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EcoBase : A Repository Solution to Gather and Communicate Information from EwE Models Colléter, Mathieu; Valls, Audrey Emilie; Guitton, Jérôme; Morissette, Lyne; Arreguín-Sánchez, Francisco Francisco; Christensen, Villy; Gascuel, D. (Didier); Pauly, D. (Daniel) 2013

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ISSN 1198-6727Number2013 VolumeFisheries Centre Research ReportsEcoBasE: a rEpository solution to gathEr and communicatE information from EwE modEls21 1ISSN 1198-6727 Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, CanadaFisheries Centre Research ReportsEcoBase: a repository solution to gather and communicate information from EwE models2013 Volume 21 Number 1Authored byFisheries Centre Research Reports 21(1)60 pages © published 2013 byThe Fisheries Centre,University of British Columbia2202 Main MallVancouver, B.C., Canada, V6T 1Z4 ISSN 1198-6727 Mathieu Colléter, Audrey Valls, Jérôme Guitton, Lyne Morissette, Francisco Arreguín-Sánchez, Villy Christensen, Didier Gascuel and Daniel PaulyA Research Report from the Fisheries Centre at UBCFisheries Centre researCh reports are abstraCted in the Fao aquatiC sCienCes and Fisheries abstraCts (asFa)issn 1198-6727  ContentFisheries Centre Research Reports 21(1)60 pages © Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, 2013Fisheries Centre Research Reports 21(1)2013Authored byMathieu Colléter, Audrey Valls, Jérôme Guitton, Lyne Morissette, Francisco Arreguín-Sánchez, Villy Christensen, Didier Gascuel and Daniel PaulyDirector’s Foreword iIntroduction 3Data sharing in ecology 3Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) models, a data source on marine ecosystems 4EcoBase, an information repository 5EcoBase description 6History 6Software and access 6Structure of the repository 7General structure 7Model metadata 7Model inputs 8Model outputs (Ecopath) 9EcoBase capabilities 11Overview 12For general users 12For developers only 13EcoBase: current state and future developments 16Current state of EcoBase 16Future improvements of EcoBase 16Projects possibly involving EcoBase 17Links with the Ecopath Research and Development Consortium 18Conclusions 19References 20Appendix 1            22 Appendix 2            51 Appendix 3              60iIt is now clear that research addressed at a large scale can allow for new insights on complex phenomena taking place in the global ocean. Ecological studies are more and more based on data-driven methodologies that rely on pre-existing datasets. However, open-access, digital and cross-disciplinary datasets are still uncommon for ecology. In the face of the global overexploitation of marine resources and rapid degradation of ecosystem integrity, new research tools are required to tackle these issues and enable new powerful, interdisciplinary research capabilities. We have, in fisheries research generally, and at the Fisheries Centre in particular, broad experience with fisheries data collection, and analysis of food web aspects of ecosystem dynamics.With this report titled EcoBase: a repository solution to gather and communicate information from EwE models, Colléter and colleagues have made a big effort at collecting information from all existing ecosystem models worldwide, built using the Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) approach. EwE is the world’s most widely used ecological modeling approach, and its development is led by Fisheries Centre researchers, including, Villy Christensen, Daniel Pauly and Carl Walters. A new accomplishment is now achieved with the EcoBase project initiated by the Ecopath Research and Development Consortium (ERDC) and carried out by the authors of this report. The ERDC was initiated at the Fisheries Centre in October 2011, and formally established in Edinburgh, Scotland, in May 2012. It contributes to creating synergies and partnerships between scientists in aquatic ecology, and promotes the EwE modeling approach.The main goals of EcoBase are to (i) gather published EwE models; (ii) communicate on EwE modeling research; (iii) facilitate meta-analyses based on EwE models. EcoBase is meant to be a comprehensive, open-access, digital repository where EwE models are made discoverable, accessible and reusable by the scientific community. The structure, capabilities and current state of the EcoBase models repository are described in further details in this report. This represents new opportunities for research and trans-disciplinary analyses, including, trophic functioning, fisheries impact or economic aspects, for which I commend the authors.U. R. Sumaila,Director,Fisheries Centre, UBC.dirEctor’s forEwordFisheries Centre Research Reports 21(1) - Colléter et al. 3EcoBasE: a rEpository solution to gathEr and  communicatE information from EwE modEls1Mathieu Collétera,b, Audrey Vallsa, Jérôme Guittonb, Lyne Morissettec, Francisco Arreguín-Sánchezd, Villy Christensena, Didier Gascuelb and Daniel Paulyaa Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, V6T1Z4, B.C., Canadab AGROCAMPUS OUEST, UMR985 ESE Ecologie et santé des écosystèmes, 65, rue de Saint-Brieuc, F-35042 Rennes, Francec M – Expertise Marine, 10 rue Luce-Drapeau, Luceville, G0K1P0, Quebec, Canadad Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas, Apartado Postal 592, La Paz, 23000, Baja California Sur, MexicointroductionData sharing in ecologyThe Life Sciences have reached a new era, that of the “Big New Biology” (Thessen and Patterson 2011). Ecology is following the same pathway, and has turned into a data-intensive science (Kelling et al. 2009; Michener and Jones 2012). Ecological studies are more and more based on data-driven methodologies, relying on pre-existing large datasets and allowing for new insights on complex or underlying phenomena at global scales (Christensen et al. 2009). We are facing environmental degradation world-wide, and research has to be conducted at a large or global scale to tackle these issues. However, open-access, digital and cross-disciplinary datasets are still lacking for ecology to actually join the other historical “Big” sciences, such as astronomy (Thessen and Patterson 2011). The main reason for this relates to sociological and technological challenges with data sharing (Reichman et al. 2011; Thessen and Patterson 2011; Hampton et al. 2013).Even if it is now clear that “large integrated datasets can potentially provide a much deeper understanding of both nature and society and open up many new avenues of research” (Science Staff 2011), data sharing too often remains individual scientists’ responsibility. In fact, sharing data is not a tradition in ecology (Pauly 1995; Reichman et al. 2011), yet it is a required principle for independent verification, as well as reuse (Vision 2010). Most of the time, biological data are not being collected with reuse in mind and are then published in a narrative or summarized style in scientific articles (Vision 2010; Thessen and Patterson 2011). The actual data are meant to be provided in online supplements or upon individual requests sent to the authors, but these options have been demonstrated unreliable (Vision 2010). Thus, several authors acknowledged that new practices are needed to make data sharing fully part of the culture in Life Sciences (Vision 2010; Reichman et al. 2011; Thessen and Patterson 2011; Dalgleish et al. 2012; Hampton et al. 2013). The two critical stages at which practices have to be improved to allow for data sharing are the very first one, the collection of the data, and the very last one, the publication of the data. Another challenge is the simple loss of data (e.g., hard-copies, computer files in outmoded format), which can be met – at least in part – by extensive data sharing (Zeller et al. 2005).The open-access principle of sharing information online for free has been increasingly applied to publications but much less to data, due to issues of recognition, technical support and sense of data ownership (Vision 2010; Thessen and Patterson 2011). Nevertheless, authors demonstrated that published papers making available their data are cited more frequently (Piwowar et al. 2007), and incentives for digitization of non-digital materials through the use of metadata and repositories have been growing (Thessen and Patterson 2011). A popular example in aquatic ecology is the FishBase database (www.fishbase.org). As stated by Thessen and Patterson (2011), repositories that “provide standardization, atomization and quality control services facilitate the [discovery, storage and] reuse of data and will play a stronger role in data-intensive science”. Since May 2007, the INSPIRE Directive established an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community to support environmental policies. The Directive notably requires that common Implementing Rules are adopted to ensure discoverability, compatibility and usability principles for spatial data to be shared among the Member States of the European Union (inspire.jrc.ec.europa.eu/index.cfm).1 Cite as: Colléter, M., Valls, A., Guitton, J., Morissette, L., Arreguín-Sánchez, F., Christensen, V., Gascuel, D. and Pauly, D.  (2013) EcoBase: a repository solution to gather and communicate information from EwE models.  Fisheries Centre Research Report 21(1). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Canada (ISSN 1198-6727).EcoBase: a repository solution to gather and communicate information from EwE models4Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE)2 models, a data source on marine ecosystemsFacing the challenges described above, the Ecopath Research and Development Consortium (ERDC) initiated the project of an Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) models repository, which led to EcoBase, which we developed with the intention of making published models discoverable, accessible and reusable to the scientific community. The main goals of EcoBase are to (i) gather published EwE models; (ii) communicate on EwE modeling research; (iii) facilitate meta-analyses based on EwE models.EwE is based on ECOPATH, a trophic web model initially developed by Dr. Jeffrey Polovina in the early 1980s. In ECOPATH, the modeled ecosystem was partitioned into groups of similar species and estimates of biomass, diet, production and food consumption were provided (Polovina 1984). The original version has then been developed further, notably by Drs. Daniel Pauly, Villy Christensen and Carl Walters from the UBC Fisheries Centre, and several versions have successively been proposed over the past 30 years. The latest released version of EwE (version 6.3, released on November 25, 2012) consists of a suite of three main routines: (i) Ecopath, a static, mass-balanced snapshot of the ecosystem food-web; (ii) Ecosim, a time-dynamic simulation module for exploring fisheries management or climate change scenarii; (iii) Ecospace, a spatial and temporal dynamic module primarily designed for exploring impact and placement of marine protected areas (Christensen and Pauly 1992; Walters et al. 1999; Pauly et al. 2000; Christensen and Walters 2004; Walters and Christensen 2007; Walters et al. 2008; Walters et al. 2010). In addition, a suite of modules or plug-ins have also been developed and added to the EwE package, such as EcoTroph, which is a representation of the biomass distribution across trophic levels in the ecosystem (Gascuel 2005; Gascuel et al. 2008; Gascuel and Pauly 2009; Gascuel et al. 2009; Gascuel et al. 2011). Details on the core principles and equations of EwE can be found in the references cited above as well as in the EwE6 user guide available online (Christensen et al. 2008). Since October 2011, the ERDC has been in charge of the research, development and sustainability of the EwE approach and software.The EwE software is user-friendly, free (under the terms of the GNU General Public License) and downloadable online (www.ecopath.org). EwE can be seen as a tool-box offering a wide range of different tools and thus allowing analyses of various ecological phenomena. These are certainly the main reasons why it has been applied to hundreds of (aquatic) ecosystems worldwide. Several meta-analyses based on EwE models have been published (Table 1). Some of these models focused on specific ecological questions, such as ecosystems flow characteristics (Christensen and Pauly 1993), ecosystem maturity (Christensen 1995), relations between stability and complexity (Pérez-España and Arreguín-Sánchez 1999) or stability and maturity (Pérez-España and Arreguín-Sánchez 2001), fish biomass predictions (Christensen et al. 2003b), ecosystem impacts of MSY policies from single-species assessment (Walters et al. 2005), the concept of alternative attractors (Feng et al. 2006) or the keystone species concept (Libralato et al. 2006), trophic flow kinetics (Gascuel et al. 2008), ecosystem effects of fishing on primary production and transfer efficiency (Libralato et al. 2008) or of selected marine protected areas (Le Quesne et al. 2008), top-down and bottom-up dynamics (Arreguín-Sánchez 2011), or metabolic scaling regularity (Salcido-Guevara et al. 2012). Others focused on ecosystems of particular interest, such as the South China Sea (Pauly and Christensen 1993; Christensen et al. 2003a), the Gulf of Mexico (Pauly et al. 1999; Vidal-Hernandez and Pauly 2004), the Gulf of California (Lluch-Cota et al. 2010) or the Mediterranean Sea (Coll and Libralato 2012). Finally, few meta-analyses were dedicated to a particular species or taxon, like jellyfish (Pauly et al. 2009) or squids (Coll et al. 2012). However, these meta-analyses were based on different individual datasets. To our knowledge, no comprehensive, open-access, digital collection of EwE models published worldwide has been made, and that is what EcoBase is meant to be.EcoBase, an information repositoryThe EcoBase project seeks to gather information obtained from all the ecosystem models built using the EwE approach, which have been published worldwide in scientific journals, technical reports or theses. All models have already been referenced, but not all of them have been made available in EcoBase yet. We hope that the capabilities and perspectives of the EcoBase project described in this report will encourage more modelers to make their models fully available. EcoBase is not, strictly speaking, a database but an information repository, the distinction between the two being important, but generally overlooked (Thessen and Patterson 2011). Indeed, EwE models integrate several types of data: descriptive data on species abundance, diet composition and catch; computed data on species production, consumption and ecotrophic efficiency as well as ecosystem properties; and simulation data on species biomass trends after applying alternate scenarios. These data are required to build a model and run scenarios, and they are often only partly provided by the authors in the corresponding publications. There are also many cases where 2 Strictly speaking, ECOPATH models correspond to models developed before the Ecosim implementation, and EwE models to models developed with Ecopath with Ecosim. We retroactively renamed all models as EwE models, even if EcoBase does not account for Ecosim data yet.Fisheries Centre Research Reports 21(1) - Colléter et al. 5details on the data and parameters used to build the model are provided in supplementary materials, which are not always easily accessible.Besides, each EwE model is also associated with a particular ecosystem with specific characteristics (e.g. location, area), as well as a corresponding publication (identified by its authors, year, reference type, etc.). The former information represents critical metadata when one wants to conduct a meta-analysis. However, detailed information on the modeled ecosystems is not systematically provided by the modelers. In EcoBase, we built a framework where all critical metadata may be stored, in a standardized and granular fashion, so that they can be reused as criteria based on which models can be selected for future meta-analyses. Thus, we hope that EcoBase would also serve authors as a template of the required information which should be provided when publishing a model. In the long term, EcoBase is meant to be used by ecosystem modelers worldwide as a platform where to (i) look for published EwE models; (ii) select and access models of interest to one’s research work; (iii) download other’s models as well as upload one’s own models. Overall, EcoBase will provide an online repository where to make your own model discoverable, accessible and reusable to the scientific community, as soon as it is published. We believe EcoBase may thus contribute to create synergies and partnership between scientists in aquatic ecology.Table 1.   List of published meta-analyses based on EwE modelsReference Research question/topic Location Number of modelsChristensen and Pauly 1993 Ecosystems flow characteristics - 41Christensen 1995 Ecosystem maturity - 41Perez-España and Arreguín-Sánchez 1999Relation between complexity and stability - 4Perez-España and Arreguín-Sánchez 2001Relation between maturity and stability - 14Christensen et al. 2003a Fish biomass predictions North Atlantic 23Christensen et al. 2003b Fish biomass predictions South China Sea 16Walters et al. 2005 Ecosystem impacts of MSY policies from single-species assessment - 11Feng et al. 2006 Concept of alternative attractors - 36Libralato et al. 2006 Keysotne species concept - 33Gascuel et al. 2008 Trophic flow kinetics - 55Libralato et al. 2008 Ecosystem effects of fishing on primary production and transfer efficiency - 91Le Quesne et al. 2008 Ecosystem effects of marine protected areas - 5Pauly et al. 2009 Role of jellyfish in ecosystems - 23Lluch-Cota et al. 2010 Gulf of California 12Arreguín-Sánchez 2011 Top-down and bottom-up dynamics - 13Coll and Libralato 2012 Mediterranean Sea 40Coll et al. 2012 Role of squid in ecosystems - 75Salcido-Guevara et al. 2012 Metabolic scaling regularity - 98EcoBase: a repository solution to gather and communicate information from EwE models6EcoBasE dEscriptionHistorySharing data among EwE developers has been a persistent dream, and a models depository was implemented on the ecopath website (www.ecopath.org). However, only a small fraction of the published models were included on the web-page, and the structure was not in place for extensive data sharing. That is the reason why the idea of creating a new models repository has been growing since the creation of the Ecopath Research and Development Consortium (ERDC). The EcoBase project itself started with the PhD project of Mathieu Colléter, which consists in a meta-analysis of EwE models focusing on the trophic functioning of aquatic ecosystems. An oral presentation was made during the last Ecopath Consortium meeting (Colléter et al. 2012). Colléter and colleagues first gathered EwE models from two existing databases:• Dr. Lyne Morissette developed Excel sheets for 178 EwE models, and listed the total number of EwE models developed to date (393 models (Morissette 2007)). She collected some metadata (publication year, reference, ecosystem type, area, modeled period, Ecosim model developed), as well as detailed data on each of the 178 EwE models (main inputs and outputs);• Drs. Luís Antonio Salcido-Guevara and Francisco Arreguín-Sánchez developed an Access database, called ECOMOD, accounting for 153 models. This database was initiated during the INCOFISH project (INCOFISH 2006), and expanded later on as part of Dr. Salcido-Guevara PhD project (Salcido-Guevara 2006). The database integrated several metadata (publication info, geographic location, country, FAO area, LME, ecosystem type, etc.), functional groups, and all input and output data (basic parameterization and network analysis). All models were updated to EwE version 5.1 and verified in respect to associated publications.The first step was then to compare and merge both sets of EwE models into one single database supported by PostgreSQL to create a data server. Making the same data available all over the world from a single database is the first step for information sharing. The main challenge was to define a database structure accounting for all compatibility and identification issues. Notably, we double-checked for duplicates and made sure that versions of similar EwE models inherited from both collections were actually identical. Indeed, some models had been modified to be balanced if they were not, whereas others were still not balanced. However, most of the time, all the modifications had been recorded and the collections proved to be very valuable materials. The two existing databases both integrated the great collection of documentation and files listed in the ecopath website. After matching, we obtained a list of about 200 unique models. Then, a third contribution was added to EcoBase: Dr. Villy Christensen and his team had gathered a collection of 233 EwE models, with their associated publications. Some metadata about the person through whom the model was given and the few modifications made had also been recorded. This collection was compared and merged as well to the previous list. We obtained an additional list of 132 unique additional models after comparison. Several authors have also sent their models directly for incorporation in the repository. Finally, since the inherited collections were not up-to-date with the most recent EwE models published, Audrey Valls and Mathieu Colléter conducted a literature review and ended up with a list of 99 recent (or previously missing) models, to be added to the list. Thus, we ended up with a list of 425 unique models and 494 models in total (including duplicates). A list of the EwE models registered and referenced in EcoBase is provided in Appendix 1 (with details on the model location, period, country, author, facilitator and reference, and indexes by author and country).Software and accessSeveral database management systems were available to develop our information repository. We chose to use the PostgreSQL software. PostgreSQL is a professional relational database management system. It is a free software, and sources are available (www.postgresql.org). All its technical capabilities make it a robust and widely used management system. It notably has graphical interfaces to manage tables, libraries for various programming languages, and drivers for the Microsoft Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) application programming interface (API) enabling connections with several softwares. The database server is currently hosted on a development server at Agrocampus Ouest (Rennes, France) and accessible everywhere in the world (with access authorization).Currently, access to the repository is possible through various interfaces such as: pgAdmin “the most popular and feature rich Open Source administration and development platform for PostgreSQL, the most advanced Open Source database in the world” (www.pgadmin.org), any Internet server, or Microsoft Access (office.microsoft.com/en-ca/access) through ODBC connections. All the different ways to access the repository are currently restricted with user logins and passwords, managed by the database administrators (DBAs). Full access to the repository is restricted to expert users (EUs) only. However, a large number of web services may become accessible to general users (GUs) (see section 2).Fisheries Centre Research Reports 21(1) - Colléter et al. 7Structure of the repositoryGeneral structureEcoBase comprises numerous tables encompassing all Ecopath data and various metadata. The architecture of the repository relies on one main table called ‘models_list’. This table is used to declare all encoded models by assigning a unique number to each one, declared as a primary key: the ‘model_number’ variable. A primary key is a special relational database table column (or combination of columns) designated to uniquely identify all table records. It must contain a unique value for each row of data and no null values. The ‘model_number’ primary key enables a complete identification of each single model and linkages to other tables comprising the other data. Along with ‘models_list’, four other tables (‘references_tables, ‘models_details’, ‘fishery_fleets and ‘import_like_groups’) are used to declare the four other primary keys needed to create the linked tables (Figure 1). All five tables enable the creation of a series of tables used to store all the other data. We differentiated three categories of data stored in EcoBase.Model metadataA first objective of our approach was to store metadata on EwE models. These data are necessary for a complete identification of each model and to provide information not directly included in EwE data, such as the location of the ecosystem, the objectives and history of the model or its contributors. The definition of metadata was based on potential needs for conducting meta-analyses, and key points identified by merging the three existing databases of EwE models. All metadata were stored in five tables (Figure 2). We created three additional tables linked with ‘models_list’: ‘models_history’, ‘models_info’ and ‘models_ref’ (also linked with ‘references_table’). Jointly, these tables enable a complete storage of all metadata and models quality criteria. A comprehensive list and detailed description of all the models’ metadata fields is available in Appendix 2.• ‘models_list’ enables the storage of several model parameters, such as the models name, author, units, the use of several routines or plug-ins (e.g. Ecosim, Ecospace, EcoTracer, EcoTroph), and other criteria of particular interest.Figure 1.  Basic diagram of the five main tables of the PostgreSQL EcoBase repository (name of the tables, associated primary keys and a short description).Table name:models_detailsPrimary keys:model_numbergroup_nameDescription:details of each modeltrophic construction, i.e. thetrophic groups names(group_name primary key),along with several linkedvariables (see below)Table name:fishery_fleetsPrimary keys:model_numberfleet_nameDescription:details of each model fisheryfleets inputs, notably thefleet names (fleet_nameprimary key), along withseveral linked variables (seebelow)Table name:import_like_groupsPrimary keys:model_numberother_groups_nameDescription:detail of each model importgroups name (primary key).It is not properly trophicgroups but accounted for inseveral tables (e.g. diettable)Table name:models_listPrimary key:model_numberDescription:used to assign all includedmodels an identificationnumber (primary key), alongwith several associatedvariables (see below)Table name:references_tablePrimary key:id_refDescription:used to register all EwEpublications by assigningeach reference a number(id_ref, primary key), alongwith several associatedvariables (see below)Figure 2.  Relation diagram of the five metadata tables (orange solid contours indicate tables containing metadata, green dotted ones tables containing EwE inputs).models_listreferences_tablemodels_infomodels_historymodels_refEcoBase: a repository solution to gather and communicate information from EwE models8• ‘models_history’ includes information on the history of the model: through whom the model was obtained? ; is it balanced? ; is it referenced? ; has it been modified and by whom? Additionally, by merging several contributions, we included comments made at different stages by the different involved researchers.• ‘models_info’ informs on the model itself and the modeled ecosystem. The table stores the model period, area, location, and geographic extent (see Appendix 3). We used Postgis extensions for Postgres which add spatial capabilities to the database. These libraries enable numerous spatial functions, like the computation of areas, distances, or intersections. The table also comprises several environmental variables, such as the ecosystem type or zone. We proposed a-priori classification of models by ecosystem types, and we distinguished 12 types: channel/strait, bay/fjord, coastal lagoon, coral reef, continental shelf (200m depth), ocean, river, estuary, reservoir, lake, beach, and terrestrial. We also defined three ecosystem zones: tropical, temperate and polar.• ‘models_ref’ links the models to the associated references contained in ‘references_table’, and enables their classification by importance.Model inputsWe also stored the descriptive data required to build EwE models, here called ‘model inputs’. Several tables have been designed to store these data (Figure 3). The names of the tables and fields have been designed to enable an easy understanding, and to create a homogeneous database with condensed information. All tables rely on the ‘models_list’ table and the three main associated tables ‘models_details’, ‘fishery_fleets’ and ‘import_like_groups’. This ensures referential integrity of EcoBase (e.g., if a model is suppressed from models_list, then all associated records are suppressed too). The repository has been designed to store all the input data coming from EwE version 6.3, also accounting for additional routines like the Taxonomy or Pedigree (Figure 4). An exhaustive list and detailed description of all models’ inputs fields is available in Appendix 2.models_listmodels_infomodels_detailsdiet_tabledetritus_fatefishery_fleetsfishery_catchesfishery_indicesdiscard_fatenon_market_pricepedigree_assignmentpedigree_definitiontaxonomyFigure 4.  Snapshot of EwE software navigator for input data, and correspondence with EcoBase tables.Figure 3.  Relation diagram of the EwE input tables (orange solid contours indicate tables containing metadata, green dotted ones tables containing EwE inputs, and purple dashed ones tables containing EwE outputs).diet_tablediscard_fatedetritus_fatefishery_catchesnon_market_pricepedigree_assignmenttaxonomymodels_listimport_like_groupsfishery_fleetspedigree_definitionmodels_infomodels_detailsfishery_indicesFisheries Centre Research Reports 21(1) - Colléter et al. 9Model outputs (Ecopath)For the purpose of our analyses, we decided to store as well in EcoBase the computed data obtained from EwE models (the Ecopath routine only), here called ‘model outputs’. In fact, several outputs are needed to perform meta-analyses or run EwE plug-ins, such as EcoTroph. Again, several tables have been designed to store these data (Figure 5). As we did for the ‘model inputs’, the tables and fields names have been chosen to simplify the usage and structure of EcoBase. The referential integrity is guaranteed by relations between tables and the use of the four main tables: ‘models_list’, ‘models_details’, ‘fishery_fleets’ and ‘import_like_groups’. The repository has been designed to store output data coming from EwE version 6.3 (Figures 6 and 7). We decided not to consider the Fishery Quantity and Value tables and the Relative Flows table as they are easily computable with included data. Details of the Cycle and Pathways module are not yet accounted for, due to the large amount of data this would have required, and neither are the Ecosim Network Analysis and Value Chain modules. The architecture of EcoBase can still evolve to include new data and fulfill new needs expressed by the EwE community. A complete list and full description of all the models’ outputs fields is available in Appendix 2.In conclusion, EcoBase has been designed to store almost all data coming from EwE version 6.3, also accounting for several relevant modules, such as the Taxonomy, Particle Size Distribution and Pedigree. Additional metadata may also be stored, such as the geographic coordinates (spatial extent of the model, see Appendix 3). Model quality criteria were also added for selection and meta-analyses. The entire structure of EcoBase can be summarized using a relations diagram (Figure 8). We strongly believe that the format we chose is suitable not only for our particular use, but also for a global use by any EwE modelers and fisheries scientists.models_detailspred_mort_rates_tablefishery_indicesconsumption_tableniche_overlapelectivity_search_rates_tablepsd_growth_estimatespsd_contributionFigure 6.  Snapshot of EwE software navigator for input data, and correspondence with EcoBase tables.Figure 5.  Relation diagram of the EwE input tables (orange solid contours indicate tables containing metadata, green dotted ones tables containing EwE inputs, and purple dashed ones tables containing EwE outputs).absolute_flowselectivity_search_rates_tableascendency_by_groupconsumption_tablemixed_trophic_impactniche_overlapppr_consumption_groupspred_mort_rates_tableppr_harvest_groupspsd_contributionpsd_growth_estimatesbiomass_catch_by_tlascendency_tableflows_biomasses_tablemodels_indicestransfer_efficiencyimport_like_groupsfishery_fleetsmodels_detailsfishery_indicesmodels_listEcoBase: a repository solution to gather and communicate information from EwE models10absolute_flowsflows_biomasses_tablemodels_indicestransfer_efficiencybiomass_catch_by_tlppr_harvest_groupsppr_consumption_groupsmixed_trophic_impactmodels_detailsascendency_tableascendency_by_groupFigure 7.  Snapshot of EwE software navigator for Network analysis output data, and correspondence with EcoBase tables.Fisheries Centre Research Reports 21(1) - Colléter et al. 11Figure 8.  Diagram of tables relations (orange solid contours indicate tables containing metadata, green dotted ones tables containing EwE inputs, and purple dashed ones tables containing EwE outputs).import_like_groupsfishery_fleetsreferences_tableabsolute_flowselectivity_search_rates_tablediet_tableascendency_by_groupconsumption_tablediscard_fatedetritus_fatemixed_trophic_impactfishery_catchesnon_market_pricenice_overlappedigree_assignmentpedigree_definitionppr_consumption_groupsppr_harvest_groupspsd_growth_estimatestaxonomybiomass_catch_by_tlascendency_tableflows_biomasses_tablemodels_indicespred_mort_rates_tabletransfer_efficiencymodels_detailsfishery_indicesmodels_listmodels_refmodels_historymodels_infopsd_contributionEcoBase: a repository solution to gather and communicate information from EwE models12EcoBasE capaBilitiEsOverviewAfter presenting the repository software and structure, we introduce in this section the possible usages of EcoBase and detail functionalities associated to the different users categories: the general users, and the developers including the database administrators (DBAs) and the expert users. The PostgreSQL Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) and the structure we developed enable powerful capabilities to share services linked with the database content. As for the database administrators, the EcoBase RDBMS and structure present interesting capabilities such as: a control of the access, centralized modifications, and a unique information source. Database administrators as well as expert users can directly use the database to manage structure and access, or perform analyses. Such powerful capabilities cannot logically be given to everybody. General users need more elaborated and controlled pathways to access data, via web services (Figure 9). Once users’ needs are expressed, we have to deal with three main issues: (i) how to organize the database feeding; (ii) how to disseminate the data; (iii) which services to set up.For general usersA great number of web services responding to the general users’ expectations are possible using EwE models data loaded in EcoBase and metadata added for each model. Examples detailed below focus on web services already developed and related to the EcoTroph approach, which give an interesting overview of the potential capabilities of EcoBase.• EcoTroph R package: An EcoTroph R package has been developed enabling an independent use of the EcoTroph model (Colléter et al. 2013). This package contains EcoTroph functions but also a ‘read.ecopath.model’ function. This function enables the loading of data needed for EcoTroph analyses from each model in EcoBase with a granted access. EcoTroph users are given the possibility to analyze any Ecopath model available in the EcoBase models repository.• EwE EcoTroph plug-in: A new functionality of the EwE EcoTroph plug-in is a linkage with EcoBase. EcoTroph inputs can be loaded in three different ways: from the model loaded in EwE, from an external .xml file, or from EcoBase via a web service which lists each model in EcoBase with a granted access and downloads the selected one (Figure 10).A list of available EwE models stored in the repository and a short description of each of them is displayed on the EcoTroph website (sirs.agrocampus-ouest.fr/EcoTroph/). Users have the possibility to select a model, obtain additional information and see a map of the spatial extent of the model (see Appendix 3). Data needed for EcoTroph are also downloadable from this interface for each model in EcoBase with a granted access (Figure 11). The web service is yet limited (search by name or on a map if the geographic extent of the model is known), but advanced search capabilities could be easily developed using the models metadata.Figure 9.  PostgreSQL formats user’s functionalities.EcoBaseWeb services (ET example)• EcoTroph• EcoTroph on EwE• List and export on ET websiteODBC connectionsdirect access and use of the repository (root data)R packageGeneral userDeveloperFisheries Centre Research Reports 21(1) - Colléter et al. 13BeforeAfterFigure 10.  Snapshot of the EwE EcoTroph plug-in before and after the implementation of the EcoBase web service.EcoBase: a repository solution to gather and communicate information from EwE models14Figure 11.  Snapshot of the EwE models list available on the ET website.Fisheries Centre Research Reports 21(1) - Colléter et al. 15For developers onlyEcoBase presents great capabilities for developers (including database administrators and expert users). First, a full control of the access to root data (tables and structure) is possible through security features of PostgreSQL (controlled by login, password, IP). Expert users who want to connect directly to the database need a user login and a password controlled by database administrators. There is also the possibility to manage different rights to users (data consulting only, data editing, etc.). Expert users can access to the complete database through the use of ODBC connections or the web interface, with clearly defined access rights allocated by database administrators. This opens new capabilities for expert users, notably statistical analyses using R and the package RODBC (cran.r-project.org/web/packages/RODBC/index.html) (or Rpgsql for Linux users), or spatial outputs using GIS tools. The great amount of data and the easy access through R is an open gate to large and reproducible analyses. However, these expert users’ capabilities do not constitute the standard way to use the database, since it is often the less controlled and more CPU time-consuming. Thus, the number of expert users should be limited to ensure that standard services will always be available for general users.In conclusion, EcoBase constitutes a unique source of information where modifications and usages are centralized and manageable. Access is possible all over the world, freely and easily. The repository can be managed by several database administrators at different places, and enables the set-up of a developers’ community. Data access is fully controlled by database administrators through the use of clearly defined rights to the associated expert users, and web services for general users. A great number of web services answering general users’ expectations are possible using EwE models data loaded in EcoBase and metadata added for each model. Provided examples concentrate on EcoTroph use, but give an interesting overview of capabilities. Direct interactions with the EwE software are possible, as external uses to provide additional information.EcoBase: a repository solution to gather and communicate information from EwE models16EcoBasE: currEnt statE and futurE dEvElopmEntsCurrent state of EcoBaseAs presented in the sections above, the core structure of EcoBase is in place but not all the fields have been encoded yet. Thus, in its current state, the models repository is not completed. The first phase of encoding focused on metadata. An exhaustive inventory of all published EwE models was completed and a final list of models in EcoBase was established. For all listed models, available information on metadata was then collected from the original publications describing the models and encoding of all fields consisting in metadata was completed. However, few actual data has been encoded in EcoBase yet. 494 EwE models are currently referenced in the EcoBase repository of which 425 are unique (see Appendix 1). Table 2 shows a detailed assessment of the current data availability, by table and for all referenced models. Data used by the EcoTroph routines have been encoded by Mathieu Colléter, as part of his PhD project, for models included in the Morissette and Arreguín-Sánchez databases. The completion of encoding will constitute the second phase of the project. EcoBase structure enables encoding of all input or output data from any referenced Ecopath models. EcoBase originally focused on the Ecopath routine of EwE models, so that no Ecosim time series or Ecospace maps can be stored in the database in its current state. Also, EwE scenarios are a type of data highly dependent on the context in which they were generated, putting restrictions on their potential reuse.Table 2.   Data availability for all referenced models in EcoBase (May 2013)Table Data type Data availabilityabsolute_flows Output Emptyascendency_by_group Output Column ‘Throughput’ available for models initially assembled by L. Morissette and F. Arreguín-Sánchezascendency_table Output Emptybiomass_catch_by_tl Output Emptyconsumption_table Output Emptydetritus_fate Input Available for one model (test)diet_table Input Available for one model (test)discard_fate Input Available for one model (test)electivity_search_rates_table Output Emptyfishery_catches Input Available for models assembled by L. Morissette and F. Arreguín-Sánchezfishery_fleets Input Available for models assembled by L. Morissette and F. Arreguín-Sánchezfishery_indices Input / Output Available for one model (test)flows_biomasses_table Output Emptymixed_trophic_impact Output Emptymodels_details Input / Output Available for models assembled by L. Morissette and F Arreguín-Sánchezmodels_history Metadata Available for all modelsmodels_indices Output Available for models assembled by L. Morissette and F. Arreguín-Sánchezmodels_info Metadata / Input Available for all modelsmodels_list Metadata / Input Available for all modelsmodels_ref Metadata Available for all modelsniche_overlap Output Emptynon_market_price Input Available for one model (test)other_groups Input Available for models assembled by L. Morissette and F. Arreguín-Sánchezpedigree_assignment Input Emptypedigree_definition Input Emptyppr_consumption_groups Output Emptyppr_harvest_groups Output Emptypred_mort_rates_table Output Emptypsd_contribution Output Emptypsd_growth_estimates Output Emptyreferences_table Metadata Available for all recorded referencestaxonomy Input Emptytransfer_efficiency Output EmptyFisheries Centre Research Reports 21(1) - Colléter et al. 17Future improvements of EcoBaseEcoBase is an on-going project and many features are still to be improved to make it a more powerful and efficient tool. Table 3 shows a report card of EcoBase, which summarizes the key features already implemented, or still to be implemented, and estimates the degree of completion of each feature. Future improvements should notably focus on data encoding, linkages between EcoBase and the EwE software and database access policy. Also, users should not be allowed to encode outputs which are not consistent with the inputs. Maintenance of EcoBase in the long-term is probably the most critical aspect to ensure a long life span of the repository, facing issues such as migration to new technologies or updating.Projects possibly involving EcoBaseAs mentioned in the introduction, only a few meta-analyses based on a large collection of EwE models have been published. EcoBase creates new opportunities for various types of meta-analyses, involving larger datasets, at broader scales. The repository notably provides standardized and atomized metadata, which may be used as selection criteria. By applying a scoring method on these criteria, a list of models of potential interest may be obtained. The pool of selected models may then be reused to conduct meta-analyses. Also, the ODBC connections and web services enable direct links between EcoBase and popular statistical softwares such as R (www.r-project.org/), which allows for statistical analyses to be easily and quickly run. Besides, new mapping tools for EwE models are available in EcoBase and may be used to get new insights on EwE-based research worldwide (see Appendix 3). Table 4 shows a list of researchers who are members of on-going projects using EcoBase, or who have expressed strong interest in using the models repository. The list is not meant to be exhaustive and should grow as EcoBase is enhanced.Table 3.   Report card of EcoBaseFeature Grade Comment1. Structure A Structure is in place for storing metadata and Ecopath inputs/outputs data. Note: no Ecosim or Ecospace data considered yet.2. Metadata A Metadata encoding is completed and metadata are accessible and usable. Remaining missing metadata was not provided in the references. 3. Data D Data encoding is not completed and data are not accessible or usable. Requires completion of items 4 and 5.4. Links with the EwE software C No link between EcoBase and the EwE software is currently available, but feasible to develop such linkages. Several options are under consideration.5. Open-access C Several options are under consideration. Requires a consensus within the ERDC.6. Website and web services B Website partially completed: some functionalities already implemented such as models browser; some still missing such as fill-in forms for adding models. 7. Short-term maintenance A Mathieu Colléter and Jérôme Guitton are in charge of the maintenance in the short term.8. Long-term maintenance D Modalities of the maintenance in the long-term still have to be defined. Table 4.   List of on-going and potential projects involving EcoBase Researcher Interest Project statusMathieu Colléter(UBC/Agrocampus Ouest) Trophic functioning meta-analysis (TE, Kinetic) and EcoTroph use On-going PhD thesis Audrey Valls(UBC, Nereus Program)Index of Keystoneness; Diet composition On-going PhD thesisSylvie Guénette(EcOceans)Trophic role of small pelagics Interests expressedJames Watson(Nereus Program)Particle size distributions Interests expressedDeng Palomares(UBC, FishBase)Links EcoBase-FishBase Interests expressedJérôme Guitton(Agrocampus Ouest)Links EcoBase-EwE Starting projectJérémy Lobry(IRSTEA)Meta-analysis of EwE models of estuaries Interests expressedJean Guillard, Orlanne Anneville and Jérémy Lobry(INRA/IRSTEA)Meta-analysis of EwE models of lakes (Alpes) Interests expressed(PhD thesis)James Simons(CCS-TAMU-CC)Francisco Arreguín-Sánchez(IPN-CICIMAR)Linking EcoBase with the Gulf of Mexico trophic database Interests expressed(GoMexSI project)Luis Salcido-Guevara(IPN-CICIMAR)Supply-demand balance of trophic networks On-going researchFrancisco Arreguín-Sánchez(IPN-CICIMAR)Ecosystem functional indicators On-going researchMonica Ruiz-Barreiro(IPN-CICIMAR)Exergy: application to management and conservation Interests expressed(PhD thesis)EcoBase: a repository solution to gather and communicate information from EwE models18Links with the Ecopath Research and Development ConsortiumBuilding a models repository was an initiative of the Ecopath Research and Development Consortium (ERDC), and EcoBase is an outcome of this initiative. The EcoBase project was instigated with two main phases in mind. Phase 1 consisted in establishing an up-to-date and comprehensive list of published Ecopath models and making the models discoverable through an online repository. Phase 1 notably involved: (i) merging three pre-existing lists of Ecopath models, gathered by Francisco Arreguín-Sánchez, Lyne Morissette and Villy Christensen; (ii) selecting published Ecopath models only and identifying their associated references (citations); (iii) collecting metadata about the published Ecopath models, when provided in the associated references (see Appendix 1). Phase 1 has been done as part of Mathieu Colléter and Audrey Valls’ PhD theses and is now completed. We believe it will be valuable to anyone willing to conduct meta-analyses of Ecopath models. Phase 2 is meant to be taken over by the ERDC, under the coordination of the Models Repository Working Group. The ERDC was initiated in Vancouver, Canada, in October 2011, and formally established in Edinburgh, Scotland, in May 2012. It is “a global, cooperative network focused on the research, development and sustainability of the EwE approach and software, its information basis, and complementary activities and capabilities”. Its objective is “to contribute to the sustainability of living resources and ecosystems by developing, applying, teaching, and promoting modeling and analytical tools, with a focus on the EwE modeling approach” (www.ecopath.org/consortium). Phase 2 will consist in making accessible to and reusable by the EwE community all the Ecopath models which are currently discoverable in EcoBase. We believe that open-access has to become the way of thinking in ecology and we built the EcoBase repository with this idea in mind. Thus, we hope that the ERDC will encourage the EwE community to take that route as well.Fisheries Centre Research Reports 21(1) - Colléter et al. 19conclusionsThis report constituted for us a great opportunity to present the on-going EcoBase project. The EcoBase models repository is meant to make published EwE models discoverable, accessible and reusable, and thus to enhance the promotion of EwE-based approaches and meta-analyses in marine ecosystem modeling. It has been designed to meet global scientific challenges, such as data sharing, gathering and dissemination. We merged three existing EwE models databases into a new models repository enabling more powerful capabilities. The architecture of EcoBase is meant to correspond to the EwE software structure (version 6.3) and collect all the data required for conducting meta-analyses and ensuring models identification. We integrated a large amount of metadata on the models origin, structure, and history, as well as the modeled ecosystems traits. Moreover, the PostgreSQL format enables new capabilities for data sharing and access control. The structure of the repository is flexible, and the database administrators have a full control on users’ access. Thus, different user profiles are configurable through the use of web services. We have already developed interesting examples of web services linked with the EcoTroph approach, and there are possibilities for more if new users are willing to develop their own tools in the future.This report represents the completion of the phase 1 of the EcoBase project. We developed the models repository as part of the ERDC initiative to move forward in EwE modeling. We hope EcoBase will offer new functionalities to the EwE community and bring new perspectives within the ERDC. The phase 2 of the EcoBase project is meant to be taken over by the members of the Models Repository Working Group, under the coordination of the ERDC. We would like to encourage them to develop new linkages between EwE and EcoBase, which could help encoding all missing data in EcoBase as well as developing new web services for EwE modelers. We envision the EcoBase project as a new opportunity for strengthening the EwE community via a shared online tool, and offering new capabilities for EwE research and communication.acknowlEdgEmEntsAuthors wish to acknowledge all EwE modelers, who made the EcoBase project possible, and the Ecopath Research and Development Consortium for its support. Authors also wish to acknowledge Frédéric Le Manach for his help with editing and publishing this report. Mathieu Colléter, Jérôme Guitton and Didier Gascuel wish to acknowledge support from the French Ministry of Higher Education and Research, and Agrocampus Ouest. Audrey Valls and Villy Christensen wish to acknowledge support from the NF-UBC Nereus Program, a collaborative initiative conducted by the Nippon Foundation, the University of British Columbia, and five additional partners. Mathieu Colléter and Daniel Pauly wish to acknowledge support from the Sea Around Us Project, a scientific collaboration between the University of British Columbia and the Pew Charitable Trust, which also funded, since 1999, the activities which led to many of the ecosystem models listed here. Francisco Arreguín-Sánchez acknowledges support through EDI and COFAA programs of the National Polytechnic Institute, and to the SEP-CONACyT (104974) project.EcoBase: a repository solution to gather and communicate information from EwE models20rEfErEncEsArreguín-Sánchez F (2011) Ecosystem dynamics under “top-down” and “bottom-up” control situations generated by intensive harvesting rates. 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ICES Journal of Marine Science 62(3): 558-568.Zeller D, Froese R and Pauly D (2005) On losing and recovering fisheries and marine science data. Marine Policy 29: 69-73.EcoBase: a repository solution to gather and communicate information from EwE models22appEndix 1. list of EwE modEls rEgistErEd and rEfErEncEd in EcoBasE (list of thE modEls, thE associatEd rEfErEncEs and indExEs By author and By country)Appendix Table A1.  List of the EwE modelsNumberLocationPeriodCountryAuthorFacilitatorReferences7Azores archipelago1997-1997PortugalGuénette, S.Morissette, L.812Bay of Bengal1984-1986BangladeshMustafa, M.G.Morissette, L.1213Bay of Biscay1970-1970FranceAinsworth, C.H.Morissette, L.1314Bay of Biscay1998-1998FranceAinsworth, C.H.Morissette, L.1322Cantabrian Sea1994-1994SpainSánchez, F.Morissette, L.2324Carribean Islands1986-1986Not affiliatedMelgo, J.L.Morissette, L.2425Celestun lagoon1986-1986MexicoVega-Cendejas, M.E.Morissette, L.2527Celestun lagoon1986-1986MexicoVega-Cendejas, M.E.Morissette, L.2528Atlantic Ocean, central1950-1950Not affiliatedVasconcellos, M.Morissette, L.2729Atlantic Ocean, central1998-1999Not affiliatedVasconcellos, M.Morissette, L.2730Central Chile1992-1992ChileNeira, S.Morissette, L.2833Pacific Ocean, central1990-1998Not affiliatedCox, S.P.Morissette, L.3134Chesapeake Bay1950-1950United States of AmericaChristensen, V.Morissette, L.32,47935Chesapeake Bay2002-2002United States of AmericaChristensen, V.Morissette, L.3236Mexican Caribbean1990-1990MexicoAlvarez-Hernández, J.H.Morissette, L.3340Nova-Scotia, Eastern1980-1985CanadaBundy, A.Morissette, L.34,3541Nova-Scotia, Eastern1995-2000CanadaBundy, A.Morissette, L.35,3442Pacific Ocean, Eastern tropical1993-1997Not affiliatedOlson, R.J.Morissette, L.36,37,45943English Channel1973-1973U.K. of Great Britain and Northern IrelandStanford, R.Morissette, L.3844English Channel1995-1995U.K. of Great Britain and Northern IrelandStanford, R.Morissette, L.3846Faroe Islands1997-1997Faroe IslandsZeller, D.Morissette, L.435,41,4048Floreana Island2000-2001EcuadorOkey, T.A.Morissette, L.4349Gambia, continental shelf1986-1986GambiaMendy, A.N.Morissette, L.4450Gambia, continental shelf1992-1992GambiaMendy, A.N.Morissette, L.4551Gambia, continental shelf1995-1995GambiaMendy, A.N.Morissette, L.4552Gironde estuary1991-1998FranceLobry, J.Morissette, L.478,4653Gulf Dulce1993-1994Costa RicaWolff, M.Morissette, L.4754GBR, Northern1993-1994AustraliaGribble, N.A.Morissette, L.49,4855Large area off Guinea1985-1985GuineaGuénette, S.Morissette, L.5056Large area off Guinea1998-1998GuineaGuénette, S.Morissette, L.5057Guinea-Bissau continental shelf1990-1992Guinea-BissauAmorim, P.Morissette, L.5158Gulf of Mexico1980-1989MexicoBrowder, J.A.Morissette, L.5260Gulf of Thailand1997-1997ThailandVibunpant, S.Morissette, L.54,56,5566Icelandic marine ecosystem (ICES area Va)1997-1997IcelandMendy, A.N.Morissette, L.6067Icelandic shelf1997-1997IcelandMendy, A.N.Morissette, L.6168Icelandic shelf1997-1997IcelandSamb, B.Morissette, L.6271Lagoon Chiku1997-1997ChinaLin, H.-J.Morissette, L.6572Lagoon of Venice1994-1994ItalyCarrer, S.Morissette, L.6673Manila, Laguna de Bay1950-1950PhilippinesDelos Reyes, M.R.Morissette, L.67,6874Manila, Laguna de Bay1980-1980PhilippinesDelos Reyes, M.R.Morissette, L.67,68Fisheries Centre Research Reports 21(1) - Colléter et al. 23Appendix Table A1. ContinuedNumberLocationPeriodCountryAuthorFacilitatorReferences76Lake Awassa2003-2004EthiopiaFetahi, T.Morissette, L.452,6981Lake Malawi1977-1996MalawiNsiku, E.Morissette, L.7486Lake Victoria1985-1986KenyaMoreau, J.Morissette, L.7892Loyalty Islands, Uvea Atoll1991-1992New CaledoniaBozec, Y.M.Morissette, L.8193Veracruz, Mandinga lagoon1982-1983MexicoDe La Cruz-Aguero, G.Morissette, L.8295Canary Islands, Maspalomas lagoon1993-1994SpainMoreno, T.Morissette, L.8496Mauritania EEZ1987-1987MauritaniaOuld Taleb Ould Sidi, M.M.Morissette, L.8597Mauritania EEZ1998-1998MauritaniaOuld Taleb Ould Sidi, M.M.Morissette, L.8598Bank Arguin1988-1998MauritaniaOuld Taleb Ould Sidi, M.M.Morissette, L.8699Middle Atlantic Bight1995-1998United States of AmericaOkey, T.A.Morissette, L.87103Moorea, Fringing reef of Tiahura1971-1989French PolynesiaArias-González, J.E.Morissette, L.89104Atlantic coast of Morocco1985-1986MoroccoStanford, R.Morissette, L.90105Newfoundland1900-1905CanadaPitcher, T.J.Morissette, L.95106Newfoundland1985-1987CanadaBundy, A.Morissette, L.92,93107Newfoundland1985-1987CanadaHeymans, S.J.J.Morissette, L.94,91108Newfoundland1995-1997CanadaHeymans, S.J.J.Morissette, L.91,94110Newfoundland1994-1995CanadaPitcher, T.J.Morissette, L.91111Atlantic Ocean, central1950-1950Not affiliatedVasconcellos, M.Morissette, L.27112Atlantic Ocean, central1997-1998Not affiliatedVasconcellos, M.Morissette, L.27113Caete estuary1970-1990BrazilWolff, M.Morissette, L.96114North Sea1970-1970Not affiliatedBeattie, A.Morissette, L.97115Benguela, Northern1956-1956NamibiaHeymans, S.J.J.Morissette, L.101,100116Gulf of St Lawrence, Northern1985-1987CanadaMorissette, L.Morissette, L.103117Gulf of St Lawrence, Northern1994-1996CanadaSavenkoff, C.Morissette, L.104118Africa, Northwestern1987-1987Not affiliatedMorissette, L.Morissette, L.105119Orbetello lagoon1996-1996ItalyBrando, V.E.Morissette, L.106120Venice, Pallude della Rosa1994-1994ItalyCarrer, S.Morissette, L.107124Peruvian upwelling ecosystem1973-1979PeruJarre-Teichmann, A.Morissette, L.108125Ria Formosa reservoir1996-1997PortugalGamito, S.Morissette, L.109126British Columbia, Rivers Inlet1951-1955CanadaWatkinson, S.Morissette, L.110127British Columbia, Rivers Inlet1991-1995CanadaWatkinson, S.Morissette, L.110129San Miguel Bay1992-1994PhilippinesBundy, A.Morissette, L.112130Leyte, San Pedro Bay1994-1995PhilippinesCampos, W.L.Morissette, L.113131Gulf of Mexico, Terminos lagoonMexicoRivera-Arriaga, E.Morissette, L.114132Normandy, Seine estuary1995-1995FranceRybarczyk, H.Morissette, L.115133Senegambian continental shelf1990-1990Senegal,GambiaSamb, B.Morissette, L.116,117134Pacific Ocean, central1990-1998Not affiliatedKitchell, J.F.Morissette, L.118135Shelf and slope waters off Sierra Leone1964-1964Sierra LeoneHeymans, S.J.J.Morissette, L.119136Shelf and slope waters off Sierra Leone1978-1978Sierra LeoneHeymans, S.J.J.Morissette, L.119137Shelf and slope waters off Sierra Leone1990-1990Sierra LeoneHeymans, S.J.J.Morissette, L.119140Brazil Bight, Southern1998-1999BrazilGasalla, M.A.Morissette, L.121141Brazil Bight, Southern1998-1999BrazilGasalla, M.A.Morissette, L.121143South Orkneys, South Georgia1990-2000AntarcticaBredesen, E.L.Morissette, L.122EcoBase: a repository solution to gather and communicate information from EwE models24Appendix Table A1. ContinuedNumberLocationPeriodCountryAuthorFacilitatorReferences144Brazil, Southern1950-1994BrazilVasconcellos, M.Morissette, L.123145Gulf of St Lawrence, Southern1985-1987CanadaSavenkoff, C.Morissette, L.124146Gulf of St Lawrence, Southern1994-1996CanadaSavenkoff, C.Morissette, L.124147Southwest Coast of India1994-1996IndiaVivekanandan, E.Morissette, L.125149Gulf of Mexico, Seagrass in St Marks1994-1994United States of AmericaChristian, R.R.Morissette, L.127151Subantarctic plateau of New ZealandNew ZealandBradford-Grieve, J.M.Morissette, L.129154Gulf of Mexico, Tampamachoco lagoonMexicoRosado-Solórzano, R.Morissette, L.133155Terengganu coast1984-1985MalaysiaLiew, H.C.Morissette, L.134157Thames, Sonning1966-1972U.K. of Great Britain and Northern IrelandMathews, C.P.Morissette, L.136158Tongoy Bay1978-1989ChileWolff, M.Morissette, L.137163Gulf of Salamanca1997-1997ColombiaDuarte, L.O.Morissette, L.142,141168Greenland, Western1997-1997GreenlandPedersen, S.A.Morissette, L.145169Peninsula Malaysia, Western1987-1991MalaysiaMan, A.Morissette, L.146173Florida shelf, Western2000-2000United States of AmericaOkey, T.A.Morissette, L.148174West Greenland shrimp grounds1991-1992GreenlandPedersen, S.A.Morissette, L.149175Bering Sea, Western1981-1990Russian FederationAydin, K.Y.Morissette, L.150176English Channel, Western1994-1994France,U.K. of Great Britain and Northern IrelandAraújo, J.N.Morissette, L.151,152179Sine Saloum estuary, Bolong de Bamboung2003-2003SenegalColléter, M.Colléter, M.155180Sine Saloum estuary, Bolong de Bamboung2006-2008SenegalColléter, M.Colléter, M.155181Gulf of Alaska1980-1989CanadaPauly, D.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.156182Bering Sea, Eastern1955-1960Not affiliatedTrites, A.W.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.15183Bering Sea, Eastern1979-1985Not affiliatedTrites, A.W.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.15184Weddel Sea, Eastern1983-1993AntarcticaJarre-Teichmann, A.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.7185GBR, Northern1993-1994AustraliaGribble, N.A.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.48,49186GBR, CentralAustraliaTudman, P.D.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.157187GBR, Northern1993-1994AustraliaGribble, N.A.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.49,48188Baltic Sea1974-1974SwedenHarvey, C.J.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.11189Caete estuary1970-1990BrazilWolff, M.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.96190State of Sao Paulo, Broa reservoirBrazilAngelini, R.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.158191Brazil Bight, Southern1998-1999BrazilGasalla, M.A.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.121192Brunei Darussalam1989-1990Brunei DarussalamSilvestre, G.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.;Morissette, L.17193Lake Tanganyika1980-1983BurundiMoreau, J.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.77194British Columbia, Northern1750-1750CanadaAinsworth, C.H.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.159195British Columbia, Northern1900-1900CanadaAinsworth, C.H.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.159196British Columbia, Northern1950-1950CanadaAinsworth, C.H.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.159197British Columbia, Northern2000-2000CanadaAinsworth, C.H.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.159198British Columbia, Rivers Inlet1951-1955CanadaWatkinson, S.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.110199British Columbia, Rivers Inlet1991-1995CanadaWatkinson, S.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.110200Lake Ontario1991-1991CanadaHalfon, E.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.76201Newfoundland1450-1450CanadaPitcher, T.J.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.95202Newfoundland1900-1905CanadaPitcher, T.J.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.95203Newfoundland1985-1987CanadaPitcher, T.J.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.91204Newfoundland1995-1997CanadaPitcher, T.J.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.91Fisheries Centre Research Reports 21(1) - Colléter et al. 25Appendix Table A1. ContinuedNumberLocationPeriodCountryAuthorFacilitatorReferences205Gulf of St Lawrence, Northern1985-1987CanadaMorissette, L.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.103206Canary Islands, Maspalomas lagoon1993-1994SpainMoreno, T.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.84207Central Chile1992-1992ChileNeira, S.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.28208Central Chile1998-1998ChileNeira, S.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.28209Tongoy Bay1978-1989ChileWolff, M.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.137210Bohai Sea1982-1983ChinaTong, L.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.16211Gulf of Salamanca1997-1997ColombiaDuarte, L.O.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.142,141212Gulf of NicoyaCosta RicaWolff, M.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.53213Gulf Dulce1993-1994Costa RicaWolff, M.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.47214Thames, Sonning1966-1972U.K. of Great Britain and Northern IrelandMathews, C.P.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.136215Lake Awassa2003-2004EthiopiaFetahi, T.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.452,69216Bay of Somme1998-1998FranceRybarczyk, H.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.14217Etang de Thau1980-1989FrancePalomares, M.L.D.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.39218Gironde estuary1991-1998FranceLobry, J.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.46,478219Massif Central, Lake Aydat1990-1992FranceReyes-Marchant, P.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.42220Normandy, Seine estuary1995-1995FranceRybarczyk, H.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.115221Garonne river, Toulouse1990-1991FrancePalomares, M.L.D.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.160222Moorea, Barrier reef of Tiahura1971-1989French PolynesiaArias-González, J.E.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.89223Moorea, Fringing reef of Tiahura1971-1989French PolynesiaArias-González, J.E.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.89224Sakumo lagoon1971-1971GhanaPauly, D.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.111225West Greenland shrimp grounds1991-1992GreenlandPedersen, S.A.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.149226Icelandic marine ecosystem (ICES area Va)1997-1997IcelandMendy, A.N.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.61227Icelandic shelf1950-1950IcelandBuchary, E.A.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.59228Icelandic shelf1997-1997IcelandSamb, B.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.62229Lake Veli1980-1980IndiaAravindan, C.M.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.143230Lake Kinneret1980-1989IsraelWalline, P.D.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.73231Lagoon of Venice1994-1994ItalyCarrer, S.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.66232Orbetello lagoon1996-1996ItalyBrando, V.E.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.106233Lake Turkana1973-1973KenyaKolding, J.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.138234Lake Turkana1987-1987KenyaKolding, J.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.138235Lake Victoria1971-1972KenyaMoreau, J.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.79236Lake Malawi1979-1981MalawiDegnbol, P.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.75237Terengganu coast1984-1985MalaysiaLiew, H.C.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.134238Gulf of California, La Paz Bay1992-1998MexicoArreguín-Sánchez, F.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.161239Gulf of California, Central1978-1979MexicoArreguín-Sánchez, F.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.30,29240Gulf of Mexico, Sonda de Campeche1988-1994MexicoManickchand-Heileman, S.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.21,120241Huizache-Caimanero lagoon1984-1986MexicoZetina-Rejón, M.J.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.58242Alto Golfo de CaliforniaMexicoMorales-Zárate, M.V.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.6243Gulf of Mexico, Terminos lagoonMexicoManickchand-Heileman, S.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.135244Veracruz, Mandinga lagoon1982-1983MexicoDe La Cruz-Aguero, G.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.82245Gulf of Mexico, Tampamachoco lagoonMexicoRosado-Solórzano, R.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.133246Celestun lagoonMexicoChávez, E.A.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.26247Celestun lagoon1986-1986MexicoVega-Cendejas, M.E.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.25EcoBase: a repository solution to gather and communicate information from EwE models26Appendix Table A1. ContinuedNumberLocationPeriodCountryAuthorFacilitatorReferences248Maputo Bay1972-1985MozambiqueDe Paula E Silva, R.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.83249Loyalty Islands, Uvea Atoll1991-1992New CaledoniaBozec, Y.M.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.81250Subantartic Plateau New ZealandNew ZealandBradford-Grieve, J.M.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.129251North Sea1981-1981Not affiliatedChristensen, V.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.98252Aleutian Islands1963-1963United States of AmericaGuénette, S.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.;Morissette, L.5,4253Pacific Ocean, central1990-1998Not affiliatedCox, S.P.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.31254Pacific Ocean, central1990-1998Not affiliatedKitchell, J.F.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.118255Manila, Laguna de Bay1820-1820PhilippinesDelos Reyes, M.R.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.68,67256Manila, Laguna de Bay1920-1920PhilippinesDelos Reyes, M.R.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.68,67257Manila, Laguna de Bay1950-1950PhilippinesDelos Reyes, M.R.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.67,68258Manila, Laguna de Bay1968-1968PhilippinesDelos Reyes, M.R.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.68,67259Manila, Laguna de Bay1980-1980PhilippinesDelos Reyes, M.R.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.67,68260Manila, Laguna de Bay1990-1990PhilippinesDelos Reyes, M.R.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.67,68261Santiago Island, Bolinao coral reef1990-1990PhilippinesAliño, P.M.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.162262South Orkneys, South Georgia1990-2000AntarcticaBredesen, E.L.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.122263Benguela, NorthernNamibiaHeymans, S.J.J.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.102264Cantabrian Sea1994-1994SpainSánchez, F.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.23265Parakrama Samudra reservoir1970-1980Sri LankaMoreau, J.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.126266Kuosheng Bay1998-2001ChinaLin, H.-J.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.64267Lagoon Chiku1997-1997ChinaLin, H.-J.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.65268Gulf of PariaTrinidad and Tobago,VenezuelaManickchand-Heileman, S.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.163269Looe Key1980-1989United States of AmericaMcCormick Venier, J.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.80270Lake George1970-1979UgandaMoreau, J.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.71271English Channel1973-1973U.K. of Great Britain and Northern IrelandStanford, R.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.38272English Channel1995-1995U.K. of Great Britain and Northern IrelandStanford, R.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.38273Monterey Bay1989-1991United States of AmericaOlivieri, R.A.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.88274Gulf of Mexico, Seagrass in St Marks1994-1994United States of AmericaChristian, R.R.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.127275Florida shelf, Western2000-2000United States of AmericaOkey, T.A.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.148276Bering Sea, Eastern1979-1985United States of AmericaAydin, K.Y.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.150277Bering Sea, Western1981-1990Russian FederationAydin, K.Y.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.150279Prince William Sound1994-1996United States of AmericaOkey, T.A.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.;Morissette, L.1,2280Prince William Sound1980-1989United States of AmericaDalsgaard, J.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.3282Venezuela shelf1988-1988VenezuelaMendoza, J.J.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.144283Lake Chad1970-1972ChadPalomares, M.L.D.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.70284Lake Kariba1980-1980ZimbabweMachena, C.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.72285San Miguel Bay1992-1994PhilippinesBundy, A.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.112286Ria Formosa reservoir1996-1997PortugalGamito, S.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.109287Mexican Caribbean1990-1990MexicoAlvarez-Hernández, J.H.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.33288Celestun lagoon1992-1994MexicoVega-Cendejas, M.E.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.25289Gulf of Mexico, Terminos lagoonMexicoRivera-Arriaga, E.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.114290Bahia La Ascencion1989-1995MexicoVidal, L.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.9291Campeche Sound1988-1994MexicoZetina-Rejón, M.J.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.19,20,21,22Fisheries Centre Research Reports 21(1) - Colléter et al. 27Appendix Table A1. ContinuedNumberLocationPeriodCountryAuthorFacilitatorReferences292Brazil, Southern1950-1994BrazilVasconcellos, M.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.123293North Sea1881-1890Not affiliatedMackinson, S.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.99294Barents Sea1990-1990Russian FederationBlanchard, J.L.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.57295Barents Sea1995-1995Russian FederationBlanchard, J.L.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.57296West Scotland2000-2004U.K. of Great Britain and Northern IrelandHaggan, N.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.164297English Channel, Western1994-1994France,U.K. of Great Britain and Northern IrelandAraújo, J.N.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.151,152298Paraná River Floodplain1992-1995BrazilAngelini, R.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.140299Venice, Pallude della Rosa1994-1994ItalyCarrer, S.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.107300Bay of Bengal1984-1986BangladeshMustafa, M.G.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.12301Southwest coast of India1994-1996IndiaVivekanandan, E.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.125302North Coast of Central Java1979-1979IndonesiaNurhakim, S.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.165303Peninsula Malaysia, Western1987-1991MalaysiaMan, A.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.146304Sarawak, Western1972-1972MalaysiaGarces, L.R.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.147305Sabah, Western1972-1972MalaysiaGarces, L.R.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.147306Leyte, San Pedro Bay1994-1995PhilippinesCampos, W.L.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.113307Jalisco and Colima1995-1996MexicoGalván-Piña, V.H.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.63308Lake Kinneret1980-1989IsraelWalline, P.D.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.73309Lake Tanganyika1974-1976BurundiMoreau, J.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.77310Lake Tanganyika1980-1983BurundiMoreau, J.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.77311Peruvian upwelling ecosystem1953-1959PeruJarre-Teichmann, A.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.108312Peruvian upwelling ecosystem1960-1969PeruJarre-Teichmann, A.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.108314Gulf of Mexico1980-1989MexicoBrowder, J.A.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.52315Lake George1970-1979UgandaMoreau, J.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.71316Lake Kariba1980-1980ZimbabweMachena, C.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.72317Gulf of Mexico, Southwestern1970-1979MexicoArreguín-Sánchez, F.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.153318Gulf of Mexico, Tamiahua1980-1989MexicoAbarca-Arenas, L.G.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.130320Gulf of Mexico, Yucatan1987-1987MexicoArreguín-Sánchez, F.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.154321Lake Victoria1971-1972KenyaMoreau, J.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.79322Lake Victoria1985-1986KenyaMoreau, J.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.79323Campeche Bank1985-1990MexicoVega-Cendejas, M.E.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.18324British Virgin Islands1960-1999British Virgin IslandsOpitz, S.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.139325Gulf of California, Southern1994-1997MexicoSalcido-Guavara, L.A.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.166327Brazil, Southern1950-1994BrazilVasconcellos, M.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.123328Strait of Georgia1950-1950CanadaMartell, S.J.D.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.128329Bali Strait1990-1999IndonesiaBuchary, E.A.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.10330Lake Malawi1977-1996MalawiNsiku, E.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.74331Lake Victoria1985-1986KenyaMoreau, J.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.78332Barents Sea1990-1990Russian FederationBlanchard, J.L.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.57333Barents Sea1995-1995Russian FederationBlanchard, J.L.Arreguín-Sánchez, F.57335Bay of Biscay1994-2005FranceLassalle, G.Lassalle, G.171,170400Raja Ampat1990-1990IndonesiaAinsworth, C.H.Christensen, V.301,300401Raja Ampat2005-2005IndonesiaAinsworth, C.H.Christensen, V.509,301,300402Bonifacio Strait Natural Reserve, Corsica2000-2001FranceAlbouy, C.Albouy, C.304EcoBase: a repository solution to gather and communicate information from EwE models28Appendix Table A1. ContinuedNumberLocationPeriodCountryAuthorFacilitatorReferences403Western English Channel1993-1995France,U.K. of Great Britain and Northern IrelandAraújo, J.N.Christensen, V.151404Celestun lagoonMexicoArreguín-Sánchez, F.Christensen, V.153405Australian North West Shelf1986-1991AustraliaBulman, C.Christensen, V.308406East Bass Strait1994-1994AustraliaBulman, C.Christensen, V.310407Tasmanian Seamounts Marine Reserve1992-1996AustraliaBulman, C.Christensen, V.309408China Sea, Beibu Gulf1997-1999China,Viet NamChen, Z.Christensen, V.439,313409China Sea, Beibu Gulf1997-1999China,Viet NamChen, Z.Christensen, V.439,312410N South China Sea1970-1970China,Viet NamCheung, W.W.L.Christensen, V.314411Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)1990-1990Falkland Islands (Malvinas)Cheung, W.W.L.Christensen, V.315412Gulf of Thailand1963-1963ThailandChristensen, V.Christensen, V.56413North SeaNot affiliatedChristensen, V.Christensen, V.317414West coast of Peninsular Malaysia1970-1970MalaysiaChristensen, V.Christensen, V.318415SW coast of Vietnam1993-1995Viet NamChristensen, V.Christensen, V.318417Baja California Sur1970-1970MexicoCisneros-Montemayor, A.M.Christensen, V.320,441418Catalan Sea, Southern1994-1994SpainColl, M.Christensen, V.321419Northern and Central Adriatic Sea1990-1990Italy,Slovenia,CroatiaColl, M.Christensen, V.322420Catalan Sea, Southern1978-1980SpainColl, M.Christensen, V.323421NC Adriatic Sea1975-1975Italy,Slovenia,CroatiaColl, M.Christensen, V.324,453422Antarctic PeninsulaAntarcticaCornejo-Donoso, J.Christensen, V.325423La Guajira, N Colombian coast1995-2000ColombiaCriales-Hernández, M.I.Christensen, V.521,443,326424Black Sea1960-1960Not affiliatedDaskalov, G.M.Christensen, V.327425Gulf of California, La Paz Bay + La Ventana Bay1990-2001MexicoDíaz-Uribe, J.G.Christensen, V.329426Norwegian and Barents Sea1997-1997Norway,Russian FederationDommasnes, A.Christensen, V.330427Antarctic PeninsulaAntarcticaErfan, A.Christensen, V.331428Central North PacificNot affiliatedEssington, T.E.Christensen, V.332429Sorfjord and Ullsfjord, Troms County1993-1996NorwayFalk-Petersen, J.Christensen, V.333430East Brazil Large Marine Ecosystem1970-1970BrazilFreire, K.M.Christensen, V.336431Port Phillip Bay1994-1995AustraliaFulton, E.Christensen, V.337,520433Black Sea1955-1965Not affiliatedGucu, A.Christensen, V.341434Black Sea1980-1980Not affiliatedGucu, A.Christensen, V.341435Black Sea1990-1990Not affiliatedGucu, A.Christensen, V.341436WC Tropical Pacific Ocean1990-2001Not affiliatedGodinot, O.Christensen, V.339437Lingayen Gulf, NW Philippine coastPhilippinesGuarin, F.Y.Christensen, V.376,340438SE Alaska1963-1963United States of AmericaGuénette, S.Christensen, V.4439Peruvian coastPeruGuénette, S.Christensen, V.343440Guinean coast2004-2004GuineaGuénette, S.Christensen, V.338441Sri Lanka coast2000-2000Sri LankaHaputhantri, S.Christensen, V.344442WC Aleutian Islands1963-1963United States of AmericaHeymans, S.J.J.Christensen, V.346443Rockall Trough and its seamounts, Scotland1974-1974U.K. of Great Britain and Northern IrelandHeymans, S.J.J.Christensen, V.465,347444Gulf of Maine and Georges Banks1977-1986United States of AmericaHeymans, S.J.J.Christensen, V.345445East China Sea1997-2000China,JapanJiang, H.Christensen, V.348446Hudson Bay1970-1970CanadaHoover, C.Christensen, V.351,350,462447AntarcticaAntarcticaHoover, C.Christensen, V.349Fisheries Centre Research Reports 21(1) - Colléter et al. 29Appendix Table A1. ContinuedNumberLocationPeriodCountryAuthorFacilitatorReferences448Irish Sea1973-1973Ireland,U.K. of Great Britain and Northern IrelandLees, K.Christensen, V.354449Mont St Michel Bay2003-2003FranceArbach Leloup, F.Christensen, V.355450Gulf of California, Northern1990-2000MexicoLercari, D.Christensen, V.356451East China Sea2000-2000China,Republic of Korea,JapanLi, Y.Christensen, V.357452Miramare Natural Marine Reserve, Gulf of Trieste, Adriatic Sea2000-2003ItalyLibralato, S.Christensen, V.358453Tapong Bay, SW Taiwan1999-2001ChinaLin, H.-J.Christensen, V.359454Nanwan Bay, Kenting National Park, S Taiwan2001-2003ChinaLiu, P.-J.Christensen, V.360455Aranci Bay, NE Sardinian coast2004-2007ItalyDíaz-López, B.Christensen, V.328457North Sea1991-1991Not affiliatedMackinson, S.Christensen, V.362458Strait of GeorgiaCanadaMackinson, S.Christensen, V.361459Lesser Antilles Pelagic Ecosystem2001-2005Not affiliatedMohammed, E.Christensen, V.364460Grenada and the Grenadines1999-1999GrenadaMohammed, E.Christensen, V.363461West coast of Scotland2000-2004U.K. of Great Britain and Northern IrelandMorissette, L.Christensen, V.367462Gulf of St Lawrence, Northern1995-1995CanadaMorissette, L.Christensen, V.366463Gulf of St Lawrence, Northern1985-1987CanadaMorissette, L.Christensen, V.365,366464Baltic Sea, Schlei FjordGermanyNauen, C.Christensen, V.368,319465Albatross Bay, Gulf of Carpentaria1986-1992AustraliaOkey, T.A.Christensen, V.370466Gulf of Carpentaria1990-1990AustraliaOkey, T.A.Christensen, V.371467South Atlantic Bight1995-1998United States of AmericaOkey, T.A.Christensen, V.372468Black SeaNot affiliatedOrek, H.Christensen, V.373469South China Sea1980-1980Not affiliatedPauly, D.Christensen, V.376470Southern BC ShelfCanadaPauly, D.Christensen, V.375471Mejillones Peninsula, Antofagasta1999-2002ChilePavés, H.J.Christensen, V.377472Te Tapuwae o Rongokako Marine Reserve2000-2003New ZealandPinkerton, M.Christensen, V.378473Bay of CalviFrancePinnegar, J.K.Christensen, V.379474NE Ionian Sea1964-1964GreecePiroddi, C.Christensen, V.380475NE Ionian Sea2007-2007GreecePiroddi, C.Christensen, V.381476French Frigate Shoals, NW Hawaiian ArchipelagoUnited States of AmericaPolovina, J.J.Christensen, V.382477Strait of Georgia1950-1950CanadaPreikshot, D.B.Christensen, V.383478BC Shelf1950-1950CanadaPreikshot, D.B.Christensen, V.383479NE Pacific Ocean1950-1950Canada,United States of AmericaPreikshot, D.B.Christensen, V.383480Kerguelen Islands1987-1988French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesPruvost, P.Christensen, V.384481Sao Sebastiao ChannelBrazilRocha, G.R.Christensen, V.385482C Gulf of California1980-1980MexicoRosas-Luis, R.Christensen, V.386483C Gulf of California2002-2002MexicoRosas-Luis, R.Christensen, V.386484Oregon Coast, inner shelf2000-2002United States of AmericaRuzicka, J.J.Christensen, V.387485S Benguela1978-1978South AfricaShannon, L.Christensen, V.522,390,389486Cape Verde Archipelago1981-1985Cape VerdeStobberup, K.A.Christensen, V.391487Northern Humboldt Current Ecosystem1995-1996PeruTam, J.Christensen, V.392488Northern Humboldt Current Ecosystem1997-1998PeruTam, J.Christensen, V.392489Sechura Bay1996-1996PeruTaylor, M.H.Christensen, V.393490Independence Bay1996-1996PeruTaylor, M.H.Christensen, V.394491Gulf of Riga1990-1990LithuaniaTomczak, M.T.Christensen, V.396EcoBase: a repository solution to gather and communicate information from EwE models30Appendix Table A1. ContinuedNumberLocationPeriodCountryAuthorFacilitatorReferences492Lithuanian Coast1990-1990LithuaniaTomczak, M.T.Christensen, V.396493Parnu Bay1990-1990EstoniaTomczak, M.T.Christensen, V.396494Puck Bay1990-1990PolandTomczak, M.T.Christensen, V.396495N Aegean Sea2003-2006Greece,TurkeyTsagarakis, K.Christensen, V.397496Eritrean Red Sea coast1998-1998EritreaTsehaye, I.Christensen, V.398497Port-Cros Archipelago1998-2008FranceValls, A.Christensen, V.399498S Brazilian ShelfBrazilVelasco, G.Christensen, V.402,400,401499Kaloko-Honokohau, Honolulu2005-2005United States of AmericaWabnitz, C.C.Christensen, V.403,516500N Benguela1600-1600AngolaWatermeyer, K.Christensen, V.406501N Benguela1900-1900AngolaWatermeyer, K.Christensen, V.406502N Benguela1967-1967AngolaWatermeyer, K.Christensen, V.406503N Benguela1990-1990AngolaWatermeyer, K.Christensen, V.406504S Benguela1600-1600Namibia,South AfricaWatermeyer, K.Christensen, V.407505S Benguela1900-1900Namibia,South AfricaWatermeyer, K.Christensen, V.407506S Benguela1960-1960Namibia,South AfricaWatermeyer, K.Christensen, V.407507Gulf of Maine1980-1980United States of AmericaZhang, Y.Christensen, V.409508Gulf of Maine1990-1990United States of AmericaZhang, Y.Christensen, V.409509Congo2005-2007Democratic Republic of the CongoBongu, M.M.Christensen, V.307510Sao Tome and Principe1999-2006Sao Tome and PrincipeCastro, A.Christensen, V.311511Benin2005-2005BeninFiogbe, E.D.Christensen, V.335512Sierra Leone2006-2007Sierra LeoneKargbo, V.H.Christensen, V.352513Liberia1995-2007LiberiaKay, D.W.Christensen, V.353514Gabon2005-2005GabonOgandagas, C.Christensen, V.369515Ghana2005-2008GhanaOsei, S.V.Christensen, V.374516Togo1990-2009TogoSedzro, K.M.Christensen, V.388517Nigeria1995-2007NigeriaWilliams, A.B.Christensen, V.408518Grand Banks of Newfoundland1985-1985CanadaAinsworth, C.H.Christensen, V.303519Northern Californian CurrentUnited States of AmericaWalters, C.J.Christensen, V.405520Gulf of MexicoMexico,United States of AmericaWalters, C.J.Christensen, V.404,405521Northern Californian CurrentUnited States of AmericaField, J.C.Christensen, V.302,334522Catalan Sea2009-2009SpainTecchio, S.Christensen, V.395523Angola1986-1986AngolaAngelini, R.Only publication424524Parangipettai, southeast coast of India2004-2005IndiaAntony, P.J. Only publication425525NAFO Division 4X (western Scotian Shelf + Bay of Fundy)1970-1970CanadaAraújo, J.N.Only publication427,437526Western English Channel1973-1973France,U.K. of Great Britain and Northern IrelandAraújo, J.N.Only publication428527Bay of Fundy1995-2000CanadaAraújo, J.N.Only publication426528NAFO Division 4X (western Scotian Shelf + Bay of Fundy)1995-2000CanadaAraújo, J.N.Only publication426529Western Scotian Shelf1995-2000CanadaAraújo, J.N.Only publication426530Alacranes Reef, Campeche BankMexicoArias-González, J.E.Only publication430531Boca Paila, N Sian Ka’an Biosphere ReserveMexicoArias-González, J.E.Only publication429532MahahualMexicoArias-González, J.E.Only publication429533Tampalam, S Sian Ka’an Biosphere ReserveMexicoArias-González, J.E.Only publication429Fisheries Centre Research Reports 21(1) - Colléter et al. 31Appendix Table A1. ContinuedNumberLocationPeriodCountryAuthorFacilitatorReferences534Gulf of AlaskaUnited States of AmericaAydin, K.Y.Only publication431,455,456535Gulf of Lions2000-2009FranceBănaru, D.Only publication432536Northern Adriatic Sea1996-1998Italy,Slovenia,CroatiaBarausse, A.Only publication433537Santa Pola Bay2001-2007SpainBayle-Sempere, J.T.Only publication434538Java Sea1974-1979IndonesiaBuchary, E.A.Only publication436539Sea of Okhotsk1980-1980Russian Federation,JapanChaikina, N.Only publication438540East China Sea2000-2000ChinaCheng, J.Only publication440541South Catalan Sea, Balearic Sea1978-1978SpainColl, M.Only publication442542Breton Sound Estuary1986-1990United States of Americade Mutsert, K.Only publication444,445543Northern and Central Gulf of California1980-1980MexicoDíaz-Uribe, J.G.Only publication446544Lake Victoria1977-1977United Republic of TanzaniaDowning, A.S.Only publication447545Lake Victoria1987-1987United Republic of TanzaniaDowning, A.S.Only publication447546Lake Victoria2005-2005United Republic of TanzaniaDowning, A.S.Only publication447547Pearl River Estuary1981-1981ChinaDuan, L.J.Only publication449548Pearl River Delta1997-1999ChinaDuan, L.J.Only publication448549Pearl River Estuary1998-1998ChinaDuan, L.J.Only publication449550West coast of Vancouver IslandCanadaEspinosa-Romero, M.J.Only publication450551Kelavarapalli reservoir, Hosur TalukIndiaFeroz Khan, M.Only publication451552Delaware Bay1966-1966United States of AmericaFrisk, M.G.Only publication454553Eastern Great Australian Bight1991-1991AustraliaGoldsworthy, S.D.Only publication457554Eastern Tuna and Billfish Fishery2004-2007AustraliaGriffiths, S.P.Only publication458,459555Namyang reservoir2007-2007Republic of KoreaHan, J.-H.Only publication460556Puget Sound Central Basin2000-2000United States of AmericaHarvey, C.J.Only publication461557Antarctic Peninsula1978-1978AntarcticaHoover, C.Only publication463558Lake Toya1992-2004JapanHossain, M.M.Only publication464559Lake Gehu1986-1989ChinaJia, P.Only publication466560East China Sea1997-2000China,Republic of Korea,JapanJiang, H.Only publication348,468561SE Australian continental shelf1915-1915AustraliaKlaer, N.L.Only publication469562SE Australian continental shelf1961-1961AustraliaKlaer, N.L.Only publication469563Lake Huron1981-1981Canada,United States of AmericaLangseth, B.J.Only publication470564Lake Michigan1987-1987Canada,United States of AmericaLangseth, B.J.Only publication470565Bay of Biscay1994-2005France,SpainLassalle, G.Only publication170,171566Eastern Bering Sea1979-1985United States of AmericaLee, S.I.Only publication473567Arachania, sandy beachUruguayLercari, D.Only publication474568Barra del Chuy, sandy beachUruguayLercari, D.Only publication474569Strait of Georgia2005-2005CanadaLi, L.Only publication476570Northern Central Adriatic Sea1990-1990Italy,Slovenia,CroatiaLibralato, S.Only publication358571Miramare Natural Marine Reserve, Gulf of Trieste2000-2003ItalyLibralato, S.Only publication358572Lake Qiandaohu2004-2004ChinaLiu, Q.-G.Only publication477573Laguna de Rocha2003-2006UruguayMilessi, A.C.Only publication480574Arabian Sea1999-2001IndiaMohamed, K.S.Only publication481575Lancaster Sound region1980-1980CanadaMohammed, E.Only publication483576Bahia Tortugas, Baja California2006-2008MexicoMorales-Zárate, M.V.Only publication484EcoBase: a repository solution to gather and communicate information from EwE models32Appendix Table A1. ContinuedNumberLocationPeriodCountryAuthorFacilitatorReferences577Lake VictoriaKenyaMoreau, J.Only publication78578Greek Ionian Sea1998-2006GreeceMoutopoulos, D.K.Only publication486579Southeastern Brazilian Bight2001-2001BrazilNascimento, M.C.Only publication487580Southern Humboldt upwelling system off central Chile1970-1970ChileNeira, S.Only publication488581Baltic SeaNot affiliatedNiiranen, S.Only publication489582Great South Bay, Long Island1880-1880United States of AmericaNuttall, M.A.Only publication490583Great South Bay, Long Island1930-1930United States of AmericaNuttall, M.A.Only publication490584Great South Bay, Long Island1980-1980United States of AmericaNuttall, M.A.Only publication490585Great South Bay, Long Island2000-2000United States of AmericaNuttall, M.A.Only publication490586Barren Ground habitat, Mejillones Peninsula2004-2007ChileOrtiz, M.Only publication492587Lessonia trabeculata habitat, Mejillones Peninsula2004-2007ChileOrtiz, M.Only publication492588Macrocystis integrifolia habitat, Mejillones Peninsula2004-2007ChileOrtiz, M.Only publication492590La Rinconada Marine Reserve, Antofagasta BayChileOrtiz, M.Only publication493591Puerto Aldea, southern Tongoy BayChileOrtiz, M.Only publication496,495592Mud habitat, Puerto Aldea, southern Tongoy BayChileOrtiz, M.Only publication491,495593Sand habitat, Puerto Aldea, southern Tongoy BayChileOrtiz, M.Only publication495,496594Sand-gravel habitat, Puerto Aldea, southern Tongoy BayChileOrtiz, M.Only publication495,496595Seagrass habitat, Puerto Aldea, southern Tongoy BayChileOrtiz, M.Only publication495,496596Wyra reservoir1995-1996IndiaPanikkar, P.Only publication497597Wyra reservoir2002-2003IndiaPanikkar, P.Only publication497598Eutrophic area, south arm of Mondego Estuary1991-1997PortugalPatricio, J.Only publication498599Intermediate area, south arm of Mondego Estuary1991-1997PortugalPatricio, J.Only publication498600Meadows area, south arm of Mondego Estuary1991-1997PortugalPatricio, J.Only publication498601Gulf of MexicoMexico,United States of America,CubaPauly, D.Only publication499602Sørfjord1993-1996NorwayPedersen, T.Only publication500603Discovery Bay1999-2001JamaicaPersad, G.Only publication501604Mekong Delta2002-2004Viet NamPhong, L.T.Only publication502605Bolivar Channel, Galapagos2004-2008EcuadorRuiz, D.J.Only publication518,503606Northern California Current2003-2007United States of AmericaRuzicka, J.J.Only publication504607Gwaii Haanas National Marine Conservation Area, Queen Charlotte IslandsCanadaSalomon, A.K.Only publication505608Baltic Proper, Baltic Sea1974-1974Not affiliatedTomczak, M.T.Only publication506609Lake Ayamé1995-1996Côte d'IvoireTraore, A.Only publication507610Bay of Bengal1991-2007BangladeshUllah, M.H.Only publication508611Ebrie lagoon1980-1981Côte d'IvoireVillanueva, M.C.S.Only publication511,514612Sine Saloum Estuary1991-1992SenegalVillanueva, M.C.S.Only publication511,512613Bagré reservoir1997-1998Burkina FasoVillanueva, M.C.S.Only publication513614Gambie Estuary2000-2002GambiaVillanueva, M.C.S.Only publication511615Lake Nokoue2000-2001BeninVillanueva, M.C.S.Only publication511,514616Lake Kivu2002-2003Democratic Republic of the Congo,RwandaVillanueva, M.C.S.Only publication515617Northern Hangzhou Bay2006-2007ChinaXu, S.Only publication519618La Rinconada Marine Reserve SS1, Antofagasta Bay2005-2007ChileOrtiz, M.Only publication494Fisheries Centre Research Reports 21(1) - Colléter et al. 33Appendix Table A1. ContinuedNumberLocationPeriodCountryAuthorFacilitatorReferences619La Rinconada Marine Reserve SS2, Antofagasta Bay2005-2007ChileOrtiz, M.Only publication494620N South China Sea2000-2000China,Viet NamCheung, W.W.L.Only publication314622S Gulf of St Lawrence1995-1995CanadaMorissette, L.Only publication366623S Gulf of St Lawrence1985-1985CanadaMorissette, L.Only publication366624Sao Sebastiao Inner ShelfBrazilRocha, G.R.Only publication385625Independence Bay1998-1998PeruTaylor, M.H.Only publication394626Curonian Lagoon, Baltic Sea1990-1990LithuaniaTomczak, M.T.Only publication396628North Sea1973-1973Not affiliatedMackinson, S.Only publication362629Pearl River Estuary1981-1981ChinaWang, Y.Only publication449,517630Arabian Sea, SW India1999-2001IndiaMohamed, K.S.Only publication481,482631Gulf of MexicoMexico,United States of America,CubaVidal, L.Only publication510,499725Guinea continental shelf2004-2004GuineaGascuel, D.Gascuel, D.523726Guinea continental shelf1985-1985GuineaGascuel, D.Gascuel, D.523EcoBase: a repository solution to gather and communicate information from EwE models34Appendix Table A2.  List of the associated references.Number Full reference1 Okey TA, Pauly D (1999) Trophic Mass-Balance Model of Alaska’s Prince William Sound Ecosystem, for the Post-Spill Period 1994-1996. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 7(4). 136p.2 Okey TA (2002) Simulating extreme fishing polices in Prince William Sound, Alaska: a preliminary evaluation of an ecosystem-based policy analysis tool. pp. 94-108 In Pitcher TJ, Cochrane K (eds.), The Use of Ecosystem Models to Investigate Multispecies Management Strategies for Capture Fisheries. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 10(2).3 Dalsgaard J, Pauly D, Okey TA (1997) Preliminary Mass-Balance Model of Prince William Sound, Alaska, for the Pre-Spill Period, 1980-1989. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 5(2). 33p.4 Guénette S, Heymans SJJ, Christensen V, Trites AW (2006) Ecosystem models show combined effects of fishing, predation, competition, and ocean productivity on Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 63(11): 2495-2517.5 Heymans SJJ (2005) Ecosystem models of the Western and Central Aleutian Islands in 1963, 1979 and 1991. pp. 8-83 In Guénette S, Christensen V (eds.), Food web models and data for studying fisheries and environmental impacts on Eastern Pacific ecosystems. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 13(1).6 Morales-Zárate MV, Arreguín-Sánchez F, López-Martínez J, Lluch-Cota SE (2004) Ecosystem trophic structure and energy flux in the Northern Gulf of California, México. Ecological Modelling 174(4): 331-345.7 Jarre-Teichmann A, Brey T, Bathmann UV, Dahm C, Dieckmann GS, Gorny M, Klages M, Plötz J, Schnack-Schiel SB, Stiller M, Arntz WE (1997) Trophic flows in the benthic shelf community of the eastern Weddell Sea, Antarctica. pp. 118-134 In Battaglia B, Valencia J, Walton DWH (eds.), Antarctic communities: species, structure and survival. Cambridge University Press.8 Guénette S, Morato T (2001) The Azores Archipelago, 1997. pp. 241-270 In Guénette S, Christensen V, Pauly D (eds.), Fisheries Impacts on North Atlantic Ecosystems: Models and Analyses. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 9(4).9 Vidal L, Basurto M (2003) A Preliminary Trophic Model of Bahía de la Ascensión, Quintana Roo, Mexico. pp. 255-264 In Zeller D, Booth S, Mohammed E, Pauly D (eds.), From Mexico to Brazil: Central Atlantic Fisheries Catch Trends and Ecosystem Models. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 11(6).10 Buchary EA, Alder J, Nurhakim S, Wagey T (2002) The Use of Ecosystem-based Modelling to Investigate Multi-species Management Strategies for Capture Fisheries in the Bali Strait, Indonesia. pp. 24-32 In Pitcher TJ, Cochrane K (eds.), The Use of Ecosystem Models to Investigate Multispecies Management Strategies for Capture Fisheries. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 10(2).11 Harvey CJ, Cox SP, Essington TE, Hansson S, Kitchell JF (2003) An ecosystem model of food web and fisheries interactions in the Baltic Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science 60(5): 939-950.12 Mustafa MG (2003) Trophic Model of the Coastal Ecosystem in the waters of Bangladesh, Bay of Bengal. pp. 263-280 In Silvestre G, Garces L, Stobutzki I, Ahmed M, Valmonte-Santos RA, Luna C, Lachica-Aliño L, Munro P, Christensen V, Pauly D (eds.), Assessment, Management and Future Directions of Coastal Fisheries in Asian Countries. WorldFish Center Conference Proceedings 67.13 Ainsworth C, Feriss B, Leblond E, Guénette S (2001) The Bay of Biscay, France: 1998 and 1970 models. pp. 271-313 In Guénette S, Christensen V, Pauly D (eds.), Fisheries Impacts on North Atlantic Ecosystems: Models and Analyses. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 9(4).14 Rybarczyk H, Elkaim B, Ochs L, Loquet N (2003) Analysis of the trophic network of a macrotidal ecosystem: the Bay of Somme (Eastern Channel). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 58(3): 405-421.15 Trites AW, Livingston PA, Mackinson S, Vasconcellos MC, Springer AM, Pauly D (1999) Ecosystem Change and the Decline of Marine Mammals the Eastern Bering Sea: Testing the Ecosystem Shift and Commercial Whaling Hypotheses. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 7(1). 106p.16 Tong L, Tang Q, Pauly D (2000) A preliminary approach on mass-balance ecopath model of the Bohai Sea. Chinese Jounal of Applied Ecology 11(3): 435-440.17 Silvestre G, Selvanatham S, Salleh AHM (1993) Preliminary Trophic Model of the Coastal Fisheries Resources of Brunei Darussalam, South China Sea. pp. 300-306 In Christensen V, Pauly D (eds.), Trophic models of aquatic ecosystems. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 26.18 Vega-Cendejas ME, Arreguín-Sánchez F, Hernández M (1993) Trophic fluxes on the Campeche Bank, Mexico. pp. 206-213 In Christensen V, Pauly D (eds.), Trophic models of aquatic ecosystems. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 26.19 Zetina-Rejón MJ, Arreguín-Sánchez F (2003) Flujos de energía y estructura trófica de la Sonda de Campeche, Suroeste del Golfo de México. pp. 49-57 In Wakida Kusunoki AT, Solana-Sansores R, Uribe-Martinez J (eds.), Memorias del III Foro de Camarón del Golfo de México y del Mar Caribe. Instituto Nacional de la Pesca.20 Arreguín-Sánchez F (2002) Impact of Harvesting Strategies on Fisheries and Community Structure on the Continental Shelf of the Campeche Sound, Southern Gulf of Mexico. pp. 127-134 In Pitcher TJ, Cochrane K (eds.), The Use of Ecosystem Models to Investigate Multispecies Management Strategies for Capture Fisheries. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 10(2).21 Arreguín-Sánchez F, Zetina-Rejón MJ, Manickchand-Heileman S, Ramirez-Rodriguez M, Vidal L (2004) Simulated response to harvesting strategies in an exploited ecosystem in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Ecological Modelling 172(2-4): 421-432.22 Arreguín-Sánchez F, Zetina-Rejón MJ, Ramirez-Rodriguez M (2008) Exploring ecosystem-based harvesting strategies to recover the collapsed pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum) fishery in the southern Gulf of Mexico. Ecological Modelling 214(2-4): 83-94.23 Sánchez F, Olaso I (2004) Effects of fisheries on the Cantabrian Sea shelf ecosystem. Ecological Modelling 172(2-4): 151-174.24 Melgo JL, Morisette L, Kaschner K, Gerber LR (2009) Food Web Model and Data for Studying the Interactions Between Marine Mammals and Fisheries in the Caribbean Ecosystem. pp. 53-120 In Morissette L, Melgo JL, Kaschner K, Gerber LR (eds.), Modelling the trophic role of marine mammals in tropical areas: data requirements, uncertainty, and validation. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 17(2).25 Vega-Cendejas ME, Arreguıń-Sánchez F (2001) Energy fluxes in a mangrove ecosystem from a coastal lagoon in Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Ecological Modelling 137(2-3): 119-133.26 Chávez EA, Garduño M, Arreguıń-Sánchez F (1993) Trophic Dynamic Structure of Celestun lagoon, Southern Gulf of Mexico. pp. 186-192 In Christensen V, Pauly D (eds.), Trophic models of aquatic ecosystems. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 26.27 Vasconcellos M, Watson R (2004) Mass-balance models of oceanic systems in the Atlantic. pp. 171-214 In Palomares MLD, Pauly D (eds.), West African marine ecosystems: models and fisheries impacts. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 12(7).28 Neira S, Arancibia H, Cubillos L (2004) Comparative analysis of trophic structure of commercial fishery species off Central Chile in 1992 and 1998. Ecological Modelling 172(2): 233-248.29 Arreguín-Sánchez F, Arcos E, Chávez EA (2002) Flows of biomass and structure in an exploited benthic ecosystem in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Ecological Modelling 156(2): 167-183.Fisheries Centre Research Reports 21(1) - Colléter et al. 35Appendix Table A2. ContinuedNumber Full reference30 Arreguıń-Sánchez F, Calderón-Aguilera LE (2002) Evaluating harvesting strategies for fisheries in the Central Gulf of California ecosystem. pp. 135-141 In Pitcher TJ, Cochrane K (eds.), The Use of Ecosystem Models to Investigate Multispecies Management Strategies for Capture Fisheries. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 10(2).31 Cox SP, Essington TE, Kitchell JF, Martell SJD, Walters CJ, Boggs C, Kaplan I (2002) Reconstructing ecosystem dynamics in the central Pacific Ocean, 1952 1998. II. A preliminary assessment of the trophic impacts of fishing and effects on tuna dynamics. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59(11): 1736-1747.32 Christensen V, Beattie A, Buchanan C, Hongguang M, Martell SJD, Latour RJ, Preikshot D, Sigrist MB, Uphoff JH, Walters CJ, Wood RJ, Townsend H (2009) Fisheries Ecosystem Model of the Chesapeake Bay: Methodology, Parameterization, and Model Exploration. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-F/SPO-106. 146p.33 Alvarez-Hernández HJ (2003) Trophic Model of a Fringing Coral Reef in the Southern Mexican Caribbean. pp. 255-264 In Zeller D, Booth S, Mohammed E, Pauly D (eds.), From Mexico to Brazil: Central Atlantic Fisheries Catch Trends and Ecosystem Models. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 11(6).34 Bundy A (2004) Mass balance models of the eastern Scotian Shelf before and after the cod collapse and other ecosystem changes. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2520. xii+193p.35 Bundy A (2005) Structure and functioning of the eastern Scotian Shelf ecosystem before and after the collapse of groundfish stocks in the early 1990s. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62(7): 1453-1473.36 Olson RJ, Watters GM (2003) A model of the pelagic ecosystem in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission Bulletin 22(3): 135-248.37 Watters GM, Olson RJ, Francis RC, Fiedler PC, Polovina JJ, Reilly SB, Aydin K, Boggs C, Essington T, Walters C, Kitchell JF (2003) Physical forcing and the dynamics of the pelagic ecosystem in the eastern tropical Pacific: simulations with ENSO-scale and global-warming climate drivers. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 60(9): 1161-1175.38 Stanford R, Pitcher T (2004) Ecosystem Simulations of the English Channel: Climate and Trade-Offs. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 12(3). 103p.39 Palomares MLD, Reyes-Marchant P, Lair N, Zainure M, Barnabé G, Lasserre G (1993) A Trophic Model of a Mediterranean Lagoon, Etang de Thau, France. pp. 224-229 In Christensen V, Pauly D (eds.), Trophic models of aquatic ecosystems. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 26.40 Zeller D, Reinert J (2004) Modelling spatial closures and fishing effort restrictions in the Faroe Islands marine ecosystem. Ecological Modelling 172(2): 403-420.41 Zeller D, Freire K (2001) A North-East Atlantic marine ecosystem model for the Faroe Islands (ICES Area Vb): input data. pp. 207-212 In Guénette S, Christensen V, Pauly D (eds.), Fisheries Impacts on North Atlantic Ecosystems: Models and Analyses. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 9(4).42 Reyes-Marchant P, Jamet JL, Lair N, Taleb H, Palomares MLD (1993) A Preliminary Ecosystem Model of a Eutrophic Lake (Lake Aydat, France). pp. 95-102 In Christensen V, Pauly D (eds.), Trophic models of aquatic ecosystems. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 26.43 Okey TA, Banks S, Born AF, Bustamante RH, Calvopiña M, Edgar GJ, Espinoza E, Fariña MJ, Garske LE, Reck GK, Salazar S, Shepherd S, Toral-Granda V, Wallem P (2004) A trophic model of a Galápagos subtidal rocky reef for evaluating fisheries and conservation strategies. Ecological Modelling 172(2): 383-401.44 Mendy AN (2004) A trophic model of the Gambian continental shelf system in 1986. pp. 81-88 In Palomares MLD, Pauly D (eds.), West African marine ecosystems: models and fisheries impacts. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 12(7).45 Mendy AN (2004) Addendum: The Gambian continental shelf ecosystem in 1992 and 1995. pp. 89-94 In Palomares MLD, Pauly D (eds.), West African marine ecosystems: models and fisheries impacts. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 12(7).46 Lobry J (2004) “Which reference pattern of functioning for estuarine ecosystems?” The case of fish successions in the Gironde estuary. PhD Thesis, Université de Bordeaux I. 204p.47 Wolff M, Hartmann HJ, Koch V (1996) A pilot trophic model for Golfo Dulce, a fjord-like tropical embayment, Costa Rica. Revista de Biologia Tropical 44(Suppl. 3): 215-231.48 Gribble NA (2000) A Model of the Ecosystem, and Associated Penaeid Prawn Community, in the Far Northern Great Barrier Reef. pp. 189-207 In Wolanski E (eds.), Oceanographic Processes of Coral Reefs. CRC Press. 348p.49 Gribble NA (2003) GBR-prawn: modelling ecosystem impacts of changes in fisheries management of the commercial prawn (shrimp) trawl fishery in the far northern Great Barrier Reef. Fisheries Research 65(1-3): 493-506.50 Guénette S, Diallo I (2004) Addendum: Modèles de la côte guinéenne, 1985 et 1998. pp. 124-159 In Palomares MLD, Pauly D (eds.), West African marine ecosystems: models and fisheries impacts. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 12(7).51 Amorim P, Duarte G, Guerra M, Morato T, Stobberup KA (2004) Preliminary Ecopath model of the Guinea-Bissau continental shelf ecosystem (NW-Africa). pp. 95-112 In Palomares MLD, Pauly D (eds.), West African marine ecosystems: models and fisheries impacts. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 12(7).52 Browder JA (1993) A pilot model of the Gulf of Mexico continental shelf. pp. 279-284 In Christensen V, Pauly D (eds.), Trophic models of aquatic ecosystems. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 26.53 Wolff M, Chavarria JB, Koch V, Vargas JA (1998) A trophic flow model of the Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica. Revista de Biologia Tropical 46(6): 63-79.54 Vibunpant S, Khongchai N, Seng-eid J, Eiamsa-ard M, Supongpan M (2003) Trophic model of the coastal fisheries ecosystem in the Gulf of Thailand. pp. 365-386 In Silvestre G, Garces L, Stobutzki I, Ahmed M, Valmonte-Santos RA, Luna C, Lachica-Aliño L, Munro P, Christensen V, Pauly D (eds.), Assessment, Management and Future Directions of Coastal Fisheries in Asian Countries. WorldFish Center Conference Proceedings 67.55 Christensen V, Walters CJ (2004) Trade-offs in Ecosystem-scale Optimization of Fisheries Management Policies. Bulletin of Marine Science 74(3): 549-562.56 Christensen V (1998) Fishery-induced changes in a marine ecosystem: insight from models of the Gulf of Thailand. Journal of Fish Biology 53(Supplement A): 128-142.57 Blanchard JL, Pinnegar JK, Mackinson S (2002) Exploring Marine Mammal-Fishery Interactions Using ‘Ecopath with Ecosim’: Modelling the Barents Sea Ecosystem. Science Series Technical Report 117. 52p.58 Zetina-Rejón MJ, Arreguıń-Sánchez F, Chávez EA (2003) Trophic structure and flows of energy in the Huizache–Caimanero lagoon complex on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 57(5-6): 803-815.EcoBase: a repository solution to gather and communicate information from EwE models36Appendix Table A2. ContinuedNumber Full reference59 Buchary EA (2001) Preliminary reconstruction of the Icelandic marine ecosystem in 1950 and some predictions with time series data. pp. 198-206 In Guénette S, Christensen V, Pauly D (eds.), Fisheries Impacts on North Atlantic Ecosystems: Models and Analyses. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 9(4).60 Mendy AN, Buchary EA (2001) Constructing an Icelandic marine ecosystem model for 1997 using a mass-balance modeling approach. pp. 182-197 In Guénette S, Christensen V, Pauly D (eds.), Fisheries Impacts on North Atlantic Ecosystems: Models and Analyses. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 9(4).61 Mendy AN (1999) Trophic modelling as a tool to evaluate and manage Iceland’s multispecies fisheries. United Nations Fisheries Training Programme. 31p.62 Samb B (1999) Icelandic Shelf. Report. 27p.63 Galván Piña HV (2005) Impacto de la pesca en la estructura, función y productividad del ecosistema de la Plataforma Continental de las costas de Jalisco y Colima, México. PhD Thesis, Instituto Politécnico Nacional. 106p.64 Lin H-J, Shao K-T, Hwang J-S, Lo W-T, Cheng I-J, Lee L-H (2004) A trophic model for Kuosheng Bay in northern Taiwan. Journal of Marine Science and Technology 12(5): 424-432.65 Lin H-J, Shao K-T, Kuo S-R, Hsieh H-L, Wong S-L, Chen I-M, Lo W-T, Hung J-J (1999) A Trophic Model of a Sandy Barrier Lagoon at Chiku in Southwestern Taiwan. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 48(5): 575-588.66 Carrer S, Opitz S (1999) Trophic network model of a shallow water area in the northern part of the Lagoon of Venice. Ecological Modelling 124(2-3): 193-219.67 Delos Reyes MR (1995) Geoecology of Laguna de Bay, Philippines: long-term alterations of a tropical-aquatic ecosystem 1820-1992. PhD Thesis, University of Hamburg. 138p.68 Delos Reyes MR (1993) Fishpen culture and its impact on the ecosystem of Laguna de Bay, Philippines. pp. 74-84 In Christensen V, Pauly D (eds.), Trophic models of aquatic ecosystems. 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Ocean & Coastal Management 52(7): 359-367.449 Duan LJ, Li SY, Liu Y, Moreau J, Christensen V (2009) Modeling changes in the coastal ecosystem of the Pearl River Estuary from 1981 to 1998. Ecological Modelling 220(20): 2802-2818.450 Espinosa-Romero MJ, Gregr EJ, Walters C, Christensen V, Chan K (2011) Representing mediating effects and species reintroductions in Ecopath with Ecosim. Ecological Modelling 222(9): 1569-1579.451 Feroz Khan M, Panikkar P (2009) Assessment of impacts of invasive fishes on the food web structure and ecosystem properties of a tropical reservoir in India. Ecological Modelling 220(18): 2281-2290.452 Fetahi T, Mengistou S (2007) Trophic analysis of Lake Awassa (Ethiopia) using mass-balance Ecopath model. Ecological Modelling 201(3): 398-408.453 Fouzai N, Coll M, Palomera I, Santojanni A, Arneri E, Christensen V (2012) Fishing management scenarios to rebuild exploited resources and ecosystems of the Northern-Central Adriatic (Mediterranean Sea). Journal of Marine Systems 102-104: 39-51.454 Frisk MG, Miller TJ, Latour RJ, Martell SJD (2011) Assessing biomass gains from marsh restoration in Delaware Bay using Ecopath with Ecosim. Ecological Modelling 222(1): 190-200.455 Gaichas SK, Aydin KY, Francis RC (2010) Using food web model results to inform stock assessment estimates of mortality and production for ecosystem-based fisheries management. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 67(9): 1490-1506.456 Gaichas SK, Aydin KY, Francis RC, Post J (2011) What drives dynamics in the Gulf of Alaska? Integrating hypotheses of species, fishing, and climate relationships using ecosystem modeling. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 68(9): 1553-1578.457 Goldsworthy SD, Page B, Rogers PJ, Bulman C, Wiebkin A, McLeay LJ, Einoder L, Baylis AMM, Braley M, Caines R (2013) Trophodynamics of the eastern Great Australian Bight ecosystem: Ecological change associated with the growth of Australia’s largest fishery. Ecological Modelling 255: 38-57.458 Griffiths SP, Young JW, Lansdell MJ, Campbell RA, Hampton J, Hoyle SD, Langley A, Bromhead D, Hinton MG (2010) Ecological effects of longline fishing and climate change on the pelagic ecosystem off eastern Australia. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 20(2): 239-272.459 Griffiths SP, Olson RJ, Watters GM (2012) Complex wasp-waist regulation of pelagic ecosystems in the Pacific Ocean. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries: 1-17.EcoBase: a repository solution to gather and communicate information from EwE models44Appendix Table A2. ContinuedNumber Full reference460 Han J-H, Kumar HK, Lee HJ, Zhang C-I, Kim S-W, Lee J-H, Kim DS, An K-G (2011) Integrative trophic network assessments of a lentic ecosystem by key ecological approaches of water chemistry, trophic guilds, and ecosystem health assessments along with an ECOPATH model. Ecological Modelling 222(19): 3457-3472.461 Harvey CJ, Williams GD, Levin PS (2012) Food web structure and trophic control in central Puget Sound. Estuaries and Coasts 35:821-838.462 Hoover C, Pitcher T, Christensen V (2012) An Ecosystem Model of Hudson Bay, Canada with changes from 1970-2009. pp. 2-68 In Wabnitz CCC, Hoover C (eds.), From the Tropics to the Poles: Ecosystem Models of Hudson Bay, Kaloko-Honokōhau, Hawaiʻi, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 20(2).463 Hoover C, Pitcher T, Pakhomov E (2012) The Antarctic Peninsula Marine Ecosystem Model and Simulations: 1978-Present. pp. 108-182 In Wabnitz CCC, Hoover C (eds.), From the Tropics to the Poles: Ecosystem Models of Hudson Bay, Kaloko-Honokōhau, Hawaiʻi, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 20(2).464 Hossain M Md., Matsuishi T, Arhonditsis G (2010) Elucidation of ecosystem attributes of an oligotrophic lake in Hokkaido, Japan, using Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE). Ecological Modelling 221(13): 1717-1730.465 Howell KL, Heymans JJ, Gordon JDM, Duncan J, Ayers M, Jones EG (2009) DEEPFISH Project: Applying an ecosystem approach to the sustainable management of deep-water fisheries. Part 1: Development of an Ecopath with Ecosim model. Scottish Association for Marine Science Report 259a. 112p.466 Jia P, Hu M, Hu Z, Liu Q, Wu Z (2012) Modeling trophic structure and energy flows in a typical macrophyte dominated shallow lake using the mass balanced model. Ecological Modelling 233: 26-30.468 Jiang H, Cheng H-Q, Le Quesne WJF, Xu H-G, Wu J, Ding H, Arreguín-Sánchez F (2008) Ecosystem model predictions of fishery and conservation trade-offs resulting from marine protected areas in the East China Sea. Environmental Conservation 35(2): 137-146.469 Klaer NL (2006) Changes in the structure of demersal fish communities of the south east Australian continental shelf from 1915 to 1961. PhD Thesis, University of Canberra. 174p.470 Langseth BJ, Rogers M, Zhang H (2012) Modeling species invasions in Ecopath with Ecosim: An evaluation using Laurentian Great Lakes models. Ecological Modelling 247: 251-261.473 Lee SI, Aydin KY, Spencer PD, Wilderbuer TK, Zhang CI (2010) The role of flatfishes in the organization and structure of the eastern Bering Sea ecosystem. Fisheries science 76(3): 411-434.474 Lercari D, Bergamino L, Defeo O (2010) Trophic models in sandy beaches with contrasting morphodynamics: comparing ecosystem structure and biomass flow. Ecological Modelling 221(23): 2751-2759.476 Li L, Ainsworth C, Pitcher T (2010) Presence of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) may increase exploitable fish biomass in the Strait of Georgia. Progress in Oceanography 87(1): 235-241.477 Liu Q-G, Chen Y, Li J-L, Chen L-Q (2007) The food web structure and ecosystem properties of a filter-feeding carps dominated deep reservoir ecosystem. Ecological Modelling 203(3): 279-289.478 Lobry J, David V, Pasquaud S, Lepage M, Sautour B, Rochard E (2008) Diversity and stability of an estuarine trophic network. Marine Ecology Progress Series 358: 13-25.479 Ma H, Townsend H, Zhang X, Sigrist M, Christensen V (2010) Using a fisheries ecosystem model with a water quality model to explore trophic and habitat impacts on a fisheries stock: A case study of the blue crab population in the Chesapeake Bay. Ecological Modelling 221(7): 997-1004.480 Milessi AC, Calliari D, Rodríguez-Graña L, Conde D, Sellanes J, Rodríguez-Gallego L (2010) Trophic mass-balance model of a subtropical coastal lagoon, including a comparison with a stable isotope analysis of the food-web. Ecological Modelling 221(24): 2859-2869.481 Mohamed KS, Zacharia PU, Muthiah C, Abdurahiman KP, Nayak TH (2005) A trophic model of the Arabian Sea ecosystem off Karnataka and simulation of fishery yields for its multigear marine fisheries. CMFRI Publication. 65p.482 Mohamed KS, Zacharia PU (2009) Prediction and modelling of marine fishery yields from the Arabian Sea off Karnataka using Ecosim. Indian Journal of Marine Fisheries 38(1): 69-76.483 Mohammed E (2001) A preliminary model of the Lancaster Sound Region in the 1980s. pp. 99-110 In Guénette S, Christensen V, Pauly D (eds.), Fisheries Impacts on North Atlantic Ecosystems: Models and Analyses. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 9(4).484 Morales-Zárate MV, Lluch-Cota SE, Serviere-Zaragoza E, Guzmán del Próo S (2011) Modeling an exploited rocky coastal ecosystem: Bahia Tortugas, Mexico. Ecological Modelling 222(5): 1185-1191.486 Moutopoulos DK, Libralato S, Solidoro C, Stergiou KI (2013) Toward an ecosystem approach to fisheries in the Mediterranean Sea: Multi-gear/multi-species implications from an ecosystem model of the Greek Ionian Sea. Journal of Marine Systems 113-114: 13-28.487 Nascimento MC, Velasco G, Okey TA, Christensen V, Amaral CAZ (2012) Trophic model of the outer continental shelf and upper slope demersal community of the southeastern Brazilian Bight. Scientia Marina 76(4): 763-779.488 Neira S, Moloney CL, Cury P, Mullon C, Christensen V (2009) Mechanisms affecting recovery in an upwelling food web: The case of the southern Humboldt. Progress in Oceanography 83(1): 404-416.489 Niiranen S, Stipa T, Hirvonen A, Paakkonen J-P, Norkko A (2008) Modelled bioaccumulation of chemical warfare agents within the Baltic Sea food web. IEEE/OES Publication. 10p.490 Nuttall MA, Jordaan A, Cerrato RM, Frisk MG (2011) Identifying 120 years of decline in ecosystem structure and maturity of Great South Bay, New York using the Ecopath modelling approach. Ecological Modelling 222(18): 3335-3345.491 Ortiz M (2008) The effect of a crab predator (Cancer porteri) on secondary producers versus ecological model predictions in Tongoy Bay (south-east Pacific coast): implications for management and fisheries. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 18(6): 923-929.492 Ortiz M (2008) Mass balanced and dynamic simulations of trophic models of kelp ecosystems near the Mejillones Peninsula of northern Chile (SE Pacific): Comparative network structure and assessment of harvest strategies. Ecological Modelling 216(1): 31-46.493 Ortiz M, Avendaño M, Campos L, Berrios F (2009) Spatial and mass balanced trophic models of La Rinconada Marine Reserve (SE Pacific coast), a protected benthic ecosystem: management strategy assessment. Ecological Modelling 220(23): 3413-3423.494 Ortiz M, Avendaño M, Cantillañez M, Berrios F, Campos L (2010) Trophic mass balanced models and dynamic simulations of benthic communities from La Rinconada Marine Reserve off northern Chile: network properties and multispecies harvest scenario assessments. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 20(1): 58-73.495 Ortiz M, Wolff M (2002) Trophic models of four benthic communities in Tongoy Bay (Chile): comparative analysis and preliminary assessment of management strategies. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 268(2): 205-235.Fisheries Centre Research Reports 21(1) - Colléter et al. 45Appendix Table A2. ContinuedNumber Full reference496 Ortiz M, Wolff M (2002) Dynamical simulation of mass-balance trophic models for benthic communities of north-central Chile: assessment of resilience time under alternative management scenarios. Ecological Modelling 148(3): 277-291.497 Panikkar P, Feroz Khan M (2008) Comparative mass-balanced trophic models to assess the impact of environmental management measures in a tropical reservoir ecosystem. Ecological Modelling 212(3): 280-291.498 Patrício J, Marques JC (2006) Mass balanced models of the food web in three areas along a gradient of eutrophication symptoms in the south arm of the Mondego estuary (Portugal). Ecological Modelling 197(1): 21-34.499 Pauly D, Arreguín-Sánchez F, Browder J, Christensen V, Manickchand-Heilemann S, Martinez E, Vidal L (1999) Toward a stratified mass-balance model of trophic fluxes in the Gulf of Mexico large marine ecosystem. pp. 278-293 In Kumpf H, Steidinger K, Sherman K (eds.), The Gulf of Mexico Large Marine Ecosystem – Assessment, Sustainability, and Management. Blackwell Science.500 Pedersen T, Nilsen M, Nilssen EM, Berg E, Reigstad M (2008) Trophic model of a lightly exploited cod-dominated ecosystem. Ecological Modelling 214(2): 95-111.501 Persad G, Webber M (2009) The Use of Ecopath Software to Model Trophic Interactions within the Zooplankton Community of Discovery Bay, Jamaica. Open Marine Biology Journal 3:95-104.502 Phong LT, Van Dam AA, Udo HMJ, Van Mensvoort MEF, Tri LQ, Steenstra FA, Van der Zijpp AJ (2010) An agro-ecological evaluation of aquaculture integration into farming systems of the Mekong Delta. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 138(3): 232-241.503 Ruiz DJ, Wolff M (2011) The Bolivar Channel Ecosystem of the Galapagos Marine Reserve: Energy flow structure and role of keystone groups. Journal of Sea Research 66(2): 123-134.504 Ruzicka JJ, Brodeur RD, Emmett RL, Steele JH, Zamon JE, Morgan CA, Thomas AC, Wainwright TW (2012) Interannual variability in the Northern California Current food web structure: Changes in energy flow pathways and the role of forage fish, euphausiids, and jellyfish. Progress in Oceanography 102: 19-41.505 Salomon AK, Waller NP, McIlhagga C, Yung RL, Walters C (2002) Modeling the trophic effects of marine protected area zoning policies: a case study. Aquatic Ecology 36(1): 85-95.506 Tomczak MT, Niiranen S, Hjerne O, Blenckner T (2012) Ecosystem flow dynamics in the Baltic Proper—Using a multi-trophic dataset as a basis for food-web modeling. Ecological Modelling 230: 123-147.507 Traore A, Ouattara A, Doumbia L, Tah L, Moreau J, Gourène G (2008) Trophic structure and interactions in Lake Ayamé (Côte d’Ivoire). Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems 388(02): 1-21.508 Ullah H Md., Rashed-Un-Nabi Md., Al-Mamun A Md. (2012) Trophic model of the coastal ecosystem of the Bay of Bengal using mass balance Ecopath model. Ecological Modelling 225:82-94.509 Varkey D, Ainsworth CH, Pitcher TJ (2012) Modelling Reef Fish Population Responses to Fisheries Restrictions in Marine Protected Areas in the Coral Triangle. Journal of Marine Biology 2012: 18p.510 Vidal L, Pauly D (2004) Integration of subsystems models as a tool toward describing feeding interactions and fisheries impacts in a large marine ecosystem, the Gulf of Mexico. Ocean & Coastal Management 47(11): 709-725.511 Villanueva MCS (2004) Biodiversité et relations trophiques dans quelques milieux estuariens et lagunaires de l’Afrique de l’Ouest : adaptations aux pressions environnementales. PhD Thesis, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse. 246p.512 Villanueva MC, Diouf PS, Albaret J-J, Moreau J (2005) Complexity in trophic structure and stability in a modelled West African estuary. Coastal Ecosystems of West-Africa Biological Diversity-Resources-Conservation: 15-26.513 Villanueva MC, Ouedraogo M, Moreau J (2006) Trophic relationships in the recently impounded Bagre reservoir in Burkina Faso. Ecological Modelling 191: 243-259.514 Villanueva MC, Lalèyè P, Albaret J-J, Lae R, Tito de Morais L, Moreau J (2006) Comparative analysis of trophic structure and interactions of two tropical lagoons. Ecological Modelling 197(3): 461-477.515 Villanueva MC, Moreau J, Amarasinghe US, Schiemer F (2008) A comparison of the foodweb and the trophic structure between two Asian reservoirs by using ECOPATH with ECOSIM and ECOSPACE. pp. 413-434 In Schiemer F, Simon D, Amarasinghe US, Moreau J, Aquatic Ecosystem and Development: Comparative Asian Perspectives. Biology of Inland Waters. Backhuys Publishers.516 Wabnitz CCC (2012) Baseline Trophic Relationships in Kaloko-Honokōhau, Hawaiʻi. pp. 69-107 In Wabnitz CCC, Hoover C (eds.), From the Tropics to the Poles: Ecosystem Models of Hudson Bay, Kaloko-Honokōhau, Hawaiʻi, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 20(2).517 Wang Y, Li SY, Duan LJ, Liu Y (2012) Fishery policy exploration in the Pearl River Estuary based on an Ecosim model. Ecological Modelling 230: 34-43.518 Wolff M, Ruiz DJ, Taylor M (2012) El Niño induced changes to the Bolivar Channel ecosystem (Galapagos): comparing model simulations with historical biomass time series. Marine Ecology Progress Series 488: 7-22.519 Xu S, Chen Z, Li S, He P (2011) Modeling trophic structure and energy flows in a coastal artificial ecosystem using mass-balance Ecopath model. Estuaries and Coasts 34(2): 351-363.520 Fulton EA, Smith T (2002) Ecosim Case Study: Port Phillip Bay, Australia. pp. 83-93 In Pitcher TJ, Cochrane K (eds.), The Use of Ecosystem Models to Investigate Multispecies Management Strategies for Capture Fisheries. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 10(2).521 Criales-Hernández MI (2004) Flujos de energia en el sistema de surgencia tropical en la peninsula de la Guajira, Caribe Colombiano. MSc Thesis, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.522 Shannon LJ, Moloney CL, Jarre A, Field JG (2003) Trophic flows in the southern Benguela during the 1980s and 1990s. Journal of Marine Systems 39(1): 83-116.523 Gascuel D, Guénette S, Diallo I, Sidibé A (2009) Impact de la pêche sur l’écosystème marin de Guinée - Modélisation EwE 1985/2005. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 17(4). 60p.EcoBase: a repository solution to gather and communicate information from EwE models46Appendix Table A3.  Index by countryCountry Reference numberAngola 501, 503, 500, 502, 523Antarctica 557, 184, 262, 422, 427, 143, 447Australia 407, 553, 561, 554, 185, 431, 187, 562, 465, 406, 466, 186, 54, 405Bangladesh 12, 300, 610Benin 511, 615Brazil 579, 481, 144, 189, 498, 113, 140, 292, 327, 191, 430, 624, 190, 298, 141British Virgin Islands 324Brunei Darussalam 192Burkina Faso 613Burundi 310, 193, 309Canada 194, 110, 106, 550, 195, 622, 205, 200, 105, 569, 126, 529, 203, 199, 117, 197, 528, 563, 40, 477, 479, 108, 446, 196, 116, 201, 107, 525, 204, 146, 181, 463, 41, 575, 564, 127, 462, 478, 607, 202, 623, 518, 145, 458, 328, 198, 527, 470Cape Verde 486Chad 283Chile 618, 209, 587, 207, 593, 586, 619, 588, 208, 30, 594, 590, 595, 580, 158, 592, 591, 471China 540, 267, 408, 629, 548, 445, 210, 454, 549, 620, 560, 266, 409, 453, 617, 547, 572, 559, 451, 410, 71Colombia 211, 163, 423Costa Rica 53, 212, 213Côte d’Ivoire 611, 609Croatia 419, 570, 536, 421Cuba 631, 601Democratic Republic of the Congo 616, 509Ecuador 48, 605Eritrea 496Estonia 493Ethiopia 215, 76Falkland Islands (Malvinas) 411Faroe Islands 46France 52, 449, 14, 535, 402, 217, 219, 218, 216, 132, 526, 13, 497, 297, 220, 565, 627, 335, 221, 473, 176, 403French Polynesia 103, 223, 222French Southern and Antarctic Territories 480Gabon 514Gambia 133, 49, 614, 50, 51Germany 464Ghana 515, 224Greece 495, 578, 475, 474Greenland 174, 168, 225Grenada 460Guinea 56, 55, 726, 440, 725Guinea-Bissau 57Iceland 228, 67, 226, 66, 227, 68India 301, 551, 574, 524, 229, 596, 147, 597, 630Indonesia 538, 400, 329, 401, 302Ireland 448Israel 308, 230Italy 72, 231, 120, 455, 452, 571, 570, 536, 119, 421, 299, 232, 419Jamaica 603Japan 539, 558, 451, 445, 560Kenya 234, 233, 235, 321, 331, 322, 577, 86Liberia 513Lithuania 492, 491, 626Malawi 236, 330, 81Malaysia 237, 303, 169, 155, 414, 304, 305Mauritania 97, 98, 96Mexico 325, 323, 320, 314, 242, 247, 631, 36, 404, 290, 58, 245, 425, 287, 532, 543, 291, 482, 317, 154, 576, 530, 289, 240, 244, 318, 601, 483, 531, 25, 307, 93, 417, 27, 238, 131, 520, 239, 288, 241, 243, 450, 246, 533Morocco 104Mozambique 248Namibia 505, 263, 115, 504, 506New Caledonia 249, 92New Zealand 250, 472, 151Nigeria 517Norway 602, 429, 426Not affiliated 33, 293, 608, 111, 435, 424, 182, 118, 251, 581, 628, 28, 459, 29, 254, 112, 433, 434, 253, 457, 183, 413, 24, 436, 42, 134, 469, 468, 428, 114Peru 311, 439, 312, 488, 490, 487, 489, 625, 124Fisheries Centre Research Reports 21(1) - Colléter et al. 47Appendix Table A3. ContinuedCountry Reference numberPhilippines 437, 73, 258, 259, 255, 256, 130, 260, 74, 285, 129, 306, 261, 257Poland 494Portugal 599, 598, 7, 125, 600, 286Republic of Korea 555, 451, 560Russian Federation 277, 332, 333, 295, 539, 175, 426, 294Rwanda 616Sao Tome and Principe 510Senegal 180, 133, 612, 179Sierra Leone 512, 137, 135, 136Slovenia 570, 536, 419, 421South Africa 504, 505, 506, 485Spain 522, 541, 95, 420, 264, 565, 22, 418, 206, 537Sri Lanka 441, 265Sweden 188Thailand 60, 412, 621Togo 516Trinidad and Tobago 268Turkey 495Uganda 270, 315U.K. of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 157, 448, 214, 176, 461, 44, 443, 43, 297, 526, 627, 272, 403, 271, 296United Republic of Tanzania 545, 544, 546United States of America 521, 276, 606, 582, 542, 149, 273, 507, 520, 508, 484, 269, 601, 34, 99, 173, 552, 444, 35, 274, 585, 534, 584, 631, 566, 467, 438, 476, 275, 442, 252, 279, 479, 556, 563, 564, 519, 499, 280, 583Uruguay 567, 568, 573Venezuela 268, 282Viet Nam 620, 604, 409, 415, 410, 408Zimbabwe 284, 316EcoBase: a repository solution to gather and communicate information from EwE models48Appendix Table A4.  Index by authorAuthor Reference numberAbarca-Arenas, L.G. 318Ainsworth, C.H. 196,401,195,400,13,518,194,197,14Albouy, C. 402Aliño, P.M. 261Alvarez-Hernández, J.H. 36,287Amorim, P. 57Angelini, R. 190,523,298Antony, P.J. 524Araújo, J.N. 528,403,525,529,297,627,526,176,527Aravindan, C.M. 229Arbach Leloup, F. 449Arias-González, J.E. 530,531,532,533,103,222,223Arreguín-Sánchez, F. 238,404,239,320,317Aydin, K.Y. 276,534,277,175Bănaru, D. 535Barausse, A. 536Bayle-Sempere, J.T. 537Beattie, A. 114Blanchard, J.L. 333,294,332,295Bongu, M.M. 509Bozec, Y.M. 249,92Bradford-Grieve, J.M. 250,151Brando, V.E. 232,119Bredesen, E.L. 143,262Browder, J.A. 314,58Buchary, E.A. 227,538,329Bulman, C. 407,406,405Bundy, A. 40,41,285,106,129Campos, W.L. 306,130Carrer, S. 72,120,231,299Castro, A. 510Chaikina, N. 539Chávez, E.A. 246Cheng, J. 540Chen, Z. 409,408Cheung, W.W.L. 620,410,411Christensen, V. 412,413,414,415,35,34,621,251Christian, R.R. 274,149Cisneros-Montemayor, A.M. 417Colléter, M. 180,179Coll, M. 419,420,421,541,418Cornejo-Donoso, J. 422Cox, S.P. 33,253Criales-Hernández, M.I. 423Dalsgaard, J. 280Daskalov, G.M. 424Degnbol, P. 236De La Cruz-Aguero, G. 93,244Delos Reyes, M.R. 260,256,258,259,73,257,74,255de Mutsert, K. 542De Paula E Silva, R. 248Díaz-López, B. 455Díaz-Uribe, J.G. 543,425Dommasnes, A. 426Downing, A.S. 545,544,546Duan, L.J. 547,548,549Duarte, L.O. 163,211Erfan, A. 427Espinosa-Romero, M.J. 550Essington, T.E. 428Falk-Petersen, J. 429Feroz Khan, M. 551Fetahi, T. 215,76Field, J.C. 521Fiogbe, E.D. 511Freire, K.M. 430Frisk, M.G. 552Fulton, E. 431Galván-Piña, V.H. 307Gamito, S. 286,125Fisheries Centre Research Reports 21(1) - Colléter et al. 49Appendix Table A4. ContinuedAuthor Reference numberGarces, L.R. 305,304Gasalla, M.A. 191,141,140Gascuel, D. 726,725Godinot, O. 436Goldsworthy, S.D. 553Gribble, N.A. 54,185,187Griffiths, S.P. 554Guarin, F.Y. 437Gucu, A. 435,433,434Guénette, S. 440,252,56,7,55,438,439Haggan, N. 296Halfon, E. 200Han, J.-H. 555Haputhantri, S. 441Harvey, C.J. 188,556Heymans, S.J.J. 137,444,443,442,115,107,136,108,263,135Hoover, C. 446,557,447Hossain, M.M. 558Jarre-Teichmann, A. 312,124,184,311Jiang, H. 560,445Jia, P. 559Kargbo, V.H. 512Kay, D.W. 513Kitchell, J.F. 254,134Klaer, N.L. 562,561Kolding, J. 234,233Langseth, B.J. 563,564Lassalle, G. 565,335Lee, S.I. 566Lees, K. 448Lercari, D. 450,568,567Libralato, S. 571,570,452Liew, H.C. 237,155Li, L. 569Lin, H.-J. 266,71,453,267Liu, P.-J. 454Liu, Q.-G. 572Li, Y. 451Lobry, J. 52,218Machena, C. 284,316Mackinson, S. 457,293,628,458Man, A. 303,169Manickchand-Heileman, S. 240,268,243Martell, S.J.D. 328Mathews, C.P. 214,157McCormick Venier, J. 269Melgo, J.L. 24Mendoza, J.J. 282Mendy, A.N. 49,50,226,67,51,66Milessi, A.C. 573Mohamed, K.S. 574,630Mohammed, E. 575,459,460Morales-Zárate, M.V. 242,576Moreau, J. 270,310,577,265,322,321,309,86,193,315,331,235Moreno, T. 95,206Morissette, L. 116,623,622,461,118,205,462,463Moutopoulos, D.K. 578Mustafa, M.G. 12,300Nascimento, M.C. 579Nauen, C. 464Neira, S. 208,580,30,207Niiranen, S. 581Nsiku, E. 330,81Nurhakim, S. 302Nuttall, M.A. 582,584,583,585Ogandagas, C. 514Okey, T.A. 48,99,173,279,466,467,465,275Olivieri, R.A. 273Olson, R.J. 42Opitz, S. 324EcoBase: a repository solution to gather and communicate information from EwE models50Appendix Table A4. ContinuedAuthor Reference numberOrek, H. 468Ortiz, M. 587,595,594,593,592,591,590,588,586,618,619Osei, S.V. 515Ould Taleb Ould Sidi, M.M. 97,96,98Palomares, M.L.D. 217,283,221Panikkar, P. 596,597Patricio, J. 599,598,600Pauly, D. 181,469,470,601,224Pavés, H.J. 471Pedersen, S.A. 168,225,174Pedersen, T. 602Persad, G. 603Phong, L.T. 604Pinkerton, M. 472Pinnegar, J.K. 473Piroddi, C. 475,474Pitcher, T.J. 204,202,203,110,201,105Polovina, J.J. 476Preikshot, D.B. 479,478,477Pruvost, P. 480Reyes-Marchant, P. 219Rivera-Arriaga, E. 131,289Rocha, G.R. 481,624Rosado-Solórzano, R. 245,154Rosas-Luis, R. 482,483Ruiz, D.J. 605Ruzicka, J.J. 606,484Rybarczyk, H. 220,132,216Salcido-Guavara, L.A. 325Salomon, A.K. 607Samb, B. 228,68,133Sánchez, F. 264,22Savenkoff, C. 145,146,117Sedzro, K.M. 516Shannon, L. 485Silvestre, G. 192Stanford, R. 44,104,271,272,43Stobberup, K.A. 486Tam, J. 487,488Taylor, M.H. 490,489,625Tecchio, S. 522Tomczak, M.T. 491,494,492,626,493,608Tong, L. 210Traore, A. 609Trites, A.W. 183,182Tsagarakis, K. 495Tsehaye, I. 496Tudman, P.D. 186Ullah, M.H. 610Valls, A. 497Vasconcellos, M. 292,112,144,111,28,327,29Vega-Cendejas, M.E. 323,27,247,288,25Velasco, G. 498Vibunpant, S. 60Vidal, L. 631,290Villanueva, M.C.S. 612,614,613,611,616,615Vivekanandan, E. 301,147Wabnitz, C.C. 499Walline, P.D. 308,230Walters, C.J. 520,519Wang, Y. 629Watermeyer, K. 506,504,503,502,501,500,505Watkinson, S. 198,199,126,127Williams, A.B. 517Wolff, M. 212,209,189,53,158,113,213Xu, S. 617Zeller, D. 46Zetina-Rejón, M.J. 291,241Zhang, Y. 508,507Fisheries Centre Research Reports 21(1) - Colléter et al. 51appEndix 2. EcoBasE nomEnclaturE: list of fiElds By taBlE (variaBlEs in Bold typE corrEspond to taBlEs’ primary kEys, and data sourcEs arE givEn for mEtadata taBlEs).Appendix Table A5.  Details of the ‘absolute_flows’ tableVariable Type Definitionmodel_number Bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list)group_name character varying(255) Name of the trophic group (models_details)tl_classes character varying(255) Trophic level class (I, II, III…)abs_fl_value double precision Absolute flows by trophic level valueAppendix Table A6.  Details of the ‘ascendency_by_group’ tableVariable Type Definitionmodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list)group_name character varying(250) Name of the trophic group (models_details)ascendency double precision Ascendency by group valueoverhead double precision Overhead by group valueinformation double precision Information by group valuethroughput double precision Throughput by group valueAppendix Table A7.  Details of the ‘ascendency_table’ tableVariable Type Definitionmodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list)line_classes character varying(255) Total ascendency source (Import, Internal flow…)column_classes character varying(255) Total ascendency class (Ascendency (flowbits), Overhead (flowbits))asc_tab_value double precision Total ascendency valueAppendix Table A8.  Details of the ‘biomass_catch_by_tl’ tableVariable Type Definitionmodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list)tl_classes character varying(255) Trophic level class (I, II, III…)biomass_classes character varying(255) Biomass/Catch class (Living, Detritus, Total, Non-hidden)biomass_value double precision Biomass by trophic level valuecatch_value double precision Catch by trophic level valueAppendix Table A9.  Details of the ‘consumption_table’ tableVariable Type Definitionmodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list)prey_group_name character varying(255) Name of the prey group (models_details + other_groups)predator_group_name character varying(255) Name of the predator group (models_details)consumption_value double precision Consumption valueAppendix Table A10.  Details of the ‘detritus_fate’ tableVariable Type Definitionmodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list)group_name character varying(255) Name of the source trophic group (models_details)detritus_group_name character varying(255) Name of the fate Detritus group (models_details)det_fate_value double precision Detritus fate valueAppendix Table A11.  Details of the ‘diet_table’ tableVariable Type Definitionmodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list)prey_group_name character varying(255) Name of the prey group (models_details + other_groups)predator_group_name character varying(255) Name of the predator group (models_details)diet_value double precision Diet table valueEcoBase: a repository solution to gather and communicate information from EwE models52Appendix Table A12.  Details of the ‘discard_fate’ tableVariable Type Definitionmodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list)fleet_name character varying(255) Name of the fleet (fishery_fleets)detritus_group_name character varying(255) Name of the fate Detritus group (models_details)discard_fate_value double precision Discard fate valueAppendix Table A13.  Details of the ‘electivity_search_rates_table’ tableVariable Type Definitionmodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list)prey_group_name character varying(255) Name of the prey group (models_details)predator_group_name character varying(255) Name of the predator group (models_details)electivity_value double precision Electivity valuesearch_rates_value double precision Search rate valueAppendix Table A14.  Details of the ‘fishery catches’ tableVariable Type Definitionmodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list)fleet_name character varying(255) Name of the fleet (fishery_fleets)group_name character varying(255) Name of the trophic group (models_details)catch_type character varying(255) Type of catch (landings or discards)catch_value double precision Catch valueAppendix Table A15.  Details of the ‘fishery_fleets’ tableVariable Type Definitionmodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list)fleet_name character varying(255) Name of the fleet (fishery_fleets)fixed_cost double precision Fixed cost value (in %)effort_related_cost double precision Effort related cost value (in %)sailing_related_cost double precision Sailing related cost value (in %)profit double precision Profit value (in %)total_value double precision Total value (in %)Appendix Table A16.  Details of the ‘fishery_indices’ tableVariable Type Definitionmodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list)fleet_name character varying(255) Name of the fleet (fishery_fleets)group_name character varying(255) Name of the trophic group (models_details)discard_mort_rate double precision Discard mortality rate valueoff_vessel_price double precision Off-vessel price valuefleet_fishing_mort_rate double precision Fleet fishing mortality rate valueAppendix Table A17.  Details of the ‘flows_biomasses_table’ tableVariable Type Definitionmodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list)tl_classes character varying(255) Trophic level class (I, II, III…)fl_classes character varying(255) Flows and biomasses class (Import, Consumption by predators...)from_pp_value double precision Flows and biomasses from primary producers valuefrom_det_value double precision Flows and biomasses from detritus valuefrom_all_comb_value double precision Flows and biomasses from all combined valueAppendix Table A18.  Details of the ‘mixed_trophic_impact’ tableVariable Type Definitionmodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list)impacting_group_name character varying(255) Impacting group name (models_details + fishery_fleets)impacted_group_name character varying(255) Impacted group name (models_details + fishery_fleets)mti_value double precision Mixed trophic impact valueFisheries Centre Research Reports 21(1) - Colléter et al. 53Appendix Table A19.  Details of the ‘models_details’ tableVariable Type Definitionmodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list)group_name character varying(255) Name of the trophic grouptl double precision Trophic levelhabitat_area double precision Habitat area (fraction)biomass_habitat_area double precision Biomass in habitat areab_hab_area_input boolean Biomass in habitat area input? (TRUE/FALSE)biomass double precision Biomasspb double precision Production on biomass ratiopb_input boolean Production on biomass ratio input? (TRUE/FALSE)qb double precision Consumption on biomass ratioqb_input boolean Consumption on biomass ratio input? (TRUE/FALSE)ee double precision Ecotrophic efficiencyee_input boolean Ecotrophic efficiency input? (TRUE/FALSE)other_mortality_input_value double precision Other mortality (input value)pq double precision Production on consumption ratiopq_input boolean Production on consumption ratio input? (TRUE/FALSE)uq double precision Unassimilated consumption on consumption ratiodetritus_import double precision Detritus importconsumer boolean Consumer group? (TRUE/FALSE)producer boolean Producer group? (TRUE/FALSE)detritus boolean Detritus group? (TRUE/FALSE)part_prod_from_pp double precision Part of production from primary producermulti_stanza_group_name character varying(255) Multi-stanza group namestanza_age double precision Stanza age (in months)immigration double precision Immigration (input value)emigration double precision Emigration (input value)emigration_rate double precision Emigration rate (input value)biom_acc double precision Biomass accumulationbiom_acc_input boolean Biomass accumulation input? (TRUE/FALSE)biom_acc_rate double precision Biomass accumulation ratebiom_acc_rate_input boolean Biomass accumulation rate input? (TRUE/FALSE)a_in_lw double precision Parameter ‘a’ value in length-weight relationb_in_lw double precision Parameter ‘b’ value in length-weight relationl_at_infinity double precision Length at infinityw_at_infinity double precision Weight at infinityk_in_vbgf double precision Parameter ‘K’ value in Von Bertalanffy growth functiont0_in_vbgf double precision Parameter ‘t0’ value in Von Bertalanffy growth functionage_first_capture double precision Age of first capturemax_age double precision Maximum agenet_migration double precision Net migrationflow_to_det double precision Flow to detritusnet_efficiency double precision Net efficiencyoi double precision Omnivory indexfishing_mort_rate double precision Fishing mortality ratepred_mort_rate double precision Predation mortality ratenet_migration_rate double precision Net migration rateother_mort_rate double precision Other mortality raterespiration double precision Respirationassimilation double precision Assimilationks_index_1 double precision Keystone indexks_index_2 double precision Keystone index #2rel_tot_impact double precision Relative total impactflow_from_det double precision Flow from detritusEcoBase: a repository solution to gather and communicate information from EwE models54Appendix Table A20.  Details of the ‘models_history’ tableVariable Type Definition Sourcemodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list) databaseavailable boolean Is the model recorded in the DB? (TRUE/FALSE) databasereferenced boolean Is the reference recorded in the DB? (TRUE/FALSE) databaseasked boolean If not available, did we ask for the model? (TRUE/FALSE) databasefacilitator character varying(500) Person through whom the model was given databasefacilitator_contact character varying(500) E-mail address of the facilitator databasebalanced boolean Is the Ecopath model balanced? (TRUE/FALSE) databasemodified boolean Has the model been modified? (TRUE/FALSE) databasemodifier character varying(500) If modified=TRUE, person who modified the model databasemodifier_contact character varying(500) E-mail address of the modifier databasematch_paper_b boolean Do model biomass values correspond to reference values? (TRUE/FALSE) model/paperdifference_b character varying(250) If not, importance of the difference (low,medium,high) model/papermatch_paper_dc boolean Do model diet values correspond to reference values? (TRUE/FALSE) model/paperdifference_dc character varying(250) If not, importance of the difference (low,medium,high) model/papermatch_paper_ee boolean Do model EE values correspond to reference values? (TRUE/FALSE) model/paperdifference_ee character varying(250) If not, importance of the difference (low,medium,high) model/papermatch_paper_pb boolean Do model P/B values correspond to reference values? (TRUE/FALSE) model/paperdifference_pb character varying(250) If not, importance of the difference (low,medium,high) model/papermatch_paper_qb boolean Do model Q/B values correspond to reference values? (TRUE/FALSE) model/paperdifference_qb character varying(250) If not, importance of the difference (low,medium,high) model/papermatch_paper_y boolean Do model catch values correspond to reference values? (TRUE/FALSE) model/paperdifference_y character varying(250) If not, importance of the difference (low,medium,high) model/paperewe_version_database character varying(255) Version of EwE in which the model has been stored in the DB model/paperewe_version_original character varying(255) Version of EwE in which the model has been built by its author, as cited in the paperpapervilly_remarks text Any remark from Villy Christensen on the model databasepaco_model_remarks text Any remark from Francisco Arreguín-Sánchez when opening and processing the model (balance procedure, problems, comparison with reference) databasepaco_remarks text Any additional remark from Francisco Arreguín-Sánchez on the model databasemathieu_problem text Summary remarks from Mathieu Colléter when merging all databases databasemathieu_usable boolean Is the model usable for Mathieu Colléter meta-analysis purposes? (personal use)databaseFisheries Centre Research Reports 21(1) - Colléter et al. 55Appendix Table A21.  Details of the ‘models_indices’ tableVariable Type Definitionmodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list)sum_all_consumption double precision Sum of all consumptionsum_all_exports double precision Sum of all exportssum_all_resp_flows double precision Sum of all respiratory flowssum_all_flows_into_det double precision Sum of all flows into detritustotal_system_throughput double precision Total system throughputsum_all_prod double precision Sum of all productionmean_tl_catch double precision Mean trophic level of the catchgross_efficiency double precision Gross efficiency (catch/net p.p.)input_total_net_pp double precision Input total net primary productioncalculated_total_net_pp double precision Calculated total net primary productionunaccounted_pp double precision Unaccounted primary productionpp_resp_ratio double precision Total primary production/total respirationnet_system_prod double precision Net system productionpp_biomass_ratio double precision Total primary production/total biomassbiomass_throughput_ratio double precision Total biomass/total throughputtotal_biomass_exclud_det double precision Total biomass (excluding detritus)total_catch double precision Total catchconnectance_index double precision Connectance Indexsystem_omnivory_index double precision System Omnivory Indextotal_market_value double precision Total market valuetotal_shadow_value double precision Total shadow valuetotal_value double precision Total valuetotal_fixed_cost double precision Total fixed costtotal_variable_cost double precision Total variable costtotal_cost double precision Total costprofit double precision Profitpedigree_index double precision Ecopath pedigree indexmeasure_fit_t double precision Measure of fit, t*flows_biomasses_throughput_extracted_break_cycles double precision Flows and biomasses from all combined extracted to break cyclesflows_biomasses_throughput_input_tl_ii double precision Flows and biomasses from all combined: Input TL II+ (not in throughput)prop_flow_origin_det double precision Proportion of total flow originating from detrituste_from_pp double precision Transfer efficiency from primary producer (calculated as geometric mean for TL II-IV)te_from_det double precision Transfer efficiency from detritus (calculated as geometric mean for TL II-IV)te_total double precision Total transfer efficiency (calculated as geometric mean for TL II-IV)throughput_cycled_exclud_det double precision Throughput cycled (excluding detritus)pred_cycling_index double precision Predatory cycling indexthroughput_cycled_includ_det double precision Throughput cycled (including detritus)finn_cycling_index double precision Finn’s cycling indexfinn_mean_path_leng double precision Finn’s mean path lengthfinn_straight_through_path_length_without_det double precision Finn’s straight-through path length (without detritus)finn_straight_through_path_length_with_det double precision Finn’s straight-through path length (with detritus)EcoBase: a repository solution to gather and communicate information from EwE models56Appendix Table A22.  Details of the ‘models_info’ tableVariable Type Definition Sourcemodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list) databasemodel_year_start smallint Start year of the modeled period model input/papermodel_year_end smallint End year of the modeled period model input/papersibling_model boolean Are there several historical versions of the model? (TRUE/FALSE) databasesibling_code character varying(255) Model number(s) of sibling(s) (if several, noted as 195_196) databasearea double precision Modeled area (km2) model input/papermodel_location character varying(255) Model location model input/papercountry character varying(255) Country (if the model can be related to one (or several) country) model input/paperfao_area character varying(255) FAO area in which the model is included (if several, noted as 61_71)databaselme character varying(255) Large Marine Ecosystem in which the model is included (if several, noted as 27_28)databasecoordinates_north text Northern coordinate (in decimal degrees) model inputcoordinates_south text Southern coordinate (in decimal degrees) model inputcoordinates_east text Eastern coordinate (in decimal degrees) model inputcoordinates_west text Western coordinate (in decimal degrees) model inputgeographic_extent text Spatial polygon of the model (in decimal degrees) databasegeom geometry Calculated geometric column (from geographic_extent) enabling mapping of the modelsdatabaseoverlapping_model boolean Are there several spatial versions of the model? (TRUE/FALSE) databaseoverlapping_code character varying(255) Model number(s) of overlapping model(s) (if several, noted as 195_196)databasetemperature_min double precision Minimum sea surface temperature (SST) of the ecosystem on the modeled time periodpapertemperature_max double precision Maximum SST of the ecosystem on the modeled time period papertemperature_mean double precision Mean SST of the ecosystem on the modeled time period paperdepth_min double precision Minimum depth of the modeled ecosystem paperdepth_max double precision Maximum depth of the modeled ecosystem paperdepth_mean double precision Mean depth of the modeled ecosystem papersalinity_min double precision Minimum water salinity of the ecosystem on the modeled time periodpapersalinity_max double precision Maximum water salinity of the ecosystem on the modeled time periodpapersalinity_mean double precision Mean water salinity of the ecosystem on the modeled time period paperoxygen_min double precision Minimum water oxygen rate of the ecosystem on the modeled time periodpaperoxygen_max double precision Maximum water oxygen rate of the ecosystem on the modeled time periodpaperoxygen_mean double precision Mean water oxygen rate of the ecosystem on the modeled time periodpaperprimary_production double precision Mean primary production of the ecosystem on the modeled time periodpapersediment_structure character varying(255) Sediment structure of the ecosystem paperecosystem_zone character varying(255) Model ecosystem zone (tropical, temperate or polar) paperecosystem_type character varying(255) Model ecosystem type (channel/strait, bay/fjord, coastal lagoon, coral reef, continental shelf (< 200m depth), ocean, river, estuary, beach, reservoir, lake, terrestrial)papermathieu_ecosyst_type character varying(255) Model ecosystem type (Mathieu Colléter’s classification) databasepaco_ecosyst_type text Model ecosystem type (Paco Arreguín-Sánchez’s classification) databasepaco_other_ecosyst_type text Model other ecosystem type (Paco Arreguín-Sánchez’s classification)databasepaco_other_ecosyst_uses boolean Other modeled ecosystem uses? (Paco Arreguín-Sánchez’s info, TRUE/FALSE)databasepaco_describe_uses text What for other use (Paco Arreguín-Sánchez’s info) databasewhole_food_web boolean Is the entire food web accounted for in the model? (TRUE/FALSE) papermpa boolean Is the modeled ecosystem under any protection? (TRUE/FALSE) paperFisheries Centre Research Reports 21(1) - Colléter et al. 57Appendix Table A23.  Details of the ‘models_list’ tableVariable Type Definition Sourcemodel_number bigserial Number of the model in the DB databasemodel_name character varying(255) Name of the model model input/databasedescription text Description of the model model inputauthor character varying(255) 1st author name paperauthor_contact character varying(500) 1st author e-mail address paperrelevant_decimal_digits smallint Number of relevant decimal digits model inputgroup_digits boolean Group digits? (TRUE/FALSE) model inputmonetary_units character varying(255) Monetary unit of the model model input/papercurrency_units character varying(255) Currency unit of the model model input/papertime_units character varying(255) Time unit of the model model input/paperinclude_psd_calculations boolean Includes particle size distribution (PSD) calculations? (TRUE/FALSE)model inputecospace boolean Is the Ecospace routine used? (TRUE/FALSE) paper/modelecosim boolean Is the Ecosim routine used? (TRUE/FALSE) paper/modelecopath boolean Is the Ecopath routine used? (TRUE/FALSE) paper/modelecotracer boolean Is the Ecotracer routine used? (TRUE/FALSE) paper/modelecotroph boolean Is the EcoTroph routine used? (TRUE/FALSE) paperkeystone_analysis boolean Has a keystone analysis been done? (TRUE/FALSE) paper/modelspecies_info boolean Is the list of species for each functional group available? (TRUE/FALSE)paperspecies_of_interest boolean Has the model been built to study a particular species/group? (TRUE/FALSE)paperstanza_groups boolean Are there any stanzas in the model? (TRUE/FALSE) model input/paperspecies_of_interest_name character varying(255) If species_of_interest=TRUE, name of species/group of particular interestpapernumber_groups smallint Number of functional groups included in the model paper/modelfisheries boolean Was the model built to study fisheries? (TRUE/FALSE) paperaquaculture boolean Was the model built to study aquaculture? (TRUE/FALSE) paperenvironment_variability boolean Was the model built to study environmental variability? (TRUE/FALSE)paperecosyst_functioning boolean Was the model built to study global ecosystem functioning? (TRUE/FALSE)paperpollution boolean Was the model built to study pollution? (TRUE/FALSE) paperAppendix Table A24.  Details of the ‘models_ref’ tableVariable Type Definitionmodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list)id_ref bigint Number of the reference in the DB (references_table)ref_importance integer Importance of the reference (if several: 1, 2...)Appendix Table A25.  Details of the ‘niche_overlap’ tableVariable Type Definitionmodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list)group_name character varying(255) Name of the trophic group (models_details)column_group_name character varying(255) Name of the trophic group (models_details)prey_overlap_value double precision Prey overlap valuepred_overlap_value double precision Predator overlap valueAppendix Table A26.  Details of the ‘non_market_price’ tableVariable Type Definitionmodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list)group_name character varying(255) Name of the trophic group (models_details)price_value double precision Non-market price valueEcoBase: a repository solution to gather and communicate information from EwE models58Appendix Table A27.  Details of the ‘other_groups’ tableVariable Type Definitionmodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list)other_groups_name character varying(255) Name of the other groupsother_groups_type character varying(255) Other groups type (notably import)Appendix Table A28.  Details of the ‘pedigree_assignment’ tableVariable Type Definitionmodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list)group_name character varying(255) Name of the trophic group (models_details)variable character varying(255) Concerned variabledefinition_name character varying(255) Pedigree classification nameAppendix Table A29.  Details of the ‘pedigree_definition’ tableVariable Type Definitionmodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list)variable character varying(255) Name of the variable (Biomass in habitat area, P/B...)definition_name character varying(255) Name of the Pedigree classificationindex_value double precision Index valueconf_interv double precision Confidence interval (+/-%)Appendix Table A30.  Details of the ‘ppr_consumption_groups’ tableVariable Type Definitionmodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list)group_name character varying(255) Name of the trophic group (models_details)paths_number double precision Number of pathsppr_pp double precision Primary production required (PPR) from primary producersppr_det double precision PPR from detritusppr double precision Total PPR for consumptionconsumption double precision Consumptionppr_cons_ratio double precision PPR on consumption ratioppr_totpp_ratio double precision PPR on total primary production ratioppr_ubiomass_ratio double precision PPR on biomass unit ratioAppendix Table A31.  Details of the ‘ppr_harvest_groups’ tableVariable Type Definitionmodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list)group_name character varying(255) Name of the trophic group (models_details)paths_number double precision Number of pathsppr_pp double precision Primary production required (PPR) from primary producersppr_det double precision PPR from detritusppr double precision Total PPR for harvestcatch double precision Catchppr_catch_ratio double precision PPR on catch ratioppr_totpp_ratio double precision PPR on total primary production ratioppr_ucatch_ratio double precision PPR on catch unit ratioAppendix Table A32.  Details of the ‘pred_mort_rates_table’ tableVariable Type Definitionmodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list)prey_group_name character varying(255) Name of the prey group (models_details)predator_group_name character varying(255) Name of the predator group (models_details)pmr_value double precision Predation mortality rate valueFisheries Centre Research Reports 21(1) - Colléter et al. 59Appendix Table A33.  Details of the ‘psd_contribution’ tableVariable Type Definitionmodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list)group_name character varying(255) Name of the trophic group (models_details)weight_class character varying(255) Name of the weight classcontrib_value double precision Contribution valueAppendix Table A34.  Details of the ‘psd_growth_estimates’ tableVariable Type Definitionmodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list)group_name character varying(255) Name of the trophic group (models_details)a_in_lw double precision Parameter ‘a’ value in length-weight relationb_in_lw double precision Parameter ‘b’ value in length-weight relationl_at_infinity double precision Length at infinityw_at_infinity double precision Weight at infinityk_in_vbgf double precision Parameter ‘K’ value in Von Bertalanffy growth functiont0_in_vbgf double precision Parameter ‘t0’ value in Von Bertalanffy growth functionage_first_capture double precision Age of first capturemax_age double precision Maximum ageAppendix Table A35.  Details of the ‘references_table’ tableVariable Type Definitionid_ref integer Number of the reference in the DBxml_ref xml Reference in xml formatpdf boolean Is the reference available online in pdf format? (TRUE/FALSE)supplement boolean Does the reference contain supplementary materials? (TRUE/FALSE)Appendix Table A36.  Details of the ‘taxonomy’ tableVariable Type Definitionmodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list)group_name character varying(255) Name of the trophic group (models_details)subgroup_name character varying(255) Name of the subgroup name, i.e. species nameprop_of_biomass double precision Proportion of biomassgenus character varying(255) Genus namespecies character varying(255) Species namefamily_name character varying(255) Family nameorder_name character varying(255) Order nameclass_name character varying(255) Class namephylum_name character varying(255) Phylum nameorganism character varying(255) Organism nameecology character varying(255) Ecologyoccurence_status character varying(255) Occurence statusprop_of_biomass2 double precision Proportion of biomassprop_of_catch double precision Proportion of catchiucn_conserv_status character varying(255) IUCN conservation statusvuln_index double precision Vulnerability indexmean_length double precision Mean lengthmax_length double precision Maximum lengthmean_weight double precision Mean weightmean_life_span double precision Mean life spanAppendix Table A37.  Details of the ‘transfer_efficiency’ tableVariable Type Definitionmodel_number bigint Number of the model in the DB (models_list)transf_classes character varying(255) Transfer efficiency source class (Producer, Detritus, All flows)tl_classes character varying(255) Trophic level class (I, II, III…)te_tab_value double precision Transfer efficiency valueEcoBase: a repository solution to gather and communicate information from EwE models60appEndix 3. mEthod for thE gEo-localization of EwE modElsWe decided to include a precise spatial polygon for each EwE model. This representation relies mainly on publications information, and has been developed for several uses. It relies on the specification of spatial coordinates in the ‘geographic_extent’ field of the ‘models_info’ table. This field is treated within the database to furnish a geographic object usable in GIS software. We use spatial capabilities of the Postgres/Postgis database object. The geometry type enables us to store more than only numeric or text objects, but also spatial ones. Import of the data can be made as text (it should be KML files) or as shapefiles. Spatial coordinates can correspond to a specific point or a polygon (2D), e.g. ‘-33,41,0 -33,35,0 -23,35,0 -23,41,0 -33,41,0’ corresponding to a square covering the area modeled by Guénette and Morato (2001; see Figure A1).1 Once data are loaded, several functions dedicated to this data type are usable: area, distance, projections, intersection, union calculations, and transformation as shape or kml.1 Guénette S and Morato T (2001) The Azores Archipelago, 1997. pp. 241-270 In Zeller D, Watson R and Pauly D (eds.), Fisheries Impacts on North Atlantic Ecosystems: Models and Analyses. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 9 (4). The Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.Figure A1. Google Earth representation of the spatial polygon allocated to Azores EwE model.

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