UBC Faculty Research and Publications

An Annotated Bibliography of Scientific Literature (1751-2000) pertaining to Steller sea lions (Eumetopias… Hunter, Andrea M. J.; Trites, Andrew W., 1957- 2001

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
52383-Hunter_A_et_al_Annotated_bibliography_scientific.pdf [ 576.73kB ]
Metadata
JSON: 52383-1.0348128.json
JSON-LD: 52383-1.0348128-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 52383-1.0348128-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 52383-1.0348128-rdf.json
Turtle: 52383-1.0348128-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 52383-1.0348128-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 52383-1.0348128-source.json
Full Text
52383-1.0348128-fulltext.txt
Citation
52383-1.0348128.ris

Full Text

 Fisheries Centre Research Reports  2001   Volume 9   Number 1       An annotated bibliography of scientific literature (1751-2000) pertaining to Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska           ISSN 1198-6727 Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Canada                                  ISSN 1198-6727 An Annotated Bibliography of  Scientific Literature (1751-2000)  Pertaining to Steller Sea Lions  (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska  Fisheries Centre Research Reports 2001 Volume 9 Number 1     An Annotated Bibliography of Scientific Literature  (1751-2000) Pertaining to  Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska     by  Andrea M. J. Hunter and Andrew W. Trites                          Published by © The Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia 2204 Main Mall, Vancouver, B.C. Canada, V6T 1Z4  2001  iTABLE OF CONTENTS page DIRECTOR’S FOREWORD…….……………………………………………………………………………………. ii ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS………………………..………………………………………………………………...… iii INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1 METHODS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1  Subject Areas…………………………………………………………………………….…………..…….. 2  Hypotheses Tested…………………….………………………………………………………..…………. 3 RESULTS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4 DISCUSSION……………………………………………………………………………………………………….… 8 LITERATURE CITED ..………………………………………….…………………………………………………... 8 APPENDIX I:   Alphabetical list of literature reviewed indexed by keywords and hypotheses tested.……...…….. 9 APPENDIX II:   Chronological list of literature reviewed indexed by keywords and hypotheses tested……….….. 18 APPENDIX III:   Full Citations of Literature Reviewed……………………………………………………….….……… 29 APPENDIX  IV:    Literature not Obtained for Review……………..……..….…………………………………...……… 39                Fisheries Centre Research Reports 9(1): 40 pages ISSN 1198 6727 © The Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, 2001  ii Director’s Foreword  Every so often someone performs a tedious chore so helpful to the rest of us that it falls  into the category of ‘really, really useful’. In this respect, a special place in fisheries heaven is reserved for those who compile bibliographies. In this Fisheries Centre report Andrea Hunter and Andrew Trites have, for the first time, brought together all of the literature on Steller sea lions, starting with Georg Wilhelm Steller’s own description in 1751. Moreover, the bibliography is enhanced with a detailed analysis of the topics and issues covered in each of the papers. The authors will get a chorus of ‘thank you’ echoing down the years, and, doubtless, a suitable reward in heaven.  Steller, a meticulous German who would have loved to see this volume, was the naturalist on Vitus Bering’s 1741 expedition from the Tsarina Anna’s Russia to what is now Alaska. Bering was a Dane serving in the Russian navy. The expedition was a tough call; among the hardships we find hard to comprehend today were scurvy, losing the other half of the expedition in a storm, shipwreck, over-wintering on what became known as Bering Island in Kamchatka, and having to cut the wood to build their own ship. They also ate the sea-cows they discovered there, but, unfortunately, that did not prove a hardship and reports of the sea-cow’s suitability as living larders led to their extinction only 30 years later. Bering himself died that winter, along with half of his crew. But, apart from all that, the tough Steller had a pretty successful voyage for a naturalist, and, as well as our sea lion, lent his name to a duck, a jay and that sea-cow. An unexpected  reward that Georg got in heaven was a kind of silicate crystal (Stellerite), first found on the Komandorski Islands in 1909. Every time I see the name, the testy old editorial pedant within pops up to ask why, unlike the extinct sea-cow, the sea lion’s name lost its possessive. OED gives the use of the possessive Steller’s in Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. XVI (1902), and reports it still in use in an edition of the ‘Islander’ published in Victoria, BC in 1975. A 1926 paper by Engle has it (jolly good show!),  and so does the Alaska Fish and Game Department’s web site (capital!). But Hunter and Trites bibliography clearly shows that modern usage has dropped the possessive. (Not to say the hyphen in sea-lion. Harrumph!)  The report is the latest in a series of research reports published by the UBC Fisheries Centre.  A list is shown on our web site at http:/fisheries.ubc.ca. The series aims to focus on broad multidisciplinary problems in fisheries management, to provide a synoptic overview of the foundations and themes of current research, to report on work-in-progress, and to identify the next steps and ways that research may be improved.  Edited reports of the workshops, research in progress or, occasionally, bibliographies like this, are published in Fisheries Centre Research Reports and are distributed to the Fisheries Centre’s members, all project or workshop participants. Further copies are available on request for a modest cost-recovery charge. Please contact the Fisheries Centre by mail, fax (see back cover), or email to ‘office@fisheries.ubc.ca’.  Tony J. Pitcher  Professor of Fisheries Director, UBC Fisheries Centre iii ABSTRACT  We compiled an annotated bibliography of Steller sea lion literature that identifies the areas of research that have been undertaken to date, and whether or not they address the leading hypotheses proposed to explain the population decline in Alaska. We identified 263 scientific papers with a primary research focus on Steller sea lions.  Of these, 110 articles were peer-reviewed publications in scientific journals, and 153 were other forms of publication (e.g., technical reports, unpublished reports, dissertations, etc.).   The total number of Steller sea lion articles published per decade has risen exponentially from 4 in the 1940s to 120 in the 1990s.  The bulk of scientific studies have focused on population dynamics, population distribution, ecology, census data, nutrition and behavior. Subject areas that have received low research attention include        predation on Steller sea lions, captive studies, metabolism and parasitology.  Only 56 of the 263 scientific articles contained information relative to testing one of the 12 hypothesized causes of the Steller sea lion decline.  The most frequently addressed hypothesis concerned juvenile mortality (24 papers).  This was followed by competition with fisheries, starvation and regime shifts.  Only 1 of the 263 articles addressed the role that killer whale predation may be playing in the decline of Steller sea lions. To date, over 9,149 pages pertaining to Steller sea lions have been printed (1,145 pages of primary publications and 8,004 pages of other publications).  The relative number of articles that address or provide significant information to assess hypothesized causes of the population decline are few (< 35% of the sea lion literature per decade).    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS   We are particularly grateful to Sonja Kromann from the National Marine Mammal Laboratory Library in Seattle, Washington, who helped locate articles.  We also wish to thank David Rosen, Pamela Rosenbaum and Arliss Winship            from the University of British Columbia.  Help with formatting was provided by Tom Bell.  We acknowledge financial assistance from the Pacific Seafood Processors Association, and from the North Pacific Marine Science Foundation through the North Pacific Universities Marine Mammal Research Consortium.       Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  1 INTRODUCTION  The first to publish a scientific paper on Steller sea lions was George William Steller in 1751 (Steller 1751).  His paper named and identified the Steller sea lion as a unique species and was later translated by Miller and Miller (1899).  Over 100 years after Steller’s (1751) publication, a paper was published that measured the length of the intestine of a Steller sea lion (Engle 1926).  This, in turn, was followed by a paper published in 1945 that described the growth and behavior of young sea lions (Scheffer 1945).  Today, over 600 papers and articles can be found on Steller sea lions authored by Americans, Canadians, Russians and Japanese.  Much of the published research on Steller sea lions has been prompted in the United States by the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, and more recently by the listing of the Steller sea lion under the U.S. Endangered Species Act in 1990 (NMFS 1992).    Compiling the available scientific literature on Steller sea lions is useful for those wishing to understand why Steller sea lion populations have declined.  Understanding what is already known, or where more information is required, is useful to those who would like to assist in the recovery of Steller sea lions.  It was with this in mind that we set out to develop an annotated bibliography of Steller sea lion research that identifies the areas of research that have been undertaken to date.  We also wanted to determine which scientific papers have information that bears on the leading hypotheses proposed to explain the decline of Steller sea lions.  It is our hope that this information will be useful to scientists and non-scientists concerned with Steller sea lions as they seek to understand what is currently known and attempt to resolve why Steller sea lion populations have declined in parts of Alaska.  METHODS  There are three major sources for identifying scientific literature pertaining to Steller sea lions.  One is a Pinniped Bibliography (Ronald et al. 1976).  Another is electronic citation indexes, where published articles can be searched by species name or topic.  A third source is the Steller sea lion bibliography   compiled by the National Marine Fisheries Service (Strick 1993) that contains over 400 entries.    We drew our compilation of the scientific literature primarily from the NMFS bibliography (Strick 1993) and supplemented it with additional citations from the other two sources.  A large number of the cited articles in the NMFS bibliography are magazine articles or internal memorandums. We wished to restrict our analyses of the literature to scientific articles that focused primarily on Steller sea lions, and to those that might provide some insight into the Steller sea lions’ ecosystem in Alaska.  The criteria we used to include articles in our annotated bibliography of Steller sea lion literature were:   1. Articles must be scientific.  Newspaper and magazine articles were not included.  2. The Steller sea lion must be one of the primary focuses of the article and/or the article must provide a new perspective on Steller sea lion research. Articles that briefly mentioned Steller sea lions were omitted.  Papers or book chapters that summarized existing Steller sea lion information and did not provide any new information were not included.   3.  Articles were selected that reflected Steller sea lions present in the Alaska ecosystem.  Thus, the majority of articles contained in our annotated bibliography pertained to research conducted in Alaska.  However, relevant papers from outside of Alaska were included if they contributed knowledge or insight into the Steller sea lion population decline in Alaska.   4.  Conference abstracts or non-peer-reviewed proceedings were not included because they were considered to be works-in-progress or incomplete studies that would eventually be published and replicated in the literature.  However, workshop proceedings were included because they tended to provide new, original insight from groups of knowledgeable researchers.  Each article selected with the above criteria was categorized by (1) subject area and (2) hypotheses tested (i.e., whether they tested or provided significant new information to address the leading hypotheses proposed to explain the decline of Steller sea lions).  Grouping scientific papers by subject area is a useful way to retrieve papers on a specific topic from the reference list.  It also provides a simple means of determining what subject areas researchers have been focusing upon. Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  2  SUBJECT AREAS  The subject areas we chose to categorize the papers were modeled after those presented by Ronald et al. (1976), with slight modifications.  The following is a list of the 46 keywords we chose with a brief description of the topics classified under each heading:  1. Anatomy  2. Behavior  3. Bibliography:   Any paper that is a summary or a review   4. Biochemistry:   Including pesticide residues, nutritional values of seal products, blood chemistry  5. Captive Studies:   Including zoos, aquariums, museums, care and handling  6. Census data:   Counts of Steller sea lions  7. Circulatory System:  Including lymphatic system, and structure of circulatory system (e.g., veins, heart), while excluding blood  8. Cycles:   Feeding cycles, daily cycles, hormonal cycles, photo-period, tides, seasons  9. Cytology: The anatomy, physiology, pathology and chemistry of the cell  10. Digestive System: Including digestive processes, digestive juices, dentition  11. Distribution:   Including comparisons between and within areas, excluding census data covering one site with no mention of distribution within the site  12. Diving:   Depth, speed, duration  13. Ecology:   An animal’s relation to the environment  14. Embryology/Obstetrics:   Including delayed implantation, obstetrics 15. Endocrine System:   Hormones    16. Evolution:   Genetic evolution   17. Excretory System:   Including hepatic system, urine, osmoregulation, structures of the excretory system (e.g., liver, kidney)  18. Exploitation:   Sealing, killing for commercial purposes   19. Genetics:   Chromosomes, phenotypes, genotypes, heredity  20. Growth:   Morphological measurements, individual physical growth, not population growth  21. Haematology  22. Hearing:   Ear, echolocation, sonar  23. Integument:   Hair, skin  24. Legislation:   International agreements  25. Locomotion  26. Management:   Conservation  27.  Metabolism  28. Migration:   Including orientation  29. Molt  30. Muscular System  31. Nervous system:   Nerves, brain, innervation  32. Nutrition:   Including food, milk, food poisoning, starvation, predation by seals, stomach contents, scat contents  33. Parasitology  34. Pathology:   Diseases, treatments, anesthetics, effects of drugs, scars, injuries, symptoms Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  335. Physiology  36. Population dynamics:   Including population biology, age and sex structure, vital rates, trends in population change over time  37. Predators:   Predation on Steller sea lions by other animals, excluding human predation  38. Reproduction:   Excluding embryology and obstetrics  39. Respiratory system  40. Sensory system:   Vibrissae, sense of smell, touch, taste  41. Skeletal system  42. Taxonomy:   Taxonomic procedures, classification  43. Technology:   Experimental procedures developed for pinniped research, pinniped deterrent devices  44. Thermoregulation:  Including insulation (blubber), body temperature  45. Vision:   Eyes, visual acuity, blindness, sensitivity  46. Vocalization:   Communication, vocal apparatus, audiograms  HYPOTHESES TESTED  We identified 12 hypotheses (or categories of hypotheses) that have been put forward to explain the decline of Steller sea lions.  They included:   1. Juvenile mortality:   Juvenile animals have abnormally high mortality levels  2.  Nutritional Stress – Junk Food:   Change in the prey base altered the energy content of the prey to one that is insufficient to maintain the energy requirements of the animals 3.   Nutritional Stress – Starvation: Animals are unable to locate adequate amounts of food  4. Predation – Animals:   Animal predation (e.g., transient killer whales, sharks)  5. Predation – Humans:   Subsistence harvest, commercial harvest  6. Competition with Fisheries:   Depletion of sea lion prey, fishery effects (e.g., entanglement in nets)  7. Migration:  Re-distribution across range  8. Regime Shift:   Natural change in the abundance or distribution of sea lion prey  9. Disease  10. Pollution  11. Trophic Cascade:   A change in the abundance of species at trophic levels above or below sea lions which affects the abundance of species at other trophic levels  12. Adult mortality:   Increased adult mortality (typically coupled with long-term juvenile mortality)  It should be noted that none of these 12 hypotheses are mutually exclusive.  In fact, most publications that consider hypotheses tend to consider a combination of those listed above.     We did not categorize the papers in our annotated bibliography as addressing a hypothesis if they simply reviewed possible causes of the decline.  We considered a paper as addressing a hypothesis if it formally stated the hypothesis being tested (which was rare) or if it provided a substantial body of new knowledge that was used in each paper to assess one of the 12 hypotheses listed above.  Note that our listing of articles under the ‘hypothesis category’ does not indicate that the hypothesis was proven.      Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  4  RESULTS  There are over 400 articles listed in the NMFS Steller sea lion bibliography (Strick 1993).  For the years 1751-2000, we deemed 263 articles as meeting our scientific criteria (see Appendix I, II and III).  Of these, 110 articles were peer-reviewed publications in international scientific journals, and 153 were other forms of publication (e.g., NMFS technical reports, unpublished reports, dissertations, etc.).   Appendices I and II list articles by authors names and date of publication, respectively, and need to be cross-referenced with Appendix III to obtain the full citations.  We were unable to obtain a few articles and were therefore unable to categorize these by subject area and hypotheses tested (see Appendix IV).  An amendment to our report should be undertaken when these articles are available, and as other articles are published.    Only 4 articles were published on Steller sea lions prior to the 1940s.  Since then the total number of articles published per decade has risen exponentially from 4 in the 1940s to 120 in the 1990s (Fig. 1).  There is a general tendency for fewer articles to be published in the primary (peer reviewed) literature compared to other forms of publication. Although, the gap in the number of articles published appears to be narrowing (Fig. 1), a wide gap is apparent between the number of pages published in the two means (primary and other – Fig. 2).  To date over 9,149 pages have been printed that pertain    to Steller sea lions (1,145 pages of primary publications and 8,004 pages of other publications).  Over half of the scientific articles dealt with distribution and population dynamics (Fig. 3).  The next largest areas of research pertained to ecology, census data, nutrition and behavior (over one-third of the publications).  The next largest areas in order of importance were growth, reproduction, cycles, exploitation, physiology and management.  Subject areas that have received low research attention (over the overall time period) include predation on Steller sea lions, captive studies, metabolism and parasitology (Fig. 3).     Of the 263 articles contained in our annotated bibliography, only 56 (21%) contained information relative to testing one of the 12 hypotheses.  The most frequently addressed hypothesis concerned juvenile mortality (24 papers).  This was followed by competition with fisheries, starvation and regime shifts (Fig. 4).  Only 1 of the 263 articles addressed the role that killer whale predation may be playing in the decline of Steller sea lions (Fig. 4).    The relative number of articles per decade that address or provide significant information to assess hypothesized causes of the population decline are few (< 35%).  However the percentage (albeit small) has been increasing over time (Fig. 5).          Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  5 010203040506070801920-29 1930-39 1940-49 1950-59 1960-69 1970-79 1980-89 1990-99DecadeNumber of ArticlesOther PrimarySteller Sea Lion PublicationsNumber of Articles Figure 1: Total number of articles published on Steller sea lions per decade, from the 1920s to the present, of primary (black) and other forms (gray) of publications. Articles included are compiled in Appendices I and II.  050010001500200025003000350040001920-29 1930-39 1940-49 1950-59 1960-69 1970-79 1980-89 1990-99DecadeTotal Number of PagesOther PrimaryTotal Number of PagesSteller Sea Lion Publications  Figure 2: Total number of pages published on Steller sea lions per decade, from the 1920s to the present, of primary  (black) and other forms (gray) of publications.  Articles included are compiled in Appendices I and II. Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  6  0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160Circulatory systemMoultNervous systemSensory systemVisionEvolutionHearingMuscular systemTaxonomyVocalizationLocomotionEndocrine systemExcretory systemCytologyEmbryology/ObstetricsGeneticsLegislationParasitologyPredatorsRespiratory systemSkeletal systemAnatomyToxicologyMetabolismIntegumentDigestive systemCaptive studiesBibliographyHaematologyThermoregualtionBiochemistryMigrationDivingTechnologyPathologyManagementPhysiologyExploitationCyclesReproductionGrowthBehaviourNutritionCensus dataEcologyPopulation dynamicsDistributionNumber of Articles0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6Frequency of Occurrence (n = 263 articles)KeywordsSteller Sea Lion Publications(1751-2000) Figure 3: Keywords used to summarize 263 Steller sea lion articles published from 1751-2000.   Keywords are organized by the number of articles in which the keyword appears and corresponding frequency of occurrence. Articles and keywords correspond to those contained in Appendices I and II.  Note that many articles contain information pertaining to more than one keyword. Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  7 0 5 10 15 20 25Juvenile mortalityCompetition with fisheries Nutritional Stress: StarvationPredation: HumansRegime ShiftsMigrationNutritional Stress: Junk FoodDiseaseAdult mortalityTrophic CascadePollutionPredation: AnimalsNumber of Articles0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4Frequency of OccurrenceHypotheses AddressedSteller Sea Lion Publications(1977-2000) Figure 4: Number and proportion of articles that have considered hypothesized causes of the Steller sea lion decline.  Each article addressed one or more hypotheses, and hypotheses addressed were non-exclusive. Hypothesis testing occurred in 56 of 263 articles considered (see Appendix I and II).  00.050.10.150.20.250.30.351920-29 1930-39 1940-49 1950-59 1960-69 1970-79 1980-89 1990-99DecadeArticles that Tested Hypotheses per Total Number of ArticlesOther PrimaryArticles that Tested Hypotheses per Total Number of ArticlesSteller Sea Lion Publications Figure 5: The proportion of all published articles that tested hypotheses from the 1920s to the present, in primary (black) and other forms (gray) of publication.  Articles that tested hypotheses totaled 56 of 263 articles summarized during this period (see Appendix I and II). Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  8  DISCUSSION  Although the designation of keywords for subject areas and hypotheses tested is subjective, we believe that they provide a fair representation of the Steller sea lion literature. We interpreted the papers to the best of our ability.  However, we recognize that there is some subjectivity in how we categorized the papers, and also recognize that some revisions may be required. The few published papers we were unable to obtain (Appendix IV) were not numerous enough to skew the final results.   Appendices I and II should be updated when materials become available and when new literature is published. Due to the large quantity of material we attempted to summarize, it is possible that we overlooked a few publications.  Our summary could be further improved by expanding the hypotheses addressed to include the ten mechanisms outlined and analyzed by Loughlin (1998).   We found that a number of articles stated one or more hypotheses, but tended to not state whether they were supported in their discussions or conclusions. Hypotheses were rarely stated clearly, which meant that our categorization of whether a strict scientific hypothesis was tested and whether the publication contained significant information pertaining to one or more of the hypotheses was subjective at times.  It should also be repeated that our categorization of papers that stated hypotheses or presented a body of relevant information is not indicative of whether there was any support for the hypotheses.  In addition to the NMFS bibliography compiled by Strick (1993), the Seward SeaLife Centre is compiling an electronic library of Steller sea lion articles.  Combining the subject areas identified in our report with these two other sources would enhance the searchability of these databases.      LITERATURE CITED  Engle, E. T.  1926.  The intestinal length in Steller's sea lion.  J. Mammal. 7(1):28-30.  Loughlin, T. R.  1998.  The Steller sea lion: A declining species.  Biosphere Conserv. 1(2):91-98.  Miller, W., and J.E. Miller. 1899. The beasts of the sea (translation of De Bestis Marinis by G.W. Steller 1751). p. 179-218.  In: Fur seals and Fur-seal Islands of the North Pacific Ocean (by D. Starr Jordan), Part 3 of 4. Government Printing Office, WA.  National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS).  1992.  Recovery plan for the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus).  Report to National Marine Fisheries Service, 92 p.  Available National Marine Fisheries Service, 1335 East-West Highway, Silver Spring MD 209910.  Ronald, K., L.M. Hanly, P.J. Healey, and L.J. Selley.  1976.  An Annotated Bibliography on the Pinnipedia.  International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Charlottenlund DK.  Scheffer, V. B.  1945.  Growth and behavior of young sea lions.  J. Mammal.  26(4):390-392.  Steller, G. W.  1751.  Habits and characteristics of sea lions,  p. 361-366.  In: D. S. Jordan (editor),  The fur seals and fur-seal islands of the North Pacific Ocean, Part 3.   Mem. Imp. Academy Sciences in St. Petersburg for the year 1849.    (Transl. W. Miller and J. E. Miller) Gov. Print. Off., Washington D. C.  Strick,  J.M.  1993.  Bibliography:  Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus). National Marine Fisheries Service.  U.S. Dept. Commerce.  AFSC Processed Report 93-12. Available Alaska Fish.  Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.  Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  9  Adult mortalityTrophic CascadePollutionDiseaseRegime Shifts xMigrationCompetition with fisheries xPredation: Humans x xPredation: Animals xNutritional Stress: Starvation x xNutritional Stress: Junk Food xJuvenile mortality xHypothesis testing N Y N N N Y N N N N N N N N Y N N N N N NVocalizationVision xToxicologyThermoregualtion xTechnology x xTaxonomySkeletal systemSensory system xRespiratory systemReproductionPredators x xPopulation dynamics x x x x x x x x x xPhysiology x x xPathology x xParasitologyNutrition x x x x xNervous systemMuscular systemMoultMigration x xMetabolismManagement x x xLocomotion xLegislationIntegumentHearing xHaematology x xGrowthGenetics x x xExploitation x x x x xExcretory systemEvolution x xEndocrine systemEmbryology/ObstetricsEcology x x x x x x x xDiving x xDistribution x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xDigestive system xCytologyCycles x xCirculatory systemCensus data x x x x x x x x x xCaptive studies xBiochemistry x xBibliography x x xBehaviour x x x x xAnatomy8 56 14 23 89 54 6 109 15 14 83 3 6 11 66 14 11 6 191 20 21Publication type P O O O O P P O P P O P P P O P P P O P PYear199619931977197819801992199819791977198019861989198819871994199619981998198419851988Akamatsu et al. 1996Alaska Sea Grant 1993AINWR 1977AINWR 1978AINWR 1980Alverson 1992Andrews 1998Aumiller and Orth 1979Bailey 1977Bailey and Faust 1980Bailey and Trapp 1986Baird and Stacey 1989Barlough et al. 1988Barlough et al. 1987Barrett-Leonard et al. 1994Bickham et al. 1996Bickham et al. 1998aBickham et al. 1998bBigg 1984Bigg 1985Bigg 1988KeywordsHypotheses AddressedNo. of pagesReference APPENDIX I: Summary of scientific literature between the years 1751-2000 that pertain to Steller sea lions in the Alaska ecosystem.  Citations are organized in alphabetical order according to the last name of the first author.  Keywords indicate main subjects discussed in the articles. Hypothesis testing within an article is also indicated along with the hypotheses addressed.  Indication of hypothesis testing does not specify whether the tested hypothesis was supported or not.  Citations were categorized into either primary peer-reviewed (P) publications, or other (O) publications.  Complete citations are contained in Appendix III. Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  10  Adult mortalityTrophic CascadePollutionDisease xRegime ShiftsMigration xCompetition with fisheries x x xPredation: Humans xPredation: AnimalsNutritional Stress: Starvation xNutritional Stress: Junk FoodJuvenile mortality x x xHypothesis testing N N Y N N N N N N N Y N N N N N N Y N N N N N NVocalizationVisionToxicologyThermoregualtion x x xTechnology x x xTaxonomySkeletal systemSensory systemRespiratory systemReproduction x x x x xPredatorsPopulation dynamics x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xPhysiology xPathology x x x x x xParasitologyNutrition x x x x x x xNervous systemMuscular systemMoultMigration x x x xMetabolismManagement xLocomotionLegislation xIntegumentHearingHaematology x xGrowth x x x x xGeneticsExploitation x x xExcretory system xEvolutionEndocrine systemEmbryology/ObstetricsEcology x x x x x x x x x xDiving x x xDistribution x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xDigestive systemCytology xCycles x xCirculatory systemCensus data x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xCaptive studiesBiochemistry xBibliography xBehaviour x x x x xAnatomy6 89 30 9 90 3 8 17 13 18 13 62 11 17 25 14 12 76 16 13 11 30 8 25Publication type O O O P O O O O O O O O O O O O P O O O O O O OYear199519951977198019771986199719881997199719851989199319941996199719981988197619761976197819781979Bishop and Morado 1995Boyd 1995Braham et al. 1977aBraham et al. 1980Braham et al. 1977bBrueggeman 1986Byrd 1997Byrd and Nysewander 1988Byrd and Williams 1997Byrd et al. 1997Calkins 1985Calkins 1989Calkins 1993Calkins 1994Calkins 1996Calkins 1997Calkins 1998Calkins and Goodwin 1988Calkins and Pitcher 1976aCalkins and Pitcher 1976bCalkins and Pitcher 1976cCalkins and Pitcher 1978aCalkins and Pitcher 1978bCalkins and Pitcher 1979Hypotheses AddressedKeywordsNo. of pagesReference APPENDIX I continued Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  11Adult mortalityTrophic CascadePollution xDisease xRegime ShiftsMigration x xCompetition with fisheries x x xPredation: Humans xPredation: AnimalsNutritional Stress: StarvationNutritional Stress: Junk FoodJuvenile mortality xHypothesis testing N N N N N N N Y N N N N N N N Y N N N Y N Y N NVocalizationVisionToxicology x x xThermoregualtionTechnology xTaxonomy xSkeletal system xSensory systemRespiratory system xReproduction x xPredatorsPopulation dynamics x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xPhysiology x x x xPathology x xParasitology xNutrition x x x x x x xNervous systemMuscular systemMoultMigration x x x x xMetabolism xManagement x x x xLocomotionLegislationIntegumentHearingHaematology x xGrowth x x x x x xGenetics x xExploitation x x xExcretory systemEvolution xEndocrine system x xEmbryology/Obstetrics xEcology x x x x x x x x x x x x xDiving xDistribution x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xDigestive system xCytologyCyclesCirculatory systemCensus data x x x x x x x x x x xCaptive studiesBiochemistry x x x xBibliography x x x xBehaviour x x x x x xAnatomy2 8 12 6 6 4 173 23 10 5 93 11 11 3 4 49 21 8 17 20 6 12 26 20Publication type P P P P P P O O P O O O P P O O O P O P P P O PYear195219621961199619961998200019791996195819871981199319821987198719971998198319861989198419901992Kenyon 1952 Kenyon 1962 Kenyon and Rice 1961Kim et al. 1996aKim et al. 1996bKonishi and Shimazaki 1998Kruse et al. 2000Lawhead 1979Lee et al. 1996Lensink 1958Lewis 1987Lidicker et al. 1981Livingston 1993Loughlin 1982Loughlin 1987aLoughlin 1987bLoughlin 1997Loughlin 1998Loughlin and DeLong 1983Loughlin and Nelson 1986Loughlin and Spraker 1989Loughlin et al. 1984Loughlin et al. 1990Loughlin et al. 1992Hypotheses AddressedKeywordsNo. of pagesReference APPENDIX I continued Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  12  Adult mortalityTrophic Cascade xPollutionDiseaseRegime Shifts x x x xMigration xCompetition with fisheries x x xPredation: Humans xPredation: AnimalsNutritional Stress: Starvation x x xNutritional Stress: Junk Food xJuvenile mortality x x xHypothesis testing Y Y N N N Y N N N N N N N N Y N Y Y Y Y N Y N NVocalizationVisionToxicology xThermoregualtionTechnology x x x x xTaxonomy xSkeletal systemSensory systemRespiratory systemReproduction x x x x xPredatorsPopulation dynamics x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xPhysiology xPathology x xParasitologyNutrition x x x x x x x x x x xNervous systemMuscular systemMoultMigration x xMetabolismManagement x x x xLocomotionLegislation xIntegumentHearingHaematologyGrowth x xGeneticsExploitation x x x xExcretory systemEvolutionEndocrine systemEmbryology/ObstetricsEcology x x x x x x x x x x x x xDiving x x x x x xDistribution x x x x x x x x x xDigestive systemCytologyCycles x x x x xCirculatory systemCensus data x x x x x x x x x xCaptive studies xBiochemistryBibliography x x x xBehaviour x x x x x x x x x x xAnatomy6 10 11 21 293 11 7 67 19 9 71 89 21 4 35 124171 13 14 11 20 15 41 21Publication type P O P O O O P O P P O O O O O O O P O P O P O OYear198319861998198519821984197519771963196219801981198719971983198719951997199619971994198719921996Loughlin et al. 1983Loughlin et al. 1986Loughlin et al. 1998Lowry and Frost 1985Lowry et al. 1982Makhnir et al. 1984 Mate 1975Mate 1977Mathisen and Lopp 1963Mathisen et al. 1962Matkin and Fay 1980McAlister 1981McAlister 1987McAllister et al. 1997Merrick 1983Merrick 1987Merrick 1995Merrick 1997 Merrick and Calkins 1996Merrick and Loughlin 1997Merrick and York 1994Merrick et al. 1987Merrick et al. 1992Merrick et al. 1996Hypotheses AddressedKeywordsNo. of pagesReference APPENDIX I continued Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  13 Adult mortality xTrophic CascadePollutionDisease x xRegime Shifts x x xMigration x xCompetition with fisheries x x x x xPredation: Humans x x x xPredation: AnimalsNutritional Stress: Starvation x x x x xNutritional Stress: Junk Food x xJuvenile mortality x x x x xHypothesis testing Y Y N N Y N N N Y N Y Y Y N N N N Y N Y N N Y NVocalization xVisionToxicology xThermoregualtion x x xTechnology x x xTaxonomy xSkeletal system xSensory systemRespiratory systemReproduction x x x x xPredators x xPopulation dynamics x x x x x x x x x x x x xPhysiology xPathology x x x xParasitology x xNutrition x x x x x x x x x x x xNervous systemMuscular systemMoultMigration xMetabolismManagement x xLocomotionLegislationIntegument xHearingHaematology xGrowth x x x x x x xGenetics xExploitation x x x x xExcretory systemEvolutionEndocrine systemEmbryology/ObstetricsEcology x x x x x x x x x x x xDiving x x xDistribution x x x x x x x x x x x x x xDigestive system xCytologyCycles x x x x x xCirculatory systemCensus data x x x x x x x xCaptive studiesBiochemistry xBibliography x xBehaviour x x x x x x xAnatomy x x7 60 63 10 6 34 11 7 56 19 92 58 61 75 1 32 34 11 15 57 36 30 7 8Publication type P O O P P O P O O O O O O O P O P P P O O O P OYear199719881990199419951991200019971999199619921993199520001992198719671994199819911993199019961982Merrick et al. 1997Merrick et al. 1988Merrick et al. 1990Merrick et al. 1994Merrick et al. 1995Merrick et al. 1991Miller et al. 2000Millette 1997Millette 1999Moran and Wilson 1996NMFS 1992NMFS 1993NMFS 1995Norcross et al. 2000O'Daniel and Schneeweis 1992Olesiuk and Bigg 1987Orr and Poulter 1967 Pascual and Adkison 1994Pauly et al. 1998Perez and Loughlin 1991Perez and McAlister 1993Perez et al. 1990Perlov 1996Perlov et al. 1982Hypotheses AddressedKeywordsNo. of pagesReference APPENDIX I continued Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  14  Adult mortalityTrophic CascadePollutionDiseaseRegime Shifts xMigrationCompetition with fisheries xPredation: HumansPredation: AnimalsNutritional Stress: Starvation x x xNutritional Stress: Junk Food x xJuvenile mortality x x x xHypothesis testing N N N N N N Y N Y N Y N Y Y N Y N Y Y N Y N N NVocalizationVisionToxicologyThermoregualtion x xTechnology xTaxonomySkeletal systemSensory systemRespiratory systemReproduction x x x x xPredatorsPopulation dynamics x x x x x x x xPhysiology x x x x x x x x x x xPathologyParasitologyNutrition x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xNervous systemMuscular systemMoultMigration xMetabolism x x x x xManagement xLocomotionLegislationIntegument x xHearingHaematology x x x x xGrowth x x x x x xGeneticsExploitationExcretory systemEvolutionEndocrine systemEmbryology/Obstetrics xEcology x x x x x x x x xDiving xDistribution x x x x x x x x x xDigestive system x x xCytology x xCycles x x x x x xCirculatory systemCensus data x x x x xCaptive studies x x x x x x xBiochemistry x x x x xBibliography xBehaviour x x x x x x x x xAnatomy3 31 6 94 7 2 9 10 84 6 135 1 5 7 5 9 6 8 7 7 40 137 14 47Publication type O O P O P P P P O O O O P P P P P P P O O O P OYear195819751981199719811982199820001997199719951999200019981997199920002000200019821995197019761994Pike 1958Pitcher 1975Pitcher 1981Pitcher (compiler) 1997Pitcher and Calkins 1981Pitcher and Fay 1982Pitcher et al. 1998Pitcher et al. 2000Porter 1997Porter et al. 1997Rea 1995Rea et al. 1999Rea et al. 2000Rea et al. 1998Rosen and Trites 1997Rosen and Trites 1999Rosen and Trites 2000aRosen and Trites 2000bRosen et al. 2000Rugh and Fiscus 1982Sampson 1995Sandegren 1970Sandegren 1976Schaffner et al. 1994Hypotheses AddressedKeywordsNo. of pagesReference APPENDIX I continued Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  15Adult mortality xTrophic CascadePollutionDiseaseRegime Shifts x xMigration xCompetition with fisheries x xPredation: Humans xPredation: AnimalsNutritional Stress: Starvation x xNutritional Stress: Junk FoodJuvenile mortality x xHypothesis testing N N N N N N N Y N N N Y Y N N N N Y N N N N Y NVocalization xVision xToxicologyThermoregualtion xTechnology x x x x x xTaxonomySkeletal system x xSensory systemRespiratory systemReproduction x xPredatorsPopulation dynamics x x x x x x x x x x xPhysiology x xPathology x x x xParasitologyNutrition x x x x x x x xNervous systemMuscular systemMoultMigrationMetabolism xManagement x xLocomotion x x xLegislationIntegument xHearingHaematology x xGrowth x x x xGeneticsExploitation x x x x xExcretory systemEvolutionEndocrine systemEmbryology/ObstetricsEcology x x x x x x x x xDiving x x x x x x xDistribution x x x x x x x x xDigestive system x xCytologyCycles x x x xCirculatory systemCensus data x x x x x x xCaptive studies x x x xBiochemistry xBibliographyBehaviour x x x x x x x x xAnatomy x x3 19 10 33 3 4 3 61 43 57 10 196 36 5 100 70 2 40 84 9 2 55 31 16Publication type P O O O P P P O O O O O P P O O P P O P O O O OYear194519451948195019671970197019991999199319971996200019871988199819661992199720001751199719961997Scheffer 1945aScheffer 1945bScheffer 1948Scheffer 1950Scheffer 1967Schusterman and Balliet 1970Schusterman et al. 1970Sease and Loughlin 1999Sease et al. 1999Sease et al. 1993Sheffield and Zarnke 1997Shima 1996Shima et al. 2000Skilling et al. 1987Smith 1988Snyder 1998Spalding 1966Springer 1992Stelle 1997Stelle et al. 2000Steller 1751Strick et al. 1997Swain 1996Swain and Calkins 1997Hypotheses AddressedKeywordsNo. of pagesReference APPENDIX I continued Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  16  Adult mortality x xTrophic CascadePollutionDiseaseRegime Shifts xMigration xCompetition with fisheries x xPredation: Humans x xPredation: AnimalsNutritional Stress: Starvation xNutritional Stress: Junk FoodJuvenile mortality x x xHypothesis testing N N N N Y N N Y N N N N N N N N N N Y Y Y Y N YVocalizationVisionToxicologyThermoregualtion xTechnology x xTaxonomySkeletal system xSensory systemRespiratory system xReproduction x x xPredatorsPopulation dynamics x x x x x x x x x x x x x xPhysiology x x xPathology xParasitology xNutrition x x x x x x x x xNervous systemMuscular systemMoult xMigration x x xMetabolismManagement x x x x x x xLocomotionLegislationIntegument x xHearingHaematology xGrowth x x x x xGeneticsExploitation x x x x x x x x x xExcretory system xEvolutionEndocrine system xEmbryology/ObstetricsEcology x x x x x x x xDiving xDistribution x x x x x x x x xDigestive system xCytology xCycles x x x x xCirculatory system xCensus data x x x x x x xCaptive studies x x xBiochemistry xBibliography xBehaviour x x x x x x xAnatomy x7 15 22 7 134 14 15 106 12 7 15 2 3 160102 94 69 36 16 30 14 34 7 128Publication type P O O P O P P O O P O P P O O O O O P O P O P OYear196219611998200019921996199719991972199819831952195920001982199319971990198819861994199619861997Thorsteinson and Lensink 1962Thorsteinson et al. 1961Trites 1998Trites and Jonker 2000Trites and Larkin 1992Trites and Larkin 1996Trites et al. 1997Trites et al. 1999Vania 1972Wada 1998West 1983Wilke and Kenyon 1952Williamson et al. 1959Winship 2000Withrow 1982Wolfe 1993Wolfe 1997Wynne 1990Yesnner 1988York 1986York 1994York et al. 1996Yurakhno 1986Zenteno Savin 1997Hypotheses AddressedKeywordsNo. of pagesReference APPENDIX I continued Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  17 Adult mortalityTrophic CascadePollutionDiseaseRegime ShiftsMigrationCompetition with fisheries Predation: HumansPredation: AnimalsNutritional Stress: StarvationNutritional Stress: Junk FoodJuvenile mortalityHypothesis testing N NVocalizationVisionToxicologyThermoregualtionTechnologyTaxonomySkeletal systemSensory systemRespiratory systemReproductionPredatorsPopulation dynamics x xPhysiology x xPathology xParasitologyNutritionNervous systemMuscular systemMoultMigrationMetabolismManagementLocomotionLegislationIntegumentHearingHaematology x xGrowthGeneticsExploitationExcretory systemEvolutionEndocrine system xEmbryology/ObstetricsEcologyDivingDistribution x xDigestive systemCytology xCyclesCirculatory systemCensus dataCaptive studies xBiochemistry x xBibliographyBehaviourAnatomy7 8Publication type P PYear19981997Zenteno Savin and Castellini 1998Zenteno Savin et al. 1997Hypotheses AddressedKeywordsNo. of pagesReference  APPENDIX I continued Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  18  Adult mortalityTrophic CascadePollutionDiseaseRegime ShiftsMigrationCompetition with fisheries Predation: HumansPredation: AnimalsNutritional Stress: StarvationNutritional Stress: Junk FoodJuvenile mortalityHypothesis testing N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N NVocalizationVisionToxicologyThermoregualtion x xTechnology x xTaxonomySkeletal system xSensory systemRespiratory system xReproduction x x x x xPredatorsPopulation dynamics x x x x x x x x xPhysiology xPathology xParasitologyNutrition x x x x x x x x x xNervous systemMuscular system xMoultMigration x xMetabolismManagement x x x x x x xLocomotion xLegislation xIntegument x xHearingHaematologyGrowth x x x x xGeneticsExploitation x x x x x x x x x xExcretory system x xEvolutionEndocrine systemEmbryology/Obstetrics xEcology x x x xDiving xDistribution x x x x x x x xDigestive system x xCytology xCycles xCirculatory systemCensus data x x x x x x x x xCaptive studies xBiochemistry x xBibliography x xBehaviour x x x x x x x x x x xAnatomy x x2 3 3 19 23 10 33 2 2 5 5 3 3 6 12 15 8 9 7 19 9Publication type O P P O O O O P P P O O P P P O P P P P OYear175119261945194519471948195019521952195619581958195919611961196119621962196219631965Steller 1751Engle 1926Scheffer 1945aScheffer 1945bImler and Sarber 1947Scheffer 1948Scheffer 1950Kenyon 1952 Wilke and Kenyon 1952Dassow 1956Lensink 1958Pike 1958Williamson et al. 1959Fiscus 1961 Kenyon and Rice 1961Thorsteinson et al. 1961Kenyon 1962 Mathisen et al. 1962Thorsteinson and Lensink 1962Mathisen and Lopp 1963Havens 1965Hypotheses AddressedKeywordsNo. of pagesReference  APPENDIX II: A summary of scientific literature published between the years 1751-2000 on Steller sea lions in the Alaska ecosystem.  The publications are ordered by year of publication, from oldest to most recent.  Keywords were used to indicate main subjects discussed in the articles.  Indication of hypothesis testing does not specify whether the tested hypothesis was supported or not. Citations were categorized into either primary peer-reviewed (P) publications, or other (O) publications. Complete citations are contained in Appendix III.  Highlighted (darkened) rows indicate articles published with support from the North Pacific Universities Marine MammalResearchConsortiumAnnotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  19Adult mortalityTrophic CascadePollutionDiseaseRegime ShiftsMigration x x xCompetition with fisheries xPredation: Humans xPredation: AnimalsNutritional Stress: StarvationNutritional Stress: Junk FoodJuvenile mortality xHypothesis testing N N Y N N N N N N N N N N N N Y N N N N N N Y NVocalizationVisionToxicologyThermoregualtion xTechnology xTaxonomySkeletal systemSensory systemRespiratory systemReproduction x x x x x xPredatorsPopulation dynamics x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xPhysiologyPathology xParasitologyNutrition x x x xNervous systemMuscular systemMoultMigration x x xMetabolismManagementLocomotionLegislationIntegumentHearingHaematologyGrowth xGeneticsExploitation x xExcretory system xEvolutionEndocrine systemEmbryology/ObstetricsEcology x x x x x x x xDiving xDistribution x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xDigestive systemCytologyCycles x x x xCirculatory systemCensus data x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xCaptive studiesBiochemistry xBibliography x xBehaviour x x x x x x x xAnatomy14 15 30 90 49 80 2 67 23 30 8 70 174109 25 23 89 14 9 89 71 21 109 81Publication type O P O O O O P O O O O O O O O O O P P O O O O OYear197719771977197719771977197719771978197819781978197819791979197919801980198019801980198119811981AINWR 1977Bailey 1977Braham et al. 1977aBraham et al. 1977bCunningham 1977Edie 1977Harestad 1977Mate 1977AINWR 1978Calkins and Pitcher 1978aCalkins and Pitcher 1978bCunningham and Stanford 1978Johnson and Smith 1978Aumiller and Orth 1979Calkins and Pitcher 1979Lawhead 1979AINWR 1980Bailey and Faust 1980Braham et al. 1980Early et al. 1980Matkin and Fay 1980Calkins et al. 1981Fiscus et al. 1981Forsell and Gould 1981Hypotheses AddressedKeywordsNo. of pagesReference APPENDIX II continued Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  20  Adult mortalityTrophic CascadePollutionDiseaseRegime Shifts xMigration xCompetition with fisheries x x xPredation: Humans xPredation: AnimalsNutritional Stress: StarvationNutritional Stress: Junk Food xJuvenile mortality xHypothesis testing N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N Y Y N N N N N Y YVocalizationVisionToxicology x xThermoregualtion x xTechnology xTaxonomy xSkeletal system xSensory systemRespiratory system x xReproduction x x x xPredatorsPopulation dynamics x x x x x x x x x x x x x xPhysiology x xPathology xParasitologyNutrition x x x x x x x x xNervous system xMuscular systemMoult xMigration x xMetabolismManagement x x xLocomotionLegislation xIntegumentHearingHaematology xGrowth x x xGenetics xExploitation x x x xExcretory system xEvolution xEndocrine systemEmbryology/Obstetrics x x x xEcology x x x x x x x x x x x xDivingDistribution x x x x x x x x x x x x xDigestive system xCytologyCycles x x x x x x x xCirculatory systemCensus data x x x x x x x x x xCaptive studiesBiochemistry xBibliography x x x xBehaviour x x x x x x x x x x xAnatomy x7 11 89 6 7 129 26 98 3 293 8 2 7102 17 6 35 15 191 5 37 11 12 11Publication type P O O P P O O O P O O P O O O P O O O P O O P OYear198119811981198119811982198219821982198219821982198219821983198319831983198419841984198419841984Gentry and Johnson 1981Lidicker et al. 1981McAlister 1981Pitcher 1981Pitcher and Calkins 1981Calkins and Pitcher 1982Consiglieri et al. 1982Frost et al. 1982Loughlin 1982Lowry et al. 1982Perlov et al. 1982Pitcher and Fay 1982Rugh and Fiscus 1982Withrow 1982Loughlin and DeLong 1983Loughlin et al. 1983Merrick 1983West 1983Bigg 1984Drabek and Kooyman 1984Higgins 1984Huber et al. 1984Loughlin et al. 1984Makhnir et al. 1984 Hypotheses AddressedKeywordsNo. of pagesReference  APPENDIX II continued Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  21 Adult mortality xTrophic CascadePollution xDisease xRegime ShiftsMigration xCompetition with fisheries x x xPredation: HumansPredation: AnimalsNutritional Stress: StarvationNutritional Stress: Junk FoodJuvenile mortality x x xHypothesis testing N Y N N N N N N N Y Y Y N N N N Y N N Y N N N NVocalizationVisionToxicology xThermoregualtion xTechnologyTaxonomySkeletal system xSensory systemRespiratory systemReproduction x x x xPredatorsPopulation dynamics x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xPhysiology x xPathology x x x xParasitology xNutrition x x x xNervous systemMuscular systemMoultMigration x x x x xMetabolismManagement x x xLocomotionLegislationIntegumentHearingHaematology x x x xGrowth x x x x xGeneticsExploitation x x x xExcretory systemEvolutionEndocrine systemEmbryology/Obstetrics xEcology x x x x x x x x x xDivingDistribution x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xDigestive system x xCytologyCycles x x xCirculatory systemCensus data x x x x x x x x x xCaptive studiesBiochemistry x x xBibliography x xBehaviour x x x xAnatomy20 13 146 21 83 3 64 6 15 20 10 30 7 11 93 4 49 21 124 15 32 5 6 21Publication type P O O O O O O P O P O O P P O O O O O P O P P PYear198519851985198519861986198619861986198619861986198619871987198719871987198719871987198719881988Bigg 1985Calkins 1985Gisiner 1985Lowry and Frost 1985Bailey and Trapp 1986Brueggeman 1986de Blois 1986Frost and Lowry 1986Gearin 1986Loughlin and Nelson 1986Loughlin et al. 1986York 1986Yurakhno 1986Barlough et al. 1987Lewis 1987Loughlin 1987aLoughlin 1987bMcAlister 1987Merrick 1987Merrick et al. 1987Olesiuk and Bigg 1987Skilling et al. 1987Barlough et al. 1988Bigg 1988Hypotheses AddressedKeywordsNo. of pagesReference APPENDIX II continued Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  22  Adult mortality xTrophic CascadePollutionDisease x xRegime ShiftsMigration xCompetition with fisheries x xPredation: Humans x xPredation: AnimalsNutritional Stress: Starvation x xNutritional Stress: Junk FoodJuvenile mortality x xHypothesis testing N Y N N N N Y N Y N N N N N N N N N N N N N N YVocalizationVision xToxicology xThermoregualtion xTechnology x xTaxonomySkeletal system xSensory systemRespiratory systemReproduction x x x x x xPredators xPopulation dynamics x x x x x x x x x x x xPhysiology x x xPathology x x x xParasitologyNutrition x x x x x x x xNervous systemMuscular systemMoultMigrationMetabolism xManagement x xLocomotionLegislationIntegument xHearing xHaematology x xGrowth x x x xGeneticsExploitation x x x x x xExcretory systemEvolutionEndocrine systemEmbryology/ObstetricsEcology x x x x x x x x x x xDiving x xDistribution x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xDigestive systemCytologyCycles x x x x x x x xCirculatory systemCensus data x x x x x x x x x x x x x xCaptive studies x xBiochemistryBibliography x x x xBehaviour x x x x x x x x x xAnatomy17 76 15 193 37 3 60 100 16 3 62 12 6 20 13 8 26 63 30 36 45 7 34 57Publication type O O P O P P O O P P O O P O P P O O O O O P O OYear198819881988198819881988198819881988198919891989198919901990199019901990199019901991199119911991Byrd and Nysewander 1988Calkins and Goodwin 1988Higgins et al. 1988Hoover 1988Kajimura and Loughlin 1988Kastelein and Wiepkema 1988Merrick et al. 1988Smith 1988Yesnner 1988Baird and Stacey 1989Calkins 1989Johnson et al. 1989Loughlin and Spraker 1989Douglas and Byrd 1990Kastelein and Weltz 1990Kastelein et al. 1990Loughlin et al. 1990Merrick et al. 1990Perez et al. 1990Wynne 1990Haynes and Mishler 1991Kastelein and Weltz 1991Merrick et al. 1991Perez and Loughlin 1991Hypotheses AddressedKeywordsNo. of pagesReference APPENDIX II continued Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  23 Adult mortalityTrophic Cascade xPollution xDiseaseRegime Shifts x xMigration xCompetition with fisheries x x x x xPredation: Humans x x xPredation: Animals xNutritional Stress: Starvation x x xNutritional Stress: Junk Food x xJuvenile mortality x xHypothesis testing Y N N N Y N Y Y Y N N N N N N Y N N N Y N Y Y NVocalizationVisionToxicology xThermoregualtion x x xTechnology x x x xTaxonomySkeletal systemSensory system xRespiratory system xReproduction x x xPredators x x xPopulation dynamics x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xPhysiology x xPathology x x x x xParasitology x xNutrition x x x x x x x x x x xNervous system xMuscular system xMoultMigration xMetabolism xManagement x x xLocomotionLegislation xIntegument xHearing xHaematology x xGrowth x x x x xGeneticsExploitation x x x x xExcretory system xEvolutionEndocrine system xEmbryology/ObstetricsEcology x x x x x x x x x x x xDiving x x xDistribution x x x x x x x x x x x x x xDigestive system xCytology xCyclesCirculatory system xCensus data x x x x x x x x xCaptive studiesBiochemistry x x xBibliography x xBehaviour x x x x x x xAnatomy54 10 20 41 92 1 40 134 56 11 7 7 107 22 11 58 36 57 94 66 17 21 25 17Publication type P P P O O P P O O O P P O O P O O O O O O O O OYear199219921992199219921992199219921993199319931993199319931993199319931993199319941994199419941994Alverson 1992Frost et al. 1992Loughlin et al. 1992Merrick et al. 1992NMFS 1992O'Daniel and Schneeweis 1992Springer 1992Trites and Larkin 1992Alaska Sea Grant 1993Calkins 1993Castellini and Calkins 1993Castellini et al. 1993Gerber 1993Jemison 1993Livingston 1993NMFS 1993Perez and McAlister 1993Sease et al. 1993Wolfe 1993Barrett-Leonard et al. 1994Calkins 1994Calkins et al. 1994Ferrero and Fritz 1994Gosine and Gamage 1994Hypotheses AddressedKeywordsNo. of pagesReference APPENDIX II continued Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  24  Adult mortalityTrophic CascadePollutionDisease xRegime Shifts x x xMigration xCompetition with fisheries x xPredation: Humans x xPredation: AnimalsNutritional Stress: Starvation x x x xNutritional Stress: Junk FoodJuvenile mortality x x x x x xHypothesis testing N N Y N Y N N N N Y Y Y Y Y N N N N N N Y N N NVocalizationVisionToxicology x xThermoregualtion x xTechnology x x x xTaxonomy x xSkeletal systemSensory system xRespiratory system xReproduction x x xPredatorsPopulation dynamics x x x x x x x x x x x x x xPhysiology x x x x xPathology x x x xParasitologyNutrition x x x x x x x xNervous systemMuscular systemMoultMigration xMetabolismManagement x x x x xLocomotionLegislation xIntegumentHearing xHaematology x x xGrowth x x x x x xGenetics x xExploitation x x xExcretory systemEvolution xEndocrine system x xEmbryology/ObstetricsEcology x x x x x x x x x xDiving x x x xDistribution x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xDigestive systemCytology xCycles x x xCirculatory systemCensus data x xCaptive studies xBiochemistry x x x xBibliography xBehaviour x x x x x x xAnatomy20 10 11 47 14 6 89 114 14 171 6 61 135 40 8 14 25 7 6 12 9 9 6 6Publication type O P P O P O O O P O P O O O P P O O O O O P P PYear199419941994199419941995199519951995199519951995199519951996199619961996199619961996199619961996Merrick and York 1994Merrick et al. 1994Pascual and Adkison 1994Schaffner et al. 1994York 1994Bishop and Morado 1995Boyd 1995Fritz et al. 1995aFritz et al. 1995bMerrick 1995Merrick et al. 1995NMFS 1995Rea 1995Sampson 1995Akamatsu et al. 1996Bickham et al. 1996Calkins 1996Calkins and Pitcher 1996Calkins et al. 1996aCalkins et al. 1996bDavis et al. 1996Heath et al. 1996Kim et al. 1996aKim et al. 1996bHypotheses AddressedKeywordsNo. of pagesReference APPENDIX II continued Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  25Adult mortality x xTrophic Cascade xPollutionDiseaseRegime Shifts x x xMigrationCompetition with fisheries x xPredation: Humans x xPredation: AnimalsNutritional Stress: Starvation x x x xNutritional Stress: Junk Food xJuvenile mortality x x x x xHypothesis testing N Y N N Y Y Y N Y N N N N N N Y N N N N N Y Y YVocalizationVisionToxicology xThermoregualtion xTechnology x x x x xTaxonomySkeletal systemSensory systemRespiratory systemReproduction xPredatorsPopulation dynamics x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xPhysiology x xPathology xParasitologyNutrition x x x x x x x x x xNervous systemMuscular system xMoultMigration x x xMetabolism xManagement x x xLocomotionLegislation xIntegument xHearingHaematology xGrowth xGenetics xExploitation x xExcretory systemEvolutionEndocrine systemEmbryology/ObstetricsEcology x x x x x x x x x xDiving x x x x xDistribution x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xDigestive systemCytologyCycles x x xCirculatory systemCensus data x x x x x x x x x xCaptive studies xBiochemistry x xBibliography xBehaviour x x x x x x x xAnatomy10 14 21 19 7 196 31 14 34 8 13 18 14 9 24 99 53 29 6 21 4 13 11 7Publication type P O O O P O O P O O O O O O O O O P P O O P P PYear199619961996199619961996199619961996199719971997199719971997199719971997199719971997199719971997Lee et al. 1996Merrick and Calkins 1996Merrick et al. 1996Moran and Wilson 1996Perlov 1996Shima 1996Swain 1996Trites and Larkin 1996York et al. 1996Byrd 1997Byrd and Williams 1997Byrd et al. 1997Calkins 1997Calkins and Pitcher 1997Calkins et al. 1997Chumbley et al. 1997Gerber and VanBlaricom 1997Hobson et al. 1997Hood and Ono 1997Loughlin 1997McAllister et al. 1997Merrick 1997 Merrick and Loughlin 1997Merrick et al. 1997Hypotheses AddressedKeywordsNo. of pagesReference APPENDIX II continued Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  26  Adult mortalityTrophic CascadePollutionDiseaseRegime ShiftsMigrationCompetition with fisheries xPredation: HumansPredation: AnimalsNutritional Stress: Starvation x xNutritional Stress: Junk Food xJuvenile mortality xHypothesis testing N N Y N N N N N N N N Y N N N N N Y N N N N N NVocalizationVisionToxicologyThermoregualtion x xTechnology x x x xTaxonomySkeletal systemSensory systemRespiratory system xReproduction x xPredatorsPopulation dynamics x x x x x x x x x x xPhysiology x x x x xPathology x x x x x xParasitology xNutrition x x x x x x x x x x x x x xNervous systemMuscular systemMoultMigration x x xMetabolism x x xManagement x xLocomotion x xLegislation xIntegument x xHearingHaematology x x x xGrowth x x xGenetics x xExploitation x xExcretory systemEvolution xEndocrine system xEmbryology/ObstetricsEcology x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xDiving x x x x xDistribution x x x x x x x x x x x x x xDigestive system xCytology x xCycles x x x xCirculatory system xCensus data x x x x xCaptive studies x x xBiochemistry x xBibliography xBehaviour x x x x x x xAnatomy7 94 84 6 5 10 84 55 16 15 69 128 8 6 11 6 12 13 12 13 4 8 11 15Publication type O O O O P O O O O P O O P P P P P P O P P P P PYear199719971997199719971997199719971997199719971997199719981998199819981998199819981998199819981998Millette 1997Pitcher (compiler) 1997Porter 1997Porter et al. 1997Rosen and Trites 1997Sheffield and Zarnke 1997Stelle 1997Strick et al. 1997Swain and Calkins 1997Trites et al. 1997Wolfe 1997Zenteno Savin 1997Zenteno Savin et al. 1997Andrews 1998Bickham et al. 1998aBickham et al. 1998bCalkins 1998Calkins et al. 1998Chumbley 1998Fritz and Ferrero 1998Konishi and Shimazaki 1998Loughlin 1998Loughlin et al. 1998Pauly et al. 1998Hypotheses AddressedKeywordsNo. of pagesReference  APPENDIX II continued Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  27 Adult mortalityTrophic Cascade xPollutionDiseaseRegime Shifts x x xMigration xCompetition with fisheries x xPredation: Humans xPredation: AnimalsNutritional Stress: Starvation x x x xNutritional Stress: Junk Food x xJuvenile mortality x x xHypothesis testing Y Y N N N N N Y N Y Y N Y N N N N N Y N Y Y Y NVocalizationVisionToxicologyThermoregualtion x x xTechnology xTaxonomySkeletal systemSensory systemRespiratory systemReproduction x x xPredators xPopulation dynamics x x x x x x x x x x xPhysiology x x x x x x x x x xPathologyParasitologyNutrition x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xNervous systemMuscular systemMoultMigration xMetabolism x x xManagement x x xLocomotion xLegislationIntegument x xHearingHaematology x x x xGrowth x x x x x x x xGeneticsExploitation xExcretory systemEvolutionEndocrine system xEmbryology/ObstetricsEcology x x x x x x x x xDiving x xDistribution x x x x x x x x xDigestive system x x xCytology xCycles x x xCirculatory systemCensus data x x x xCaptive studies x x x x x x x x xBiochemistry x x x xBibliography xBehaviour x xAnatomy x9 7 70 22 7 7 16 56 1 9 61 43 106 10 173 11 75 10 5 6 8 7 36 9Publication type P P O O P P P O O P O O O P O P O P P P P P P PYear199819981998199819981998199919991999199919991999199920002000200020002000200020002000200020002000Pitcher et al. 1998Rea et al. 1998Snyder 1998Trites 1998Wada 1998Zenteno Savin and Castellini 1998Calkins et al. 1999Millette 1999Rea et al. 1999Rosen and Trites 1999Sease and Loughlin 1999Sease et al. 1999Trites et al. 1999Jonker and Trites 2000Kruse et al. 2000Miller et al. 2000Norcross et al. 2000Pitcher et al. 2000Rea et al. 2000Rosen and Trites 2000aRosen and Trites 2000bRosen et al. 2000Shima et al. 2000Stelle et al. 2000Hypotheses AddressedKeywordsNo. of pagesReference  APPENDIX II continued Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  28   Adult mortality Trophic Cascade Pollution DiseaseRegime Shifts Migration Competition with fisheries  Predation: Humans Predation: Animals Nutritional Stress: Starvation Nutritional Stress: Junk Food Juvenile mortality Hypothesis testing N NVocalization VisionToxicologyThermoregualtion x Technology Taxonomy Skeletal system Sensory system Respiratory system Reproduction x Predators Population dynamics x Physiology xPathology Parasitology Nutrition x xNervous systemMuscular system Moult Migration Metabolism Management Locomotion Legislation Integument x Hearing HaematologyGrowth x xGenetics Exploitation Excretory systemEvolution Endocrine system Embryology/Obstetrics Ecology xDiving Distribution x Digestive system Cytology Cycles xCirculatory system Census dataCaptive studies Biochemistry Bibliography Behaviour Anatomy 7 160Publication type P O Year 2000 2000 Tritesand Jonker 2000Winship 2000 Hypotheses AddressedKeywordsNo. of pages Reference  APPENDIX II continued Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  29 APPENDIX III:  LITERATURE REVIEWED  Akamatsu,,T., K. Nakamura, H. Nitto, and M. Watabe.  1996.  Effects of underwater sounds on escape behavior of Steller sea lions.  Fish. Sci. 62(4):503-510. Alaska Sea Grant.  1993.  Is It Food? : addressing marine mammal and seabird declines.  Workshop summary, Alaska Sea Grant Rep. 93-01. University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK.  Aleutian Islands National Wildlife Refuge (AINWR).  1977.  Mammals and non-migratory birds, p. 66-79.  In: Bird and mammal survey of the west-central Aleutians, summer 1977, Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.  Aleutian Islands National Wildlife Refuge (AINWR).  1978.  Marine mammals.  In:  Results of Bird and Mammal Surveys of the Western Aleutian Islands, Summer 1978. Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA 98115.  Aleutian Island National Wildlife Refuge (AINWR).  1980.  Results of bird and mammal surveys of the western Aleutians, Summer 1979, 89 p. Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.  Alverson, D. L.  1992.  A review of commercial fisheries and the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus): the conflict arena.  Rev. Aquat. Sci.  6(3,4):203-256.  Andrews, R. D.  1998.  Remotely releasable instruments for monitoring the foraging behavior of pinnipeds.  Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.  175:289-294.  Aumiller, L., and G. Orth.  1979.  Steller sea lion investigations at Marmot Island, 1979.  Unpubl. rep., 109 p. Available Alaska Dep. Fish Game, 333 Raspberry Road, Anchorage AK  99518.  Bailey, E. P.  1977.  Distribution and abundance of marine birds and mammals along the south side of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska.  The Murrelet 58(3):58-72.  Bailey, E.P., and N.H. Faust.  1980.  Summer distribution and abundance of marine birds and mammals in the Sandman Reefs, Alaska.  The Murrelet  61:6-19.  Bailey, E.P., and J.L. Trapp.  1986.  A reconaissance of breeding marine birds and mammals in the east central Aleutian Islands Kasatochi to the Island of Four Mountains, Summer 1982, with notes on other species.  Unpubl. rep., 83p.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.  Baird, R. W., and P. J. Stacey.  1989.  Observations on the reactions of sea lions, Zalophus californianus and Eumetopias jubatus, to killer whales Orcinus orca; evidence of "prey" having a "search image".  Can. Field Nat. 103(3):426-428.  Barlough, J. E., E. S. Berry, D. E. Skilling, and A. W. Smith.   1988.  Prevalence and distribution of serum neutralizing antibodies to San Miguel sea lion virus types 6&7 in selected populations of marine mammals.  Dis. Aquat. Org. 5(2):75-80.  Barlough, J. E., E. S. Berry, E. A. Goodwin, R. F. Brown, R. L. DeLong, and A. W. Smith.  1987.  Antibodies to marine caliciviruses in the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus Schreber).  J. Wildl. Dis. 23(1):34-44.  Barrett-Lennard, L. G., K. Heise, E. Saulitis, G. Ellis, and C. Matkin.  1994.  The impact of killer whale predation on Steller sea lion populations in British Columbia and Alaska.  Report to North Pacific Universities Marine Mammal Research Consortium, 66 p.  Fisheries Centre, Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, V6T 1Z4.  Bickham, J. W., J. C. Patton, and T. R. Loughlin.  1996.  High variability for control-region sequences in a marine mammal: Implications for conservation and biogeography of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus).  J. Mammal.  77(1):95-108.  Bickham, J. W., T. R. Loughlin, J. K. Wickliffe, and V. N. Burkanov.  1998a.  Geographic variation in the mitochondrial DNA of Steller sea lions: Haplotype diversity and endemism in the Kuril Islands.  Biosphere Conserv. 1(2):107-117.  Bickham, J. W., T. R. Loughlin, D. G. Calkins, J. K. Wickliffe, and J. C. Patton.  1998b.  Genetic variability and population decline in Steller sea lions from the gulf of Alaska.  J. Mammal. 79(4):1390-1395.  Bigg, M. A.  1984.  Sighting and kill data for the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) in British Columbia, 1892-1982, with some records from Washington and Southeastern, Alaska.  Can. Data Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. No. 460, 191 p.  Bigg, M. A.  1985.  Status of the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) in British Columbia.  Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. No. 77, 20 p.  Bigg, M. A.  1988.  Status of the Steller sea lion, E. jubatus, in Canada.  Can. Field Nat. 102(2):315-336.  Bishop, D. H., J. F. Morado.  1995.  Results on blood cell morphology and differential blood cell counts from seventeen Steller sea lion Eumetopias jubatus pups.  Dis. Aquat. Org. 23:1-6.  Boyd, I. L.  1995.  Steller sea lion research.  Report to U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service, National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Seattle WA, 89 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA 98115.  Braham, H. W., R. D. Everitt, and D. J. Rugh.  1977a.  Preliminary evidence of northern sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) population decline in the eastern Aleutian Islands.  NWAFC Processed Rep. November 1977, 30 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.  Braham, H. W., R. D. Everitt, and D. J. Rugh.  1980.  Northern sea lion decline in the eastern Aleutian Islands.  J. Wildl. Manage. 44:25-33.  Braham, H. W., R. D. Everitt, B. D. Krogman, D. J. Rugh, and D. E. Withrow.  1977b.  Marine mammals of the Bering Sea; a preliminary report on distribution and abundance, 1975-1976. NWAFC Processed Rep., April 1977, 80 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv., 7600 Sand Point Way  NE., Seattle WA  98115. Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  30  Brueggeman, J. J.  1986.  Seal, sea lion, walrus and beluga whale surveys of the Bering Sea 1979 and 1982/1983.  Unpubl. rep., 134 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.  Byrd, G. V.  1997.  Wildlife observations at Walrus Island, Pribilof Islands, Alaska, July 24, 1997.  U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Rep. AMNWR 97/14. 8 pp.  Byrd, G.V., and D.I. Nysewander.  1988.  Observations of Northern sea lions in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska in 1988: evidence of a decline.  Unpub. rep. Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA 98115.  Byrd, G. V., and J. C. Williams.  1997.  Wildlife surveys at Bogoslof Island, Alaska, in 1997.  U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Rep. AMNWR 97/22.  Byrd, G.V., R.L. Merrick, J.F. Platt, and B.L Norcross.  1997.  Seabird, marine mammal, and oceanography coordinated investigations (SMMOCI) near Unimak Pass, Alaska: an ecosystem approach to monitoring.  U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Rep., AMNWR 97/. Homer, AK  Calkins, D. G.  1985.  Steller sea lion pup counts in and adjacent to Shelikof Strait.  Unpubl. rep., 13 p.  (Document submitted to the North Pacific Fisheries Management Council)  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way  NE., Seattle WA  98115.  Calkins, D.G. 1989.  Evaluation of incidental take in the domestic commercial fisheries and subsistence take of Steller sea lions in Alaska.  Unpubl. rep., Alaska Dep. Fish and Game, 333 Raspberry Road, Anchorage, AK 99518 62p.  Calkins, D.G.  1993.  Report of activities on Steller sea lions for 1992 National Marine Fisheries Service permit No. 771.  Alaska Dept. Fish & Game.  Unpub. rep. 11p.  Calkins, D.G.  1994.  1993 Steller sea lion recovery investigations by ADF&G.  Available for Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 333 Raspberry Road, Anchorage, Alaska.  Unpubl. rep. 17p.  Calkins, D.G.  1996.  Movements and habitat use of female Steller sea lions in southeastern Alaska.  p. 110-134.  In: Steller sea lion recovery investigations in Alaska, 1992-1994 (Pitcher, K. W. compiler).  Wildlife Technical Bulletin No. 13 (multiple volumes and contributors).  Available Alaska Dep. Fish Game, 333 Raspberry Road, Anchorage, AK  99518.  Calkins, D. G.  1997.  Foraging behavior of Steller sea lions in the northeastern Gulf of Alaska: movements and tracklines, p. 107-120.  In: Steller sea lion recovery investigation in Alaska, 1995-1996. Alaska Dep. Fish and Game, NOAA contract report NA57FX0256.  Calkins, D. G.  1998.  Prey of Steller sea lions in the Bering Sea.  Biosphere Conserv. 1(1):33-44.  Calkins, D. G., and E. Goodwin.  1988.  Investigations of the decline of Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska.  Unpubl. rep., 76 p.  Available Alaska Dep. Fish  Game, 333 Raspberry Road, Anchorage AK  99518.  Calkins, D. G., and K. W. Pitcher. 1976a. Population assessment, ecology and trophic relationships of Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska. In: Environmental Assessment of the Alaskan Continental Shelf. Annual Reports 1:371-386.  Calkins, D. G., and K. W. Pitcher. 1976b. Population assessment, ecology and trophic relationships of Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska. In: Environmental Assessment of the Alaskan Continental Shelf. Quarterly Reports, April-June 1:159-170.  Calkins, D. G., and K. W. Pitcher. 1976c. Population assessment, ecology and trophic relationships of Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska. In: Environmental Assessment of the Alaskan Continental Shelf. Quarterly Reports, October-December 1:527-537.  Calkins, D. G. and K. W. Pitcher. 1978a. Population assessment, ecology and trophic relationships of Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska. In: Environmental Assessment of the Alaskan Continental Shelf. Annual Reports 1:373-413.  Calkins, D. G., and K. W. Pitcher. 1978b. Population assessment, ecology and trophic relationships of Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska. In: Environmental Assessment of the Alaskan Continental Shelf. Quarterly Reports, July-September 1:20-27.  Calkins, D. G. and K. W. Pitcher. 1979. Population assessment, ecology and trophic relationships of Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska. In: Environmental Assessment of the Alaskan Continental Shelf. Annual Reports 1:144-208.  Calkins, D. G. and K. W. Pitcher. 1982. Population assessment, ecology and trophic relationships of Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska. In: Environmental Assessment of the Alaskan Continental Shelf. Final Reports 19:445-546.  Calkins, D.G. and K.W. Pitcher  1996. Steller sea lion movements, emigration and survival.  p. 34-40.  In: Steller sea lion recovery investigations in Alaska, 1992-1994 (Pitcher, K. W. compiler).  Wildlife Technical Bulletin No. 13 (multiple volumes and contributors).  Available Alaska Dep. Fish Game, 333 Raspberry Road, Anchorage, AK  99518.  Calkins, D.G., and K.W. Pitcher.  1997.  Steller sea lion movements, emigration and survival.  Pp.  25-33. In: Steller sea lion recovery investigation in Alaska, 1995-1996. Alaska Dep. Fish and Game, NOAA contract report NA57FX0256.  Calkins, D. G., K. W. Pitcher, and K. Schneider.  1975.  Distribution and abundance of marine mammals in the Gulf of Alaska.  Report to Alaska Fisheries Science Center/National Marine Mammal Laboratory, 39 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.  Calkins, D. G., G. A. Antonelis Jr., and G. W. Oliver.  1981.  Preliminary report of the Steller sea lion/ice seal research cruise of the ZRS Zvyagino.  Unpubl. rep., 21 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.  Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  31 Calkins, D. G., E. Becker, and K. W. Pitcher.  1998.  Reduced body size of female Steller sea lions from a declining population in the Gulf of Alaska.  Mar. Mamm. Sci. 14(2):232-244.  Calkins, D. G., D. C. McAllister, and K. W. Pitcher.  1999.  Steller sea lion status and trend in  Southeast Alaska: 1979-1997.  Mar. Mamm. Sci. 15(2):462-477.  Calkins, D.G, G.W. Pendleton, and K.W. Pitcher.  1996a.  Steller sea lion population composition in a declining versus an increasing population.  p. 19-24.  In: Steller sea lion recovery investigations in Alaska, 1992-1994 (Pitcher, K. W. compiler).  Wildlife Technical Bulletin No. 13 (multiple volumes and contributors).  Available Alaska Dep. Fish Game, 333 Raspberry Road, Anchorage, AK  99518.  Calkins, D. G., E. Becker, T.R. Spraker, and T. R. Loughlin.  1994.  Impacts on the distribution and abundance of Steller sea lions in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska.  Pages 119-137, In: T. R. Loughlin (ed.), Marine mammals and the Exxon Valdez.  Academic Press, San Diego.  Calkins, D.G., D.C. McAllister, G.W. Pendleton, and K.W. Pitcher.  1996b.  Steller sea lion status and trend in Southeast Alaska. In: Steller sea lion recovery investigations in Alaska, 1992-1994 (Pitcher, K. W. compiler).  Wildlife Technical Bulletin No. 13 (multiple volumes and contributors).  Available Alaska Dep. Fish Game, 333 Raspberry Road, Anchorage, AK  99518.  Calkins, D.G., D.C. McAllister, K.W. Pitcher, G.W. Pendleton.  1997.  Steller sea lion status and trend in Southeast Alaska.  Pp. 1-23. In: Steller sea lion recovery investigation in Alaska, 1995-1996. Alaska Dep. Fish and Game, NOAA contract report NA57FX0256.  Calloway, C.  1972.  Parameters associated with aggression among female Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus).  Annual Conference on Biological Sonar and Diving Mammals 9:1-8.  Biological Sonar Laboratory, Marine Mammal Study Center, 8100 Paterson Ranch Road, Fremont CA  94536.  Castellini, M. A., and D. G. Calkins.  1993.  Mass estimates using body morphology in Steller sea lions.  Mar. Mamm. Sci. 9(1):148-154.  Castellini, M. A., R. W. Davis, T. R. Loughlin, and T. M. Williams.  1993.  Blood chemistry and body condition of Steller sea lion pups at Marmot Island, Alaska.  Mar. Mamm. Sci. 9(2):202-208.  Chumbley, K.  1998.  Winter Steller sea lion prey and foraging sudies, (cruise SMMOCI-981) 4-25 March 1998.  p. 215-226.  In: P.S. Hill, B. Jones, D.P. DeMaster (eds.) Marine Mammal Protection Act and Endangered Species Act Imlementation Program 1997   Chumbley, K., J. Sease, M. Strick, and R. Towell.  1997.  Field studies of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) at Marmot Island, Alaska, 1979 through 1994.  U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-AFSC-77, 99 p.  Commercial Fisheries Review (CFR).  1971.  Killer whales seen pursuing Steller sea lions.  Commer. Fish. Rev. 33(2):21.  Consiglieri, L. D., H. W. Braham, and L. L. Jones.  1982.  Distribution and abundance of marine mammals in the Gulf of Alaska. p.189-314. In:  Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program:  Final Reports of Principal Investigators Vol. 61. U.S. Dept. of Commer.   Cunningham, W.  1977.  Observations on Steller sea lions at Cape St. Elias.  Unpubl. rep., 49 p.  Available Alaska Dept. Fish Game, 333 Raspberry Road, Anchorage AK  98158.  Cunningham, W., and S. Stanford.  1978.  Steller sea lion investigations at Cape St. Elias, March 22-July 5, 1978.  Unpubl. rep., 70 p.  Available Alaska Dept. Fish Game, 333 Raspberry Road, Anchorage AK  98158.  Dailey, M. D., and B. L. Hill.  1970.  A survey of metazoan parasites infesting the California (Zalophus californianus) and Steller (Eumetopias jubatus) sea lion.  Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 69:126-132.  Dassow, J. A.  1956.  Utilization of sea lions in Alaska.  U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Commer. Fish. Rev. 18:5-9.  Davis, R.W., E.A.A. Brandon, T.C. Adams, T.M. Williams, M.A. Castellini, T.R. Loughlin, and D.G. Calkins.  1996.  Indices of reproductive effort, body condition an pup growth for Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska.  In: Steller sea lion recovery investigations in Alaska, 1992-1994 (Pitcher, K. W. compiler).  Wildlife Technical Bulletin No. 13 (multiple volumes and contributors).  Available Alaska Dep. Fish Game, 333 Raspberry Road, Anchorage, AK  99518.  de Blois, S.  1986.  The social behavior of an emerging breeding population of Eumetopias jubatus on the coast of Humboldt County.  M.A. Thesis, Humboldt State Univ., Arcata CA, 326 p.  Douglas, H., and G. V. Byrd.  1990.  Observations of northern sea lions at Agattu, Alaid and Buldir Islands, Alaska in 1990.  Unpubl. rep., 20 p.  Available U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., P.O. Box 5251, Naval Air Station, Adak Island, FPO, Seattle WA  98791.  Drabek, C. M., and G. L. Kooyman.  1984.  Histological development of the terminal airways in pinniped and sea otter lungs.  Can. J. Zool. 62(1):92-96.  Early, T. J., A. B. Taber, J. Beall, and W. Henry.  1980.  Results of bird and mammal surveys of the western Aleutians-summer 1979.  Aleutian Islands National Wildlife Refuge.  Unpubl. rep., 89 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA 98115.  Edie, A. G.  1977.  Distribution and movements of Steller sea lion cows (Eumetopias jubata) on a pupping colony.  M.S. Thesis, Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver B.C., 81 p.  Engle, E. T.  1926.  The intestinal length in Stellar's sea lion.  J. Mammal. 7(1):28-30.  Farentinos, R. C.  1971.  Some observations on the play behavior of the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubata).  Z. Tierpsychol.  28:428-438. Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  32  Ferrero, R. C., and L. W. Fritz.  1994.  Comparisons of walleye pollock, Theragra chalcogramma, harvest to Steller sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus, abundance in the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska.  U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-AFSC-43, 25   Fiscus, C. H.  1961.  Growth in the Steller sea lion.  J. Mammal. 47:195-200.  Fiscus, C. H.  1969.  Steller sea lions at Ugamak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, June 1989.  Unpubl. rep., 53 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.  Fiscus, C. H., and G. A. Baines.  1966.  Food and feeding behavior of Steller and California sea lions.  J. Mammal. 42:218-223.  Fiscus, C. H., H. W. Braham, and R. W. Mercer.  1976.  Seasonal distribution and relative abundance of marine mammals in the Gulf of Alaska.  NWAFC Processed Rep., October 1976.  238 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.  Fiscus, C. H., D. J. Rugh, and T. R. Loughlin.  1981.  Census of northern sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in the central Aleutian Islands, Alaska, 17 June-15 July 1979, with notes on other marine mammals seen.  U. S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS F/NWC-17, 109 p.  Forsell, D. P., and P. J. Gould.  1981.  Distribution and abundance of marine birds and mammals wintering in the Kodiak area of Alaska.  U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Office of Biological Services 81/13, 81 p.   Available Information Transfer Specialist, National Coastal Ecosystem Team, U. S. Fish and Wildlif Service, NASA-Slidell Computer Complex, 1010 Gause Boulevard, Slidell LA 70458.  Fritz, L. W., and R. C. Ferrero.  1998.  Options in Steller sea lion recovery and groundfish fishery management.  Biosphere Conserv. 1(1):7-19.  Fritz, L. W., C. Armistead, and N. J. Williamson.  1995a.  Effects of the catcher vessel operation area on walleye pollock fisheries and marine mammals in the Eastern Bering Sea, 1990-94.  AFSC Processed Rep.  95-04, 114 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA 98115.  Fritz, L. W., R. C. Ferrero, and R. J. Berg.  1995b.  The threatened status of Steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus, under the Endangered Species Act: effects on Alaska groundfish fisheries management.  Mar. Fish. Rev. 57(2):14-27.  Frost, K. J., and L. F. Lowry  1986.  Sizes of walleye pollock, Theragra chalcogramma, consumed by marine mammals in the Bering Sea.  Fish. Bull., U.S.  84(1):192-197.  Frost, K. J., L. F. Lowry, and J. L. Burns.  1982.  Distribution of marine mammals in the coastal zone of the Bering Sea during summer and autumn.  In: Environmental assessment of the Alaskan Continental Shelf.  Final report  20:365-562.  Frost, K. J., R. B. Russell, and L. F. Lowry.  1992.  Killer whales, Orcinus orca, in the southeast Bering Sea: Recent sightings and predation on other marine mammals.  Mar. Mamm. Sci. 8(2):110-119. Gearin, P. J.  1986.  Stomach contents, age, and sex of northern sea lions collected from St. Paul Island, Alaska in 1985 and 1986.  Unpubl. rep., 15 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.    Gentry, R. L.  1970.  Social behavior of the Steller sea lion.  Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Calif. Santa Cruz, 113 p.  Gentry, R. L.  1974.  The development of social behavior through play in the Steller sea lion.  Am. Zool. 14:391-403.  Gentry, R. L., and J. H. Johnson.  1981.  Predation by sea lions on northern fur seal neonates.  Mammalia. 45:423-430.  Gerber, L. R.  1993.  Endangered Species Act decision making in the face of scientific uncertainty: a case study of the Steller sea lion.  M. Mar. Affairs Thesis, Univ. of Wash., Seattle WA, 107 p.  Gerber, L. R., and G. R. VanBlaricom.  1997.  Endangered Species Act (ESA) status of the western population of Steller sea lions based on the World Conservation Union (IUCN) classification scheme.  Report to the North Pacific Universities Marine Mammal Research Consortium, 53 p.  Available Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Univ. of Wash., Seattle WA 98115.  Gisiner, R. C.  1985.  Male territorial and reproductive behavior in the Steller sea lion, (Eumetopias jubatus).  Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Calif. Santa Cruz, 145 p.  Gosine, R.G., and L. Gamage.  1994.  Final report on an investigation of image processing techniques for the problem of automatic counting of sea lions from aerial video.  University of British Columbia, Industrial Automation Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 2324 Main Mall, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4.  Harestad, A. S.  1977.  Diurnal activities of northern sea lions.  Syesis 11:279-280.  Harestad, A. S., and H. D. Fisher.  1975.  Social behavior in non-pupping colony of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus).  Can. J. Zool. 53:1596-1613.  Havens, P.  1965.  Observations on sea lion harvest, Alaska Penninsula, summer 1965.  Unpubl. rep., 9 p.  Available Alaska Dept. Fish Game, 333 Raspberry Road, Anchorage AK  99518.  Haynes, T. L., and C. Mishler.  1991.  The subsistence harvest and use of Steller sea lions in Alaska.  Alaska Department of Fish and Game Tech. Paper no. 198, 44 p.  Heath, R. B., D. G. Calkins, D. McAllister, W. Taylor, and T. Spraker.  1996.  Telazol and isoflurane field anesthesia in free-ranging Steller’s sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus).  J. Zool. Wildl. Med. 27(1):35-43.  Higgins, L. V.  1984.  Maternal behavior and attendance patterns of the Steller sea lion in California.  M.S. Thesis, Univ. California Santa Cruz, 37 p.     Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  33 Higgins, L. V., D. P. Costa, A. C. Huntley, and B. J. LeBoeuf.  1988.  Behavior and physiological measurement of maternal investment in the Steller sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus.  Mar. Mamm. Sci. 4(1):44-58.  Hobson, K. A., J. L. Sease, R. L. Merrick, and J. F. Piatt.  1997.  Investigating trophic relationships of pinnipeds in Alaska and Washington using stable isotope ratios of nitrogen and carbon.  Mar. Mamm. Sci. 13(1):114-132.  Hood, W.R., and K. Ono.  1997.  Variation in maternal attendance patterns and pup behaviour in a declining population of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus).  Can. J. Zool.  75: 1241-1246.  Hoover, A. A.  1988.  Steller sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus, p. 159-194.  In: J. W. Lentfer (editor), Selected marine mammals of Alaska. Species accounts with research and management recommendations.  Marine Mammal Commission, 1625 I St., N. W., Washington DC  20006.  Huber, H., D. Skilling, R. Risebrough, and A. Smith.  1984.  Premature pupping in northern sea lions on the Farallon Islands.  Unpubl. rep. 11 p. Final Report to Point Reyes/Farallon Island Marine Sanctuary. Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.     Imler, R. H., and H. R. Sarber.  1947.  Harbor seals and sea lions in Alaska.  U.S. Fish  Wildl. Serv., Spec, Sci. Rep. 28, 23 p.  Jemison, L. A.  1993.  Abundance and distribution of marine mammals in Northern Bristol Bay and Southern Kuskokwim Bay: a status report of the 1992 marine mammal monitoring effort at Togiak National Wildlife Refuge. Report to U.S. Dep. of the Interior, 10 p.  Available Fish and Wildlife Serv., Togiak Natl. Wildlife Refuge, P.O. Box 270, Dillingham, AK 99576.  Johnson, D., and L. Smith.  1978.  Steller sea lion investigations at Sugarloaf Island, Alaska, 1978. Unpubl. rep., 174 p.  Available Alaska Dep. Fish Game, 333 Raspberry Road, Anchorage AK  99518.  Johnson, S. R., J. J. Burns, C. I. Malme, and R. A. Davis.  1989.  Synthesis of information on the effects of noise and disturbance on major haulout concentrations of the Bering Sea pinnipeds.  (Document submitted to Miner. Manage. Serv., U.S. Dep. Inter., contract no. 14-12-0001-30361.  LGL Alaska Research Associates, 505 N. Lights Blvd., Suite 210, Anchorage AK  99503.  Jonker, R.A.H. and A.W. Trites. 2000. The reliability of skinfold-calipers for measuring blubber thickness of Steller sea lion pups (Eumetopias jubatus).  Mar. Mamm. Sci. 16:757-766.  Kajimura, H., and T. R. Loughlin.  1988.  Marine mammals in the oceanic food web of the eastern subarctic Pacific.  Bull. Ocean Res. Inst. (Univ. Tokyo) 26(part II):187-223.  Kastelein, R. A., and F. C. Weltz.  1990.  Distribution, abundance, reproduction and behavior of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Prince William Sound, Alaska.  Aquat. Mamm. 15(4):145-157.  Kastelein, R. A., and F. A. Weltz.  1991.  Distribution and behavior of Steller sea lions in Prince William Sound, Alaska. June 1989.  Aquat. Mamm. 17(2) 91-97.  Kastelein, R. A., and P. R. Wiepkema.  1988.  The significance of training for the behavior of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubata) in human care.  Aquat. Mammals 14(1):39-41.  Kastelein, R. A., N. Vaughan, P. R. Wiepkema.  1990.  The food of Steller sea lions. Aquat. Mamm. 15(4):137-144.  Kenyon, K. W.  1952.  Diving depths of the Steller sea lion and Alaska fur seal.  J. Mammal.  33(2):245-246.  Kenyon, K. W.  1962.  History of the Steller sea lion at the Pribilof Islands, Alaska.  J. Mammal. 43(1):68-75.  Kenyon, K. W., and D. W. Rice.  1961.  Abundance and distribution of the Steller sea lion.  J. Mammal.  42(2):223-234.  Kim, G. B., S. Tanabe, R. Tatsukawa, T. R. Loughlin, and K. Shimazaki.  1996a.  Characteristics of butyltin accumulation and its biomagnification in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus).  Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 15(11):2043-2048.  Kim, G. B., J. S. Lee, S. Tanabe, H. Iwata, R. Tatsukawa, and K. Shimazaki.  1996b.  Specific accumulation and distribution of butyltin compounds in various organs and tissues of the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus): comparison with organochlorine accumulation pattern.  Mar. Poll. Bull. 32(7):558-563.  Konishi, K, and K. Shimazaki.  1998.  Halarachnid mites infesting the respiratory tract of Steller sea lions.  Biosphere Conserv. 1(1):45-48.  Kruse, G.H., F.C. Funk, H.J. Geiger, K.R. Mabry, H.M. Savikko, and S.M. Siddeek.  2000.  Overview of state-managed marine fisheries in the central and western Gulf of Alaska, Aleutian Islands, and Southeastern Bering Sea, with reference to Steller sea lions.  Regional Information Report 5J00-10.  Available Alaska Dept. Fish & Game.  Div. Commer. Fish. P.O. Box 25526 Juneau, AK 99802-5526.  Lawhead, B. E. 1979. Recent population surveys of marine mammals in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Unpubl. rep., 23 p. (Presented at the 30th Alaska Science Conf., Anchorage, Alaska, September 20, 1979.) Available Alaska Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK 99701.  Lee, J. S., S. Tanabe, H. Umino, R. Tatsukawa, T. R. Loughlin, and D. C. Calkins.  1996.  Persistent organochlorines in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) from the bulk of Alaska and the Bering Sea, 1976-1981.  Mar. Poll. Rev. 32(7):535-544.  Lensink, C. J.  1958.  Appendix: Sea lion observations, p 61.  In  Report on sea otter surveys 6 May to 28 September 1957.  Unpubl. rep., U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Bur. Sport Fish. Wildl. FGL, Seattle.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.  Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  34  Lewis, J. P.  1987.  An evaluation of a census-related disturbance of Steller sea lions.  M.S. Thesis, Univ. Alaska, Fairbanks, 93 p.  Lidicker, W. Z., R. D. Sage, and D. G. Calkins.  1981.  Biochemical variation in northern sea lions from Alaska,   p. 231-241.  In: M. H. Smith and J. Joule (editors), Mammalian population genetics.  Univ. Georgia Press, Athens.  Livingston, P. A.  1993.  Importance of predation by groundfish, marine mammals and birds on walleye pollock, Theragra chalcogramma, and Pacific herring, Clupea pallasi, in the eastern Bering Sea.  Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 102:205-215.  Loughlin, T.R.  1982.  Functional adaptation of eruption sequenc of pinniped postcanine teeth.  J. Mammalogy.  63(3):523-525.  Loughlin, T. R.  1987a.  Cape St. Elias, Alaska, sea lion research. Unpubl. rep., 4 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.  Loughlin, T. R.  1987b.  Report of the workshop on the status of northern sea lions in Alaska.  U. S. Dep. Commer., NWAFC Processed Rep. 87-04,  49 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.  Loughlin, T. R.  1997.  Using the phylogeographic method to identify Steller sea lion stocks.  p. 159-171, In: A. Dizon, S. J. Chivers, and W. F. Perrin (eds), Molecular genetics of marine mammals. Special Publication #3 of the Society for Marine Mammalogy.  Loughlin, T. R.  1998.  The Steller sea lion: A declining species.  Biosphere Conserv. 1(2):91-98.  Loughlin, T. R., and R. L. DeLong.  1983.  Incidental catch of sea lions during the 1982 and 1983 walleye pollock joint venture fishery in Shelikof Strait, Alaska.  NWAFC Processed Rep. 83-15, 37 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.  Loughlin, T. R., and R. Nelson.   1986.  Incidental mortality of northern sea lions in Shelikof Strait, Alaska.  Mar. Mamm. Sci. 2(1):14-33.  Loughlin, T. R., and T. Spraker.  1989.  Use of Telazol to immobilize female northern sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska.  J. Wildl. Dis. 25:353-358.  Loughlin, T. R., D. J. Rugh, and C. H. Fiscus.  1984.  Northern sea lion distribution and abundance: 1956-1980.  J. Wildl. Manage. 48:729-740.  Loughlin, T. R., A. S. Perlov, and V. A. Vladimirov.  1990.  Survey of northern sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in the Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands during June 1989.  U. S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS F/NWC-176, 26 p.  Loughlin, T. R., A. S. Perlov, and V. A. Vladimirov.  1992.  Range-wide survey and estimation of total number of Steller sea lions in 1989.  Mar. Mamm. Sci. 83(3):220-239.  Loughlin, T. R., L. Consiglieri, R. L. DeLong, and A. T. Actor.  1983.  Incidental catch of marine mammals by foreign fishing vessels, 1978-1981.  Mar. Fish. Rev. 45(8-10):44-49.  Loughlin, T. R., P. J. Gearin, R. L. DeLong, and R. L. Merrick. 1986.  Assessment of net entanglement on northern sea lions in the Aleutian Islands, 25 June-15 July 1985.  NWAFC Processed Rep. 86-02,  50 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.  Loughlin, T. R., A. S. Perlov, J. D. Baker, S. A. Blokhin, and A. G. Makhnyr.  1998.  Diving behavior of adult female Steller sea lions in the Kuril Islands, Russia.  Biosphere Conserv. 1(1):21-31.  Lowry, L. F., and K. J. Frost.  1985.  Biological interactions between marine mammals and commercial fisheries in the Bering Sea, p. 41-61.  In: J. R. Beddington and D.M. Lavigne (editors), Marine mammals and fisheries.  George Allen and Unwin, London.  Lowry, L. F., D. G. Calkins, G. L. Swartzman, and S. Hill.  1982.  Feeding habits, food requirements and status of Bering Sea marine mammals, p. 1-292.  (Document submitted to North Pacific Fisheries Management Council.)  North Pacific Management Council, P. O. Box 3136 DT, Anchorage AK  99510.  Makhnir, A. I., A. E. Kuzin, and A. S. Perlov.  1984.  Seasonal changes in food biomass of eared seals in the northwest part of the Pacific Ocean, p. 3-13.  In: V. E. Rodin, et al (editors), Marine Mammals of the Far East.  TINRO publication.  Mate, B. R.  1975.  Annual migration of the Steller sea lion and California sea lion along the coast of Oregon.  J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer 169:455-461.  Mate, B. R. 1977. Aerial censusing of pinnipeds in the eastern Pacific for assessment of population numbers, migratory distributions, rookery stability, breeding effort and recruitment, 67 p. Report to Marine Mammal Commission, contract no. MMC-75/01, Marine Mammal Commision, 1625 Eye St., NW., Washington D.C. 20009. Available Natl. Tech. Inf. Serv., Springfield, VA as PB 265-859.  Mathisen, O. A., and R. J. Lopp.  1963.  Photographic census of the Steller sea lion herds in Alaska, 1956-58.  U. S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Spec. Sci. Rep. Fish. 424, 20 p.  Mathisen, O. A., R. T. Baade, and R. J. Lopp.  1962.  Breeding habits, growth and stomach contents of the Steller sea lion in Alaska.  J. Mammal. 43:469-477.  Matkin, C.O., and F.H. Fay.  1980.  Marine Mammal – Fishery interactions on the Copper River and in Prince William Sound, Alaska,, 1978.  Final Report to the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission for Contact MM8AC-013.  Report No. MMC-78/07.  (Published as:  PB 80-159536, NTIS, Springfield, VA)  McAlister, W. B.  1981.  Estimate of fish consumption by marine mammals in the eastern Bering and Aleutian Island area.  Unpubl. manuscr., 89 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.  McAlister, W.B.  1987.  Notes on the body mass of pinnipeds in the eastern Bering Sea based on life table data.  Unpubl. rep., 21p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle WA 98115. Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  35 McAllister, D., D.G. Calkins, and W. Cunningham.  1997.  Steller sea lion capture techniques development  Pp. 86-89. Pp. 91-106. In: Steller sea lion recovery investigation in Alaska, 1995-1996. Alaska Dep. Fish and Game, NOAA contract report NA57FX0256.  Merrick, R. L.  1983.  Census of northern sea lions on Marmot Island, Alaska.  Unpubl. rep., 35 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.  Merrick, R. L.  1987.  Behavioral and demographic characteristics of northern sea lion rookeries. M.S. Thesis, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis OR, 124 p.  Merrick, R. L.  1995.  The relationship of the foraging ecology of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) to their population decline in Alaska.  Ph.D Diss., Univ. of Wash., Seattle, 171 p.  Merrick, R. L.  1997.  Current and historical roles of apex predators in the Bering Sea ecosystem.  J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci. 22:343-355.  Merrick, R. L., and D. G. Calkins.  1996.  Importance of juvenile walleye pollock, Theragra chalcogramma, in the diet of Gulf of Alaska Steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus, p. 153-166. In U.S. Dep. Commer. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS 126.  Merrick, R. L., and T. R. Loughlin.  1997. Foraging behavior of adult female and young-of-the-year Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaskan waters.  Can. J. Zool. 75 (5):776-786.  Merrick, R.L., and A. York.  1994.  A viability analysis for the southwest Alaskan Steller sea lion population, 1985-94.  Unpubl. rep. Available from the National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., NMFS, NOAA, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle WA 98115  Merrick, R. L., T. R. Loughlin, and D. G. Calkins.  1987.  Decline in abundance of the northern sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus, in Alaska, 1956-86.  Fish. Bull., U.S. 85(2):351-365.  Merrick, R. L., D. G. Calkins, and D. C. McAllister.  1992.  Aerial and ship-based surveys of Steller sea lions in Southeast, Alaska, the Gulf of Alaska, and Aleutian Islands during June and July 1991.  U. S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-AFSC-1, 37 p.  Merrick, R. L., T. R. Loughlin, and D. G. Calkins.  1996.  Hot branding: a technique for long-term marking of pinnipeds.  U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-AFSC-68, 21 p.  Merrick, R. L., M. K. Chumbley, and G. V. Byrd.  1997.  Diet diversity of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) and their population decline in Alaska: a potential relationship.  Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 54:1342-1348.  Merrick, R. L., P. Gearin, S. Osmek, and D. Withrow.  1988.  Field studies of northern sea lions at Ugamak Island, Alaska, during the 1985 and 1986 breeding seasons.  U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS F/NWC-143,  60 p.    Merrick, R. L., M. K. Maminov, J. D. Baker, and A. G. Makhnyr.  1990.  Results of U.S.-U.S.S.R. joint marine mammal research cruise in the Kuril and Aleutian Islands 6 June-24 July 1989.  U. S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS F/NWC-177, 63 p.  Merrick, R. L., T. R. Loughlin, G. A. Antonelis, and R. Hill.  1994.  Use of satellite-linked telemetry to study Steller sea lion and Northern fur seal foraging.  Polar Res. 13:105-114.  Merrick, R. L., R. Brown, D. G. Calkins, and T. R. Loughlin. 1995.  A comparison of Steller sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus, pup masses between rookeries with increasing and decreasing populations. Fish. Bull., U.S. 93(4):753-758.  Merrick, R. L., L. M. Ferm, R. D. Everitt, R. R. Ream, and L. A. Lessard.  1991.  Aerial and ship-based surveys of northern sea lions, (Eumetopias jubatus) in the Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands during June and July 1990.  U. S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS F/NWC-196, 34 p.  Miller, E.H., K. W. Pitcher, and T.R. Loughlin.  2000.  Bacular size, growth, and allometry in the largest extant otariid, the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus).  J. Mammal. 81 (1):134-144.  Millette, L.L.  1997.  Steller sea lion behaviour during the breeding season: a comparison between a stable and declining population in Alaska.  Pp. 35-41. In: Steller sea lion recovery investigation in Alaska, 1995-1996. Alaska Dep. Fish and Game, NOAA contract report NA57FX0256.  Milette, L.L. 1999. Behaviour of lactating Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) during the breeding season: a comparison between a declining and stable population in Alaska.  MSc thesis, University of British Columbia. Vancouver BC. 56 p.  Moran, J.R., and C.A. Wilson.  1996.  Abundance and distribution of marine mammals in Northern Bristol Bay and Southern Kuskokwim Bay:  a status report of the 1995 marine mammal monitoring effort at Togiak National Wildlife Refuge.  Report to U.S. Dept. of the Interior.  19p.  Available Fish and Wildlife Serv., Togiak Natl. Wildlife Refuge.  P.O. Box 270, Dillingham AK 99576.  National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS).  1992.  Recovery plan for the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus).  Report to National Marine Fisheries Service, 92 p.  Available National Marine Fisheries Service, 1335 East-West Highway, Silver Spring MD 209910.  National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 1993. Status and pelagic distribution of otariid pinnipeds during winter. Report to Miner. Manage. Serv., contract MMS 93-0026, 58 p. Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA 98115.  National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS).  1995.  Status review of the United States Steller sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus, population.  U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA, National Marine Mammal Laboratory, AFSC, 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA 98115. 61 p.    Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  36  Norcross, B.L., B.A. Holladay, and F. Mueter.  2000.  Forage fish abundance and distribution at Forrester Island, Alaska.  Institute of Marine Science, University of Alaska Fairbanks.  Final contract report, NOAA Award No. NA66FX0455.  75p.  O’Daniel, D, and J. C. Schneeweis.  1992.  Steller sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus, predation on Glaucous-winged gulls, Larus glaucescens.  Can. Field Nat. 106(2):268.  Olesiuk, P. F., and M. A. Bigg  1987.  Seasonal changes in the condition of male Steller sea lions.  Unpubl. manuscr., 31 p.  Available Dep. Fish. Oceans, Fisheries Research Branch, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C., Canada.  Orr, R. T., and T. C. Poulter.  1967.  Some observations on reproduction, growth, and social behavior in the Steller sea lion.  Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 35(10):193-226.  Pascual, M. A., and M. D. Adkison.  1994.  The decline of the Steller sea lion in the northeast Pacific: demography, harvest or environment?  Ecol. Appl. 4(2):393-403.  Pauly, D., A.W. Trites, E. Capuli and V. Christensen. 1998. Diet composition and trophic levels of marine mammals.  ICES J. Mar. Sci.  55:467-481  Perez, M. A., and T. R. Loughlin.  1991.  Incidental catch of marine mammals by foreign and JV trawl vessels in the U.S. EEZ of the North Pacific.  U. S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS 104, 57 p.  Perez, M. A., and W. B. McAlister.  1993.  Estimates of food consumption by marine mammals in the Eastern Bering Sea.  U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-AFSC-14, 36 p.  Perez, M. A., and W. B. McAlister, and E. E. Mooney.  1990.  Estimated feeding rate relationships for marine mammals based on captive animal data.  U. S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS F/NWC-184, 30 p.  Perlov, A. S.  1996.  Steller sea lion catch as one of the main reasons for the decline in their abundance.  Izvestiya Tikhookeanskogo nauchno-issledovatel skogo rybokhozyaystvennogo tsentra 121:143-149.  Perlov, A. S., L. A. Popov, and D. S. Calkins.  1982.  Daily population dynamics and some behavior features of Steller sea lion bachelor rookeries on Marmot Island, p.137-143.  In: V. A. Zemskii, V. I. Krylov (eds.), Morskie Miekopitayushchie Sbornik Nauchnykh Trudov.  Pike, G. C.  1958.  Food of the northern sea lion.  Fish. Res. Board Can., Prog. Rep. Pac. Coast Stn.  No. 112:18-20.  Dept. Fish. Oceans, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C., Canada.  Pitcher, K. W.  1975.  Distribution and abundance of sea otters, Steller sea lions and harbor seals in Prince William Sound, Alaska.  Unpubl. rep., 18 p.  Available Alaska Dep. Fish Game, 333 Raspberry Road, Anchorage, AK  99518.  Pitcher, K. W.  1981.  Prey of the Steller sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus, in the Gulf of Alaska.  Fish. Bull., U.S. 79:467-472.  Pitcher, K. W. (compiler).  1997.  Steller sea lion recovery investigations in Alaska, 1995-1996.  Wildlife Technical Bulletin No. 13 (multiple volumes and contributors).  Available Alaska Dep. Fish Game, 333 Raspberry Road, Anchorage, AK  99518.  Pitcher, K. W., and D. G. Calkins.  1981.  Reproductive biology of Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska.  J. Mammal. 62:599-605.  Pitcher, K. W., and F. H. Fay.  1982.  Feeding by Steller sea lions on harbor seals.  The Murrelet 63:70-71.  Pitcher, K. W., D. G. Calkins, and G. W. Pendleton.  1998.  Reproductive performance of female Steller sea lions: an energetics-based reproductive strategy?  Can. J. Zool. 76:2075-2083.  Pitcher, K. W., D. G. Calkins, and G. W. Pendleton.  2000.  Steller sea lion body condition indices.  Mar. Mamm. Sci.  16(2):427-436.  Porter, B.  1997.  Winter ecology of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska.  M.S. Thesis, Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver, 84 p.  Porter, B., A.W. Trites, and D.G. Calkins.  1997.  Winter ecology of immature Steller sea lions.  Pp. 44-49. In: Steller sea lion recovery investigation in Alaska, 1995-1996. Alaska Dep. Fish and Game, NOAA contract report NA57FX0256.  Rea, L. D.  1995.  Prolonged fasting in pinnipeds.  Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Alaska, Fairbanks, 135 p.  Rea, L.D., D.A.S. Rosen and A.W. Trites. 1999. Seasonal differences in adaptation to prolonged fasting in juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus).The FASEB Journal (Federation of American Societies of Experimental Biology). Volume 13, Number 5, Page A740.  Washington, D.C. April 17-21, 1999.  Rea, L. D., D. A. S. Rosen, and A. W. Trites.  2000.  Metabolic response to fasting in 6-week-old Steller sea lion pups (Eumetopias jubatus).  Can. J. Zool. 78:890-894.  Rea, L. D., M. A. Castellini, B. S. Fadely, and T. R. Loughlin.  1998.  Health status of young Alaska Steller sea lion pups (Eumetopias jubatus) as indicated by blood chemistry and hematology.  Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 120A:617-623.  Rosen, D. A. S., and A. W. Trites.  1997.  Heat increment of feeding in Steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus.  Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 118A(3):877-881.  Rosen, D.A.S. and A.W. Trites. 1999. Metabolic effects of low-energy diet on Steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus. Physiol. Zool. 72:723-731.  Rosen, D.A.S. and A.W. Trites. 2000a. Digestive efficiency and dry-matter digestibility of Steller sea lions fed herring, pollock, salmon and squid. Can. J. Zool. 78:234-239  Rosen, D.A.S. and A.W. Trites. 2000b. Pollock and the decline of Steller sea lions: testing the junk-food hypothesis. Can. J. Zool. 78:1243-1258.     Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  37 Rosen, D.A.S., L. Williams and A.W. Trites. 2000. Effect of ration size and meal frequency on digestive and assimilation efficiency in yearling Steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus.  Aquatic Mamm. 26:76-82.  Rugh, D., and C. Fiscus.  1982.  Counts of sea lions on the islands in the Bering Sea.  Unpubl. rep., 7 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.  Sampson, D. B.  1995.  An analysis of groundfish fishing activities near Steller sea lion rookeries in Alaska.  Unpubl. rep., 40 p.  Oregon State University, Costal Oregon Marine Experiment Station, Hatfield Marine Science Center, Newport, OR  97365.  Sandegren, F. E.  1970.  Breeding and maternal behavior of the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubata) in Alaska.  M.S. Thesis, Univ. Alaska Fairbanks, 138 p.  Sandegren, F. E.  1976.  Courtship display, agonistic behavior and social dynamics in the Steller sea lion.  Behaviour. 57(1-2):136-158.  Schaffner, A.A., S.B. Mathews, and J.E. Zeh.  1994.  Statistical considerations in assessing recent adult/juvenile census trends of Steller sea lions.  Report to the North Pacific Universities Marine Mammal Research Consortium.  University of Washington, Fisheries Research Institute, WH-10, Seattle WA 98195.  Scheffer, V. B.  1945a.  Growth and behavior of young sea lions.  J.Mammal.  26(4):390-392.  Scheffer, V. B. 1945b.  Injury to Alaska fisheries by Steller sea lions. Unpubl. rep., 19 p. Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA 98115.  Scheffer, V. B.  1948.  A proposal to reduce the sea lions on St. Paul Island, Alaska.  Unpubl. rep., 10 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.  Scheffer, V.B.  1950.  Experiments in the marking of seals and sea lions.  U.S. Dept. Interior, Spec. Sci. Rep. Wildlife. No. 4, 33p.  Scheffer, V. B.  1967.  Dentition of newborn Steller sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus, (Schreber, 1776).  Saeugetierk. D. Mitt. 15:126-128.  Schusterman, R. J., and R. F. Balliet.  1970.  Visual acuity of the harbour seal and the Steller sea lion under water. Nature. 226:563-564.   Schusterman, R. J., F. Balliet, and S. St. John.  1970.  Vocal displays underwater by the grey seal, the harbor seal and the Steller sea lion.  Psychol. Sci. 18(5):303-305.  Sease, J. L., and T. R. Loughlin.  1999.  Aerial and land-based surveys of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska, June and July 1997 and 1998.  U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-AFSC-100, 61 p.  Sease, J. L., J. M. Strick, R. L. Merrick, and J. P. Lewis.  1999.  Aerial and land-based surveys of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska, June and July 1996.  U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-AFSC-99, 43 p. Sease, J. L., J. P. Lewis, D. C. McAllister, R. L. Merrick and S. M. Mello.  1993.  Aerial and ship-based surveys of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Southeast Alaska, the Gulf of Alaska, and Aleutian Islands during June and July 1992.  Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS F/NWC-17, 57 p.  Sheffield, G., and R. Zarnke.  1997.  Summaries of serologic data collected from Steller sea lions in the bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska, 1978-1996.  Pp. 74-83. Pp. 91-106. In: Steller sea lion recovery investigation in Alaska, 1995-1996. Alaska Dep. Fish and Game, NOAA contract report NA57FX0256.  Shima, M.  1996.  A study of the interaction between walleye pollock and Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska.  Ph.D. Diss., Univ. Washington, Seattle, 196 p.  Shima, M., A. B. Hollowed, and G. R. VanBlaricom.  2000.  Response of pinniped populations to directed harvest, climate variability, and commercial fishery activity: a comparative analysis.  Rev. Fish. Sci. 8(2):89-124.  Skilling, D. E., J. E. Barlough, E. S. Berry, R. F. Brown, and A. W. Smith.  1987.  First isolation of a calicivirus from the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus).  J. Wildl. Dis. 23(4):534-538.  Smith, L. N.  1988.  The influence of rookery terrain on population structure, territorial behavior, and breeding success of Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska.  M.S. Thesis, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 100 p.  Snyder, G. M.  1998.  An evaluation of alternative methods for counting Steller sea lion pups.  M.S. Thesis, Univ. Alaska, Anchorage, 70 p.  Spalding, D. J.  1966.  Eruption of permanent canine teeth in the northern sea lion.  J. Mammal. 47:157-158.  Springer, A. M.  1992.  A review: Walleye pollock in the North Pacific- how much difference do they really make?  Fish. Ocean. 1(1):80-96.  Stelle, L. L. 1997. Drag and energetics of swimming in Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). MSc thesis.  University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC. 84 p.  Stelle, L.L., R.W. Blake and A.W. Trites. 2000. Hydrodynamic drag in Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus).  Journal of Experimental Biology 203:1915-1923.  Steller, G. W.  1751.  Habits and characteristics of sea lions,  p. 361-366.  In: D. S. Jordan (ed.),  The fur seals and fur-seal islands of the North Pacific Ocean, Part 3.   Mem. Imp. Academy Sciences in St. Petersburg for the year 1849.    (Transl. W. Miller and J. E. Miller) Gov. Print. Off., Washington D. C.  Strick, J. M., L. W. Fritz, and J. P. Lewis.  1997.  Aerial and ship-based surveys of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Southeast Alaska, the Gulf of Alaska, and Aleutian Islands during June and July 1994.  U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech  Swain, U.G.  1996. Foraging behaviour of female Steller sea lions in Southeast Alaska and the Eastern Gulf of Alaska.  Pp. 135-166.  In: K. W. Pitcher (compiler).  Steller sea lion recovery investigations in Alaska, 1992-1994.  Wildlife Technical Bulletin No. 13 (multiple volumes and contributors).  Available Alaska Dep. Fish Game, 333 Raspberry Road, Anchorage, AK  99518. Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  38  Swain, U.G., and D.G. Calkins.  1997. Foraging behaviour of juvenile Steller sea lions in Northeastern Gulf of Alaska: diving and foraging trip duration.  p. 91-106. In: Steller sea lion recovery investigation in Alaska, 1995-1996. Alaska Dep. Fish and Game, NOAA contract report NA57FX0256.  Thorsteinson, F. V., and C. J. Lensink.  1962.  Biological observations of Steller sea lions taken during an experimental harvest.  J. Wildl. Manage. 26:353-359.  Thorsteinson, F. V., R. W. Nelson, and D. F. Lall.  1961.  Experimental harvest of the Steller sea lion in Alaskan waters.  U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Spec. Sci. Rep. Fish. 371, 15 p.  Trites, A. W.  1998.  Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus): causes for their decline and factors limiting their restoration.  Unpubl. manuscr., 24 p.  Marine Mammal Research Unit, Fisheries Centre, Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada  V6T 1Z4.  Trites, A.W., and R.A.H. Jonker.  2000.  Morphometric measurements and body condition of healthy and starveling sea lion pups (Eumetopias jubatus).  Aquatic Mamm.  26(2):151-157.  Trites, A. W., and P. A. Larkin.  1992.  The status of Steller sea lions populations and the development of fisheries in the Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands.  Report to Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, 133 p.  Fisheries Centre, Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada  V6T 1Z4.  Trites, A. W., and P. A. Larkin.  1996.  Changes in abundance of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska from 1956 to 1992: how many were there?  Aquat. Mammals 22(3):153-166.  Trites, A.W., D.Pauly and V. Christensen. 1997. Competition between fisheries and marine mammals for prey and primary production in the Pacific Ocean. J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci. 22:173-187.  Trites, A.W., P. Livingston, M.C. Vasconcellos, S. Mackinson, A.M. Springer and D. Pauly. 1999. Ecosystem change and the decline of marine mammals in the Eastern Bering Sea: testing the ecosystem shift and commercial whaling hypotheses. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 1999, Vol. 7. 106 p.  Vania, J.S.  1972.  Sea lion pelage study.  12p.  Alaska Dept. Fish. & Game.  Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Projects W-17-3 and W-17-4, Job 8.1R  Wada, K.  1998.  Steller sea lions: present status of studies of migratory ecology, and conflict between fisheries and conservation in Japan.  Biosphere Conserv. 1(1):1-6.  West, C. W.  1983.  Observations of trawl-sea lion interactions in the 1983 Shelikof Strait joint venture walleye pollock fishery.  NWAFC Processed Rep.  83-16, 15 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.  Wilke, F., and K. W. Kenyon.  1952.  Notes on the food of fur seal, sea-lion, and harbor porpoise.  J. Wildl. Manage. 16:396-397.  Williamson, W. M., L. S. Lombard, and R. E. Getty.  1959.  North American blastomycosis in a northern sea lion.  J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 135:513-515. Winship, Arliss J.  2000.  Growth and bioenergetic models for Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska.  M.S. thesis.  University of British Columbia, 160 p.  Withrow, D. E.  1982.  Using aerial surveys, ground truth methodology, and haul out behavior to census Steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus.  M.S. Thesis, Univ. Washington, Seattle, 102 p.  Wolfe, R. J.  1993.  The subsistence harvest of Harbor seal and sea lion by Alaska natives in 1992.  Report to National Marine Fisheries Service, 94 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle WA 98115.  Wolfe, R. J.  1997.  The subsistence harvest of Harbor seal and sea lion by Alaska natives in 1996.  Final report for year five substinence study and monitor system (No. 50ABNF400080) prepared for National Marine Fisheries Service, 69 p.  Technical Paper No. 241.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle WA 98115.  Wynne, K. 1990. Marine mammal interactions with the salmon drift gillnet fishery on the Copper River Delta, Alaska-1988 and 1989. Alaska Sea Grant College Program Technical Report no. 90-05. Available Alaska Sea Grant College Program, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 138 Irving II, Fairbanks AK 99775  Yesner, D. R.  1988.  Effects of prehistoric human exploitation on Aleutian sea mammal populations.  Arctic Anthropology 25(1):28-43.  York, A. E.  1986.  Comments on the life table for female Steller sea lions. Unpubl. manusc., 30 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.  York, A. E.  1994.  The population dynamics of Northern sea lions, 1975-1985.  Mar. Mamm. Sci. 10(1):38-51.  York, A. E., R. L. Merrick, and T. R. Loughlin.  1996.  An analysis of the Steller sea lion metapopulation in Alaska.  Chapter 12, p. 259-292. In: D. R. McCullough (ed.), Metapopulations and wildlife conservation.  Island Press, Covelo, CA.  Yurakhno, M. V.  1986.  Diplogonoporus violettae sp.n. (Cestoda, Diphyllobothriidae) a parasite from Eumetopias jubatus from  the Bering Sea.  [In Russ., Engl. Summ.]  Parazitologiya 20(1):39-45.  Zenteno Savin, Tania. 1997. Physiology of the endocrine, cardiorespiratory and nervous systems in pinnipeds. Integrative approach and biomedical considerations.  Doctoral Dissertation, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska, USA.  Zenteno-Savin, T., and M. A. Castellini.  1998.  Plasma angiotensin II, arginine vasopressin and atrial natriuretic peptide in free ranging and captive seals and sea lions.  Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 119C(1):1-6.  Zenteno-Savin, T., M. A. Castellini, L. D. Rea, and B. S. Fadely.  1997.  Plasma haptoglobin levels in threatened Alaskan pinniped populations.  J. Wildl. Disease 33(1):64-71. Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  39 APPENDIX IV:  LITERATURE NOT OBTAINED FOR REVIEW  PUBLISHED  Brooks, J. W.  1956.  A study of the sea lion in Alaska with particular reference to its influence on the commercial fisheries, p. 1-26.  In: An investigation of predatory animals and their influence on prey species of fish with commercial importance.  Report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  Burkanov, V. N.  1992.  The organization of monitoring and an explanation of the reasons for the decline in sea lion population in the Kamchatka region.  Report to Russian Academy of Science, Far Eastern Division, Kamchatka Institute of Ecology and Natural Resource Utilization, 38 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.  Byrd, G. V., and J. C. Williams. 1996.  Seabird and marine mammal surveys in the central and eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska, in June 1996.  U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Rep., AMNWR 96/06.  Homer, AK.  Calkins, D.G.  1996c. Steller sea lion movements, emigration and survival.  p. 34-40.  In: K.W. Pitcher (compiler).  Steller sea lion recovery investigations in Alaska, 1992-1994.  Wildlife Technical Bulletin No. 13 (multiple volumes and contributors).  Available Alaska Dep. Fish Game, 333 Raspberry Road, Anchorage, AK  99518.  Day, R. H., T. J. Early, and E. P. Knudson.  1978.  Mammals and non-migratory birds, p. 66-79.  In: A bird and mammal survey of the west-central Aleutians-summer 1977.  Aleutian Islands National Wildlife Refuge Annual Report, Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.  Day, R. H., T. J. Early, and E. P. Knudson.  1979.  Marine mammals, p. 47-87.  In: Results of a marine bird and mammal survey of the western Aleutian Islands-summer 1978.  Aleutian Islands National Wildlife Refuge Annual Report,  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.  Elliot, H.W.  1882.  The sea lion, (Eumetopias stelleri).  In: A monograph of the seal-islands of Alaska.  U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries Spec. Bull., Govt. Printing Office, Washington D.C.  LGL Research Associates.  1992.  Steller sea lion stock study.  Report to the National Marine Mammal Laboratory, contract BSG #1, 6 p.  Available LGL Alaska Research Associates, 505 N. Lights Blvd., Anchorage AK 99503.  Loughlin, T. R.  1991.  Marine mammals and fisheries in Alaska, p.44-47 In: Report of the Benguela Ecology Programme workshop on seal-fishery biological interactions.  Report of the Benguela Ecology Program, South Africa.  No. 22.  Loughlin, T. R.  1993.  Status and pelagic distribution of otariid pinnipeds in the Bering Sea during winter.  OCS study, MMS 93-0026.  58 p.  Lowry, L. F.  1983.  A conceptual assessment of biological interactions among marine mammals and commercial fisheries  in the Bering Sea, p. 101-117.  In: Proceedings of the workshop on biological interactions among marine mammals and commercial fisheries in Southeast Bering Sea, October 18-21, 1983, Anchorage, Alaska.  Alaska Sea Grant Rep. 84-1.  Available Alaska Sea Grant College Program, University of Alaska, 590 University Ave. Suite 102, Fairbanks AK  99709.  MacDonald, R., and M. McClaran.  2000.  Abundance and distribution of marine mammals in Bristol Bay and southern Kuskokwim Bay, Alaska, 1999.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Rogiak National Wildlife Refuge, PO Box 270, Dillingham, AK.  52 p.   Mathews, E. A.  1993.  Opportunistic counts of Northern sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve.  Submitted to Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, P.O. Box 140, Gustavus, Alaska 99826, 7 p.  McAlister, W. B., and M. A. Perez.  1976.  Ecosystem dynamics, birds and marine mammals.  Part I: Preliminary estimates of pinniped-finfish relationships in the Bering Sea. Final report for Environmental Assessment of the Alaskan Continental Shelf, RU-77.  U.S. Dep. Commer., Northwest Fisheries Center.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115  Meehan, J. P.  1997.  Wildlife surveys at Eareckson Air Station, Shemya Island, Alaska-Winter 1996/1997.  Report to Dep. of Defense Legacy project 1279, 42 p.  U.S. Air Force, Pacific Air Forces, 611th Air Support Group, 611th Civil Engineer Squadron/Environmental Flight, 6900 9th St., Suite 360, Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska 99506-2270.  Meehan, J. P., and M. A. Krom.  1997.  Wildlife surveys at Eareckson Air Station, Shemya Island, Alaska-Winter 1995/1996. Report to U.S. Air Force work order 85252, 41 p.  U.S. Air Force, Pacific Air Forces, 611th Air Support Group, 611th Civil Engineer Squadron/Environmental Flight, 6900 9th St., Suite 360, Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska 99506-2270.  National Marine Fisheries Service.  1980.  A report based on the workshop on stock assessment and incidental take of marine  mammals involved in commercial fishing operations.  Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center, Seattle. Jan. 30-31 and  Feb. 1, 1979, 49 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.  National Marine Fisheries Service.  1988.  Status review:  Northern (Steller) sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska.  Report to National Marine Fisheries Service, 43 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.  Nelson, E. W., and F. W. True.  1887.  Eumetopias stelleri,  p.266-267.  In: H. W. Henshaw (editor),  Natural history collections made in Alaska between 1877-1881, no. 111,  Arctic Series of Publications,  Gov. Print. Office.     Annotated Bibliography of Literature (1751-2000) - Steller Sea Lions in Alaska  40  Swain, U. G., and D. G. Calkins.  1997.  Foraging behavior of juvenile Steller sea lions in the northeastern Gulf of Alaska: diving and foraging trip duration, p. 91-106.  In: Steller sea lion recovery investigation in Alaska, 1995-1996. Alaska Dep. Fish and Game, NOAA contract report NA57FX0256.  Thomson, G. and T. Staudt.  1993.  Bird and mammal observations on Nizki and Alaid Islands, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, in 1992.  U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Rep.  AMNWR 93/12.  Adak, AK , 4 p.  Zadalsky, S.  1999.  Steller’s sea lions in Russia: a unique population in need of protection.  Russ. Conserv. News 18:25-27.  UNPUBLISHED  Brueggeman, J. J., G. A. Green, R. A. Grotefendt, and D. G. Chapman.  1987.  Aerial survey of endangered cetaceans and other marine mammals in the northwestern Gulf of Alaska and southeast Bering Sea.  Unpubl. rep., 162 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.  Calkins, D. G.  1982.  Pinniped investigations in southern Alaska.  Unpubl. rep., 15 p.  Available Alaska Dep. Fish Game, 333 Raspberry Road, Anchorage AK  99518.  Calkins, D. G.  1984.  Pinniped investigations in southern Alaska, 1983-1984.  Unpubl. rep., 19 p.  Available Alaska Dep. Fish Game, 333 Raspberry Road, Anchorage AK  98518.  Calkins, D.G., G.W. Pendleton, and K.W. Pitcher  1996.  Steller sea lion population composition in a declining versus an increasing population.  p. 19-24.  In: Steller sea lion recovery investigations in Alaska, 1992-1994 (Pitcher, K. W. compiler).  Wildlife Technical Bulletin No. 13 (multiple volumes and contributors).  Available Alaska Dep. Fish Game, 333 Raspberry Road, Anchorage, AK  99518.  Calkins, D.G., W. Taylor, J. Lewis, D. McAllister, D. Van den Bosch, T. Spraker, B. Heath, and  D. Bradley.  1994.  1993 Steller sea lion recovery investigations by ADF&G.  Available for Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 333 Raspberry Road, Anchorage, Alaska.  Unpubl. rep. 17p.  Chumbley, K., and R. L. Merrick.  1992.  Status of the Steller (Northern) sea lion population in the U.S. in 1992.  Unpubl. rep., 16 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle, WA 98115. Davis, R. W., T. M. Williams, M. A. Castellini, L. D. Rhea, T. R. Loughlin, and D. G. Calkins.  1991.  Steller sea lion study: assessment of health and body condition.  Unpubl. rep., 8 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA 98115.  Fiscus, C. H., and V. B. Scheffer.  1962.  Variety of food remains in stomach of Steller sea lions.  Unpubl. rep.,    13 p. Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA 98115.  Gearin, P. J.  1985.  Northern sea lion specimens collected aboard the R. V. Zakharova, Central Bering Sea, 1985: summary of stomach analysis and disposition of materials.  Unpubl. rep., 14 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA 98115.  Loughlin, T. R.  1997.  Trip report on Steller sea lion studies in the Aleutian Islands, June 6-28, 1997.  Unpubl. rep., 10 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle WA 98115.  Loughlin, T. R., and R. L. Merrick.  1987.  Summer 1987 Marmot Island sea lion study.  Unpubl. rep., 6 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.  Merrick, R. L.   1984.  Observations on the status of the northern sea lion population in Alaska.  Unpubl. rep., 83 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA  98115.  Merrick, R. L.  1997.  1997 Steller sea lion survey results.  Unpubl. rep. to H. Braham, 4 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA 98115.  Merrick, R. L., and J. M. Strick.  1994.  Report from March 1994 Alaska field study.  Unpubl. rep., 4 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA 98115.  Sease, J. L., J. Cesarone, C. Gburski.  1995.  1995 Field season on Marmot Island.  Unpubl. rep., 4 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA 98115.  Strick, J. M., and C. Hutchinson.  1993.  Summer 1993 Marmot Island Steller sea lion studies.  Unpubl. rep., 5 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle WA 98115.  Towell, R.  1994.  Sea lion morphometrics.  Unpubl. rep., 4 p.  Available Alaska Fish. Sci. Cent., 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle WA 98115.        

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.52383.1-0348128/manifest

Comment

Related Items