluding large migratory species) for 1996 (18%) and 104,665 t·year-1 compared to a total of 291,305 t·year-1 reported by FAO (35%) for 2003. We assumed that the 18% ratio was constant between 1950 and 1996 and that the 35% ratio was constant between 2003 and 2010, then interpolated linearly between 18 and 35% for the years 1997 to 2002. The resulting percentage time series was then used to allocate the total estimated Iranian artisanal catch within and outside the Gulf. Using Google Earth, Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly (2013) estimate 726 ± 28 weirs were operating in the Persian Gulf waters of Iran in 2005, generating an annual catch of 12,240 ± 4,223 t. Since Iran does not report their weir catches and because Table 1.  Artisanal fishing vessels (small craft/fibreglass and larger wooden) and catch per unit of effort (CPUE) data and derived anchor points. Values between anchor points were interpolated.Year small craft/fibreglass(No. of vessels)Larger wooden(No. of vessels)CPUE(t·vessel-1·year-1)1950 1,270 a 2,053 a 501977 1,906 a 2,464 a 411991 3,176 b 2,567 d 36 d2001 2,817 c 7,086 d 272002 2,954 c 6,933 d 242003 2,945 c 7,356 d 20 d2004 3,047 c 7,559 d 202005 3,210 c 7,496 d 202006 3,250 c 7,563 d 192007 3,257 c 7,663 d 192008 2,999 c 7,847 d 192009 3,033 c 7,970 d 192010 3,066 c 7,932 d 18a 1950: 60% lower than 1991; 1977: 50% higher than 1950.b Everett (2000).c Iranian Fisheries website (Anon. 2012b).d Esmaeili (2006). Iran - Roshan Moniri et al. 9the number is not known to have substantially fluctuated in the last five decades, we assume the catch is constant and apply 12,240 t·year-1 from 1950 to 2010. Species composition was estimated from Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly (2013).Subsistence catchesWe extracted an estimate of the human population of Iran from the historical population demography website Populstat (www.populstat.info/), and used linear interpolations between census years to determine a complete population time series for 1950 to 2010. We then assumed that only the coastal population of Iran consumes domestically caught marine fish, and assumed that this would be the population within 10 km of the coast (CIESIN 2007). The fraction of coastal population for years prior to the years covered by the data source (pre-1990s, CIESIN 2007) was assumed to be a constant fraction of the total Iranian population. However, during the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988), we assumed the coastal population used for estimating consumption was one fourth to reflect the severe military restrictions and high migrations towards northern areas (Figure 2).Estimates of the coastal population were then combined a derived consumption rate time series. The average fish consumption of the population of Bandar Abbas, a coastal city of Iran was estimated at 3.4 meals·person-1·month-1, i.e., 41 meals·person-1·year-1 (Adeli et al. 2011). We assumed each person consumed 500 g of fish per meal (i.e., 20.5 kg·person-1·year-1). After adjusting as best as possible for the international seafood trade, i.e., exports and import (Everett 2000; Anon. 2007), we derived the difference between the trade adjusted consumption and the landings as reported by FAO on behalf of Iran. This difference was deemed to represent unreported catches. This estimated difference, divided by the total population  of Iran (Figure 2), was assumed to represent an estimate of per capita subsistence catch of 17 kg·person-1·year-1. We assumed this rate applies to the year 2010, but assumed a rate nearly 50% higher (i.e., 25.5 kg·person-1·year-1) for 1950, and interpolated the rate between these two years. We then multiplied this assumed subsistence catch rate by the adjusted southern coastal population, i.e., living within 10 km of the coast (Figure 2), to derive an estimated total subsistence catch in southern Iran.Recreational catchesWe assumed recreational fishing existed throughout the rule of the Shah, from 1950 to 1979, and after the Iran-Iraq war from 1989 to 2010. We assumed that any personal fishing that occurred during the war years was subsistence fishing and thus we estimated that there was zero recreational fishing during the war years (1980-1988); also, recreational fishing is popular primarily in the Persian Gulf, and hence, we assumed that no recreational fishing occurred in Sistan and Baluchestan. For 2010, it was estimated that around 0.12% of the population in Oman participated in recreational fishing (Cisneros-Montemayor and Sumaila 2010). We assumed this same rate applied to the coastal Iranian population in 2010. We then assumed half of this rate for the pre-war time period (1950-1979), i.e., 0.06%. Participation was set to zero for the years 1980-1988, and then we interpolated from zero in 1988 to 0.12% in 2010. To estimate recreational catches, we assumed that recreational fishers catch 5 kg·trip-1 and fish for one day per week (i.e., 52 days·year-1). Therefore, we multiplied the number of fishers by the number of the fishing days (52 days) and the assumed catch rate (5 kg·trip-1) to obtain an approximate time series of recreational catches.Industrial (large-scale, commercial) catchesData for the large-scale fisheries in the EEZ waters of Iran were largely based on information provided by the FAO and a variety of literature resources, as well as the Iranian official fisheries website. Given the absence of historic information on fishing effort by large-scale vessels, we considered the first anchor point for 1950 to be zero vessels. In 1957, there were three large vessels contributing to the fisheries in the Persian Gulf, while by 1961 there were 12 020040060080010001950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Population (x 103)YearFigure 2.  Human population data used for the subsistence calculation, 1950-2010 (solid line). An adjustment was made to the coastal population time series (dotted line) during the Iran-Iraq war years (1980-1988) to reflect severe restrictions imposed during that time.From dhows to trawlers - Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly10(Keddie 1971). By 1968, 50 large vessels operated in Iranian waters (Keddie 1971). We assumed effort was 20% higher before the Islamic revolution and the Iran-Iraq war. Furthermore, we assumed that the effort was halved by 1980 due to the start of Iran-Iraq war. For 1991, Everett (2000) reports 120 vessels. Anon. (2012b) provided data for years 2001-2010. We performed a series of interpolations to fill in the gaps throughout the time period (Table 2).To estimate the CPUE for the large-scale fishing, we used information from Esmaeili (2006) for 2003 (i.e., 202.9 t·vessel-1·year-1, Table 2) and assumed that the CPUE would be 10% higher in 1950 and 2% higher in 1991. We also assumed that the CPUE in 2010 was 10% lower than in 2003 given the general over-exploitation of stocks (Esmaeili 2006). Lastly, we multiplied the interpolated effort time series with the interpolated CPUE time series to estimated large-scale catches in the waters of Iran for 1950-2010. To separate out the industrial catches taken in Sistan and Baluchestan from those of the Gulf, we applied the same method as for artisanal catches (see above) and information provided by Anon. (2012c).Foreign fishingReports on illegal fishing in Iranian waters are rare. The only source with some information regarding this issue was available via a website on illegal fishing (Anon. 2012a). The information obtained from this website was based on news reports of foreign fishing from 2006 to 2008. It appears that the bulk of foreign fishing in the Persian Gulf was conducted by Asian fleets (from China, South Korea and India), as well as some by vessels from neighbouring countries (Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and UAE), and from Pakistan in a few instances (Anon. 2012). Asian vessels were reported to catch around 100 tonnes per week during an average of 6 month operations in the Gulf in 2007 and 2008, while the number of Chinese vessels was given as 12 (Anon, 2012). Similarly, four Indian vessels flagged to Saudi Arabia were operating in Iranian waters in 2007 and 2008, catching around 50 t·week-1 over a 12 month period. Around 336 other vessels, including vessels from South Korea, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, and the UAE were trawling for shrimp in Iranian waters, and caught 100 t·vessel-1·year-1 in 2007 and 2008. We multiplied this CPUE by the total number of boats (n = 336) to estimate the foreign catch for 2007 and 2008, and distributed this evenly among South Korea, Saudi Arabia, UAE and Bahrain flags. We assumed foreign catches decreased by 20% in 2010 because of more efficient Iranian monitoring, and because of the international sanctions imposed on Iran, resulting in higher maritime scrutiny and security. We also assumed foreign catches were twice as high before the end of the war, given lower monitoring levels. Therefore we interpolated from zero in 1974 at the declaration of the Iranian EEZ, and performed a series of linear interpolations to fill in the gaps. Note that China did not start fishing in Iran waters until 1986.DiscardingHere, we assumed the majority of discarding is associated with large trawlers (i.e., large-scale fishing). We used the ratio of 4.17 kg discards per kg of landed targeted species (i.e., shrimp and demersal fishes) for large trawlers as per Alverson et al. (1996). We did not estimate discarding by the artisanal fleet, which may also exist for certain gear types. Thus, our estimate of discarding is likely a conservative under-estimate.Taxonomic breakdownData concerning the species composition of catches in Iranian waters are very limited. Paighambari and Daliri (2012) provide a percentage breakdown of species Table 3.   Species composition for unreported artisanal and industrial catches, reported “marine fishes nei”, and illegal catches, modified from Paighambari and Daliri (2012). Taxon name Common name % of catchPenaeus semisulcatus Green tiger prawn 11.1Portunus pelagicus Blue swimming crab 7.8Pomadasys stridens Striped piggy 5.2Scyphozoa Jellyfish 4.8Arius gagora Gagora catfish 4.1Photopectoralis bindus Orangefin ponyfish 3.5Leiognathus equulus Common ponyfish 3.5Leiognathus lineolatus Ornate ponyfish 3.5Ilisha megaloptera Bigeye ilisha 2.8Ilisha melastoma Indian ilisha 2.2Psettodes erumei Indian halibut 1.9Platycephalus indicus Bartail flathead 1.8Metapenaeus affinis Jinga shrimp 1.8Saurida tumbil Greater lizardfish 1.8Otolithes ruber Tigertooth croaker 1.7Chiloscyllium arabicum Arabian carpetshark 1.7Chiloscyllium punctatum Brownbanded bambooshark 1.7Nemipterus japonicus Japanese threadfin bream 1.7Trichiurus lepturus Largehead hairtail 1.5Parapenaeopsis stylifera Kiddi shrimp 1.5Scomberomorus guttatus Indo-Pacific king mackerel 1.5Scomberomorus commerson Narrow-barred Spanish mackerel 1.3Dasyatis bennetti Bennett's stingray 1.2Himantura uarnak Honeycomb stingray 1.2Himantura walga Dwarf whipray 1.2Pastinachus sephen Cowtail stingray 1.2Aetobatus narinari Spotted eagle ray 1.2Aetomylaeus maculatus Mottled eagle ray 1.2Aetomylaeus nichofii Banded eagle ray 1.2Grammoplites suppositus Spotfin flathead 1.1Others a — 22.1a 92 species accounting for less than 1% of the catch make up this category.Table 2.  Industrial fishing vessels and catch per unit of effort (CPUE) data and derived anchor points. Values between anchor points were interpolated.Year No. of trawlersCPUE(t·vessel-1·year-1)1950 0 227.71957 3 a 224.2 e1961 12 a 222.71968 50 a 218.71980 25 b 212.61991 120 c 207.0 f2001 74 d 203.62002 73 d 203.32003 75 d 202.9 g2004 76 d 200.02005 77 d 197.12006 78 d 194.22007 47 d 191.32008 45 d 188.42009 44 d 185.52010 47 d 182.6 ha Keddie (1971).b Assumed 50% of 1968 capacity due to war.c Everett (2000).d Anon. (2012b).e Assumed 10% higher than in 2003.f Assumed 2% higher than in 2003.g Esmaeili (2006).h Assumed 10% lower than in 2003.Iran - Roshan Moniri et al. 11captured in the Persian Gulf. Their catch composition (minus 12 taxa not caught within Iranian waters) was applied to the unreported artisanal (excluding the weir catches), unreported industrial, and illegal fisheries of Iran (Table 3). The reported data contained large amounts of catch in the category “marine fishes nei” and therefore the same species breakdown  used for the unreported catch (minus the three shrimp species) was used to disaggregate that category. Recreational and subsistence catches were disaggregated using anecdotal data from pictures posted on web-logs of Iranians engaged in recreational fishing (www.fishingir.blogfa.com). The eight most commonly observed taxa by recreational activities are Sphyraena spp., Seriphus spp., Chanos chanos, Hyporthodus spp., Caranx spp., Sparidae, Elops spp. and Myliobatis spp., and we allocated recreational and subsistence catches in equal proportions to these taxa.resultsArtisanal catchesArtisanal catches increased gradually from 1950-1977, with an average catch of around 186,600 t·year-1, of which just under 156,000 t·year-1 were taken inside the Persian Gulf (Figure 3). During the Islamic revolution and subsequent Iran-Iraq war, the estimated artisanal catches dropped to a low of 117,900 t·year-1 in 1985. Catches slowly increased after the war and reached a peak of almost 426,700 t·year-1 in 1997, before declining sharply to around 220,000-230,000 t·year-1 by the end of the time period (Figure 3).Subsistence catchesThe estimated subsistence catch increased steadily from 4,600 t·year-1 in 1950 to around 9,000 t·year-1 by 1979 (Figure 4). Subsistence catches decreased to less than 3,000 t·year-1 during the civil war, and then increased steadily from around 3,000 t·year-1 in 1988 to over 14,000 t·year-1 by 2010 (Figure 4). Subsistence fishing appears more dominant in Persian Gulf waters, accounting for nearly 80% of total subsistence catches (Figure 4).01002003004005001950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Catch (t x 103)YearPersian GulfSistan and BaluchestanFigure 3.  Iran’s artisanal catches in the Persian Gulf and Sistan and Baluchestan, 1950-2010.04812161950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Catch (t x 103)YearPersian GulfSistan and BaluchestanFigure 4.  Iran’s estimated subsistence catches in the Persian Gulf and Sistan and Baluchestan, 1950-2010.Figure 5.  Recreational fishery catches in Iran, 1950-2010.00.10.20.31950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Catch (t x 103)YearFrom dhows to trawlers - Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly12Recreational catchesRecreational catches (for the Persian Gulf waters only) were estimated at around 28 t·year-1 in 1950, increasing gradually to 64 t·year-1 by 1979. After the war years catches steadily increased from 8 t·year-1 to reach a peak of 265 t·year-1 in 2010 (Figure 5).Industrial catchesLarge-scale, industrial catches were considered to be zero in 1950. Initially, landings increased slowly to just under 500 t·year-1 by the mid-1950s, before increasing rapidly to around 13,000 t·year-1 by the late 1970s (Figure 6). During the war years, industrial catches declined to a low of around 6,000 t·year-1 before increasingly rapidly post-war to a peak of almost 25,000 t·year-1 by 1991. Thereafter, industrial catches declined to around 8,600 t·year-1 by 2010. Catches in Persian Gulf waters dominated total industrial catches, accounting for around 79% of total industrial catches by Iran (Figure 6).Foreign fishingOur estimates of foreign catches in Iranian waters are approximate, and suggest an increase from around 11,000 t·year-1 in the mid-1970s, to a peak of over 140,000 t·year-1 in the late 1980s (Figure 7). More recently, foreign catches appear to have declined to around 60,000 t·year-1. Foreign catches appear to have been dominated by China and, to a lesser extent by India (Figure 7).DiscardsDiscards appeared to be low throughout the 1950s, but increased with the expansion of industrial fishing (i.e., trawlers) to reach a pre-war high of just under 19,000 t·year-1 (Figure 8). Discards increased again after the war, reaching an all-time peak of over 36,000 t·year-1 in 1991, before declining to around 12,000 t·year-1 by the end of the time period (Figure 8).0102030401950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Catch (t x 103)YearFigure 8.  Estimated discards by the Iranian fisheries within their EEZ, 1950-2010.Figure 6.  Iranian landings by the industrial sector, 1950-2010. (Discards not included on this graph).01020301950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Catch (t x 103)YearSistan and BaluchestanPersian GulfFigure 7.  Foreign catches estimated as being taken from the waters of Iran, by the major foreign fishing countries. Note that the time-scale starts in 1975 as opposed to 1950.040801201601975 1985 1995 2005Catch (t x103 )YearUAESaudiArabiaPakistanKoreaIndia ChinaBahrain1980 1990 2000 2010Iran - Roshan Moniri et al. 13Total reconstructed catchOur reconstruction of the total marine fisheries catches for Iran was estimated at almost 14.9 million tonnes for 1950-2010, i.e., 2.6 times the 5.7 million tonnes reported by FAO on behalf of Iran (adjusted to account for catches taken by Iran outside its own waters, Figure 9a). Catches were heavily dominated by the artisanal sector, which accounted for nearly 12.7 million tonnes over the full time period. Overall, the majority of catches were taken within the Persian Gulf waters of Iran (i.e., 11.9 million tonnes), while only 3 million tonnes appear to have been caught in EEZ waters outside the Persian Gulf. Reconstructed catches were derived for 145 taxa, compared to the 50 taxa reported by FAO on behalf of Iran. Catches were dominated by shrimps (family Penaeidae) with 1.3 million tonnes caught over the 1950-2010 time period (8.8% of the total catch; Figure 9b). Shrimps’ contribution to the total catch has been decreasing over the time period, averaging 13% of the total catch from 1950-1970, and then declining to under 3% in 2010.   Other important families include Leiognathidae (7.4%), Portunidae (6.8%),  Clupeidae (5.5%), Haemulidae (5.0%), Carangidae (4.4%) and Scombridae (3.8%). Leiognathidae, Portunidae and Haemulidae have also decreased in their contribution to the total catch over the time period. Conversely, Clupeidae, Carangidae and Scombridae have all had in increase in their contribution to the total catch over the time period.discussionWe reconstructed the best estimates of total marine fisheries catches taken by Iran in their own EEZ waters over the 1950-2010 time period. These estimates account for under-reported commercial catches and discards, as well as unreported recreational and subsistence catches. Overall, Iranian fishers caught almost 14.9 million tonnes, which is 2.6 times the 5.7 million tonnes FAO reports on behalf of Iran. While the major differences between reconstructed and reported catches occurred in the early time period, even in the most recent years, around 20% of likely total catches appear to be unreported. Both domestic consumption and export of seafood play a role in Iran’s food security, therefore, a more comprehensive historic baseline of past total catches is important for our understanding of fisheries development and trends in Iran. Unfortunately, our data suggest that marine fisheries in Iran have been poorly documented and assessed over time. It is likely that any data that have been supplied to the FAO are, for the most part, values of large-scale industrial fisheries together with some components of market sales. Unsustainable fishing practices and pressures and ecological changes in the Persian Gulf have led to a reduction of catch rates over time. The abundance of target species such as shrimp, mackerels and major fish species has declined over the years. Unfortunately, despite this observed reduction in the abundance of various species in the Persian Gulf, fisheries continue to operate at unsustainable rates. This is also exemplified by the pearl fisheries occurring in the Persian Gulf (Anon. 2013b, 2013f).0200400600IndustrialSupplied to FAODiscardsSubsistenceArtisanala)02004006001950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Catch (t x 103)YearScombridae CarangidaeClupeidaeHaemulidaePortunidaePenaeidaeLeiognathidaeOthersb)Figure 9.  Total reconstructed catches for Iran for 1950-2010 by a) fishing sector plus discards (with comparison to FAO data, adjusted for large pelagic catches taken in offshore Indian Ocean waters); and b) by major taxonomic groups. Note that the recreational sector catches were included but are not visible on the sector graph (a) and that reconstructed catches consist of 145 individual taxonomic groups, here pooled into the 7 largest families plus ‘others’.From dhows to trawlers - Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly14The oil and gas industry is the major export earner for Iran. Over the last few decades, this emphasis on the oil and gas industry has eroded the traditional dominance of the fishing sector in coastal regions. With approximately 25,000 tankers passing through the Strait of Hormuz annually, the Persian Gulf plays a strategic role in the Middle East. With the ever increasing development of the oil industry in the region, oil pollution from offshore installations, oil tankers, tanker terminals and petrochemical plants has become a major threat to the ecology of the Persian Gulf, but its effect on the fisheries cannot be assessed.Our data and study suggest the need for a transparent and more comprehensive data collection and reporting system, accounting for large-scale, small-scale, subsistence, recreational and foreign fishing be developed and implemented. This would help toward the establishment of a management plan for the fisheries of Iran, which should also include assessing and mitigating the impact of oil pollution on these fisheries. acknowledGementsThis is a contribution of the Sea Around Us project, a scientific collaboration between The University of British Columbia and The Pew Charitable Trusts.reFerenceAdeli A, Hasangholipour T, Hossaini A, Salehi H and Shabnpour B (2011) Status of fish consumption per capita of Tehran Citizens. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences 10(4): 546-556.Al-Abdulrazzak D and Pauly D (2013) Managing fisheries from space: Google Earth improves estimates of distant fish catches. ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi.10.1093/icesjms/fst178. Alverson DL, Freeberg MH, Murawski SA and Pope GJ (1996) A global assessment of fisheries bycatch and discards. Fisheries Technical Paper 339. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Rome, 233 p.Anon. 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ICES Journal of Marine Science 63(9): 1759-1764.Everett GV (2000) An outline overview of issues of concern to fisheries monitoring, control and surveillance in the northwest Indian Ocean. pp. 117-130 In FAO/FISHCODE (ed.), Report of a regional workshop on fisheries Monitoring, Control and Surveillance, held at Muscat, Oman, 24-28 October 1999. FAO/Norway programme of assistance to developing countries for the implementation of the code of conduct for responsible fisheries. Sub-programme C: Assistance to developing countries for upgrading their capabilities in Monitoring, Control and Surveillance. (FISHCODE). GCP/INT/648/NOR: Field Report C-3 (En), Rome.Keddie WH (1971) Fish and futility in Iranian development. The Journal of Developing Areas 6(1): 9-28.Paighambari S and Daliri M (2012) The by-catch composition of shrimp trawl fisheries in Bushehr coastal waters, the northern Persian Gulf. Journal of Persian Gulf (Marine Science) 3(7): 27-36.Walters SK and Sjoberg CWF (1988) The Persian Gulf region: a climatological study. USAF, Environmental Technical Application Centre, USAFETAC/TN-88/002, Scott Air Force Base, Illinois. 62 p.Zeller D, Booth S, Davis G and Pauly D (2007) Re-estimation of small-scale fishery catches for U.S. flag-associated island areas in the western Pacific: the last 50 years. Fishery Bulletin 105(2): 266-277.Iran - Roshan Moniri et al. 15Appendix Table A1.  FAO landings vs. total reconstructed catch (t) for Iran, 1950-2010, as well as catch by sector.Year FAO Total reconstructed catch Industrial Artisanal Subsistence Recreational Discards1950 16,000 184,000 0 179,000 4,600 28 01951 16,000 185,000 110 180,000 4,690 29 1601952 18,000 186,000 210 181,000 4,770 30 3101953 18,000 187,000 300 182,000 4,860 30 4501954 18,000 188,000 400 182,000 4,950 31 5901955 18,000 189,000 500 183,000 5,040 32 7301956 18,000 190,000 590 184,000 5,180 33 8701957 17,000 191,000 670 184,000 5,380 34 9901958 17,000 194,000 1,340 185,000 5,500 35 1,9801959 16,000 196,000 2,010 185,000 5,620 36 2,9601960 16,000 198,000 2,670 186,000 5,750 37 3,9401961 16,000 202,000 3,720 186,000 5,880 38 5,4901962 16,000 205,000 4,770 187,000 6,020 39 7,0301963 15,000 208,000 5,810 187,000 6,170 41 8,5701964 14,200 211,000 6,850 188,000 6,320 42 10,0901965 15,900 214,000 7,880 188,000 6,430 43 11,6101966 16,700 217,000 8,900 188,000 6,640 45 13,1201967 17,100 220,000 9,920 189,000 6,740 46 14,6301968 20,700 223,000 10,940 189,000 6,890 47 16,1301969 18,300 224,000 11,150 189,000 7,060 48 16,4301970 17,300 225,000 11,360 190,000 7,150 49 16,7501971 17,800 226,000 11,580 190,000 7,500 52 17,0701972 15,700 227,000 11,790 190,000 7,650 53 17,3801973 15,800 228,000 12,000 190,000 7,810 55 17,7001974 60,665 229,000 12,210 190,000 7,960 56 18,0101975 60,270 229,000 12,420 190,000 8,120 58 18,3201976 59,475 230,000 12,630 191,000 8,160 58 18,6301977 58,836 231,000 12,850 191,000 8,240 59 18,9501978 59,330 216,000 10,690 181,000 8,410 61 15,7601979 58,729 202,000 8,530 172,000 8,770 64 12,5801980 38,375 180,000 6,380 162,000 2,270 0 9,4101981 37,326 176,000 8,100 153,000 2,340 0 11,9401982 83,724 171,000 9,810 144,000 2,410 0 14,4601983 81,765 166,000 11,510 135,000 2,490 0 16,9701984 82,648 162,000 13,210 126,000 2,570 0 19,4801985 82,804 157,000 14,890 118,000 2,650 0 21,9701986 108,188 164,000 16,570 120,000 2,730 0 24,4401987 158,940 219,000 18,240 171,000 2,810 0 26,9101988 169,443 234,000 19,900 182,000 2,890 0 29,3601989 188,688 266,000 21,560 201,000 11,840 8 31,8001990 180,299 262,000 23,200 193,000 12,070 17 34,2301991 175,238 292,000 24,840 218,000 12,290 27 36,6401992 214,463 323,000 23,850 252,000 12,460 36 35,1801993 211,588 297,000 22,860 228,000 12,600 46 33,7201994 169,097 398,000 21,880 331,000 12,740 56 32,2701995 189,284 412,000 20,900 348,000 12,900 67 30,8201996 183,672 389,000 19,920 327,000 13,070 78 29,3801997 202,556 487,000 18,950 427,000 13,260 90 27,9401998 168,410 392,000 17,970 334,000 13,460 102 26,5001999 163,525 375,000 17,000 319,000 13,650 115 25,0702000 169,226 355,000 16,030 301,000 13,810 128 23,6502001 165,634 332,000 15,070 280,000 13,910 140 22,2302002 164,472 297,000 14,840 246,000 13,990 153 21,8902003 173,725 273,000 15,220 221,000 14,050 166 22,4502004 165,695 276,000 15,210 224,000 14,110 179 22,4302005 176,360 275,000 15,180 223,000 14,170 193 22,3902006 182,741 274,000 15,150 222,000 14,230 207 22,3502007 193,739 258,000 8,990 221,000 14,280 221 13,2702008 219,881 264,000 8,480 228,000 14,340 235 12,5102009 205,441 248,000 8,160 213,000 14,380 250 12,0402010 224,740 266,000 8,580 231,000 14,430 265 12,660From dhows to trawlers - Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly16Appendix Table A2.  Total reconstructed catch (t) for Iran by major taxa, 1950-2010.Year Penaeidae Leiognathidae Portunidae Haemulidae Clupeidae Carangidae Scombridae Othersa1950 23,900 17,400 15,700 10,800 6,530 6,020 4,720 98,9001951 24,100 17,500 15,800 10,900 6,560 6,060 4,740 99,6001952 25,900 17,400 15,700 10,800 6,520 6,030 4,710 99,2001953 26,000 17,500 15,800 10,900 6,550 6,070 4,730 99,9001954 26,100 17,600 15,800 10,900 6,570 6,110 4,760 100,5001955 26,200 17,700 15,900 11,000 6,590 6,140 4,780 101,1001956 27,300 17,600 15,900 10,900 6,580 6,150 4,760 101,1001957 26,600 17,800 16,000 11,000 6,630 6,230 4,810 102,3001958 26,800 17,900 16,100 11,100 6,660 6,280 4,850 104,0001959 26,100 18,100 16,300 11,300 6,730 6,370 4,910 106,3001960 26,200 18,300 16,400 11,300 6,760 6,420 4,940 108,0001961 26,500 18,400 16,500 11,400 6,810 6,490 4,990 110,4001962 26,700 18,600 16,600 11,500 6,850 6,560 5,030 112,9001963 26,000 18,800 16,800 11,700 6,930 6,650 5,100 115,8001964 27,400 18,900 16,800 11,700 6,930 6,680 5,100 117,6001965 28,200 18,900 16,900 11,800 6,950 6,710 5,120 119,5001966 29,000 19,000 16,900 11,800 6,970 6,760 5,140 121,6001967 28,700 19,200 17,100 11,900 7,030 6,840 5,200 124,2001968 28,900 19,300 17,200 12,000 7,070 6,900 5,230 126,5001969 29,100 19,400 17,200 12,000 7,080 6,930 5,240 127,1001970 29,600 19,400 17,200 12,000 7,080 6,940 5,240 127,5001971 29,500 19,400 17,200 12,100 7,090 7,010 5,260 128,4001972 28,200 19,600 17,400 12,200 7,150 7,090 5,310 129,9001973 28,700 19,600 17,400 12,200 7,150 7,110 5,310 130,4001974 22,500 20,400 18,000 12,700 7,370 7,370 5,520 134,7001975 22,300 20,500 18,000 12,700 7,390 7,410 5,540 135,5001976 23,100 20,400 18,000 12,700 7,370 7,400 5,520 135,5001977 22,500 20,500 18,000 12,700 7,400 7,440 5,550 136,4001978 18,700 19,600 17,300 12,100 7,130 7,160 5,290 128,6001979 18,000 18,200 16,300 11,300 6,750 6,790 4,930 119,2001980 19,100 16,700 15,200 10,400 6,320 5,500 4,520 102,6001981 18,200 15,900 14,600 9,900 6,100 5,260 4,310 101,3001982 11,400 15,600 14,400 9,700 6,010 5,170 5,720 102,8001983 11,100 14,500 13,600 9,000 5,710 4,840 7,040 100,3001984 10,500 13,900 13,100 8,700 5,540 4,670 5,320 100,0001985 10,300 13,200 12,600 8,200 5,320 4,440 4,790 98,7001986 7,500 13,900 13,100 8,600 5,520 4,670 5,240 105,6001987 12,400 19,600 17,400 12,200 7,140 6,460 7,460 136,5001988 11,800 21,200 18,600 13,200 7,590 6,970 7,750 146,8001989 13,100 22,400 19,400 13,900 15,920 8,460 10,390 162,5001990 14,000 21,200 18,500 13,100 14,580 8,110 11,430 161,2001991 15,100 23,200 20,000 14,400 23,150 8,770 12,950 174,5001992 13,600 26,200 22,300 16,300 34,010 9,730 12,930 188,3001993 10,900 24,100 20,800 15,000 28,430 9,110 11,470 177,6001994 31,600 35,900 29,600 22,300 16,760 12,800 14,870 234,2001995 31,100 36,900 30,300 22,900 20,030 13,120 19,240 238,7001996 27,700 34,900 28,800 21,600 21,460 12,520 18,090 224,4001997 41,100 30,800 27,700 23,000 25,280 23,930 15,380 299,8001998 30,700 22,200 20,900 18,000 24,790 18,040 16,480 241,4001999 27,900 19,700 18,900 15,800 28,260 19,000 14,880 230,9002000 29,600 17,300 16,900 14,100 26,180 20,200 17,460 213,3002001 24,000 16,400 16,100 12,800 28,230 19,070 14,440 200,7002002 18,000 12,800 13,200 10,900 24,570 19,540 18,140 180,3002003 14,400 7,700 9,200 9,100 26,620 21,770 17,390 167,0002004 14,800 8,500 9,700 9,400 25,760 22,140 18,050 167,6002005 16,300 7,600 9,800 8,700 25,190 23,870 15,150 168,3002006 12,100 6,800 8,600 8,800 24,390 26,670 19,180 167,4002007 10,900 5,800 8,800 7,600 31,630 25,710 22,570 144,7002008 9,300 4,200 6,800 7,300 34,510 30,100 23,680 147,7002009 9,300 4,200 8,600 7,000 29,540 24,950 18,210 146,1002010 6,500 3,000 6,300 7,600 30,300 30,390 22,160 160,200a “Other” contains 68 additional additional families and 3 higher taxonomic groupings.Iraq - Al-Abdularazzak and Pauly 17reconstructinG iraq’s Fisheries: 1950-20101Dalal Al-Abdulrazzak and Daniel PaulySea Around Us Project, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia,  2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canadad.alabdulrazzak@fisheries.ubc.ca; d.pauly@fisheries.ubc.caaBstractIraq’s fraction of the Persian Gulf waters, surrounding the mouth of the Shatt al-Arab, is tiny, and so are its marine fisheries, which, moreover, have been impacted by a succession of wars over the past few decades. Its fisheries remain underdeveloped and understudied, and hence little documented. Here, Iraqi marine fisheries catches are reconstructed from 1950 to 2010, based on admittedly fragmentary evidence. Overall, the catches reconstructed here are 1.8 times those reported to FAO on behalf of Iraq, and are dominated by unreported catches of hilsa shad (Tenualosa ilisha). This study illustrates the need to establish management infrastructure for fisheries monitoring and regulation enforcement, especially in light of the many stocks that are shared with other Persian Gulf countries.introductionIraq has the smallest fishing grounds of the Persian Gulf countries, essentially near the mouth of the Shatt al-Arab River, which is formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and Tigris river about 200 km upstream. Thus Iraq’s marine fisheries are of minor importance compared to its freshwater fisheries. The marine fisheries are all artisanal in nature, with gillnetting for hilsa shad (Tenualosa ilisha), pomfret (Pampus spp.), and mullet (Liza spp.) being dominant fishing activities, complemented by some traditional dhows operating small trawl nets. Fish supply is relatively low throughout the region and does not meet local demand (Jawad 2006). There are apparently no marine recreational fisheries.Iraq has one of the richest water resources in the Middle East due to the presence of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, the smaller Shatt al-Arab and Shatt al-Basrah rivers, and the Mesopotamian marshes. The marshlands serve as nursery grounds for a number of migratory fish such as the hilsa shad, and also provide important nutrients to the fisheries of the northern Gulf through the Shatt al-Arab River (Jawad 2006).Between the 1950s and 1990s, large areas of the Mesopotamian marshes were drained, at different times and for different reasons (Al-Yamani et al. 2007). Although the initial draining of the central marshes was intended for land reclamation for agricultural purposes, it later became a political attempt to force Marsh Arabs (Ma’dan people) out of the area through water diversion tactics. The marshes, which have been reduced in extent by over 90%, have long been considered as a refuge for people persecuted by Saddam Hussein’s government. Not surprisingly, thousands of fish and waterfowl died as the waters receded (North 1994). In addition, damming naturally flowing rivers reduces freshwater discharge into the sea, leading to reduced nutrient concentration in coastal waters, which consequently diminishes plankton productivity, and in turn, fish landings (Al-Yamani et al. 2007). It is speculated that the damming could also increase the salinity of the northwestern Gulf, raising concerns about jellyfish outbreaks and changes in plankton (and hence fish) community density and distribution (Al-Yamani et al. 2007).A number of major wars have greatly shaped the country’s fisheries. The Iran-Iraq war, which lasted from 1980-1988, presumably led to decreased 1 Cite as: Al-Abdulrazzak D and Pauly D (2013) Reconstructing Iraq’s fisheries: 1950-2010. pp. 17-22. In: Al-Abdulrazzak D and Pauly D (eds.) From dhows to trawlers: a recent history of fisheries in the Gulf countries, 1950 to 2010. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 21(2). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727].48°E30°N0 5025 km±Figure 1.  Map of Iraq, showing the extent of its small EEZ (in grey).From dhows to trawlers - Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly18marine fisheries catch, though the lack of detailed records precludes firm inferences (Ali 2001). In addition, the first Gulf War in 1991 led to UN imposed sanctions which implied that areas in the Northern Persian Gulf traditionally exploited by Iraqi fishers could no longer be accessed. Thus, patrols by non-Iraqi forces meant that the Shatt al-Arab waterway and areas around Bubiyan Island and Warba Island (Kuwait) were closed to all forms of fishing. This, combined with other factors (general insecurity and perhaps oil pollution, see below), meant that Iraq’s reported catches dropped to near zero in 1991 and 1992.Several studies were carried out on the impact of the 1991 Gulf War oil spill on fisheries stocks (e.g., Linden et al. 2004; Al-Sabbagh and Dashti 2009). Impacts of oil spills tend to be highly variable, affecting food webs, life history cycles, and entire marine ecosystems (Al-Sabbagh and Dashti 2009). In this case, it has been suggested that declines in fish stocks were a result of planktonic larval or egg mortality, not adult mortality because many of the fish species live in depths below the oil slick, and because the warm waters sped up the breakdown of oil (Linden et al. 2004).As the northern Gulf became safer to navigate in 1994-1995, fisheries catches started to recover. However, the funds allocated towards fisheries management and monitoring suffered as a result of the UN sanctions, leading fisheries to be essentially unregulated. The damming of the upper Tigris and Euphrates rivers and the draining of the marshes in the Shatt al-Arab delta also negatively affected marine resources, particularly in the case of the hilsa shad, Tenuolosa ilisha (Al-Dubakel 2011).Following the combats that led to the change of government in 2003, Iraqi fishers began to expand their fishing southward, returning to Bubiyan and Warba Islands, as well as fishing illegally in other parts of Kuwait’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).While the ichthyofauna of Iraq has been reasonably well documented (www.fishbase.org), there are currently no management plans in place for any of Iraq’s fisheries. Detailed catch statistics have not been collected since the early 1990s and no stock assessments have been performed. Thus, the numbers presented here will remain tentative until this situation is addressed.Corrupt governance and lack of infrastructure have complicated data gathering on Iraqi fisheries. For example, under the former Ba’athist government, the State Organization of Fisheries controlled the administration of freshwater and marine fisheries, including the administration of fishing licenses. As such, they discriminated against non-Ba’ath people, especially Marsh Arabs (Jawad 2006), refusing to issue licenses. In addition, Uday Hussein, the eldest son of Saddam Hussein controlled the most productive areas of the marshlands and demanded payments from fishers in exchange for access (Jawad 2006). Later, the State Organization of Fisheries was dissolved and replaced by a marine fisheries cooperative that only served the Basrah province.methodsIraq reports to FAO only a miscellaneous category called ‘marine fishes nei’ up until 2003. From 2004 on, catches are also reported for ‘hilsa shad, ‘mullets’ (Family Mugilidae) and ‘Penaeus shrimps’. To improve the taxonomic resolution, taxonomic information from the 2004-2010 time period, as well as information on the species caught in the waters of neighbouring Kuwait, was used to disaggregate the data from 1950-2003. The ‘marine fishes nei’ category was initially assigned to 76% Mugilidae, 2% Penaeidae, 22% miscellaneous marine fish, which was adapted from relative proportions in the reported data. The miscellaneous marine fish portion was then broken down further; ten percent remained miscellanous marine fish, while the other 90% was assigned to the four most common families found in Kuwait waters (croakers, 40%; groupers, 35%; grunts, 15%; and snappers 10%) (see Kuwait; Al-Abdulrazzak, this volume). These methods were also utilized (with slight adjustments) for the 2004-2010 time period as there was still large amounts of ‘marine fishes nei’ reported. Note that ‘hilsa shad’ was not part of the disaggregation breakdown as there was additional information utilized to reconstruct these catches.Al-Dubakel (2011) reports shad catches from 1990-2007, as well as average percentages of shad catches compared to total catch from 1965-1975 (56.9%), 1990-1992 (38.9%), and 2003-2007 (5.1%). Because Al-Dubakel’s total catch estimates are much higher than FAO’s over the same time period, and because they were not reported as part of the freshwater catches, we assumed that the shad is not already reported in the miscellaneous marine fishes category and therefore adopted Al-Dubakel’s (2011) estimates as unreported ‘hilsa shad’ catch.Iraq’s coastline is very short (Figure 1) and only 0.001% of the population of Iraq lives within 10 km of the coast. We assume a conservative subsistence catch rate of 500 g/person/week (i.e., the equivalent of two servings per week) and apply this to the derived coastal population from 1950-2010. We used the 2004-2010 FAO data (excluding shrimp) as a guideline to derive a subsistence breakdown (approximately 44% Tenualosa ilisha, 32% miscenalleous marine fish, and 24% Mugilidae).A number of accounts exist of significant illegal fishing by Iraqi trawlers and gillnetters in Kuwait’s and Iran’s EEZs (e.g., De Young 2006; Al-Saadoun 2012; Saleh 2012). We estimated illegal fishing in Kuwait’s EEZ to be 10% of reported catches for the years 2003-2010, and disaggregated it into shrimp (Penaeidae, 5%), pomfret (Pampus Iraq - Al-Abdularazzak and Pauly 19argenteus, 2%), shad (Tenualosa ilisha, 2%), and mullet (Mugilidae, 1%). For illegal fishing in Iran, we estimate catches to be 3% of reported and apply the same species composition ratios used for catches in Kuwait.Finally, we apply a bycatch ratio (15:1) to reported, estimated and illegal Iraqi shrimp catches, of which 98% of the fish is discarded and only 2% is retained (as miscellaneous marine fishes), derived from the nearby Kuwait shrimp fishery (Ye et al. 2000). We also applied the same species composition from Kuwait to the discards.results and discussionData supplied to FAO offer poor taxonomic resolution and omit illegal catches and shrimp discards. After incorporating these components in our reconstruction, our catch estimates over the 1950-2010 time period are 1.8 times what is reported to FAO (Figure 2a; Appendix Table A1). We predict that our reconstructed catches are likely to be an underestimate, as without more information on fishing practices in Iraq, our assumptions were conservative.Since shrimp stocks are shared with Iran and Kuwait, the unregulated and illegal trawling may impact landings in these countries. Iraqi vessels are landing significant quantities of shrimp, particularly species that have not been previously landed in Iraq in these large quantities (Al-Dubakel 2011). Catches from Iran and Kuwait waters (2003-2010) were estimated to be 3% and 10%, respectively, of the total reonstructed catch from 1950-2010.Discards are likely present from more than just the shrimp fishery, but scant information exists, and is therefore difficult to quantify. In Iraq, the majority of fishermen are Shiite Muslims who therefore do not consume fish without scales visible to the naked eye. Therefore, bycatch species such as Muraenesox cinereus, Arius thalassinus, and Trichiurus lepturus are discarded back to sea (Jawad 2006). Discards made up 26% of the total estimated catch.The main species of Iraq’s marine fisheries were Mugilidae (39%), Tenualosa ilisha (17%), Arius thalassinus (8%), Sciaenidae (5%), and Epinephelus spp. (5%) (Figure 2b; Appendix Table A2).Jawad (2006) suggests that regulating access may be more effective than implementing catch or effort controls. Due to the remoteness of certain areas in the marshlands, and because most fishers make their own gear, size and gear control are difficult to implement. Concerns have also been raised concerning oil pollution and runoff from industrial and household wastes (Al-Dubakel 2011). Oil spills are commonly seen along the Shatt Al-Arab, particularly from the Abu Flous port (Al-Dubakel 2011).A number of major challenges hinder Iraq’s ability to manage its fisheries. First, infrastructure for fisheries management and monitoring needs to be rebuilt. Enforcement of existing and new fisheries legislature cannot be implemented otherwise. Second, marine habitat degradation, particularly the draining of the marshes, must be addressed. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, Iraq should be incorporated into regional fisheries management plans since many stocks are shared with other Gulf countries.The management of Iraq’s marine fisheries has deteriorated 010203040Supplied to FAOArtisanalDiscardsa)0102030401950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Catch (t x 103)YearMugilidaeTenualosa ilishaEpinephelus spp.SciaenidaeArius thalassinusOtherb)Figure 2.  Total reconstructed catch for Iraq, 1950-2010, by a) sector (with comparison to FAO), and b) major taxa. Note that subsistence catches were included in the sector graph (a) but are not visible (too small).From dhows to trawlers - Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly20significantly since 2003, while increased fishing effort (and a corresponding increase in landings) has occurred during the same time. This does not bode well for the long-term sustainability of the country’s fisheries. It is clear that unregulated fishing of shared fish and shrimp stocks of the northern Gulf must be brought under control.acknowledGementsWe acknowledge the support of the Sea Around Us Project, a scientific collaboration between The University of British Columbia and The Pew Charitable Trusts.reFerencesAl-Dubakel AY (2011) Commercial fishing and marketing of hilsa shad Tenualosa ilisha (Hamilton-Buchanon, 1822) in Basrah-Southern Iraq. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 23(2): 178-186.Al-Saadoun H (2012) Iraqi fishing boat stopped. Kuwait Times, edition of March 24. Available at: http://news.kuwaittimes.net/2012/03/24/iraqi-fishing-boat-stopped.Al-Sabbagh T and Dashti J (2009) Post-invasion status of Kuwait’s fin-fish and shrimp fisheries (1991-1992). World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences 1(2): 94-96.Al-Yamani FY, Bishop JM, Al-Rifaie K and Ismail W (2007) The effects of the river diversion, Mesopotamian marsh drainage and restoration, and river damming on the marine environment of the northwestern Arabian Gulf. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management 10(3): 277-289.Ali TS (2001) Effects of shrimp trawlers on the fisheries status and environment of the northwest Arabian Gulf. Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria 31(2): 77-86.De Young C, editor (2006) Review of the state of world marine capture fisheries management: Indian Ocean. FAO fisheries Tehnical Paper 488. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome. viii+458 p.Jawad LA (2006) Fishing gear and methods of the lower Mesopotamian Plain with reference to fishing management. Marina Mesopotamica 1(1): 1-37.Linden O, Jernelov A and Egerup J (2004) The environmental impacts of the Gulf War 1991. Interim Reports, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA). xi+82 p. Available at: http://webarchive.iiasa.ac.at/Admin/PUB/Documents/IR-04-019.pdf [Accessed: November 15, 2012].North A (1994) Saddam drains life from Arab marshes: Scientists fear Iraq’s historic wetlands face destruction in 10 to 20 years, says Andrew North. The Independent, edition of May 17.Saleh A (2012) Iraq claims five more fishermen captured in Kuwait. Kuwait Times, edition of April 27. Available at: http://news.kuwaittimes.net/2012/03/24/iraqi-fishing-boat-stopped.Ye YM, Alsaffar AH and Mohammed HMA (2000) Bycatch and discards of the Kuwait shrimp fishery. Fisheries Research 45(1): 9-19.Iraq - Al-Abdularazzak and Pauly 21Appendix Table A1.   FAO landings vs. total reconstructed catch (t) for Iraq, 1950-2010, as well as catch by sector.Year FAO landings Total reconstructed catch Artisanal Subsistence Discards1950 1,200 1,970 1,620 1 3501951 500 820 670 1 1501952 500 820 670 1 1501953 500 820 670 1 1501954 400 660 540 2 1201955 400 660 540 2 1201956 1,000 1,640 1,350 2 2901957 500 820 670 2 1501958 1,000 1,640 1,350 2 2901959 1,000 1,640 1,350 2 2901960 1,000 1,640 1,350 2 2901961 1,000 1,640 1,350 2 2901962 1,100 1,810 1,480 2 3201963 1,500 2,460 2,020 2 4401964 1,400 2,300 1,880 2 4101965 500 940 790 2 1501966 1,300 2,430 2,050 2 3801967 1,500 2,810 2,360 2 4401968 1,500 2,810 2,360 2 4401969 1,000 1,870 1,580 2 2901970 1,500 2,810 2,360 3 4401971 2,300 4,300 3,620 3 6801972 700 1,310 1,100 3 2101973 6,300 11,780 9,920 3 1,8501974 10,100 18,880 15,910 3 2,9701975 7,200 11,810 9,690 3 2,1201976 9,283 15,230 12,490 3 2,7301977 8,601 14,110 11,580 3 2,5301978 8,600 14,110 11,580 3 2,5301979 8,500 13,940 11,440 3 2,5001980 8,400 13,780 11,310 4 2,4701981 8,000 13,120 10,770 4 2,3501982 7,000 11,480 9,420 4 2,0601983 6,000 9,840 8,080 4 1,7601984 5,000 8,200 6,730 4 1,4701985 5,500 9,020 7,400 4 1,6201986 5,000 8,200 6,730 4 1,4701987 5,000 8,200 6,730 4 1,4701988 5,000 8,200 6,730 4 1,4701989 3,617 5,940 4,870 4 1,0601990 3,754 5,280 4,180 5 1,1001991 125 670 630 5 401992 543 1,710 1,550 5 1601993 2,133 2,780 2,150 5 6301994 4,221 5,690 4,450 5 1,2401995 5,253 10,830 9,280 5 1,5401996 11,688 21,200 17,760 5 3,4401997 10,783 14,270 11,100 6 3,1701998 13,463 23,610 19,640 6 3,9601999 13,093 20,830 16,970 6 3,8502000 12,389 18,310 14,660 6 3,6402001 19,200 25,970 20,320 6 5,6402002 14,100 30,340 26,180 7 4,1502003 4,000 9,630 4,620 7 5,0002004 2,355 5,410 2,720 7 2,6902005 6,359 15,160 7,350 7 7,8102006 12,959 28,170 14,910 7 13,2502007 12,319 31,760 14,280 7 17,4702008 4,486 10,430 5,180 8 5,2402009 12,246 26,570 14,090 8 12,4702010 13,490 29,300 15,520 8 13,770From dhows to trawlers - Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly22Appendix Table A2.  Total reconstructed catch (t) for Iraq by major taxa, 1950-2010.Year Mugilidae  Tenualosa ilisha Arius thalassinus Sciaenidae Epinephelus Othersa1950 910 409 110 100 83 3601951 380 171 40 40 35 1501952 380 171 40 40 35 1501953 380 171 40 40 35 1501954 300 137 40 30 28 1201955 300 137 40 30 28 1201956 760 341 90 80 69 3001957 380 171 40 40 35 1501958 760 341 90 80 69 3001959 760 341 90 80 69 3001960 760 341 90 80 69 3001961 760 341 90 80 69 3001962 840 375 100 90 76 3301963 1,140 511 130 120 104 4601964 1,060 477 120 110 97 4301965 380 285 40 40 35 1501966 990 741 110 100 90 4001967 1,140 855 130 120 104 4601968 1,140 855 130 120 104 4601969 760 570 90 80 69 3001970 1,140 855 130 120 104 4601971 1,750 1,310 200 180 159 7001972 530 400 60 60 49 2101973 4,790 3,586 560 500 437 1,9101974 7,680 5,748 890 800 700 3,0601975 5,470 2,449 640 570 499 2,1801976 7,060 3,158 820 740 643 2,8201977 6,540 2,926 760 680 596 2,6101978 6,540 2,925 760 680 596 2,6101979 6,460 2,892 750 670 589 2,5801980 6,380 2,858 740 670 582 2,5501981 6,080 2,722 710 630 554 2,4301982 5,320 2,382 620 550 485 2,1201983 4,560 2,042 530 480 416 1,8201984 3,800 1,702 440 400 347 1,5201985 4,180 1,872 490 440 381 1,6701986 3,800 1,702 440 400 347 1,5201987 3,800 1,702 440 400 347 1,5201988 3,800 1,702 440 400 347 1,5201989 2,750 1,232 320 290 251 1,1001990 2,850 402 330 300 260 1,1401991 100 502 10 10 9 401992 410 1,002 50 40 38 1701993 1,620 2 190 170 148 6501994 3,210 202 370 330 293 1,2801995 3,990 4,002 460 420 364 1,5901996 8,880 6,002 1,030 930 810 3,5501997 8,200 252 950 850 747 3,2701998 10,230 6,103 1,190 1,070 933 4,0901999 9,950 3,803 1,150 1,040 907 3,9702000 9,420 2,203 1,090 980 859 3,7602001 14,590 1,003 1,690 1,520 1,331 5,8302002 10,720 12,003 1,240 1,120 977 4,2802003 3,090 107 1,500 320 277 4,3302004 760 1,014 810 230 205 2,4002005 4,570 627 2,340 470 409 6,7502006 9,880 466 3,970 1,100 966 11,7802007 2,530 1,935 5,240 2,860 2,504 16,6802008 1,410 913 1,570 820 719 4,9902009 5,920 1,001 3,740 2,070 1,812 12,0202010 6,960 1,104 4,130 2,120 1,859 13,130a Others category includes 8 additional taxonomic groups.Kuwait - Al-Abdulrazzak 23reconstructinG kuwait’s marine Fishery catches: 1950-20101Dalal Al-AbdulrazzakSea Around Us Project, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia,  2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canadad.alabdulrazzak@fisheries.ubc.caaBstractKuwait’s fisheries have grown substantially over the past 60 years. Here, Kuwait’s fisheries are reconstructed to include discards, recreational, and illegal catches. The resulting estimates of just under 2 million t are 6.4 times the 312,250 t reported to FAO, and discards, which constitute the largest missing sector, are 10 times greater than the total landed finfish in the country. This study illustrates the magnitude of the data reporting problems faced by Kuwait and provides further evidence for the need for more and better-enforced fisheries regulations in the region.introductionKuwait is located in the northeast of the Arabian Peninsula, on the shore of the Persian Gulf (Figure 1). It lies between latitudes 28° and 31° N, and longitudes 46° and 49° E, and borders Saudi Arabia to the south and Iraq to the north. Kuwait is one of the world’s smallest countries in terms of land mass and is characterized by flat, sandy desert. It has nine islands, eight of which remain uninhabited. The capital, Kuwait City is located on Kuwait Bay, a natural deep-water harbor.Kuwait was a British colony from 1899-1961 and is now a constitutional emirate with the oldest directly elected parliament among the Arab Persian Gulf countries. Kuwaiti nationals are a minority of the population, making up just 1 million out of the 3.5 million people. The country’s economy is almost solely based on crude oil, which makes up nearly half of GDP and 95% of export revenues (World Factbook, 2011)Interestingly, despite their predominately small-scale nature, Kuwait’s fisheries remain the second most important natural resource after oil (Carpenter 1997). In general, fisheries management in Kuwait is not well developed, although weakly enforced legislation has been in place for the industrial shrimp fishery since the early 1980s. Because fisheries are of minor economic importance (at least when compared to oil), and therefore are of low political significance. The fisheries consist of two main sectors: a limited industrial (large-scale) shrimp fishery and substantial artisanal (small-scale) finfish and shrimp fisheries.methodsFisheries catches as presented by the FAO on behalf of Kuwait occur in FAO statistical area 51. Total fish catches were estimated by following the conceptual framework outlined in Zeller (2006; 2007). Data were gathered from published and grey literature, and subsequently combined with clearly defined assumptions and interpolations.Industrial sectorThe industrial, or large-scale sector, consists exclusively of a shrimp trawl fishery. This sector started in the early 1960s and expanded rapidly, and by 2006, it grew to 35 trawlers. The main shrimp species targeted are the green tiger prawn (Penaeus semisulcatus), jinga shrimp (Metapenaeus affinis) and the kidi shrimp (Parapenaeopsis stylifera), with seasonal reported landings ranging from 1,000 to 5,200 t (Ye et al. 1999a). The official shrimp fishing 1 Cite as: Al-Abdulrazzak D (2013) Reconstructing Kuwait’s marine fishery catches: 1950-2010. pp. 23-29. In: Al-Abdulrazzak D and Pauly D (eds.) From dhows to trawlers: a recent history of fisheries in the Gulf countries, 1950 to 2010. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 21(2). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727].!Kuwait48°E29°N0 10050 km±Kuwait BayFigure 1.  Map of Kuwait, showing the extent of its EEZ (grey area).From dhows to trawlers - Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly24season runs from September 1 of any given year to early/late spring of the next depending on catch rates. Trawling occurs in the coastal waters from 5 to 35 m depth, although Kuwait Bay and a three-mile coastal zone have been closed to trawling since 1983 (Ye et al. 1999b). Official reported shrimp landings were assigned to both the industrial and artisanal sectors. It has been reported that 45% of total shrimp landings are caught by artisanal vessels. As the industrial shrimp fishery did not begin until 1960, the proportion of shrimp catches caught be industrial vessels was interpolated from zero percent in 1959 to 55% in 1965. From 1965-2010, the proportion of 55% was kept constant.Considerable illegal shrimp fishing occurs during the 3-6 month closed season (Mohammed et al. 1998; Siddiqui and Al-Mubarak 1998; Al-Sabbagh and Dashti 2009), suggesting poor to non-existent monitoring and enforcement of management rules. Here, it was conservatively estimated that out-of-season shrimp catches comprise 10% of total reported shrimp catch, starting from the earliest incident (1990) of illegal catches mentioned in the literature (Al-Sabbagh and Dashti 2009) to 2010. A set tonnage of 500 t was reported as being caught illegally in 1992. These illegal shrimp catches were also assigned to both the artisanal and industrial sectors using the same proportions as were used for the reported catches.Bycatch (i.e., species that are unintentionally retained by fishing gear) is a major component of shrimp fisheries globally, raising concerns of ecological and economic impacts (Alverson and Hughes 1996; Kelleher et al. 2005). The average ratio of bycatch to shrimp is 5:1 in temperate and subtropical waters, and 10:1 in tropical waters (Slavin 1982). The subtropical Kuwaiti shrimp trawl fishery, however, has a fish-to-shrimp bycatch ratio of 15.32:1 (Ye et al. 2000). Of this bycatch, 98% is discarded at sea and the remaining 2% is landed, yet not reported (FAO 2006). Thus, both landed and discarded catches are unaccounted for. Species composition ratios were applied from the Ye et al. (2000) study. Marine catfish (Ariidae) and elasmobranchs (sharks and rays), which are not consumed in Kuwait for religious reasons, comprise the bulk of the discarded bycatch.Bycatch was estimated as a multiple of both the reported legal shrimp catch and the unreported illegal catch, and then smoothed by applying a 3-year moving average. The estimated bycatch was subsequently disaggregated into unreported discards (98%) and unreported landed bycatch (2%). On average, the discards from the Kuwaiti shrimp fishery were 10 times higher than the tonnage of finfish reported to be landed in Kuwait annually.Artisanal sectorThe artisanal sector essentially comprises three components: a shrimp fishery, a boat-based finfish fishery and a traditional fixed intertidal stake net fishery. The artisanal shrimp fleet catches 45% of total shrimp landings using both traditional dhows and small outboard motor fibreglass vessels (FAO 2006). Since the industrial shrimp fishery did not begin until 1960, shrimp catches from 1950-1959 were labelled as 100% artisanal. Then, as described above, the artisanal proportion of the shrimp fishery was interpolated from 100% in 1959 to 45% in 1965, and kept constant to 2010. Improvements in the equipment of these fleets have resulted in dhows being able to access the same fishing grounds as the fibreglass vessels. Ye et al. (1999a) found nearly identical rates of bycatch and discard between artisanal and industrial shrimp fleets, and therefore the same 15.32:1 ratio was applied to the artisanal shrimp catches (including the illegal catches calculated above) to estimate unreported discards and unreported landed bycatch.Kuwait’s boat-based finfish fishery consists of two vessel types: wooden dhows and speedboats. These vessels are licensed for a single gear type, which can be hemispherical wire traps (gargoor), or drift or fixed gillnets of various mesh sizes. The dhow fleet consists of 120 boats, of which 94 use gargoor traps and 26 use gillnets (FAO 2006). The speedboat fleet consists of 748 vessels, 28 of which are licensed for gargoor, and 720 for gillnets (FAO 2006). The boat-based finfish fishery has seen significant declines in catches in recent years, with a record low of 2,500 tonnes in 2001. This has been attributed to overcapacity, although no efforts have been put into place to reduce capacity and effort (FAO 2006). The reported FAO data (minus the shrimp catch) were taken to be representative of the baseline catch for the boat-based artisanal fishery plus the traditional fixed intertidal stake net fishery. Significant numbers of sharks are landed in Kuwait, yet are not listed in FAO catch data (Moore et al. 2012). The majority of these are caught as bycatch by small speedboats operating gillnets to target teleosts, or less commonly, dhows operating gargoor traps. Despite sharks being impermissible to eat by Shiite Muslims, a growing expatriate community has lead to sharks being landed whole and consumed within the country (Moore et al. 2012). A handful of countries in the Gulf do report their shark landings, and FAO data from Bahrain (based on its proximity and similar fishery profile) were used to estimate the potential contribution of sharks in Kuwait’s catches. Bahrain reported shark catches (Carcharhinidae) for 2004-2010, and these catches were divided by the total reported finfish catch to obtain an average shark to finfish ratio of 5%. This ratio was applied to Kuwait’s reported finfish time series.Recreational sectorAn active recreational fishery targets demersal species from small speedboats, but no data are available on the number of participants or species landings (FAO 2006). Cisneros-Montemayor and Sumaila (2010) estimate that Kuwait - Al-Abdulrazzak 25recreational fisheries involve 0.12% of Kuwait’s population. Thus, this ratio was applied to the total population from 1950-2010 to get a time series of number of recreational fishers. As a conservative estimate, it was assumed that recreational fishers catch 1 kg of fish per trip and that they only fish on the weekends. Therefore, the number of fishers was multiplied by the number of fishing days (104 days) and by a catch of 1 kg to obtain a rough time series of recreational catches. The estimated catches for the years during and immediately after the first Gulf War (1990-1992) were eliminated, as it was assumed that no recreational fishing occurred. Rao and Behbahani (1999) estimate that the majority of species caught by recreational fishermen are Epinephelus chlorostigma, Sparidentex hasta, Otolithes ruber, and Acanthopagrus latus; thus the recreational catch was evenly distributed among those 4 species.Subsistence SectorAlthough vessel owners are Kuwaiti nationals, fishers are foreign workers from Southeast Asia and Iran, who have modest incomes, and therefore have a high incentive to fish for subsistence. From 1960-2010, foreign fishers made up 0.0015% of the population and it was assumed that each fisher takes 5 kg per week for subsistence purposes from the start of the oil boom in 1960 until 2010. It was further assumed that no subsistence fishing occurred during and immediately after the Gulf War, from 1990-1992. Finally, because these take home catches are composed of less desirable species, the catch composition of the discarded species were applied to the subsistence catches.results and discussionCatch data for Kuwait as reported by the FAO suggest a gradual increase in reported landings from 1,000 t in 1950 to a peak of 10,788 t in 1988, before declining to an average of around 4,700 t per year in the 2000s (Figure 2a; Appendix Table A1). In contrast, the reconstructed total marine fisheries catches suggest a rapid increase in catches at the start of the industrialized shrimp fishery in 1960, peaking at 45,000 t in 1972, with a second peak of 64,600 t occurring in 1988 (Figure 2a). A final peak is present in 1993 (57,800 t) before declining to a final tonnage of 33,200 t in 2010 (Figure 2a). Trends in catch series often reflect political events that impacted the fishery sector in a country; in this case, the decline in catches from 1972 to 1979 is most likely a result of the Iran-Iraq war. Similarly, the decline in catches in 1990 is reflective of the first Gulf War and the occupation of Kuwait by Iraqi forces.Total reconstructed catch for Kuwait fisheries was estimated to be 1,997,000 t which is 6.4 times the amount reported by the FAO (312,250 t) on behalf of Kuwait (Figure 2a). Kuwait’s fisheries were estimated to be 42.8% industrial, 56.8% artisanal, 0.01% subsistence and 0.45% recreational. Although it appears that non-commerical sectors are fairly insignificant, these estimates were made with limited information and therefore were made to be conservative. This is an area that requires further study.020406080Supplied to FAOArtisanalIndustrialDiscardsa)0204060801950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Catch (t x 103)YearChiloscyllium griseumNatantian decapodsNetuma thalassinaOthersRhinobatidaeb)Figure 2.  Total reconstructed catch for Kuwait by a) sector (with comparison to FAO data), and b) major taxa, 1950-2010.From dhows to trawlers - Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly26The main taxa caught in Kuwait are Netuma thalassina (25%), Chiloscyllium griseum (11%), natantian decapods (5%) and Rhinobatidae (3%) (Figure 2b; Appendix Table A2). The three non-shrimp categories mostly consist of dicards. If we look only at retained catch the top taxa include natantian decapods (29%), Pampus spp. (7%), Serranidae (6%), Sciaenidae (6%), Mugilidae (5%) and Tenualosa ilisha (5%).As seen from the values above, the estimated time series also illustrates the magnitude and importance of discards (Figure 3). In terms of tonnage, discards amounted to almost 10 times the amount of reported, landed finfish. The non-reporting of discards is particularly problematic. In some countries, such as Kuwait, good estimates of discards are available. Yet in most other cases, particularly in developing countries, there is a general lack of quantitative information on discards or discard rates (Kelleher et al. 2005). This is partly because several different fishing gears may be used, different species may be targeted on a single fishing trip or vessel, and because fisheries change over time (Kelleher et al. 2005). Therefore, attributing a single discard rate to a particular fishery may lead to large errors. Globally, discards are reported to be to 8% of reported landings (Kelleher et al. 2005).The catch reconstruction supports concerns over the status of fisheries in Kuwait. Sharp declines in all sectors, coupled with other indicators of overexploitation such as the reduced mean size of landed fish (Dadzie et al. 2005; Al-Sabbagh and Dashti 2009) and a decline of catch per effort suggest that the fisheries are suffering from overcapacity. Additionally, population pressure also occurs, as a ‘youth bulge,’ a common demographic characteristic in the Middle East, is certain to cause further strain on resources. Combined, unregulated fishing practices and population pressure suggest that ‘Malthusian overfishing’ occurs in Kuwait, a situation where declining yield coupled with socio-economic conditions drive fishers to over-exploit and destroy their resource base (Pauly 2006).The overall reported catches for Kuwait’s artisanal and industrial fisheries potentially underestimate total catches by a factor of 6.4 over the 1950-2010 time period. Such substantial differences between reported landings and reconstructed total catches illustrate the magnitude of the data reporting problems faced by Kuwait, and, by inference, other countries (e.g., Zeller et al. 2007; Zeller et al. 2011a; Zeller et al. 2011b). It also points at a fundamental problem of fisheries catch data being viewed purely from a commercial, market perspective, which accounts only for what is landed and utilized for commercial sale or export (Pauly and Zeller 2003; Zeller and Pauly 2004). In contrast, given the global move towards viewing and managing fisheries on an ecosystem scale (Pikitch et al. 2004), fisheries data collection, and hence catch accounting, needs to account for total catches, notably to be able to maintain important ecosystem processes (Pauly 1985a, b; Pauly and Matthew 1986; Pauly and Palomares 1987). This requires comprehensive accounting for all extractions of fish and invertebrates during fishing operations, including the recording (or estimation) and reporting of discarded catch, and the estimation and reporting of catches from unregulated sectors such as the recreational fishery and the traditional stake net fishery. Given the high costs of monitoring such sectors using traditional catch monitoring approaches, alternative methods such as utilizing national surveys and census opportunities have been suggested (Zeller et al. 2007) for the more widely dispersed and hard to monitor small-scale and recreational fisheries sectors.acknowledGementsI acknowledge the support of the Sea Around Us Project, a scientific collaboration between The University of British Columbia and The Pew Charitable Trusts.015304560751950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Catch (t x 103)YearDiscardsShrimp landingsFigure 3.  Estimated discards from Kuwait’s shrimp fishery in comparison to shrimp landings (includes data from legal and illegal shrimp fishery).Kuwait - Al-Abdulrazzak 27reFerencesAl-Sabbagh T and Dashti J (2009) Post-invasion status of Kuwait’s fin-fish and shrimp fisheries (1991-1992). 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Science 305(5682): 346-347.Siddiqui MS and Al-Mubarak KA (1998) The post-Gulf-War shrimp fishery management in the territorial waters of Kuwait. Environment International 24(1-2): 105-108.Slavin JW (1982) Utilization of shrimp bycatch. pp. 21-28 In Fish bycatch - bonus from the sea. Report of a technical consulation on shrimp bycatch utilization held in Georgetown, Guyana, 27-30 October 1981. IDRC and FAO, Ottawa, Ontario.Ye YM, Mohammed HMA and Bishop JM (1999a) Shrimp resources and fisheries in Kuwait waters. Technical Report KISR 5473, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Kuwait. 39 p.Ye YM, Mohammed HMA and Bishop JM (1999b) Depth, temperature and salinity preferences of newly recruited penaeid shrimps in Kuwait waters. Fisheries Oceanography 8(2): 128-138.Ye YM, Alsaffar AH and Mohammed HMA (2000) Bycatch and discards of the Kuwait shrimp fishery. Fisheries Research 45(1): 9-19.Zeller D, Booth S, Craig P and Pauly D (2006) Reconstruction of coral reef fisheries catches in American Samoa, 1950-2002. Coral Reefs 25(1): 144-152.Zeller D, Booth S, Davis G and Pauly D (2007) Re-estimation of small-scale fishery catches for US flag-associated island areas in the western Pacific: the last 50 years. Fishery Bulletin 105(2): 266-277.Zeller D, Booth S, Pakhomov E, Swartz W and Pauly D (2011a) Arctic fisheries catches in Russia, USA, and Canada: baselines for neglected ecosystems. Polar Biology 34(7): 955-973.Zeller D and Pauly D (2004) The future of fisheries: from ‘exclusive’ resource policy to ‘inclusive’ public policy. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 274: 295-303.Zeller D, Rossing P, Harper S, Persson L, Booth S and Pauly D (2011b) The Baltic Sea: estimates of total fisheries removals 1950-2007. Fisheries Research 108(2-3): 356-363.From dhows to trawlers - Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly28Appendix Table A1.   FAO landings vs. total reconstructed catch (t) for Kuwait, 1950-2010, as well as catch by sector.Year FAO landings Total reconstructed catch Industrial Artisanal Subsistence Recreational Discards1950 1,000 8,700 - 1,180 - 19 7,5001951 1,000 8,700 - 1,180 - 21 7,5001952 1,000 8,700 - 1,180 - 22 7,5001953 1,000 11,300 - 1,230 - 23 10,0001954 2,000 14,800 - 2,310 - 24 12,5001955 2,000 17,400 - 2,360 - 25 15,0001956 2,000 19,400 - 2,400 - 26 17,0001957 3,000 22,500 - 3,470 - 26 19,0001958 3,000 24,600 - 3,510 - 29 21,0001959 3,000 25,600 - 3,530 - 32 22,0001960 3,500 27,100 190 3,880 1 33 23,0001961 3,500 28,100 380 3,700 1 37 24,0001962 3,500 28,200 570 3,510 1 42 24,0001963 3,500 30,200 780 3,340 1 48 26,0001964 4,000 32,800 1,180 3,490 2 54 28,0001965 4,000 34,800 1,440 3,280 2 60 30,0001966 4,000 34,800 1,440 3,280 2 67 30,0001967 4,500 35,300 1,440 3,800 2 73 30,0001968 4,500 35,300 1,440 3,800 3 80 30,0001969 4,500 34,300 1,430 3,790 3 87 29,0001970 4,700 38,600 1,360 4,160 3 94 33,0001971 5,700 40,200 1,920 4,610 3 101 33,5001972 5,000 45,100 1,590 4,350 3 109 39,0001973 6,101 38,600 1,950 4,960 4 116 31,5001974 5,502 33,900 1,020 5,250 4 124 27,5001975 5,934 23,000 900 5,600 4 132 16,4001976 4,648 20,500 540 4,610 4 139 15,2001977 5,913 18,000 710 5,680 5 147 11,5001978 6,489 18,000 430 6,580 5 155 10,8001979 3,065 13,600 420 2,980 5 163 10,1001980 3,689 14,500 610 3,430 5 172 10,3001981 3,714 20,500 510 3,690 6 180 16,1001982 6,628 33,600 1,240 6,170 6 189 26,0001983 8,722 42,700 1,950 7,740 6 198 32,8001984 9,639 45,800 1,470 9,260 6 207 34,9001985 10,116 40,200 1,490 9,610 7 217 28,8001986 7,630 40,000 1,270 7,300 7 229 31,2001987 7,699 54,700 1,860 7,040 8 242 45,6001988 10,788 64,600 3,340 8,810 8 253 52,2001989 7,643 58,600 2,200 6,690 8 260 49,4001990 4,454 36,000 1,490 3,910 - - 30,6001991 2,034 37,600 800 2,080 - - 34,8001992 7,871 49,200 2,710 6,680 - - 39,8001993 8,466 57,800 2,230 7,770 7 228 47,6001994 7,752 45,800 1,680 7,310 7 216 36,6001995 8,616 44,100 1,430 8,390 6 203 34,1001996 8,255 43,600 1,810 7,670 6 203 33,9001997 7,827 42,400 1,620 7,380 7 210 33,2001998 7,798 35,600 1,260 7,540 7 220 26,6001999 7,398 33,600 980 7,350 7 232 25,1002000 6,977 35,400 1,390 6,580 8 242 27,2002001 5,846 37,200 1,530 5,320 8 251 30,1002002 5,360 34,300 1,340 4,940 8 258 27,8002003 4,059 31,200 1,120 3,740 8 265 26,1002004 4,833 33,100 1,310 4,400 9 273 27,2002005 4,895 38,100 1,500 4,380 9 283 31,9002006 5,635 38,200 1,710 4,960 9 293 31,2002007 4,373 36,400 1,280 4,020 10 305 30,8002008 3,979 32,900 1,410 3,430 10 318 27,8002009 4,000 33,900 1,350 3,520 10 330 28,7002010 4,000 33,300 1,340 3,510 11 342 28,100Kuwait - Al-Abdulrazzak 29Appendix Table A2.   Total reconstructed catch (t) for Kuwait by major taxa, 1950-2010.Year Netuma thalassina Chiloscyllium griseum Natantian decapods Rhinobatidae Othersa1950 2,270 1,050 500 230 4,7001951 2,270 1,050 500 230 4,7001952 2,270 1,050 500 230 4,7001953 3,030 1,400 500 310 6,0001954 3,790 1,740 1,000 390 7,9001955 4,550 2,090 1,000 470 9,3001956 5,150 2,370 1,000 530 10,4001957 5,760 2,650 1,400 590 12,1001958 6,370 2,930 1,400 650 13,2001959 6,670 3,070 1,400 690 13,8001960 6,970 3,210 1,600 720 14,6001961 7,280 3,350 1,600 750 15,2001962 7,280 3,350 1,600 750 15,2001963 7,880 3,630 1,600 810 16,3001964 8,490 3,910 2,000 870 17,5001965 9,090 4,190 2,000 930 18,6001966 9,090 4,190 2,000 930 18,6001967 9,090 4,190 2,000 930 19,1001968 9,090 4,190 2,000 930 19,1001969 8,790 4,050 2,000 900 18,6001970 10,000 4,600 1,800 1,030 21,2001971 10,160 4,670 2,800 1,040 21,5001972 11,820 5,440 2,100 1,210 24,5001973 9,550 4,400 2,900 980 20,7001974 8,340 3,840 1,300 860 19,6001975 4,970 2,290 1,300 510 14,0001976 4,600 2,120 680 470 12,6001977 3,480 1,600 1,060 360 11,5001978 3,290 1,510 560 340 12,3001979 3,050 1,400 550 310 8,3001980 3,110 1,430 900 320 8,7001981 4,890 2,250 600 500 12,3001982 7,870 3,620 1,720 810 19,6001983 9,940 4,570 2,870 1,020 24,3001984 10,560 4,860 1,970 1,090 27,3001985 8,730 4,020 2,130 900 24,4001986 9,450 4,350 1,660 970 23,6001987 13,800 6,350 2,440 1,420 30,7001988 15,810 7,270 5,000 1,620 34,9001989 14,970 6,890 2,990 1,540 32,2001990 9,280 4,270 2,080 950 19,4001991 10,520 4,840 740 1,080 20,4001992 12,060 5,550 4,120 1,240 26,2001993 14,420 6,640 3,090 1,480 32,2001994 11,080 5,100 2,300 1,140 26,2001995 10,320 4,750 1,910 1,060 26,1001996 10,280 4,730 2,590 1,060 25,0001997 10,040 4,620 2,270 1,030 24,4001998 8,050 3,700 1,760 830 21,3001999 7,590 3,500 1,280 780 20,5002000 8,230 3,790 1,970 850 20,5002001 9,110 4,190 2,170 940 20,8002002 8,410 3,870 1,860 860 19,3002003 7,900 3,630 1,510 810 17,3002004 8,230 3,790 1,830 850 18,5002005 9,670 4,450 2,080 990 20,9002006 9,460 4,360 2,470 970 20,9002007 9,330 4,290 1,690 960 20,1002008 8,420 3,870 1,990 860 17,8002009 8,680 4,000 1,870 890 18,4002010 8,510 3,910 1,870 870 18,100a Others category includes 22 additional taxonomic groups.From dhows to trawlers - Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly30Qatar - Al-Abdulrazzak 31total Fishery extractions For qatar: 1950-20101Dalal Al-AbdulrazzakSea Around Us Project, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia,  2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canadad.alabdulrazzak@fisheries.ubc.caaBstractQatar is an Arab state that occupies a small peninsula on the northeasterly coast of the much larger Arabian Peninsula. It shares its southern border with Saudi Arabia and is surrounded by the Persian Gulf on the other sides. Qatar’s fish catches have increased sharply over the past decade due to increased fishing effort, in response to the increasing demand emanating from a rapidly growing population. Following the reconstruction approach, all available peer-reviewed and grey literature was searched for qualitative and/or quantitative data on catches that are missing from the statistics reported to FAO. Overall, data reported to the FAO from 1950-2010 underestimate catches by 38%. In the period between 1970 and 1993, discards from Qatar’s bottom trawl fishery were equivalent to 30% of the reported catch. This study illustrates the urgent need to establish management infrastructure for fisheries monitoring and regulation enforcement, especially given Qatar’s rate of population increase.introductionQatar is a small Arab country located on a peninsula on the western shores of the Persian Gulf, and borders Saudi Arabia in the South. The island country of Bahrain lies to the northwest of Qatar (Figure 1), whose maritime boundaries with Bahrain have only been settled as of 2001. Qatar’s small size and proximity to other Arab states means that it shares marine resources with Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates, which further emphasizes the need for regional fisheries management cooperation.Qatar has been ruled as an absolute monarchy of the Al-Thani family since 1825, but also was a British protectorate until it gained independence in 1971. Up until the 1940s, it was one of the poorest Gulf States, with an economy based solely on pearl diving. However, rapid industrialization following the development of the oil and gas industries has vastly increased the country’s economy, and today it has the second highest GDP per capita in the world.Qatar’s waters are characterized by extreme meteorological and hydrological conditions, with water temperatures reaching over 33°C during the summer, leading to high evaporation and salinity levels. Its fisheries are almost entirely confined to the eastern side of the peninsula, which has a maximum depth of 50 m (Al-Ansi and Priede 1996). Over 150 fish species belonging to 50 families have been recorded in Qatari waters, and of these, the majority belong to the families Lethrinidae (17.2%), Serranidae (16%), Carangidae (12.6%), ‘Pomadasydae’2 (9.1%) and Scombridae (8%) (El Sayed 1992; Al-Ansi et al. 2002). During 1995-1996, a ‘red tide’ occurred which was probably the reason why 30-40 tonnes of dead fish subsequently washed up on shore (Al-Ansi et al. 2002). Qatari fisheries are artisanal in nature and are composed of 2 distinct vessel types: traditional dhows and small outboard-powered fibreglass vessels both with an operational range of 60-100 km (Al-Ansi and Priede 1996). Both vessel types target pelagic and demersal species, with fish traps (gargoor) being the most common fishing gear, followed by 1 Cite as: Al-Abdulrazzak D (2013) Total fishery extractions for Qatar: 1950-2010. pp. 31-37. In: Al-Abdulrazzak D and Pauly D (eds.) From dhows to trawlers: a recent history of fisheries in the Gulf countries, 1950 to 2010. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 21(2). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727].2  Now part of the family Haemulidae (see www.fishbase.org) !Doha52°E26°N0 10050 km±Figure 1.  Map of Qatar, showing the extent of its EEZ (in grey).From dhows to trawlers - Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly32gillnets, hand and troll lines. Seasonal trolling and hand-lining for Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus spp.) also takes place. The commercial shrimp fishery was closed in 1993 and periodic re-assessments of the country’s shrimp stocks have not warranted its re-opening. Since the closure of the Qatari National Fishing Company (QNFC), which operated 3 bottom trawlers, a sharp increase in the number of artisanal boats occurred, in order to compensate for the decreased CPUE (El Sayed 1996).As in neighbouring countries, the ownership of vessels is restricted to citizens, while actual fishing operations employ expatriate labour from India, Bangladesh, and Iran. Due to increased standards of living as a result of the oil boom, few Qatari’s are drawn to fishing. Yet, per capita fish consumption in the country is 16.5 kg·year-1, more than twice the average in the Arab world for 1995.Fisheries management in Qatar is rudimentary at best, although in theory, vessel fishing licenses are required. No fisheries management plans exist and as a result, policy directions for fisheries management are unclear and subject to frequent change. Basic stock assessment data, rates of effort, and fishery market potentials are also lacking (El Sayed 1992). In 1998, the Fisheries Department of the Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Agriculture ceased issuing new fishing licenses, capping the fleet at 515 vessels (Morgan 2004). No restrictions were places on gear or vessel size, and as a result, new higher-capacity vessels were introduced to replace the smaller vessels in the fleet, hence the increased fishing effort in recent years. Because robust stock assessments are lacking, it is uncertain to what extent the increased fishing effort can be sustained.Illegal fishing is a major problem for Qatar, given the small scale and economic importance of the industry. Illegal fishing (such as by driftnets) is common because enforcement agencies are unable to ensure compliance with regulations (Morgan 2004; Richer 2009). In addition, a growing and uncontrolled recreational fishing sector, estimated to deploy over 1,000 crafts, catches significant quantities of fish (Morgan 2004).methodsThis contribution follows the conceptual framework of the catch reconstruction method as outlined by previous studies (Zeller et al. 2006; Zeller et al. 2007; Jacquet et al. 2010; Le Manach et al. 2012).A preliminary step in this reconstruction was to attempt to improve the taxonomic resolution of the reported data. Prior to 1982, the data presented by the FAO on behalf of Qatar consist solely of "marine fishes nei" and "green tiger prawn". In 1982, 20 new taxa entered the data and the proportion (and tonnage) of "marine fishes nei" greatly decreased. Therefore, it was assumed that species which appeared in 1982 were being caught previously, and thus could be used to disaggregate the miscellaneous category. For the period 1950-1981, the species proportions from the 1982 data (excluding the green tiger prawn) were applied to the "marine fishes nei" catch to disaggregate it into more informative taxonomic groups. The disaggregated data were then used as the baseline for the reconstruction.Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly (2013) estimate that in 2005, 17 hadrah (tidal weirs) contribute to an annual catch of 286 ± 100 t annually, despite their being banned since 1994 (M.S. Al-Muhindi, Ministry of Fisheries, pers. comm.). It was assumed that hadrah were more abundant prior to the ban in 1994, and therefore that 286 t were caught annually from 1994-2010, and twice that amount (572 t) prior to the ban. The species composition of hadrah in Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly (2013) was also used here.To estimate recreational catch, the same method as was used in the Kuwait reconstruction, was applied, where a 0.12% participation rate was applied to total population from 1960-2010 to obtain a time series of recreational fishers, and a conservative estimate of 1 kg of fish per trip, along with 104 fishing days per year (See Kuwait, Al-Abdulrazzak, this volume). Similarly, Kuwait’s reconstructed recreational catch species composition ratios were applied.Although Qatar’s bottom trawl fishery is considered "semi-industrial" by FAO (Morgan 2004), for the purposes of this report it was considered to be industrial. Ibrahim (1989) estimates that 496-635 t were discarded by Qatar’s bottom trawl fishery for 1986-1987. The study also presents the percent contribution of the bottom trawl fishery to the total finfish landings (excluding sharks) and the average percent contribution (32%) was used to determine the amount of finfish reported landings from 1970 (start of the fishery) to 1993 (when it was closed) that came from the bottom trawl fishery. A discard rate of 50% (Ibrahim et al. 1989) was applied to the bottom trawl fishery (i.e., 50% of the total catch was discarded). The same study also provided a discard rate of 4% (of the total catch) for the rest of the artisanal fishery, and this rate was applied to all other artisanal finfish catches (reported, unreported, and discarded). Discarded species composition originates from the same Ibrahim et al. (1989) study.Qatar reports requiem shark landings for 1982 and 1983 (1 and 5 t respectively), but not for other years. However, studies exist which show that sharks are frequently caught in both targeted and bycatch fisheries (Al-Ansi and Priede 1996; Moore 2012), and a graph in Sivasubramaniam and Ibrahim (1983) documents monthly shark landings in 1982 at Al Khor, eastern Qatar. Annual shark landing data of 133 t were extracted from Sivasubramaniam and Ibrahim (1983), and a per capita rate for 1983 estimated (0.00048 t). Neighbouring UAE and Saudi Arabia report steadily increasing shark landings to FAO, but both are also known to be shark fin re-exporting countries and Qatar - Al-Abdulrazzak 33therefore it is difficult to interpret these trends (Moore 2012). As a conservative estimate, it was assumed the per capita shark rate was constant from 1950-1994, but then declined to 90% from 1995-1999, 80% from 2000-2005, 70% from 2006-2007, and 60% from 2008-2010. A 3-year moving average was used for smoothing.Driftnets were banned in 1989, but continue to be used routinely with 2-3 violations occurring per day (Richer 2009). A rough estimation of illegal driftnet catch is presented here which was inspired by the work of Sumaila et al. (2006). First, because of the large numbers of violations occurring, it is assumed that 10% of 515 registered vessels take part in illegal driftnetting. Next, the ratio of registered vessels to total reported catch is estimated, to obtain the annual total catch per vessel from 1989-2010. For illegal fishing to be worthwhile, the expected penalty must be at least equal to the expected gain; it is here conservatively assumed that vessels deploying driftnets are catching 20% more than they would legally (i.e., deploying gargoor traps from their boats instead of illegal driftnets). Finally, the annual total catch per vessel fishing illegally was multiplied by the estimated number of participating vessels (56) to estimate illegal driftnet catches for from 1989-2010.Like other countries in the Gulf, commercial fishing is undertaken by foreign labourers who have a high incentive to subsistence fish. In order to estimate this sector, it was assumed that fishers (0.0066% of the population) take home an average of 5 kg per week, and extrapolate from the start of the oil boom in 1960 to 2010. Because these catches are composed of less desirable species subsistence catches were assigned based on the family level of discarded species.results and discussionFor the period of FAO reporting, 1950-2010, reported catches for Qatar are annually, on average, under-reported by 62% (Figure 2a; Appendix  Table A1). Total catches reported to the FAO over the same period were 258,253 t, while the  methods used here estimate an additional 98,900 t were extracted but unreported.Catch data as reported by the FAO on behalf of Qatar show a steady increase of catches, more than doubling in the last few decades (Al Jedah et al. 1999; Feidi 2005), with a sharp increase from 2001 until 2010. This is unsurprising given that Qatar’s population grew from 770,000 in 2001 to 1.4 million in 2009 (Sale et al. 2011), generating an increase in demand and a corresponding increase in effort, with new, higher-capacity vessels replacing the older smaller vessels in the fleet (Morgan 2004).The five main taxa caught by Qatar are Lethrinidae (18%), Serranidae (9%), Scomberomorus commerson (8%), Carangidae (6%), and Siganidae (5%) (Figure 2b; Appendix Table A2).In particular, the reconstruction highlights the extent of illegal fishing in Qatar. The small scale and minor economic value of Qatar’s fisheries means that directing resources at fisheries enforcement is not economically justifiable (Morgan 2004). Although Qatar has banned the use of hadrah since 1994, the contribution of Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly’s (2013) suggests that from 286 to 572 t (or 429 t on average) of fish are caught annually by 0510152025Supplied to FAOArtisanalDiscardsIndustriala)Recreational05101520251950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Catch (t x 103)YearSiganidaeOthersScomberomorus commersonSerranidaeLethrinidaeCarangidaeb)Figure 2.  Total reconstructed catch for Qatar by a) sector (with comparison to FAO data), and b) major taxa, 1950-2010. Note that the subsistence sector is not visible on the sector graph (a) and recreational catches are only slightly visible at the end of the time period (black fill).From dhows to trawlers - Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly34hadrah since 1994. In addition, it was estimated that on average, 1,082 t were caught annually by illegal driftnetting from 1989 to 2010. These estimates of illegal catches presented here are very tentative, and are likely to be replaced by higher figures when the assumptions used here are replaced by field estimates.The reconstruction also highlights the magnitude of discarding in the region. For the years when the QNFC was operational (1970-1993), discards from the bottom-trawl fishery constituted 30% of reported catch; of this, 38% consisted of fish of length above 15 cm, i.e., suitable for human consumption (Ibrahim et al. 1989). An additional 18% was greater than 20 cm and of commercial value in Qatar (Ibrahim et al. 1989). If retained, these fish could have increased QNFC’s annual income by more than 15-30% (Ibrahim et al. 1989).Given the country’s rapidly growing population, the corresponding increase in recreational fishing is unsurprising. However, Morgan (2004) predicts that the catch of the recreational sector (which is unmonitored) could one day exceed that of the commercial sector. Thus, management issues for this growing sector must be addressed. Unlike neighbouring countries, Qatar currently meets most of the fish demands of its 1.8 million residents, only importing 1,679 t in 2001 (Morgan 2004). However, Qatar’s reliance on imports is likely to increase in light of its growing population.In order to accommodate expanding industries and rapid population growth, major coastal development projects are underway resulting in land reclamation and dredging, with little to no studies on their short- and long-term ecological impacts on marine life (Sheppard et al. 2010). These development projects are certain to impact fisheries yet are not addressed, since no formal management plan exists for any fishery. In addition, although fishery input controls are used (gear restrictions, limiting number of vessels, etc.), they are ineffective because compliance is limited. Given these rapid developments, the lack of stock assessments and fishery management plans is cause to worry about the future prospects of Qatar’s fish stocks.The reconstruction approach undertaken here accounts for missing sectors, including discards, shark catches, illegal and recreational catches. Thus, the reconstructed time series may better reflect the catches extracted from Qatar’s marine ecosystems from 1950-2010 than the official statistics. Although the reconstructed time series are entirely dependent on the assumptions made by this study, they are preferable to the alternative of assuming ‘zero’ catch for sectors with missing data components. Thus, despite considerable data uncertainties and lack of precision, conservative catch reconstruction approaches are far less misleading (particularly in with respect for fisheries policy formulation) than assuming no data means ‘zero’ catch.acknowledGementsI thank U.R. Sumaila for stimulating conversations that inspired the methods for reconstructing illegal driftnet catches. I also thank M.S. Al-Muhindi from the Qatar Ministry of Fisheries for informing us of the hadrah ban. This is a contribution of the Sea Around Us Project, a scientific collaboration between the University of British Columbia and The Pew Charitable Trusts.reFerencesAl-Abdulrazzak D and Pauly D (2013) Managing fisheries from space: Google Earth improves estimates of distant fish catches. ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi.10.1093/icesjms/fst178.Al-Ansi M and Priede IG (1996) Expansion of fisheries in Qatar (1980-1992): growth of an artisanal fleet and closure of a trawling company. Fisheries Research 26(1-2): 101-111.Al-Ansi MA, Abdel-Moati MAR and Al-Ansari IS (2002) Causes of fish mortality along the Qatari waters (Arabian Gulf). International Journal of Environmental Studies 59(1): 59-71.Al Jedah JH, Ali MZ and Robinson RK (1999) The nutritional importance to local communities of fish caught off the coast of Qatar. Nutrition & Food Science 6: 288-294.El Sayed AFM (1992) The status of Qatar’s fisheries during 1980-1990. Qatar University Science Journal 12: 233-238.El Sayed AFM (1996) Effects of overfishing and abandoning bottom trawling on Qatar’s fisheries. Qatar University Science Journal 16(1): 173-178.Feidi IH (2005) Fisheries development in the Arab world. Middle Eastern Natural Environments 103: 388-406.Ibrahim MA (1989) Studies on bottom trawling and demersal fishes of Qatar waters, Arabian Gulf. Qatar University Science Journal 9: 291-308.Ibrahim MA, El-Bary KA and Al-Khayat JA (1989) By-catch of commercial bottom trawl fishery from Qatar waters, Arabian Gulf. Qatar University Science Journal 9: 309-319.Jacquet J, Fox H, Motta H, Ngusaru A and Zeller D (2010) Few data but many fish: marine small-scale fisheries catches for Mozambique and Tanzania. African Journal of Marine Science 32(2): 197-206.Le Manach F, Gough C, Harris A, Humber F, Harper S and Zeller D (2012) Unreported fishing, hungry people and political turmoil: the recipe for a food security crisis in Madagascar? Marine Policy 36(1): 218-225.Moore ABM (2012) Elasmobranchs of the Persian (Arabian) Gulf: ecology, human aspects and research priorities for their improved management. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 22(1): 35-61.Qatar - Al-Abdulrazzak 35Morgan G (2004) Country review: Qatar. pp. 297-301 In De Young C (ed.), Review of the state of world marine capture fisheries management: Indian Ocean. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 488. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome.Richer R (2009) Conservation in Qatar: impacts of increasing industrialization. Centre for International and Regional Studies Georgetown University. 23 p.Sale PF, Feary DA, Burt JA, Bauman AG, Cavalcante GH, Drouillard KG, Kjerfve B, Marquis E, Trick CG, Usseglio P and Van Lavieren H (2011) The growing need for sustainable ecological management of marine communities of the Persian Gulf. Ambio 40(1): 4-17.Sheppard C, Al-Husiani M, Al-Jamali F, Al-Yamani F, Baldwin R, Bishop J, Benzoni F, Dutrieux E, Dulvy NK, Durvasula SRV, Jones DA, Loughland R, Medio D, Nithyanandan M, Pilling GM, Polikarpov I, Price ARG, Purkis S, Riegl B, Saburova M, Samimi-Namin K, Taylor O, Wilson S and Zainal K (2010) The Gulf: a young sea in decline. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60(1): 13-38.Sivasubramaniam K and Ibrahim MA (1983) Pelagic fish resources and their fishery around Qatar. Qatar Science Bulletin 3: 297-327.Sumaila UR, Alder J and Keither H (2006) Global scope and economics of illegal fishing. Marine Policy 30: 696-703.Zeller D, Booth S, Craig P and Pauly D (2006) Reconstruction of coral reef fisheries catches in American Samoa, 1950-2002. Coral Reefs 25(1): 144-152.Zeller D, Booth S, Davis G and Pauly D (2007) Re-estimation of small-scale fishery catches for US flag-associated island areas in the western Pacific: the last 50 years. Fishery Bulletin 105(2): 266-277.From dhows to trawlers - Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly36Appendix Table A1.   FAO landings vs. total reconstructed catch (t) for Qatar, 1950-2010, as well as catch by sector.Year FAO landings Total reconstructed catch Industrial Artisanal Subsistence Recreational Discards1950 400 1,030 0 990 0 0 401951 400 1,030 0 990 0 0 401952 400 1,030 0 990 0 0 401953 500 1,130 0 1,090 0 0 441954 500 1,130 0 1,090 0 0 441955 500 1,130 0 1,090 0 0 441956 500 1,140 0 1,090 0 0 441957 600 1,240 0 1,190 0 0 481958 600 1,240 0 1,190 0 0 481959 600 1,240 0 1,190 0 0 481960 800 1,460 0 1,400 1 6 561961 800 1,460 0 1,400 1 6 561962 1,000 1,670 0 1,600 1 7 651963 1,000 1,680 0 1,600 1 8 651964 1,000 1,680 0 1,610 1 8 651965 1,300 1,990 0 1,910 1 9 651966 1,300 1,990 0 1,910 1 10 651967 1,500 2,200 0 2,120 1 11 691968 1,500 2,200 0 2,120 2 12 691969 1,500 2,210 0 2,120 2 12 691970 1,500 2,510 310 1,820 2 14 3641971 1,500 2,520 310 1,820 2 15 3641972 2,000 3,190 470 2,170 2 16 5341973 2,200 3,400 470 2,380 2 18 5341974 2,047 3,250 470 2,230 3 19 5341975 1,989 3,200 470 2,180 3 20 5341976 2,400 3,620 470 2,590 3 21 5341977 2,433 3,660 470 2,630 3 23 5341978 2,200 3,430 470 2,400 3 24 5341979 2,200 3,440 470 2,410 3 25 5341980 2,178 3,500 520 2,350 4 28 5941981 2,604 4,080 660 2,650 4 31 7391982 2,331 3,770 610 2,450 5 34 6831983 2,114 3,630 650 2,200 5 38 7331984 3,174 5,080 1,000 2,930 6 42 1,1101985 2,485 4,160 770 2,480 6 46 8621986 1,981 3,500 610 2,150 7 49 6851987 2,679 4,440 820 2,640 7 52 9191988 3,088 4,990 930 2,950 8 55 1,0411989 4,376 7,230 1,300 4,400 8 57 1,4621990 5,704 9,240 1,770 5,420 8 59 1,9811991 8,137 12,800 2,520 7,400 8 60 2,8071992 7,847 12,340 2,490 7,010 8 61 2,7691993 6,996 10,980 2,210 6,240 8 61 2,4581994 5,088 6,530 0 6,210 9 62 2471995 4,273 5,580 0 5,300 9 63 2091996 4,741 6,130 0 5,830 9 64 2311997 5,033 6,480 0 6,160 9 66 2441998 5,281 6,770 0 6,440 9 68 2551999 4,399 5,750 0 5,450 10 71 2152000 7,142 8,950 0 8,520 10 74 3442001 8,866 10,970 0 10,460 10 76 4242002 7,157 8,990 0 8,560 11 78 3442003 11,295 13,850 0 13,220 11 82 5372004 11,134 13,690 0 13,060 12 89 5282005 13,935 17,020 0 16,240 14 102 6582006 16,376 19,920 0 19,010 17 122 7722007 15,190 18,600 0 17,720 20 147 7152008 17,688 21,580 0 20,560 24 174 8302009 14,064 17,410 0 16,530 27 199 6622010 13,760 17,110 0 16,210 30 219 650Qatar - Al-Abdulrazzak 37Appendix Table A2.   Total reconstructed catch (t) for Qatar by major taxa, 1950-2010.Year Lethrinidae Serranidae Scomberomorus commerson Carangidae Siganidae Othersa1950 78 47 37 57 151 6501951 78 47 37 57 151 6601952 78 47 37 57 151 6601953 97 59 46 70 157 7001954 97 59 46 70 157 7001955 97 59 46 70 157 7101956 97 59 46 70 157 7101957 116 71 55 84 164 7501958 116 71 55 84 164 7501959 116 71 55 84 164 7501960 153 95 73 110 176 8501961 153 95 73 110 176 8601962 191 119 91 137 189 9501963 191 119 91 137 189 9501964 191 119 91 137 189 9501965 191 119 91 137 189 1,2601966 191 119 91 137 189 1,2601967 210 131 100 150 195 1,4101968 210 131 100 150 195 1,4201969 210 131 100 150 195 1,4201970 225 119 91 192 189 1,6901971 225 119 91 192 189 1,7001972 336 178 137 286 220 2,0301973 336 178 137 286 220 2,2401974 336 178 137 286 220 2,1001975 336 178 137 286 220 2,0401976 336 178 137 286 220 2,4601977 336 178 137 286 220 2,5001978 336 178 137 286 220 2,2701979 336 178 137 286 220 2,2801980 376 199 153 320 231 2,2201981 471 250 192 400 258 2,5101982 434 230 177 369 248 2,3201983 555 318 158 452 248 1,8901984 957 373 304 493 282 2,6701985 590 345 289 467 273 2,2001986 519 204 124 427 224 2,0001987 777 236 114 498 254 2,5601988 846 308 143 577 262 2,8501989 1,271 426 213 716 311 4,2901990 1,381 1,015 562 838 383 5,0601991 1,515 1,257 716 1,667 480 7,1601992 2,125 1,200 766 960 451 6,8401993 1,550 1,145 636 911 365 6,3701994 951 950 406 298 257 3,6701995 747 728 255 332 224 3,2901996 1,058 768 307 353 288 3,3601997 1,201 736 411 355 300 3,4801998 1,356 804 552 375 348 3,3401999 823 913 496 206 303 3,0002000 1,482 1,215 768 293 450 4,7402001 1,869 1,820 1,019 367 514 5,3802002 1,552 1,567 963 279 463 4,1702003 3,483 1,804 1,945 356 532 5,7302004 3,809 1,293 1,511 562 495 6,0302005 4,276 2,094 1,882 506 721 7,5402006 5,555 1,743 2,037 526 590 9,4702007 4,202 1,613 1,811 534 579 9,8702008 5,134 2,259 2,563 775 508 10,3502009 4,778 1,318 1,750 522 485 8,5602010 4,182 1,335 2,107 479 605 8,400a Others category includes 39 additional taxonomic groups.From dhows to trawlers - Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly38Saudi Arabia - Tesfamichael and Pauly 39catch reconstruction oF the Fisheries oF saudi araBia in the GulF,  1950-20101Dawit Tesfamichael1,2 and Daniel Pauly11 Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada2 Department of Marine Sciences, University of Asmara, Asmara, Eritread.tesfamichael@fisherie.ubc.ca; d.pauly@fisheries.ubc.caaBstractThe catch of Saudi Arabia in the Gulf is reconstructed from 1950–2010 by examining local records, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) data and general knowledge of the fisheries. The fishery was divided into sectors, the major ones being artisanal and industrial. In addition, subsistence, recreational and discards of the industrial trawl fishery, which are excluded from official report, were explicitly included. A previous catch reconstruction of Saudi Arabia’s Red Sea fishery was used as a reference to calculate the catches of the sectors in the Gulf. The catches in each sector were further disaggregated to their taxonomic composition. The results showed that from 1950 – 2010, the total reconstructed catch (Red Sea and the Gulf) was 2.1 times what Saudi Arabia reports to FAO (2.4 times for the Gulf only). The artisanal fishery is by far the most important in the Gulf, contributing 51% of total catch and 77% when only the retained catch is considered. The industrial fishery is second in its contribution to total catch, followed by the subsistence and recreational fisheries. Most of the taxa caught are demersal fishes, reflecting the nature of the ecosystem, which is generally shallow, covered by sea grass beds, and sandy and muddy bottoms.introductionThe ‘Gulf’ (to avoid having to choose between Arabian and Persian Gulf) is a semi-enclosed and generally shallow sea with an average depth of 35 m and a maximum of 100 m in its southeastern part, near the Strait of Hormuz. It has high salinity due to high evaporation, low rainfall and limited water exchange with the adjacent Arabian Sea. Water temperature can reach up to 40°C in the summer and 20°C in winter. The shallow inshore areas are generally covered by sea grass beds, which act as nursery ground for many fish species. There is no well-developed coral reef system in the Gulf as compared to the Red Sea, but it still has a multitude of reef fishes (see Randall et al. 1978; Carpenter et al. 1997; and see www.fishbase.org). Most of the deeper sea floor is covered with coarse gravel, fine clay or mud, which makes it suitable for trawling, with shrimp being the most sought-after resource (Sheppard et al. 1992; Sakurai 1998). Unlike the Red Sea, where shrimp are targeted only by the industrial sector, they are targeted in the Gulf by both the artisanal and industrial sectors.Saudi Arabia has a longer coastline in the Red Sea than in the Gulf (Figure 1). Nevertheless, as will be shown below, its fish catch has been higher in the Gulf than in the Red Sea in the last decades. Most of the Saudi fisheries in the Gulf are artisanal, at times accounting for more than 95% of the total catch. These artisanal fisheries were non-motorized until 1960. Although motorization started in early 1960s, it accelerated later, and was essentially completed in the late 1980s (Sakurai 1998). The major gears 1 Cite as: Tesfamichael D and Pauly D (2013) Catch reconstruction of the fisheries of Saudi Arabia in the Gulf, 1950-2010. pp. 39-52. In: Al-Abdulrazzak D and Pauly D (eds.) From dhows to trawlers: a recent history of fisheries in the Gulf countries, 1950 to 2010. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 21(2). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727].50°E26°N0 200100 km±Figure 1.  Map of Saudi Arabia, showing the extent of its EEZ (light grey area).From dhows to trawlers - Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly40used by the Saudi artisanal sector in the Gulf are traps, which can generate for up to 50% of the catch. The main targets include emperors (family Lethrinidae), groupers (Serranidae), scads (Carangidae), snappers (Lutjanidae), seabreams (Sparidae) and rabbitfish (Siganidae). Other gears include gill net for pelagic species such as kingfish (Scomberomorus spp.) and tunas (Scombridae), and to a lesser extent handlines, longlines, trawling and trolling, with each accounting less than 5% of the total catch (DMF 2000). A single artisanal trip in the Gulf takes 5-6 days on the average, in contrast to the Red Sea, where it is usually a single day (Sakurai 1998).Industrial fishing started along the Saudi coast of the Gulf in the early 1960s. Al-Gosaiby Fishing Company was the first industrial fishing venture that was given permit to fish and export its catch. In the 1960s and 1970s, foreign vessels from the ex-USSR and Australia were also operating in the Gulf under license from Saudi Arabia. The shrimp catch peaked in the later part of the 1970s, then declined drastically. In the mid-1990s, the Saudi government initiated a policy to reduce fishing effort and the number of industrial fishery vessels decreased, as did their contribution to the total catch (Sakurai 1998; Anon. 2011).Recreational fishing (i.e., fishing for pleasure) has become common in Saudi Arabia since the oil-fuelled economic boom. It is usually done on the weekends (Thursday and Friday) using handlines. The fishery is not regulated except that nets of any kind may not be used. The catch can exceed 1,000 t per year, but it is not reported, although it is large enough to warrant complaints, mainly from artisanal fishers who disapprove of the lack of regulations for what they perceive as competition (Sakurai 1998).materials and methodsThis reconstruction of the fishery catches of Saudi Arabia in the Gulf was based on local reports, the detailed catch reconstruction of Saudi Arabia’s Red Sea fisheries, and on data reported to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (here referred to as ‘FAO data’). The following steps were then carried out to perform the catch reconstruction:1. Splitting the FAO data into Red Sea and Gulf catches;2. Splitting the FAO data into artisanal and industrial catches;3. Adjusting the artisanal and industrial catches in the Gulf for misreporting;4. Estimating the taxonomic composition of the reconstructed catch, by sector;5. Adding the catch of fisheries that were not accounted for in the official reports.Step 1: Splitting the FAO data into Red Sea and Gulf catchesSaudi Arabia, as do other member countries, reports its annual total fishery catches to the FAO. For many countries with more than one coast, the total catch is split between the broad statistical areas which FAO uses to allocate catches geographically. Unfortunately, in the case of Saudi Arabia, both coasts fall in the same statistical area, the ‘Western Indian Ocean’, and thus we had to do the splitting ourselves. As shown in Table 1, an initial split was done based on Saudi Arabian statistical data reports available to us (for recent years), other literature (for earlier years), interpolations (for the years without any information), and backward extrapolation with adjustments (for the earliest years). Please note that this was only an inital split which gave the division of the total catch by coast.In latter steps the species breakdown information had to be taken into account which caused the proportions to change slightly and therefore this first split is not necessarily representative of the final data. However, this initial split is important for determining the misreporting ratio. The earliest available Red Sea-to-Gulf ratio was for 1979 (Barrania et al. 1980), followed by 1987-1998 (Sakurai 1998; DMF 2000) and 2000 (FAO 2003). For 2002, the Regional Commission for Fisheries (RECOFI 2009), which is active in the Gulf, reported the Gulf catch of Saudi Arabia, which in turn was used to calculate the percentage for the Red Sea. In more recent years, Saudi Arabia published annual fishery statistical reports, separate for each coast, which we relied on for 2004-2007 (DMF 2008). The latest year with data disaggregated between the two coasts was 2009, where statistical data were presented separately for the artisanal and industrial sectors in the Red Sea and the artisanal sector in the Gulf (Anon. 2011). The industrial catch in the Gulf was calculated using the ratio for the two sectors in 2007, where the industrial catch was 0.38% of the artisanal catch.For years where data were not available, they were estimated using different methods. For 1950-1960 and 1975-1978, the earliest available data (for 1979) were used. Using the 1979 Red Sea-Gulf ratio for 1961-1974 resulted in unreasonably high Red Sea catches, thus a different approach was used for this period. The closest period with data that separate the Red Sea and Gulf catches was for 1987-1994. Thus, an average ratio was calculated for the total reconstructed Red Sea catch without the industrial discard to the FAO catch of Red Sea from 1987-1994 (note that discarded catches are not reported to FAO at all). The result, that FAO Red Sea data were on average 92% of the reconstructed catch, was used to calculate the FAO Red Sea catch for 1961-1974. Then, the FAO Gulf catch was obtained by subtracting the Red Sea amount from the total Saudi catch in the FAO database. The same ratio was also Saudi Arabia - Tesfamichael and Pauly 41used for the period 1980-1986. Although there were ratios available for 1995-1996, they resulted in the FAO Red Sea catch being slightly higher than the reconstructed catch, which is unrealistic given the pattern for the other years. Thus, the reconstructed catch without industrial discard, was assumed to be equal to the FAO Red Sea catch. For 1999, 2001, 2003, 2008 and 2010, the ratios were interpolated linearly from the neighbouring years (Table 1).Step 2: Splitting the FAO data into artisanal and industrial catchesOnce the data Saudi Arabia submitted to FAO were divided into the Red Sea and the Gulf, the next step was to divide the Red Sea FAO data into artisanal and industrial sectors (by total only; adjustments by taxa will be done further along). This was done using the ratio of the sectors in the reconstructed catch for the Red Sea. Here, of course, the industrial discards were not considered, as they were excluded from the official reports (Tesfamichael and Rossing 2012).Similar to the Red Sea, the Gulf FAO data, calculated in the previous step, were divided into artisanal and industrial sectors. From 1950-1961, all catches were allocated to artisanal because industrial fishing did not start until 1962 (Sakurai 1998). Data that divided the Gulf catch into artisanal and industrial were available for some years: 1987-1998 (DMF 2000), 2000 (FAO 2003), 2004-2007 (DMF 2008) and 2009 (Anon. 2011). For 2009, only artisanal catches in the Gulf were reported, because the industrial fishery was very small in the Gulf in recent years (DMF 2008). Nevertheless, the industrial catch was calculated using the ratio for 2007. Interpolations that assumed linear change were applied for 1999, 2001-2003, 2008 and 2010. For the earlier years of the Gulf catch, 1962-1986, there were no ratios available to split the catch into the two sectors. However, shrimp catches, which are the major target of the industrial sector, were available from 1962-2007 (Sakurai 1998; DMF 2008). Thus the shrimp catch was used to calculate the industrial catch. From 1962-1978, the shrimp catch was assumed to account for 90% of the reported catch, excluding discard. This was the period when a lot of emphasis was given to shrimp trawling and many new fishing grounds explored. The shrimp catch peaked in the late 1970s and declined thereafter due to instability in the region, which resulted in reduced fishing effort (Sakurai 1998). Thus, for the period 1979-1986, the shrimp catch was assumed to account for 50% of the industrial catch. This is a realistic assumption as the shrimp catch declined abruptly in 1979 and in the closest year available, 1987, shrimp accounted for 47%. The catch of the artisanal fishery in the FAO data from 1962-1986 was calculated by deducting the industrial catch from the total catch for the Gulf calculated in step 1 (Table 2).Step 3: Adjusting the artisanal and industrial catch in the Gulf for misreportingSplitting the reconstructed and FAO data into artisanal and industrial catches for the Red Sea allowed us to calculate the ratio of reconstructed catch to FAO data, which reflected the amount of misreporting in the Red Sea. This resulted in the reconstructed artisanal fishery being equivalent to 1.13 times the FAO reported catch; the corresponding value for the industrial was 1.10 times. Assuming that the same ratios apply in the Gulf as well (because the fisheries operate in similar fashion, as does their governance) allowed adjusting the artisanal and industrial catch to 113 % and 110 % of the values obtained in Step 2, respectively.Table 1.  Percentages used in the initial division of the catch Saudi Arabia reported to FAO into the Red Sea and the Gulf.Year Red Sea Gulf Source/Remarks1950-60 52.7 47.2 1979 values1961 39.0 61.0 See footnote a1962 35.2 64.7 See footnote a1963 33.6 66.4 See footnote a1964 35.8 64.2 See footnote a1965 39.4 60.6 See footnote a1966 38.7 61.3 See footnote a1967 38.1 61.9 See footnote a1968 43.7 56.3 See footnote a1969 47.2 52.8 See footnote a1970 47.8 52.2 See footnote a1971 46.5 53.4 See footnote a1972 44.8 55.2 See footnote a1973 41.4 58.6 See footnote a1974 47.5 52.5 See footnote a1975-78 52.7 47.3 1979 values1979 52.7 47.3 Barrania et al. (1980)1980 48.1 51.9 See footnote a1981 46.0 54.0 See footnote a1982 44.7 55.3 See footnote a1983 40.1 59.9 See footnote a1984 40.6 59.4 See footnote a1985 51.4 48.6 See footnote a1986 52.7 47.3 See footnote a1987 66.0 33.9 Sakurai (1998), DMF (2000)1988 67.9 32.1 Sakurai (1998), DMF (2000)1989 68.5 31.5 Sakurai (1998), DMF (2000)1990 72.3 27.7 Sakurai (1998), DMF (2000)1991 74.6 25.4 Sakurai (1998), DMF (2000)1992 68.1 31.9 Sakurai (1998), DMF (2000)1993 69.2 30.8 Sakurai (1998), DMF (2000)1994 62.5 37.5 Sakurai (1998), DMF (2000)1995 53.7 46.2 Sakurai (1998), DMF (2000)1996 50.8 49.2 Sakurai (1998), DMF (2000)1997 53.1 46.9 Sakurai (1998), DMF (2000)1998 48.9 51.1 Sakurai (1998), DMF (2000)1999 47.4 52.6 Interpolated2000 45.7 54.3 FAO (2003)2001 43.6 56.4 Interpolated2002 41.9 58.1 RECOFI (2009)2003 39.4 60.6 Interpolated2004 36.8 63.1 DMF (2008)2005 38.6 61.4 DMF (2008)2006 35.8 64.2 DMF (2008)2007 40.0 60.0 DMF (2008)2008 40.1 59.9 Interpolated2009 40.2 59.8 Anon. (2011)2010 40.3 59.7 Interpolateda FAO Red Sea catch assumed to be 92% of reconstructed catch.From dhows to trawlers - Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly42Step 4: Estimating the taxonomic composition of the reconstructed catch, by sectorThe product of Step 3 is the total reconstructed catch of Saudi Arabia’s fishery in the Gulf, separately for the artisanal and industrial fisheries. However, the taxonomic composition of these catches must also be considered. Catch composition data for the artisanal fishery in the Gulf were available for 2004-2007 (DMF 2008) and the mean of these four years was used to disaggregate the catches for the other years. The catch composition of the industrial was calculated by first deducting the reconstructed shrimp catch, which was available for the whole period, from the reconstructed industrial catch. The composition of the remaining (non-shrimp) catch was calculated using the catch composition of the total Gulf catch and qualitative information on the composition of industrial catch given in DMF (2000), which states that the main catch of the industrial fishery after shrimp were emperors, scads/jacks/trevallies, barracuda and crabs, with sea catfish, rabbitfish and cuttlefish also being caught. For emperors and scads/jacks/trevallies, the percentages given were 15.5% and 7.3%, respectively. A contribution of 5% was assumed for barracuda, 3% for crabs, with 2% each for the less important taxa catfish, rabbitfish and cuttlefishes, i.e., ratios similar to those of the industrial catch of the Saudi industrial fishery in the Red Sea. These percentages were then scaled up to 100%. A total of 10% was allocated to ‘miscellaneous species’, which was further disaggregated based on the detailed catch composition data of Saudi Arabia’s industrial fishery in the Red Sea (Tesfamichael and Rossing 2012). For the later years, 2004-2007 (when the industrial catch was very low), catch composition data were available (DMF 2008) and for 2008-2010, the average of 2004-2007 was used.The data Saudi Arabia reported to FAO are divided into more taxa (127) than the reconstructed catch, which is strange given that we used the Saudi official national and technical reports for our catch reconstruction. The large number of taxa started in 2000 when the country introduced an extensive data recording and reporting system. Most of the taxa that were included starting in 2000 have very low catch amounts and they were aggregated as ‘miscellaneous’ in the national reports we used. To make full use of the additional information on catch composition in the FAO data, it was used to further disaggregate the reconstructed catch composition. First the distribution of the taxa were verified using FishBase (www.fishbase.org) to check if each taxon was to be included in both the Red Sea and the Gulf or only in one of these bodies of water. Then, for the taxa included in the FAO data, but not in the reconstruction, the ratios of the taxa in the FAO data were used to disaggregate the catch composition of the reconstructed data. For example, in the reconstructed catch, there was only one taxon item for groupers (Serranidae), but in the FAO data there were 18 taxon items for groupers, mainly species, but also including Serranidae. Overall, the "Serranidae" of the reconstructed Gulf catch was disaggregated into 17 groups using their ratios in the FAO data.The final reporting baseline was determined by applying the  Red Sea-to-Gulf proportion of each species in the total reconstructed catch to the corresponding category in the FAO data.Step 5: Adding the catch of fisheries that were not accounted for in the official reports.Saudi Arabia produces statistical reports of its catch and submits the data to FAO. There are fisheries, however, which are not included in any kind of reporting. Three categories of fisheries are identified in this section: subsistence, recreational and discards of the industrial trawl fishery. The subsistence catch is fish consumed by the fishing crew and fish freely given by artisanal fishers to family and friends according to tradition Table 2.  Percentages used in the initial division of the catch Saudi Arabia reported to FAO for the Gulf into artisanal and industrial fisheries.Year Artisanal Industrial Source/Remarks1950-61 100.0 0.0 Industrial fishery started in 19621962 99.7 0.3 See footnote a1963 97.5 2.5 See footnote a1964 96.1 3.9 See footnote a1965 81.5 18.5 See footnote a1966 77.0 23.0 See footnote a1967 48.0 52.0 See footnote a1968 39.1 60.9 See footnote a1969 37.9 62.1 See footnote a1970 40.6 59.4 See footnote a1971 50.2 49.8 See footnote a1972 45.9 54.0 See footnote a1973 46.9 53.0 See footnote a1974 59.3 40.7 See footnote a1975 51.8 48.2 See footnote a1976 50.5 49.5 See footnote a1977 47.9 52.0 See footnote a1978 72.4 27.6 See footnote a1979 90.8 9.2 See footnote b1980 96.8 3.2 See footnote b1981 92.3 7.7 See footnote b1982 74.6 25.4 See footnote b1983 78.0 22.0 See footnote b1984 76.5 23.5 See footnote b1985 71.3 28.7 See footnote b1986 71.7 28.3 See footnote b1987 77.0 23.0 DMF (2000)1988 74.7 25.3 DMF (2000)1989 76.2 23.8 DMF (2000)1990 75.8 24.2 DMF (2000)1991 78.0 22.0 DMF (2000)1992 84.1 15.8 DMF (2000)1993 84.3 15.7 DMF (2000)1994 88.5 11.5 DMF (2000)1995 95.3 4.7 DMF (2000)1996 91.1 8.9 DMF (2000)1997 92.2 7.7 DMF (2000)1998 93.8 6.2 DMF (2000)1999 96.0 3.9 Interpolated2000 98.3 1.7 FAO (2003)2001 98.7 1.3 Interpolated2002 99.0 1.0 Interpolated2003 99.4 0.6 Interpolated2004 99.8 0.2 DMF (2008)2005 99.7 0.3 DMF (2008)2006 99.8 0.2 DMF (2008)2007 99.6 0.4 DMF (2008)2008 99.6 0.4 Interpolated2009 99.6 0.4 Anon. (2011)2010 99.6 0.4 Interpolateda Shrimp assumed to be 90% of industrial catch.b Shrimp assumed to be 50% of industrial catch.Saudi Arabia - Tesfamichael and Pauly 43in the region. This catch can be substantial, up to 50% of the catch of the artisanal fisheries based on interviews with fishers in the region (Tesfamichael et al. in press), and it does not appear in any fishery data recording system. The fish is either consumed or given before it can be recorded. The subsistence fishery catch was estimated based on the artisanal fishery catch. Similar to the Red Sea, subsistence catch was assumed to be 30% of artisanal catch until 1963, when motorization started to have effect on the fishery. For the later years, 20% was allocated to 1964 and 10% to 2010, and the percentage was linearly interpolated between 1965-2009. Before these percentages were applied, some taxa which are not usually given freely, were eliminated. These included taxa usually intended for export market, i.e., sharks fished for their fins and many invertebrates such as shrimp, crab and lobster. Traditionally, most of these taxa were not consumed locally and their consumption was introduced by foreign (mainly European) visitors to the region. However, nowadays, these non-traditional species are consumed by people mainly in the affluent larger urban centers and are not usually given freely to family and friends. Interestingly, the local names of most of these taxa are based on European names, rather than Arabic, as is the case for most of the fish species (Tesfamichael and Awadh 2012).The other sector not included in official reporting is the recreational fishery, which started with the oil boom, when Saudi citizens started fishing for pleasure. Although recreational fishing occurs in Saudi Arabia’s Gulf waters, the only data available were for 1996, when it was reported that there were 2,528 boats involved in the recreational fishery in the Gulf, while in the Red Sea there were 2,446 (Sakurai 1998). Thus, the recreational fishery and its composition for the Gulf were calculated using the ratio of boats for 1996 and the reconstructed recreational fishery of the Red Sea (Tesfamichael and Rossing 2012).Finally, the discards of the industrial trawl fishery are not reported. The level of discarding in the Gulf was calculated using the total shrimp catch in the Gulf and the ratio of total discard to shrimp catch for the Red Sea, which was 5.8 (Tesfamichael and Rossing 2012). The composition of the discarded catch was also calculated based on the Red Sea data. The artisanal fishery targets a wide range of taxa, including shrimp, and almost every species caught is kept (unlike the industrial fishery); hence, discarding in the artisanal sector is negligible.results and discussionFrom 1950 – 2010, the total reconstructed catch for the Gulf is 2.4 times what was assumed to be reported to FAO for that area (Figure 2; Appendix Table A1). The highest annual total catch was achieved in 1973, with most of the catch being industrial discards. The total catch (minus discards) exhibited a generally increasing trend, with a slight decreasing period in the 1980s. The major continuous increase of retained catch occurred after 1991, until it levelled off (after 2005). Throughout this period (1950-2010), the artisanal fishery had the lion’s share of total catch (51%). The difference between reconstructed and reported catch 0204060801950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Catch (x 103t)YearIndustrialretainedRecreationalSubsistenceArtisanalIndustrialdiscardsAdjustedFAOFigure 2.  Total reconstructed catch for Saudi Arabia by sector, 1950-2010.0153045601950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Catch (x 103 t)YearOthersP.semisulcatusCarangidaeSiganus spp.SparidaeBrachyuraLethrinidaeother Penaeus spp.Scomberomorus commersonFigure 3.  Composition of the dominant taxa in the Saudi artisanal fishery in the Gulf. Note that the group ‘Others’ is partially disaggregated in Appendix Table A2.From dhows to trawlers - Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly44is higher for years with large industrial discards, i.e., in 1964-1978 and 1981-1989. During these periods the relative contribution of the industrial trawl fishery was high and its discards, which are much larger than the retained catch and not reported to FAO at all, meant that total reconstructed catch was much higher than the FAO data. Nevertheless, even for the years where the industrial catch is not high, e.g., 2000-2010, the reconstructed catch remains greater than the FAO data. Of all the sectors, the recreational fishery was the smallest contributor to the total reconstructed catch at 2.4%. The contribution of discarded catch to total catch at 33% is second to the artisanal sector. The retained industrial catch (discards excluded) at 8% is the third largest contributor to total catch, and subsistence is fourth at 5%. It is worth noting the definition used for subsistence fishery in this study is the catch amount given to family and friends for free. In other classifications, the total artisanal fishery may be categorized as subsistence, but according to the Saudi fisheries administration that is not classified as such. We also followed the classification of the country while the subsistence fishery is clearly accounted.The total artisanal fishery catch in the Gulf was quite low until 1960, when motorization started and the catch increased (Figure 3). The second increase happened in the 1980s when the momentum of motorization was high; by then almost all the artisanal boats were motorized (Sakurai 1998); however, the catch declined in the mid-1980s due to political instability in the Gulf area. The drastic increase in total catch started the beginning of the 1990s until it levelled off (from 2005 on). The dominant species in artisanal fishery are demersal, reflecting the shallow nature of the sea and the major gear used (traps). Trawl also contributed to the demersal catch, even though it is not the dominant gear. There is limited use of gillnet for pelagic species. As the Gulf does not support extensive coral reef ecosystems, coral reef fishes are not as important as in the Red Sea. Still, the total number of taxa in the catch of the Saudi Gulf artisanal fishery is very high (> 100), with most of them contributing very little to the total catch. Only 8 taxa are dominant, contributing more than 5% each to the total catch (Figure 3); the rest are pooled together as ‘Others’ to simplify the graphic presentation of the composition. A full catch composition, listing all taxa, is given in Appendix Table A2.Since its introduction in 1962, the trawl fishery saw a rapid increase in its catch (Figure 4). The main decline towards the end of the 1970s was due to the Iraq-Iran war, as most of the foreign trawlers operating under license from Saudi Arabia left (Sakurai 1998). In 1981, Saudi Arabia started its own industrial fishery in the Gulf, which increased the catch in the mid-1980s. However, the catch quickly declined because the government introduced a policy to reduce trawl fishing effort by reducing the number of vessels allowed to operate in the Gulf (Anon. 2011). After 2005, the catch became negligible. The main target of the industrial trawl fishery is shrimp, which accounted for 71% of the total 0153045601950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Catch (x 103 t)YearBalistidaeOthersGerres spp.TrichiuridaeLeiognathidaeFigure 5.  Composition of the discarded catch of the industrial trawl fishery of Saudi Arabia in the Gulf. Note ‘Others’ is disaggregated in Appendix Table A4.02.557.5101950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Catch (x 103 t)YearOthersSphyraena spp.CarangidaeLethrinidaePenaeus spp.BrachyuraFigure 4.  Dominant taxa in the retained catch of the Saudi industrial trawl fishery in the Gulf. Note ‘Others’ is partially disaggregated in Appendix Table A3.Saudi Arabia - Tesfamichael and Pauly 45retained catch (Figure 4). The discarded catch of the industrial trawl fishery is, however, more than four times what is retained (Figure 5). Besides shrimp, other taxa that have economic value are retained in the fishery. The second most retained taxa by the industrial trawl fishery are emperors (Lethrinidae), which account for only 9%. Other important retained taxa include jacks (Carangidae, 4%), barracudas (Sphyraena, 3%) and crabs (Brachyura, 2%). Other taxa are also retained, but their contribution is minor (Appendix Table A3). The discarded trawl fishery catch follows the same pattern as the retained one, because the former is calculated as a ratio of the latter. The discarded catch is dominated by ponyfish (Leiognathidae), which accounts for 63%, followed by triggerfish (Balistidae) with a contribution of 7%. The detailed list of discarded taxa is given in Appendix Table A4.The subsistence fishery follows a pattern similar to the artisanal fishery because it was obtained as a ratio of the latter (Figure 6; Appendix Table A5). The peaks in the mid-1960s and 1980s are more accentuated in the subsistence than the artisanal fishery (Figure 3). This reflects the fact that the fishery is becoming more commercialized with time; hence a higher ratio was used to calculate the subsistence fishery in the earlier years. The taxonomic composition of the subsistence catch is similar to that of the artisanal fishery, except the taxa that are targeted for export (such as shrimp) are excluded from the subsistence fishery. Except for the periods where there were declines in total catch for all the fisheries due to instability in the region, the subsistence fishery shows small changes in its catch, as is common for such fisheries (Béné et al. 2007). They are a source of food for the local communities and their levels, contrary to the case of the other fisheries, do not fluctuate much in response to external factors, such as market fluctuations.The recreational fishery of Saudi Gulf has the least contribution to the total catch (Figure 3); and is also the youngest fishery (Figure 7; Appendix Table A6). This fishery is not regulated at all, except that fishers are not allowed to use any gear besides handlining; its catch is not recorded at all.Overall, this catch reconstruction of Saudi Arabia in the Gulf provides insights into the fisheries of the country both in terms of the length of time examined and scope. The long-term study period allowed us to examine changes over time and helped in the understanding of the major events that affected the country’s fisheries. It is encouraging that Saudi Arabia has improved its fishery data recording system and data dissemination through its annual fishery statistics reports for the artisanal and industrial fisheries. These two sectors may be relatively easier to monitor than the fisheries which are not included either because of their small contribution to total catch (recreational), their diffuse nature (subsistence) or lack of economic value (industrial discards). Nevertheless, it will be very useful to establish a data collection system protocol for these unreported fisheries, even if it may not be as detailed as the 012341950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Catch (x 103 t)YearSerranidaeCarangidaeSparidaeSiganus spp.OthersLethrinidaeScomberomoruscommersonFigure 6.  Catch composition of the subsistence fishery of Saudi Arabia in the Gulf. Note ‘Others’ is partially disaggregated in Appendix A5.01231950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Catch (x 103 t)YearLethrinidaeOthersSerranidaeSparidaeFigure 7.  Catch composition of the recreational fishery of Saudi Arabia in the Gulf.From dhows to trawlers - Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly46artisanal and industrial fisheries. For example, licensing for the recreational fishery can give an idea as to the size of the fishery, which, when coupled with a sampling scheme of catch rates, can help to estimate the scale of the fishery, and its impact on the ecosystem. For industrial discards, on board sampling can be done at minimum cost. Although, getting an idea as to the magnitude of the subsistence fishery can be difficult, it is possible to estimate its catch through an interview-based survey method. Once the estimates of all the sectors of the fishery are made, it will be possible to move to ecosystem-based management (Pikitch et al. 2004), which is needed in the Gulf, as it is elsewhere.acknowledGementsWe acknowledge the support of the Sea Around Us Project, a scientific collaboration between The University of British Columbia and The Pew Charitable Trusts.reFerencesAnon. (2011) Fisheries sector development plans (phase 2): establishing entities to undertake marketing, processing and services for the aquaculture and fishery industries in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. KPMG and Poseidon, Aquatic Resource Management Ltd.Barrania A, Bringi MR and Saleh M (1980) Socio-economic aspects of the Saudi Arabian fisheries in the Red Sea. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Suez, Egypt.Béné C, Macfadyen G, and Allison EH (2007) Increasing the contribution of small-scale fisheries to poverty alleviation and food security. 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Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy.Pikitch EK, Santora C, Babcock EA, Bakun A, Bonfil R, Conover DO, Dayton P, Doukakis P, Fluharty D, Heneman B, Houde ED, Link J, Livingston PA, Mangel M, McAllister MK, Pope J and Sainsbury KJ (2004) Ecosystem-based fishery management. Science 305(5682): 346-347.Randall JE, Allen GR and Smith-Vaniz WF (1978) Illustrated identification guide to commercial fishes. Regional Fishery Survey and Development Project (Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates). F1:DP/RAB/71–278/3. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Rome, Italy. v + 221 p.RECOFI (2009) Review of capture fishery statistics in the RECOFI area. Regional Commission for Fisheries (RECOFI), Dubai, UAE. 9 p.Sakurai T (1998) Fisheries of Saudi Arabia. Ministry of Agriculture and Water, Department of Marine Fisheries and Japan International Cooperation Agency.Sheppard C, Price A and Roberts C (1992) Marine ecology of the Arabian region: patterns and processes in extreme tropical environments. Academic Press, London. 359 p.Tesfamichael D and Awadh H (2012) Common names of exploited fish species in the countries bordering the Red Sea. In: Tesfamichael D and Pauly D (eds.), Catch reconstruction for the Red Sea large marine ecosystem by countries (1950-2010). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 20(1). University of British Columbia, Vancouver.Tesfamichael D, Pitcher TJ and Pauly D (in press) Assessing changes in fisheries using fishers’ knowledge to generate long time series of catch rates: a case study from the Red Sea. Ecology and Society.Tesfamichael D and Rossing P (2012) Red Sea fisheries catches of Saudi Arabia: national wealth and transformation. In: Tesfamichael D and Pauly D (eds.), Catch reconstruction for the Red Sea large marine ecosystem by countries (1950-2010). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 20(1), University of British Columbia, Vancouver.Saudi Arabia - Tesfamichael and Pauly 47Appendix Table A1.  Total reconstructed catch (t) of Saudi Arabia fishery in the Gulf by sector, and catch reported by Saudi Arabia to FAO from 1950-2010.Year ArtisanalIndustrialSubsistence Recreational FAO1 Retained  Discard1950 1,610 0 0 330 0 3501951 1,610 0 0 330 0 3501952 2,680 0 0 550 0 7781953 2,140 0 0 440 0 6281954 2,680 0 0 550 0 7741955 2,680 0 0 550 0 7701956 2,950 0 0 600 0 8691957 4,280 0 0 880 0 2,0321958 4,280 0 0 880 0 2,0271959 5,350 0 0 1,100 0 2,5111960 5,350 0 0 1,100 0 2,5061961 11,190 0 0 2,300 0 5,4961962 13,390 40 190 2,750 0 6,6071963 14,380 360 1,890 2,950 0 7,4041964 12,370 490 2,550 1,690 0 6,5411965 10,410 2,300 12,020 1,410 0 7,3101966 10,810 3,140 16,380 1,450 0 8,3051967 7,440 7,840 40,910 980 0 9,9351968 5,270 7,970 41,630 690 0 8,0011969 5,000 7,950 41,510 650 0 6,9191970 5,200 7,420 38,730 670 50 6,5511971 6,780 6,540 34,150 860 110 6,5691972 6,840 7,830 40,900 850 160 7,5591973 8,230 9,050 47,240 1,020 210 9,0361974 8,330 5,560 29,030 1,020 270 6,0711975 6,380 5,780 30,160 770 320 5,2061976 6,300 6,010 31,380 750 370 6,9961977 5,850 6,180 32,280 690 430 8,0741978 9,670 3,590 18,730 1,120 480 8,2291979 11,890 1,180 3,410 1,360 530 6,8141980 14,100 450 1,310 1,590 590 7,3471981 16,120 1,310 3,800 1,800 640 8,9331982 14,860 4,930 14,310 1,640 690 10,4451983 18,680 5,140 14,890 2,030 750 12,2141984 19,820 5,920 17,170 2,120 800 12,4271985 17,140 6,710 19,470 1,810 860 10,0031986 17,480 6,730 19,500 1,820 910 17,0961987 14,130 4,110 11,080 1,450 960 12,7091988 12,410 4,090 12,760 1,260 1,020 12,4291989 12,830 3,900 13,330 1,280 1,070 12,9441990 9,670 3,010 8,500 950 1,120 9,0551991 9,050 2,490 5,530 870 1,180 7,9021992 13,950 2,560 8,930 1,330 1,230 11,8521993 14,150 2,560 9,370 1,320 1,280 11,7951994 20,520 2,600 3,330 1,890 1,340 18,2701995 22,820 1,090 2,730 2,070 1,390 20,1711996 24,240 2,320 6,570 2,160 1,440 23,0241997 24,210 1,980 4,900 2,120 1,500 22,8921998 27,850 1,790 3,730 2,400 1,550 25,7521999 26,730 1,070 890 2,260 1,580 21,6302000 29,670 500 2,720 2,470 1,610 24,1962001 34,880 460 1,430 2,850 1,670 27,4042002 37,280 350 1,750 2,990 1,730 31,0732003 37,820 220 910 2,980 1,800 31,0862004 39,560 80 490 3,210 1,870 35,0492005 41,910 130 770 3,190 1,940 37,0902006 47,550 90 470 3,530 2,000 41,6752007 44,840 160 680 3,090 2,050 39,5522008 46,580 170 580 3,320 2,110 39,9822009 45,670 170 580 3,190 2,160 39,7062010 43,890 160 580 3,000 2,210 37,4701 Portion of FAO data that is assumed to be representative of the reported Gulf data, including adjustments.From dhows to trawlers - Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly48Appendix Table A2.  Catch (t) composition of the artisanal fishery of Saudi Arabia in the Gulf, 1950-2010.Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 161950 240 310 170 0 110 150 90 120 100 48 38 0 0 0 31 2001951 240 310 170 0 110 150 90 120 100 48 38 0 0 0 31 2001952 400 520 280 0 180 260 140 210 170 80 63 0 0 0 52 3301953 320 420 220 0 140 210 110 170 140 64 50 0 0 0 42 2601954 400 520 280 0 180 260 140 210 170 80 63 0 0 0 52 3301955 400 520 280 0 180 260 140 210 170 80 63 0 0 0 52 3301956 440 580 310 0 190 280 160 230 190 88 69 0 0 0 57 3601957 640 840 450 0 280 410 230 330 270 128 100 0 0 0 83 5201958 640 840 450 0 280 410 230 330 270 128 100 0 0 0 83 5201959 800 1,050 560 0 350 510 280 410 340 159 125 0 0 0 104 6501960 800 1,050 560 0 350 510 280 410 340 159 125 0 0 0 104 6501961 1,670 2,190 1,170 0 740 1,070 590 870 720 333 262 0 0 0 218 1,3701962 1,990 2,620 1,390 0 880 1,280 710 1,040 860 399 314 0 0 0 260 1,6301963 2,140 2,810 1,500 0 950 1,380 760 1,110 920 428 337 0 0 0 280 1,7501964 1,840 2,420 1,290 0 820 1,190 660 960 790 369 290 0 0 0 241 1,5101965 1,550 2,040 1,080 0 690 1,000 550 810 670 310 244 0 0 0 202 1,2701966 1,610 2,120 1,130 0 710 1,040 570 840 690 322 253 0 0 0 210 1,3201967 1,110 1,460 770 0 490 710 400 580 480 222 174 0 0 0 145 9101968 780 1,030 550 0 350 510 280 410 340 157 123 0 0 0 102 6401969 740 980 520 0 330 480 270 390 320 149 117 0 0 0 97 6101970 770 1,020 540 0 340 500 280 400 330 155 122 0 0 0 101 6301971 1,010 1,330 710 0 450 650 360 520 440 202 159 0 0 0 132 8301972 1,020 1,340 710 0 450 660 360 530 440 204 160 0 0 0 133 8301973 1,230 1,610 860 0 540 790 440 640 530 245 193 0 0 0 160 1,0001974 1,240 1,630 870 0 550 800 440 640 530 248 195 0 0 0 162 1,0201975 950 1,250 660 0 420 610 340 490 410 190 149 0 0 0 124 7801976 940 1,230 660 0 420 600 330 490 400 188 148 0 0 0 122 7701977 870 1,150 610 0 390 560 310 450 380 174 137 0 0 0 114 7101978 1,440 1,890 1,010 0 640 930 510 750 620 288 227 0 0 0 188 1,1801979 1,770 2,330 1,240 0 790 1,140 630 920 760 354 279 0 0 0 231 1,4501980 2,100 2,760 1,470 0 930 1,350 750 1,090 900 420 330 0 0 0 274 1,7201981 2,400 3,160 1,680 0 1,070 1,550 860 1,250 1,030 406 378 0 0 0 314 2,0401982 2,210 2,910 1,550 0 980 1,430 790 1,150 950 379 348 0 0 0 289 1,8801983 2,780 3,660 1,950 0 1,230 1,790 990 1,450 1,200 452 438 0 0 0 363 2,3801984 2,950 3,880 2,060 0 1,310 1,900 1,050 1,530 1,270 492 464 0 0 0 385 2,5201985 2,550 3,360 1,790 0 1,130 1,640 910 1,330 1,100 431 402 0 0 0 333 2,1701986 2,600 3,420 1,820 0 1,150 1,680 930 1,350 1,120 521 410 0 0 0 340 2,1301987 2,100 2,770 1,470 0 930 1,360 750 1,090 910 421 331 0 0 0 275 1,7201988 1,850 2,430 1,290 0 820 1,190 660 960 800 370 291 0 0 0 241 1,5101989 1,910 2,510 1,340 0 850 1,230 680 990 820 382 301 0 0 0 249 1,5601990 1,440 1,890 1,010 0 640 930 510 750 620 288 226 0 0 0 188 1,1801991 1,350 1,770 940 0 600 870 480 700 580 270 212 0 0 0 176 1,1001992 2,080 2,730 1,450 0 920 1,340 740 1,080 890 415 327 0 0 0 271 1,7001993 2,110 2,770 1,470 0 930 1,360 750 1,090 910 421 331 0 0 0 275 1,7301994 3,050 4,020 2,140 0 1,360 1,970 1,090 1,590 1,320 611 481 0 0 0 399 2,5001995 3,400 4,470 2,380 0 1,510 2,190 1,210 1,770 1,460 680 535 0 0 0 304 2,9201996 3,610 4,740 2,520 0 1,600 2,320 1,290 1,870 1,550 722 568 0 0 0 352 3,0801997 3,600 4,740 2,520 0 1,600 2,320 1,290 1,870 1,550 721 567 0 0 0 304 3,1201998 4,150 5,450 2,900 0 1,840 2,670 1,480 2,150 1,790 829 652 0 0 0 278 3,6601999 3,980 5,230 2,780 0 1,770 2,560 1,420 2,070 1,710 796 626 0 0 0 290 3,4902000 2,060 550 3,090 4,770 1,960 130 1,580 590 530 435 695 1,550 1,360 610 296 9,4602001 2,410 850 3,630 5,220 2,300 240 1,850 510 660 565 817 1,800 1,550 730 364 11,3702002 2,630 40 3,880 6,680 2,460 20 1,980 520 710 714 874 1,390 1,500 870 425 12,5802003 2,830 270 3,940 5,590 2,500 170 2,010 990 570 885 886 1,850 1,680 990 46 12,6202004 3,710 60 3,960 6,760 1,760 180 2,320 820 1,200 540 1,014 1,740 1,860 1,140 25 12,4802005 3,250 90 4,460 7,300 2,740 40 2,480 910 870 735 1,084 2,180 1,800 1,110 29 12,8302006 2,890 10 5,470 7,510 3,100 60 2,430 1,030 740 2,021 921 2,280 1,860 1,320 29 15,8802007 3,240 50 4,260 8,660 3,990 10 1,950 830 940 838 1,025 1,940 1,930 1,400 25 13,7502008 3,460 20 4,850 7,890 3,080 50 2,470 850 790 1,178 1,091 2,050 1,930 1,310 40 15,5202009 3,220 410 4,760 8,050 3,020 50 2,430 780 820 1,139 1,070 1,730 2,190 1,440 33 14,5402010 3,220 30 4,570 6,440 2,900 40 2,330 760 710 1,042 1,028 1,710 1,880 1,290 33 15,9201: Lethrinidae; 2: Penaeus spp.; 3: Scomberomorus commerson; 4: P. semisulcatus; 5: Brachyura; 6: Sparidae; 7: Siganus spp.; 8: Carangidae; 9: Serranidae; 10: Sepiidae; 11: Elasmobranchii; 12: Argyrops spinifer; 13: Lethrinus lentjan; 14: Rhabdosargus haffara; 15: Scombridae; 16: Others.Saudi Arabia - Tesfamichael and Pauly 49Appendix Table A3.  The retained catch (t) composition of the industrial fishery of Saudi Arabia in the Gulf, 1950-2010.Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 161950 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 01951 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 01952 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 01953 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 01954 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 01955 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 01956 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 01957 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 01958 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 01959 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 01960 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 01961 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 01962 33 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 01963 327 12 6 4 2 2 2 2 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 41964 440 16 8 5 3 2 2 2 0 2 1 1 1 1 1 51965 2,072 76 36 25 15 10 10 10 0 7 4 4 3 3 3 251966 2,823 104 49 34 20 13 13 13 0 10 5 5 5 4 4 341967 7,053 260 122 84 50 33 33 33 0 25 13 12 12 11 9 851968 7,177 264 124 85 51 34 34 34 0 26 13 12 12 11 9 861969 7,156 263 124 85 51 34 34 34 0 26 13 12 12 11 9 861970 6,677 246 116 79 48 32 32 32 0 24 13 11 11 10 9 801971 5,888 217 102 70 42 28 28 28 0 21 11 10 10 9 8 711972 7,051 259 122 84 50 33 33 33 0 25 13 12 12 11 9 851973 8,144 300 141 97 58 39 39 39 0 29 15 14 14 13 11 981974 5,006 184 87 59 36 24 24 24 0 18 9 9 8 8 7 601975 5,201 191 90 62 37 25 25 25 0 19 10 9 9 8 7 631976 5,411 199 94 64 39 26 26 26 0 19 10 9 9 8 7 651977 5,566 205 96 66 40 26 26 26 0 20 10 9 9 9 7 671978 3,230 119 56 38 23 15 15 15 0 12 6 5 5 5 4 391979 588 195 92 63 38 25 25 25 0 19 10 9 9 8 7 641980 225 75 35 24 14 10 10 10 0 7 4 3 3 3 3 241981 655 217 102 70 42 24 28 28 0 21 11 10 10 9 8 751982 2,467 817 385 264 158 90 105 105 0 80 42 38 37 34 29 2831983 2,568 850 401 274 165 89 110 110 0 83 43 39 38 36 30 2991984 2,960 981 462 316 190 105 127 127 0 96 50 45 44 41 35 3421985 3,357 1,112 524 359 215 121 143 143 0 108 57 51 50 47 40 3871986 3,363 1,114 525 359 216 144 144 144 0 109 57 51 50 47 40 3651987 1,910 727 343 235 141 94 94 94 0 71 37 34 33 31 26 2381988 2,200 627 295 202 121 81 81 81 0 61 32 29 28 26 22 2051989 2,298 531 250 171 103 69 69 69 0 52 27 25 24 22 19 1741990 1,465 512 241 165 99 66 66 66 0 50 26 24 23 22 18 1681991 954 508 239 164 98 66 66 66 0 50 26 23 23 21 18 1661992 1,539 337 159 109 65 44 44 44 0 33 17 16 15 14 12 1101993 1,615 312 147 101 60 40 40 40 0 30 16 14 14 13 11 1021994 574 669 315 216 130 86 86 86 0 65 34 31 30 28 24 2191995 471 205 96 66 40 26 26 26 0 20 7 9 9 9 7 701996 1,132 392 185 126 76 51 51 51 0 38 15 18 18 17 14 1331997 846 376 177 121 73 48 48 48 0 37 12 17 17 16 13 1301998 643 381 179 123 74 49 49 49 0 37 10 18 17 16 14 1341999 153 304 143 98 59 39 39 39 0 30 9 14 14 13 11 1062000 44 5 1 2 2 1 1 1 385 0 0 0 0 0 0 552001 31 33 6 6 14 5 9 9 188 0 2 3 1 0 3 1492002 2 8 1 2 3 1 2 2 276 1 0 1 0 0 1 512003 6 10 3 4 4 2 3 3 118 0 0 1 0 0 1 632004 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 77 0 0 0 0 0 0 82005 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 118 0 0 0 0 0 0 132006 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 71 0 0 0 0 0 0 112007 1 0 0 0 28 14 0 0 105 0 0 0 0 0 0 162008 0 0 0 0 21 42 0 0 86 0 0 0 0 0 0 212009 5 0 0 0 20 39 0 0 90 0 0 0 0 0 0 132010 0 0 0 0 18 34 0 0 75 0 0 0 0 0 0 331: Penaeus nei; 2: Lethrinidae; 3: Carangidae; 4: Sphyraena spp.; 5: Brachyura; 6: Sepiidae; 7: Siganus spp.; 8: Netuma thalassina;  9: P. semisulcatus; 10: Gerres spp.; 11: Scombridae; 12: Bothus pantherinus; 13: Lutjanidae; 14: Sparidae; 15: Elasmobranchii;  16: Others.From dhows to trawlers - Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly50Appendix Table A4.  Catch (t) composition of the discard of the industrial fishery of Saudi Arabia in the Gulf, 1950-2010.Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 131950 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 01951 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 01952 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 01953 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 01954 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 01955 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 01956 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 01957 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 01958 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 01959 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 01960 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 01961 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 01962 120 14 8 8 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 161963 1,200 135 77 77 39 39 39 39 39 19 19 19 1551964 1,610 182 104 104 52 52 52 52 52 26 26 26 2081965 7,600 858 491 491 245 245 245 245 245 123 123 123 9811966 10,360 1,170 668 668 334 334 334 334 334 167 167 167 1,3371967 25,880 2,922 1,670 1,670 835 835 835 835 835 417 417 417 3,3391968 26,330 2,973 1,699 1,699 850 850 850 850 850 425 425 425 3,3981969 26,260 2,965 1,694 1,694 847 847 847 847 847 424 424 424 3,3881970 24,500 2,766 1,581 1,581 790 790 790 790 790 395 395 395 3,1611971 21,600 2,439 1,394 1,394 697 697 697 697 697 348 348 348 2,7881972 25,870 2,921 1,669 1,669 835 835 835 835 835 417 417 417 3,3391973 29,880 3,374 1,928 1,928 964 964 964 964 964 482 482 482 3,8561974 18,370 2,074 1,185 1,185 592 592 592 592 592 296 296 296 2,3701975 19,080 2,155 1,231 1,231 616 616 616 616 616 308 308 308 2,4621976 19,850 2,242 1,281 1,281 640 640 640 640 640 320 320 320 2,5621977 20,420 2,306 1,318 1,318 659 659 659 659 659 329 329 329 2,6351978 11,850 1,338 765 765 382 382 382 382 382 191 191 191 1,5291979 2,160 243 139 139 70 70 70 70 70 35 35 35 2781980 830 93 53 53 27 27 27 27 27 13 13 13 1071981 2,410 272 155 155 78 78 78 78 78 39 39 39 3101982 9,050 1,022 584 584 292 292 292 292 292 146 146 146 1,1681983 9,420 1,064 608 608 304 304 304 304 304 152 152 152 1,2161984 10,860 1,226 701 701 350 350 350 350 350 175 175 175 1,4021985 12,320 1,391 795 795 397 397 397 397 397 199 199 199 1,5901986 12,340 1,393 796 796 398 398 398 398 398 199 199 199 1,5921987 7,010 791 452 452 226 226 226 226 226 113 113 113 9041988 8,070 911 521 521 260 260 260 260 260 130 130 130 1,0411989 8,430 952 544 544 272 272 272 272 272 136 136 136 1,0881990 5,380 607 347 347 173 173 173 173 173 87 87 87 6941991 3,500 395 226 226 113 113 113 113 113 56 56 56 4521992 5,650 638 364 364 182 182 182 182 182 91 91 91 7291993 5,930 669 382 382 191 191 191 191 191 96 96 96 7651994 2,110 238 136 136 68 68 68 68 68 34 34 34 2721995 1,730 195 111 111 56 56 56 56 56 28 28 28 2231996 4,160 469 268 268 134 134 134 134 134 67 67 67 5361997 3,100 350 200 200 100 100 100 100 100 50 50 50 4001998 2,360 266 152 152 76 76 76 76 76 38 38 38 3041999 560 63 36 36 18 18 18 18 18 9 9 9 732000 1,720 194 111 111 55 55 55 55 55 28 28 28 2222001 900 102 58 58 29 29 29 29 29 15 15 15 1162002 1,110 125 72 72 36 36 36 36 36 18 18 18 1432003 570 65 37 37 19 19 19 19 19 9 9 9 742004 310 35 20 20 10 10 10 10 10 5 5 5 402005 490 55 31 31 16 16 16 16 16 8 8 8 632006 300 34 19 19 10 10 10 10 10 5 5 5 392007 430 49 28 28 14 14 14 14 14 7 7 7 562008 370 41 24 24 12 12 12 12 12 6 6 6 472009 370 41 24 24 12 12 12 12 12 6 6 6 472010 370 41 24 24 12 12 12 12 12 6 6 6 471: Leiognathidae; 2: Balistidae; 3: Gerres spp.; 4: Trichiuridae; 5: Platycephalidae; 6: Tetraodontidae; 7: Soleidae; 8: Bramidae; 9: Brachyura; 10: Clupeidae; 11: Mullidae; 12: Squillidae; 13: Others;Saudi Arabia - Tesfamichael and Pauly 51Appendix Table A5.  Catch (t) composition of the subsistence fishery of Saudi Arabia in the Gulf, 1950-2010.Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 161950 72 50 46 37 26 31 0 0 9 7 8 5 7 0 5 261951 72 50 46 37 26 31 0 0 9 7 8 5 7 0 5 261952 120 84 77 62 43 52 0 0 16 12 13 8 12 0 9 431953 96 67 62 50 34 41 0 0 12 10 10 6 10 0 7 341954 120 84 77 62 43 52 0 0 16 12 13 8 12 0 9 431955 120 84 77 62 43 52 0 0 16 12 13 8 12 0 9 431956 132 92 85 68 47 57 0 0 17 13 14 9 13 0 10 471957 191 134 123 99 68 82 0 0 25 19 21 13 19 0 15 691958 191 134 123 99 68 82 0 0 25 19 21 13 19 0 15 691959 239 167 154 124 85 103 0 0 31 24 26 16 24 0 18 861960 239 167 154 124 85 103 0 0 31 24 26 16 24 0 18 861961 500 350 322 260 178 215 0 0 65 50 54 34 50 0 38 1801962 598 418 385 311 213 258 0 0 78 60 65 41 60 0 46 2151963 642 449 414 334 229 277 0 0 84 64 70 44 64 0 49 2311964 368 258 237 191 131 159 0 0 48 37 40 25 37 0 28 1321965 306 214 197 159 109 132 0 0 40 31 33 21 31 0 23 1101966 315 220 203 164 112 136 0 0 41 32 34 21 31 0 24 1131967 214 150 138 111 76 92 0 0 28 21 23 15 21 0 16 771968 150 105 97 78 54 65 0 0 20 15 16 10 15 0 11 541969 141 98 91 73 50 61 0 0 18 14 15 10 14 0 11 511970 145 101 93 75 52 62 0 0 19 15 16 10 14 0 11 521971 187 131 120 97 67 80 0 0 24 19 20 13 19 0 14 671972 186 130 120 97 66 80 0 0 24 19 20 13 19 0 14 671973 221 155 142 115 79 95 0 0 29 22 24 15 22 0 17 791974 221 155 142 115 79 95 0 0 29 22 24 15 22 0 17 791975 167 117 108 87 60 72 0 0 22 17 18 11 17 0 13 601976 163 114 105 85 58 70 0 0 21 16 18 11 16 0 12 591977 150 105 96 78 53 64 0 0 20 15 16 10 15 0 11 541978 244 171 157 127 87 105 0 0 32 24 27 17 24 0 19 881979 296 207 191 154 106 128 0 0 39 30 32 20 30 0 23 1061980 347 243 223 180 124 149 0 0 45 35 38 24 35 0 26 1251981 391 274 252 203 140 169 0 0 51 39 43 27 39 0 30 1411982 356 249 229 185 127 153 0 0 46 36 39 24 36 0 27 1281983 441 309 284 229 158 190 0 0 58 44 48 30 44 0 34 1591984 462 323 298 240 165 199 0 0 60 46 50 31 46 0 35 1661985 394 276 254 205 141 170 0 0 51 39 43 27 39 0 30 1411986 396 277 255 206 141 171 0 0 52 40 43 27 40 0 30 1421987 316 221 203 164 113 136 0 0 41 32 34 21 32 0 24 1131988 273 191 176 142 97 118 0 0 36 27 30 19 27 0 21 981989 278 195 179 145 99 120 0 0 36 28 30 19 28 0 21 1001990 206 144 133 107 74 89 0 0 27 21 22 14 21 0 16 741991 190 133 123 99 68 82 0 0 25 19 21 13 19 0 14 681992 289 202 186 150 103 124 0 0 38 29 31 20 29 0 22 1041993 288 202 186 150 103 124 0 0 38 29 31 20 29 0 22 1041994 412 288 265 214 147 177 0 0 54 41 45 28 41 0 31 1481995 451 315 290 234 161 194 0 0 40 45 49 31 45 0 34 1801996 471 329 303 245 168 203 0 0 46 47 51 32 47 0 36 1851997 462 323 298 240 165 199 0 0 39 46 50 31 46 0 35 1881998 523 366 337 271 187 225 0 0 35 52 57 35 52 0 40 2211999 493 345 318 256 176 212 0 0 36 49 54 33 49 0 38 2062000 251 376 16 71 192 65 189 166 36 41 8 36 0 74 0 9482001 289 434 28 61 222 79 216 186 43 17 21 42 0 88 17 1,1092002 309 456 2 61 232 83 163 176 50 22 8 44 0 102 0 1,2842003 326 454 20 114 231 65 213 193 5 44 11 44 0 115 2 1,1432004 420 447 20 93 262 135 197 211 3 24 13 52 0 128 4 1,2052005 360 495 5 101 275 97 241 200 3 15 21 51 0 123 5 1,2042006 314 595 6 112 264 81 248 202 3 28 11 40 0 144 2 1,4832007 345 454 1 89 208 100 207 206 3 19 13 48 0 149 2 1,2432008 361 506 5 88 258 82 213 202 4 23 10 49 0 137 3 1,3822009 329 486 5 80 248 84 177 224 3 17 13 47 0 147 2 1,3282010 322 457 4 76 233 71 171 188 3 19 12 44 0 129 6 1,2671: Lethrinidae; 2: Scomberomorus commerson; 3: Sparidae; 4: Carangidae; 5: Siganus spp.; 6: Serranidae;  7: Argyrops spinifer; 8: Lethrinus lentjan; 9: Scombridae; 10: Sphyraena spp.; 11: Lutjanidae; 12: Netuma thalassina; 13: Scomberoides spp.; 14: Rhabdosargus haffara; 15: Haemulidae; 16: Others.From dhows to trawlers - Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly52Appendix Table A6.  Catch (t) composition of the recreational fisheries of Saudi Arabia in the Gulf, 1950-2010.Year Lethrinidae Sparidae Serranidae Others1950 0 0 0 01951 0 0 0 01952 0 0 0 01953 0 0 0 01954 0 0 0 01955 0 0 0 01956 0 0 0 01957 0 0 0 01958 0 0 0 01959 0 0 0 01960 0 0 0 01961 0 0 0 01962 0 0 0 01963 0 0 0 01964 0 0 0 01965 0 0 0 01966 0 0 0 01967 0 0 0 01968 0 0 0 01969 0 0 0 01970 21 16 11 51971 43 32 21 111972 64 48 32 161973 86 64 43 211974 107 80 53 271975 128 96 64 321976 150 112 75 371977 171 128 86 431978 192 144 96 481979 214 160 107 531980 235 176 118 591981 257 192 128 641982 278 208 139 691983 299 225 150 751984 321 241 160 801985 342 257 171 861986 364 273 182 911987 385 289 192 961988 406 305 203 1021989 428 321 214 1071990 449 337 225 1121991 470 353 235 1181992 492 369 246 1231993 513 385 257 1281994 535 401 267 1341995 556 417 278 1391996 577 433 289 1441997 599 449 299 1501998 620 465 310 1551999 630 473 315 1582000 645 484 323 1612001 666 500 333 1672002 691 518 346 1732003 719 539 360 1802004 748 561 374 1872005 774 581 387 1942006 799 599 399 2002007 821 616 411 2052008 843 632 421 2112009 863 647 432 2162010 884 663 442 221United Arab Emirates - Al-Abdulrazzak et al. 53estimatinG total Fish extractions in the united araB emirates: 1950-20101Dalal Al-AbdulrazzakSea Around Us Project, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia,  2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canadad.alabdulrazzak@fisheries.ubc.caaBstractThe United Arab Emirates (UAE) is an Arab country located along the southwestern coast of the Persian Gulf, and with a small coastline along the Gulf of Oman. Its fisheries are all small-scale in nature, with catches increasing steadily until 1999, after which they started to decline. Due to reliance on a market-sampling program for their estimation, which does not differentiate between locally caught and imported catch, the UAE is thought to systematically over-report its catches. Following the reconstruction approach, the UAE’s domestic catches in the Persian Gulf were re-estimated using all available peer-reviewed and grey literature sources for quantitative and/or qualitative information on sectors missing from or misreported to statistics presented by the FAO on behalf of the UAE. Overall, the figures reported to the FAO from 1950-2010 over-estimate actual domestic catches by an average of 51% annually (47% overall) when compared to reconstructed totals, despite the reconstruction accounting for subsistence and recreational catches that are entirely missed by market-sampling. On the resource side, introduced fisheries management measures are encouraging, but not sufficient given the scale of the country’s overfishing problem.introductionThe United Arab Emirates (UAE) has coasts on both the southern Persian Gulf and the northern Gulf of Oman (Figure 1). The country is a federation of 7 Emirates with shared administrative and political power between the federal government and the various Emirates. One of the Emirates (Fujairah) has its coastline only in the Gulf of Oman, where substantial catches may be taken (Pearson et al. 1998), but which are not considered here.  Another Emirate (Sarjah) has a coastline both in the Persian Gulf and along the Gulf of Oman, but the latter is very small and is also not considered here. In 1962, Abu Dhabi became the first of the emirates to export oil, transforming the country’s economy and infrastructure. Today, its oil reserves are ranked the 6th largest in the world (OPEC 2012).Prior to the discovery of oil in the 1950s, pearl diving was the basis of the country’s economy. The First World War, the economic depression in the late 1920s, and the development of cultured pearls in Japan led to the sector’s demise.The fisheries of UAE are all small-scale in nature, with the vast majority taking place in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, which is reported to comprise over 60% of the country’s marine area (Morgan 2004). Fishers employ two distinct fishing vessel types: fibreglass tarads and traditional wooden dhows. The tarads are typically 6-8m in length and equipped with 1-2 outboard engines, allowing a crew of 1-4 people to fish for 6-8 hours at a time (Grandcourt et al. 2002). Dhows, on the other hand, range from 12-22 m and are equipped with inboard diesel engines and insulated cool boxes, allowing the crew of 4-6 people to fish for 3-5 days at a time. Like other Gulf countries, vessels are owned by UAE nationals, while the majority of workers on the vessels are migrant labourers from India, Bangladesh and Iran.The UAE’s fisheries are multi-gear and multi-species, with over 100 species occurring in the catch (Grandcourt et al. 2010). The majority of fish species caught belong to the families Serranidae, Lethrinidae, Lujanidae, Haemulidae, Sparidae, Carangidae and 1 Cite as: Al-Abdulrazzak D (2013) Estimating total fish extractions in the United Arab Emirates: 1950-2010. pp. 53-59. In: Al-Abdulrazzak D and Pauly D (eds.) From dhows to trawlers: a recent history of fisheries in the Gulf countries, 1950 to 2010. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 21(2). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727].!!!Abu DhabiDubaiSharjah55°E25°N0 10050 km±Figure 1.  Map of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), showing the extent of its EEZ in grey (including the area contested with Iran; stripped area). The three capital cities of the major Emirates of Abu Dhabi, Dubai and Sharjah are also shown.From dhows to trawlers - Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly54Mugilidae. The main fishing gear is a dome-shaped wire trap called a gargoor, but hand-lines, intertidal weirs (hadrah), trolling, gillnets, and encircling nets are also used (Grandcourt et al. 2002). Though fisheries are of minor importance to the UAE’s economy, they are valued for the recreational opportunities they provide, for their contributions to food security, and as a part of the country’s cultural heritage.Fish are landed at one of over 30 designated landing sites along the Gulf coast, principally in Abu Dhabi, Dubai, and Sharjah. Most landing sites also have facilities for storing, auctioning, wholesale and retailing the catch. Some of the larger sites also have processing facilities for wholesale and retail markets. Imported fish (from Oman) is sold in the markets alongside locally caught fish, which does not allow for differentiation of domestic form imported seafood through market-only surveys .Until 2004, a market survey program (which includes imports) was used to estimate catches, inevitably yielding inflated figures for truly domestic catches. Surveys performed by the Environmental Research and Wildlife Development Agency (ERDWA) compared reported and estimated catches for 2000, and found that, while estimated domestic landings were 20,000 tonnes, reported landings (as estimated from the market survey) were 110,000 tonnes (Grandcourt et al. 2003).Morgan (2004) reports that both commercial and non-commercial fish stocks have declined significantly over the past 25 years (some by as much as 90%) as a result of overfishing and extensive coastal development. As a result, the number of registered fishing vessels has decreased, from 7,700 in 1998 to 5,191 in 2002 (Morgan 2004). A law requiring a UAE national to be physically present on the vessels during fishing operations has also contributed to the reduction in registered vessels (Morgan 2004).Illegal fishing is common and likely encouraged by low enforcement of management rules. In particular, the use of driftnets for pelagic fishes such as Spanish mackerel (Morgan 2004; Barakat 2012), as well as shark fishing during the closed season (Moore 2012; Simpson 2012) are widespread.The UAE was revealed to be the fifth largest exporter of shark fins to the Hong Kong market (Fowler et al. 2005; Moore 2012), despite a shark-finning ban. However, it is thought that the majority of these fins are re-exported from shark catches made in Oman (Moore et al. 2012). Catch statistics reported by the FAO on behalf of the UAE show steadily increasing shark catches from 1989-2008, followed by a drastic decline in 2009 (presumably due to the finning ban). This, however, is likely to be an underestimate because enforcement is weak, and sharks that are finned at sea and/or fished during the January-April closed season remain unreported.methodsThis contribution follows catch reconstruction methods as previously outlined by other studies (e.g., Zeller et al. 2006; Zeller et al. 2007; Le Manach et al. 2012).Although issues with over-reporting are acknowledged by the FAO (Morgan 2004), no efforts appear to have been made by the relevant reporting agency in the UAE to improve data reporting. Morgan (2004) estimates that catches for 2000 were over-reported by 90,000 t, while Luca Garibalidi (FAO, pers. comm.) thinks that this over-reporting figure is "too high". Therefore, in the absence of better data, reported catches were adjusted using the median of 20,000 t (Morgan’s estimate of domestic catches) and 110,000 t (FAO data) as an anchor point for domestic reported catches, and all reported catches were decreased by 40%. These adjusted catches were used as the new baseline of reported landings for the analysis.Using Google Earth, Al-Abdulrazzak & Pauly (2013) estimate 95 ± 1 hadrah were operating in the UAE in 2005, generating an annual catch of 1,292 ± 381 t. The UAE reports half that amount (i.e., 600 t) for the same year. Since the number of hadrah is not known to have substantially fluctuated in the last five decades, the reported hadrah catch for 2005 (600 t) was adjusted to the estimated catch (1,292 t·year-1) for all years. Species composition was estimated from data supplied by the Abu Dhabi Environmental Agency (S. Hartmann, pers. comm.).To estimate illegal driftnet catches, an approach developed for Qatar was followed (see Qatar, Al-Abdulrazzak, this volume). To estimate annual total catch per vessel, the number of registered fishing vessels from 1998 (start of records) to 2010 was obtained from the UAE’s Ministry of Environment and Water database. For the years without these records, the average number of registered vessels was used. It was assumed that 10% take part in illegal drift-netting (Table 1). As in the case of Qatar, it was estimated that vessels deploying driftnets were catching 20% more than they would legally (i.e., when deploying gargoor traps from their boats instead of illegal driftnets). The annual total catch per illegal fishing vessel (Table 1) was multiplied by the estimated number of participating vessels, to create a time series of illegal catch from 1989 (the start of the driftnet ban) to 2010.The UAE has a growing recreational fishery, and although (free) recreational fishing licenses are required in Dubai and Abu Dhabi, no data on the number of participants or quantity of catches exist (Morgan 2004). Therefore, to estimate this sector, methods originally developed for Kuwait were used: it was assumed that recreational fishing began in 1960, a 0.12% participation rate was applied to the total population from 1960-2010 to obtain a time series of recreational fishers, and a conservative catch rate estimate of 1 kg·trip-1, along with 104 fishing trips per United Arab Emirates - Al-Abdulrazzak et al. 55person per year was used to calculate total recreational catch (see Kuwait, Al-Abdulrazzak, this volume). UAE’s recreational fishers target Spanish mackerel, tuna, sailfish and demersal species (Bishop 2002; Morgan 2004) and this species composition was applied in equal ratios to disaggregate the recreational catch.The telosts Lethrinus borbonicus, Lethrinus microdon, Pomacanthus maculosus, and Scolopsis taeniata are caught as incidental and generally discarded bycatch by gargoors targeting emperors, groupers, jacks, and sweetlips (Morgan 2004; Grandcourt et al. 2010). Weizhong et al. (2012) estimate gargoor discard rates to be 2.56%, and this figure was used to extrapolate total discards for the fishery. The species composition was applied in equal ratios among the above species.Despite the UAE’s high GDP, subsistence fishing occurs by the industry’s foreign labourers. Foreign fishers make up 0.0046% of the country’s total population, and it was assumed that fishers take home an average of 5 kg of fish per week, starting with the oil boom in 1960 until 2010. Because these take home catches are made up of less desirable species (which lack a targeted fishery), the ratios from species discarded from the gargoor fishery was applied.results and discussionFisheries landings as reported by FAO show steady increases from 12,000 t·year-1 in 1950 to 43,001 t·year-1 in 1973, followed by a dramatic increase to 67,800 t·year-1 in 1974. Catches continue to increase steadily until their peak of 117,607 t·year-1 in 1999, before declining to 79,610 t·year-1 by 2010 (Figure 2a; Appendix Table A1). However, adjusted reported landings (i.e., domestic) increased from 7,200 t·year-1 in 1950 to a peak of 70,600 t·year-1 in 1999 before declining to 47,800 t·year-1 by 2010 (Figure 2a).Total reconstructed catches are annually, on average, 34% less than landings reported by FAO on behalf of the UAE (32% overall), but are 11% higher (annual average) than the adjusted reported domestic landings (14% overall; Figure 2a). Reconstructed total catches increase gradually from 7,920 t·year-1 in 1950 to a peak of 86,200 t·year-1 in 1999, followed by a decline to 55,400 t·year-1 in 2008. Catches in 2010 have increased again to 59,500 t·year-1.For the 1950-2010 time period, artisanal catches accounted for 99.5% of the total reconstructed catch, while the subsistence and recreational sectors contributed 0.05% and 0.45%, respectively (Figure 2a). Estimated discards were low and accounted for 0.6% of the total catch.The main taxa caught in the UAE are Scomberomorus commerson (15%) and Lethrinidae (11%), followed by Sardinella spp. (8%), Stolephorus spp. (7%), Serranidae (7%), and Carangidae (7%; Figure 2b; Appendix Table A2).Overfishing is of particular concern for the Scomberomorus commerson fishery, as recruitment failure has been associated with increased fishing pressure (Grandcourt et al. 2005). In the neighbouring Gulf of Oman, there has been a 10-fold decrease in the yields of this species in recent years (Grandcourt et al. 2005).Despite declining landings, fisheries management in the UAE remains rudimentary. At the national level, the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (MAF) regulates fisheries management, but some legislative authority for policy development exists on a regional scale within component Emirates. Fisheries Regulation Committees (which comprise the MAF), fisher cooperatives, municipalities, and the Coast Guard exist in each Emirate, and address regional fisheries policy and enforcement. However, due to a lack of consensus on overarching national fisheries planning goals, differing and inconsistent decisions (or no decisions at all) are often the outcome. The coordination of the various federal and regional managing bodies into a single comprehensive and consistent national fisheries policy may prove to be the greatest challenge (Morgan 2004).The UAE has only recently introduced fisheries management legislation and therefore, there remain significant gaps, both legislatively and managerially. Like Qatar (Qatar, Al-Abdulrazzak, this volume), UAE management practices rely on input rather than output controls. Marine protected areas, closed seasons for some migratory pelagic fish, and escape gaps in gargoor are the most important fisheries management measures. Until recently, the only restrictions on commercial fishing were bans on trawling and driftnets. However, in 2003, Abu Dhabi began to set limits on Table 1.  Parameters used for estimating illegal driftnet fishery.Year Number of participatingvesselsAnnual illegal catchper vessel (t) Annual catch (t)1989 564 20 11,2801990 564 20 11,2801991 564 20 11,2801992 564 20 11,2801993 564 20 11,2801994 564 20 11,2801995 564 20 11,2801996 564 20 11,2801997 564 20 11,1781998 770 18 13,7621999 619 23 14,1062000 469 27 12,6482001 459 29 13,5002002 519 23 11,7012003 505 23 11,4112004 556 19 10,7932005 557 19 10,4012006 557 18 9,8922007 557 17 9,3882008 557 16 8,8802009 605 15 9,2942010 605 16 9,538From dhows to trawlers - Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly56the number of gargoor fish traps. No gear restrictions have been applied in other Emirates to date. Enforcement is also problematic as it is limited by the fisheries-specific training of the Coast Guard staff, the lack of strategic protocol, and the traditional right of appeal for misdemeanours to ministers and sheikhs. As a result, many fisheries prosecutions are never pursued and regulations are often ignored.Stakeholder participation in fisheries policy development takes place in the form of traditional discussions, often directly with senior government figures. While these often result in compromised solutions, stakeholder participation is limited to UAE nationals only, who are the vessel owners, but are not necessarily actively engaged in fishing activities (Morgan 2004).Compounding the fisheries crisis is the rapid development and urbanization of coastal areas in the UAE, which is expected to have pervasive and lasting effects on Gulf ecosystems. For example, in 2002, Dubai commenced construction on a series of large scale artificial island-lagoon complexes along the entire coast of the Emirate (Sale et al. 2011). Because of the construction’s proximity to coral reefs, the sedimentation buried coral reefs (Sheppard et al. 2010; Sale et al. 2011), thus affecting fish habitat.The re-estimated catches account for missing sectors including recreational and subsistence catches, as well as discards, illegal catches, and over-reporting errors. Thus, the reconstructed time series may better reflect the catches extracted from the Persian Gulf by the UAE’s fisheries from 1950-2010 than the officially reported statistics. While the reconstructed catches are entirely dependent on the assumptions made by this study and despite the considerable data uncertainties associated with the estimates, they seem preferable to the alternative of assuming ‘zero’ catch for sectors lacking quantitative data. Finally, it may be noted that it would be appropriate, in subsequent analyses, to reconstruct the UAE’s catches along the Gulf of Oman coast, and in the process, to revisit the assumption that these catches did not enter the fisheries statistics considered here.acknowledGementsI acknowledge the support of the Sea Around Us Project, a scientific collaboration between The University of British Columbia and The Pew Charitable Trusts.04080120Adjusted FAOSupplied to FAOArtisanalDiscardsRecreationala)02550751001950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Catch (t x 103)YearOtherCarangidaeLethrinidaeScomberomorus commersonSerranidaeSardinella spp.Stolephorus spp.b)Figure 2.  Total reconstructed catch for the United Arab Emirates by a) sector (with the solid line representing the landings data transmitted to FAO and the dashed line the ‘adjusted FAO data’); and b) major taxa, 1950-2010. Note that subsistence catches were included in the sector graph (a) but are not visible (too small). Recreational catches are the light coloured area and discards the darker line on top.United Arab Emirates - Al-Abdulrazzak et al. 57reFerencesAl-Abdulrazzak D and Pauly D (2013) Managing fisheries from space: Google Earth improves estimates of distant fish catches. ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi.10.1093/icesjms/fst178.Barakat N (2012) Greedy fishermen use illegal nets. Gulf News, edition of March 25 2012. Available at: http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/uae/environment/greedy-fishermen-use-illegal-nets-1.999210 [Accessed: January 17, 2013].Fowler SL, Cavanagh RD, Camhi M, Burgess GH, Cailliet GM, Fordham SV, Simpfendorfer CA and Musick JA (2005) Sharks, rays and chimaeras: the status of the chondrichthyan fishes. International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. x + 461 p.Grandcourt E, Al Abdessalaam TZ, Francis F and Al Shamsi A (2010) Age-based life history parameters and status assessments of by-catch species (Lethrinus borbonicus, Lethrinus microdon, Pomacanthus maculosus and Scolopsis taeniatus) in the southern Arabian Gulf. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 26(3): 381-389.Grandcourt E, Francis F, Al-Shamsi A, Al- Ali K and Al-Ali S (2002) Annual fisheries statistics for Abu Dhabi Emirate 2001. Marine Environmental Research Center, Abu Dhabi., UAE. 94 p.Grandcourt E, Francis F, Al Shamsi A, Al Ali K and Al Ali S (2003) Stock assessment and biology of key species in the demersal fisheries of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. Environmental Research and Wildlife Development Agency.Grandcourt EM, Abdessalaam TZA, Francis F and Shamsi ATA (2005) Preliminary assessment of the biology and fishery for the narrow-barred Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus commerson (Lacépède, 1800), in the southern Arabian Gulf. Fisheries Research 76(2): 277-290.Le Manach F, Gough C, Harris A, Humber F, Harper S and Zeller D (2012) Unreported fishing, hungry people and political turmoil: the recipe for a food security crisis in Madagascar? Marine Policy 36(1): 218-225.Moore ABM (2012) Elasmobranchs of the Persian (Arabian) Gulf: ecology, human aspects and research priorities for their improved management. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 22(1): 35-61.Moore ABM, McCarthy ID, Carvalho GR and Peirce R (2012) Species, sex, size and male maturity composition of previously unreported elasmobranch landings in Kuwait, Qatar and Abu Dhabi Emirate. Journal of Fish Biology 80(5): 1619-1642.Morgan G (2004) Country review: United Arab Emirates. pp. 327-335. In: De Young C (ed.), Review of the state of world marine capture fisheries managment: Indian Ocean. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 488. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome.Pearson WH, Al-Ghais SM, Neff JM, Brandt J, Wellman K and Green T (1998) Assessment of damages to commercial fisheries and marine environment of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates, resulting from the Seki oil spill of March 1994: a case study. Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies Bulletin 103: 407-428. Sale PF, Feary DA, Burt JA, Bauman AG, Cavalcante GH, Drouillard KG, Kjerfve B, Marquis E, Trick CG, Usseglio P and Van Lavieren H (2011) The growing need for sustainable ecological management of marine communities of the Persian Gulf. AMBIO 40(1): 4-17.Sheppard C, Al-Husiani M, Al-Jamali F, Al-Yamani F, Baldwin R, Bishop J, Benzoni F, Dutrieux E, Dulvy NK, Durvasula SRV, Jones DA, Loughland R, Medio D, Nithyanandan M, Pilling GM, Polikarpov I, Price ARG, Purkis S, Riegl B, Saburova M, Samimi-Namin K, Taylor O, Wilson S and Zainal K (2010) The Gulf: a young sea in decline. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60(1): 13-38.Simpson C (2012) Fishermen defy UAE ban on shark hunting. The National edition of October 11 2012. Available at: http://www.thenational.ae/news/uae-news/environment/fishermen-defy-uae-ban-on-shark-hunting [Accessed: January 17, 2013].Weizhong C, Al-Baz A, Bishop J and Al-Husaini M (2012) Field experiments to improve the efficacy of gargoor (fish trap) fishery in Kuwait’s waters. Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology 30(3): 535-546.Zeller D, Booth S, Craig P and Pauly D (2006) Reconstruction of coral reef fisheries catches in American Samoa, 1950-2002. Coral Reefs 25(1): 144-152.Zeller D, Booth S, Davis G and Pauly D (2007) Re-estimation of small-scale fishery catches for US flag-associated island areas in the western Pacific: the last 50 years. Fishery Bulletin 105(2): 266-277.From dhows to trawlers - Al-Abdulrazzak and Pauly58Appendix Table A1.   FAO landings vs. total reconstructed catch (t) for the UAE, 1950-2010, as well as catch by sector.Year FAO landingsa Total reconstructed catch Artisanal Subsistence Recreational Discards1950 7,200 7,900 7,900 0 0 251951 7,200 7,900 7,900 0 0 251952 7,200 7,900 7,900 0 0 251953 7,200 7,900 7,900 0 0 251954 9,000 9,700 9,700 0 0 311955 9,000 9,700 9,700 0 0 311956 9,000 9,700 9,700 0 0 311957 12,000 12,700 12,700 0 0 401958 12,000 12,700 12,700 0 0 401959 18,000 18,800 18,700 0 0 601960 18,000 18,800 18,700 1 11 601961 18,000 18,800 18,700 1 12 601962 21,000 21,800 21,700 1 14 711963 21,000 21,800 21,700 1 15 711964 21,000 21,800 21,700 2 17 711965 22,800 23,600 23,500 2 18 751966 22,800 23,600 23,500 2 20 751967 24,000 24,800 24,700 2 21 801968 24,000 24,800 24,700 2 23 801969 24,000 24,800 24,700 2 25 801970 24,001 24,800 24,700 3 29 401971 25,801 26,600 26,500 3 34 431972 25,801 26,600 26,500 4 40 431973 25,801 26,600 26,500 5 48 431974 40,680 41,500 41,400 5 57 681975 40,680 41,500 41,400 6 67 681976 38,760 39,600 39,500 7 78 651977 38,760 39,600 39,500 9 90 651978 38,760 39,600 39,500 10 103 651979 38,760 39,600 39,500 11 116 651980 38,760 39,700 39,500 12 127 651981 40,656 41,500 41,300 13 136 271982 41,853 42,900 42,500 14 144 1581983 43,630 44,700 44,300 15 152 1951984 43,630 44,700 44,300 15 160 1951985 43,356 44,400 44,000 16 168 1841986 47,593 48,700 48,300 17 178 2051987 51,146 52,400 51,800 18 189 3051988 53,700 54,900 54,400 19 201 3201989 54,696 67,100 66,600 20 213 3301990 57,077 69,500 68,900 22 226 3371991 55,402 67,900 67,300 23 238 3241992 57,028 69,500 68,900 24 251 3341993 59,760 72,300 71,600 25 265 3481994 65,160 77,700 77,000 27 279 3831995 63,530 76,100 75,400 28 293 4091996 64,200 76,800 76,100 30 309 4131997 68,615 81,300 80,500 31 326 4421998 68,843 84,100 83,300 33 344 4431999 70,564 86,200 85,400 35 362 4542000 63,274 77,800 76,600 36 379 7832001 67,537 83,000 81,700 38 393 8892002 58,544 72,200 70,900 39 406 8172003 57,090 70,300 69,200 41 424 6832004 54,000 66,600 65,500 44 457 6492005 52,041 64,300 63,100 49 508 6142006 49,500 61,300 60,100 56 582 5832007 46,980 58,400 57,100 65 675 5512008 44,445 55,400 54,000 74 775 5212009 46,623 58,100 56,600 83 866 5832010 47,766 59,500 58,000 90 937 522a Adjusted FAO data that were used as a baseline.United Arab Emirates - Al-Abdulrazzak et al. 59Appendix Table A2.   Total reconstructed catch (t) for UAE by major taxa, 1950-2010.Year Scomberomorus commerson Lethrinidae Sardinella spp. Stolephorus spp. Serranidae Carangidae Othera1950 420 600 780 720 360 420 4,6201951 420 600 780 720 360 420 4,6201952 420 600 780 720 360 420 4,6201953 420 600 780 720 360 420 4,6201954 540 720 1,020 900 480 540 5,5201955 540 720 1,020 900 480 540 5,5201956 540 720 1,020 900 480 540 5,5201957 720 960 1,320 1,200 600 720 7,2101958 720 960 1,320 1,200 600 720 7,2101959 1,080 1,440 1,980 1,800 900 1,080 10,4701960 1,080 1,440 1,980 1,800 900 1,080 10,4801961 1,080 1,440 1,980 1,800 900 1,080 10,4801962 1,260 1,680 2,340 2,100 1,080 1,260 12,0501963 1,260 1,680 2,340 2,100 1,080 1,260 12,0601964 1,260 1,680 2,340 2,100 1,080 1,260 12,0601965 1,380 1,800 2,520 2,280 1,140 1,380 13,0801966 1,380 1,800 2,520 2,280 1,140 1,380 13,0801967 1,450 1,920 2,640 2,400 1,200 1,440 13,7501968 1,450 1,920 2,640 2,400 1,200 1,440 13,7501969 1,450 1,920 2,640 2,400 1,200 1,440 13,7501970 1,210 840 3,900 3,120 600 720 14,3801971 1,330 900 4,140 3,360 660 780 15,4001972 1,330 900 4,140 3,360 660 780 15,4101973 1,330 900 4,140 3,360 660 780 15,4201974 2,050 1,440 6,600 5,280 1,020 1,140 23,9701975 2,060 1,440 6,600 5,280 1,020 1,140 23,9801976 2,000 1,380 6,240 5,040 960 1,080 22,9001977 2,000 1,380 6,240 5,040 960 1,080 22,9101978 2,010 1,380 6,240 5,040 960 1,080 22,9201979 2,010 1,380 6,240 5,040 960 1,080 22,9301980 2,010 1,380 6,240 5,040 960 1,080 22,9401981 1,870 380 7,800 6,000 400 380 24,6901982 1,970 2,540 3,540 5,400 2,230 3,110 24,0601983 3,040 3,760 3,900 4,920 2,470 3,620 22,9701984 3,040 3,760 3,900 4,920 2,470 3,620 22,9801985 2,440 3,550 4,270 6,410 2,330 3,420 21,9901986 3,750 4,440 5,040 4,300 2,910 3,080 25,1701987 3,350 4,770 4,620 3,980 3,130 6,370 26,1401988 3,650 5,000 4,840 4,180 3,280 6,670 27,3201989 14,790 5,100 5,080 4,380 3,360 7,000 27,4201990 14,790 5,400 5,340 4,680 3,360 7,060 28,9001991 14,610 5,220 5,180 4,540 3,240 6,800 28,2801992 14,710 5,380 5,330 4,670 3,340 7,000 29,0701993 14,720 5,560 4,540 5,380 3,600 7,020 31,4401994 15,130 6,310 6,070 5,280 3,800 7,830 33,3001995 15,200 6,800 5,300 5,720 4,020 7,580 31,5101996 15,250 6,870 5,360 5,780 4,060 7,660 31,8401997 15,530 7,350 5,520 6,180 4,340 8,150 34,2301998 18,130 7,370 5,540 6,200 4,350 8,530 34,0001999 18,580 7,550 5,710 6,350 4,460 8,760 34,7902000 16,730 11,790 3,680 1,640 14,430 4,000 25,5402001 18,190 13,570 2,520 2,420 16,610 4,120 25,6202002 14,100 12,630 2,100 3,840 13,700 3,550 22,2802003 14,910 12,190 2,480 2,070 11,290 2,930 24,4702004 13,960 12,120 2,820 2,460 10,020 2,580 22,6702005 13,290 12,070 3,110 2,890 8,710 2,260 21,9902006 12,800 12,450 2,880 1,200 7,620 3,360 21,0002007 11,960 12,840 2,700 300 6,480 4,560 19,5102008 11,060 13,220 2,440 0 5,390 5,680 17,5902009 12,430 14,880 500 0 5,490 6,290 18,5502010 15,020 13,650 490 0 4,870 5,840 19,670a Others category includes 41 additional taxonomic groups.

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