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Urban River Restoration and Planning in Latin America : A systematic review Mondragón-Monroy, Ruth; Honey-Rosés, Jordi Sep 30, 2016

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1	  	  Urban	  River	  Restoration	  and	  Planning	  in	  Latin	  America:	  A	  systematic	  review	  Water	  Planning	  Lab,	  School	  of	  Community	  and	  Regional	  Planning	  University	  of	  British	  Columbia	  September	  2016	  Ruth	  Mondragón-­‐Monroy1	  and	  Jordi	  Honey-­‐Rosés2	  1	  Environmental	  Engineering,	  University	  of	  the	  Americas	  Puebla,	  Puebla,	  Mexico.	  ruth.mondragonmy@udlap.mx	  	  2	  School	  of	  Community	  and	  Regional	  Planning,	  University	  of	  British	  Columbia,	  Vancouver,	  Canada.	  jhoney@mail.ubc.ca	  	  	  Abstract	  Urban	   rivers	   are	   opportunities	   for	   innovative	   urban	   planning,	   ecological	   restoration	   and	   the	   creation	   of	  valuable	  public	  space.	  Globally,	  there	  is	  interest	  in	  restoring	  urban	  rivers	  to	  meet	  environmental	  and	  public	  goals.	  We	   systematically	   search	   the	   academic	   and	   grey	   literatures	   in	   both	   English	   and	   Spanish	   to	   identify	  cases,	  trends,	  and	  examples	  of	  successful	  urban	  river	  restoration	  projects	  in	  Latin	  America.	  The	  search	  of	  the	  academic	   literature	   in	   English	   and	   Spanish	   revealed	   that	   the	   documentation	   on	   urban	   river	   restoration	  projects	   is	   sparse	   and	   dispersed.	   Peer-­‐reviewed	   articles	   presented	   specialized	   studies	   but	   not	  comprehensive	   descriptions	   of	   the	   restoration	   or	   planning	   process.	   The	   review	   of	   the	   grey	   literature	   in	  Spanish	  was	  much	  more	   successful	   in	   uncovering	   information	   about	   urban	   river	   restoration	   projects	   and	  plans,	  even	  though	  few	  official	  plans	  were	  found.	  Our	  systematic	  search	  of	  the	  academic	  literature	  identified	  20	   cases	   from	   7	   countries,	   while	   the	   grey	   literature	   search	   revealed	   45	   projects	   from	   12	   countries.	   We	  analyzed	  four	  cases	  in	  greater	  depth:	  The	  Bogotá,	  Medellín	  and	  Magdalena	  rivers	  in	  Colombia	  and	  the	  Rímac	  river	   in	   Peru.	   We	   found	   that	   corridors,	   parks	   and	   greenways	   are	   the	   most	   common	   elements	   of	   river	  restoration	  projects.	  The	  renewed	  spaces	  often	  include	  recreational	  areas	  and	  bicycle	  paths.	  The	  drivers	  that	  motivate	   the	   restoration	   projects	   are	   diverse.	   The	   Magdalena	   river	   project	   aims	   to	   improve	   fluvial	  transportation,	   commerce	   and	   trade	   along	   the	   river.	   The	   Bogotá	   river	   project	   intends	   to	   restore	   the	  environmental	   quality	   and	   landscape	   as	   a	   result	   of	   a	   public	   and	   legal	   claim.	   The	  Medellín	   project	   aims	   to	  create	   new	  public	   space	   and	   connect	  west-­‐east	   neighborhoods	   for	   solving	   segregation.	   Finally,	   the	   Rímac	  river	   project	   was	   motivated	   by	   transportation	   interests	   and	   sought	   to	   provide	   Lima	   with	   green	   spaces;	  however,	   the	   case	   was	   cancelled	   and	   led	   to	   controversy.	   Ultimately,	   we	   uncovered	   fewer	   urban	   river	  restoration	  plans	  than	  we	  anticipated.	  Nevertheless,	  the	  potential	  remains	  large,	  and	  in	  the	  next	  decade,	  we	  foresee	  that	  there	  will	  be	  a	  new	  wave	  of	  urban	  river	  restoration	  planning	  in	  Latin	  America	  that	  will	  improve	  the	  quality	  of	  life	  for	  residents,	  and	  the	  environmental	  conditions	  of	  urban	  rivers.	  	  	  Keywords:	  Bogota,	  ecological	  restoration,	  flooding,	  landscape,	  Latin	  America,	  Magdalena,	  Medellin,	  public	  space,	  Rimac,	  rivers,	  river	  restoration,	  urban	  planning	  	  Palabras	  Clave:	  América	  latina,	  Bogotá,	  espacio	  público,	  inundaciones,	  Magdalena,	  Medellín,	  planeación	  urbana,	  restauración	  de	  ríos	  urbanos,	  restauración	  ecológica,	  Rímac	   	  2	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  Acknowledgements	  This	  research	  was	  funded	  through	  the	  MITACS	  Globalink	  program.	  The	  authors	  thank	  Claudio	  Pareja	  for	  his	   assistance	  during	   the	   research	  process,	  Hector	  Ulises	   Sanchez	   for	  providing	   comments	  on	  earlier	  drafts,	  and	  Lilia	  Julieta	  Valle	  Manilla	  for	  providing	  acess	  to	  useful	  sources	  and	  databases.	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  3	  	  1. Introduction Urban	   rivers	   are	   critical	   natural	   features	   that	   serve	   to	   connect	   society	   and	   nature	   in	   urban	   settlements.	  Urban	  rivers	  may	  be	  used	  as	  corridors	  that	  connect	  neighborhoods,	  move	  water,	  transport	  goods,	  or	  provide	  enhanced	  habitat	  for	  biodiversity.	  Rivers	  may	  also	  help	  preserve	  the	  historical	  and	  cultural	  elements	  of	  a	  city	  and	  drive	  the	  local	  economy.	  But	  urban	  rivers	  can	  also	  divide	  a	  city,	  collect	  waste,	  be	  a	  source	  of	  bad	  odors,	  and	  be	  perceived	  as	  a	  flooding	  threat.	  When	  the	  conditions	  of	  urban	  rivers	  deteriorate,	  they	  tend	  to	  become	  polluted,	  impaired,	  and	  ignored	  or	  forgotten.	  Yet	  urban	  rivers	  remain	  opportunities	  for	  innovative	  urban	  planning,	  ecological	  restoration	  and	  the	  creation	  of	  valuable	  public	  space.	  Given	  the	  potential	  that	  exist	  in	  most	  urban	  rivers,	  there	  is	  considerable	  interest	  in	  re-­‐thinking	   these	   spaces	   to	   provide	  public	   benefits,	   ecological	   services	   and	   improved	  water	  management.	  Urban	  river	  restoration	  projects	  confront	  multiple	  complexities,	  tradeoffs	  and	  competing	  needs,	  which	  can	  make	  planning	  for	  urban	  rivers	  especially	  difficult	  (Wohl	  et	  al.,	  2005).	  	  Case	  comparisons	  of	  urban	  river	  restoration	  projects	  can	  help	  municipal	  planners,	  engineers	  or	  architects	  in	  their	  own	  design	  of	  a	  river	  restoration	  project.	  Prominski	  and	  colleagues	  (2012)	  provide	  an	  exhaustive	  review	  of	   urban	   river	   restoration	   projects	   in	   Europe,	   with	   a	   focus	   on	   projects	   in	   Germany	   and	   northern	   Europe	  (Prominski,	  Stokman,	  Stimberg,	  &	  Zeller,	  2012).	  Through	  the	  examination	  of	  nearly	  one	  hundred	  restoration	  projects,	   they	   develop	   a	   typology	   of	   projects	   and	   intervention	   strategies	   to	   address	   common	   restoration	  challenges	   in	  urban	  environments.	   In	  this	  way,	  they	  use	  a	  cross	  case	  comparison	  to	  contribute	  to	  both	  the	  theory	  and	  practice	  of	  urban	  river	  restoration.	  River	  restoration	  cases	  compilations	  have	  also	  been	  created	  for	   the	   U.S:	   such	   as	   the	   one	   presented	   by	   Bernhardt	   et	   al.	   (2005)	   where	   a	   database	   was	   built	   from	   a	  metadata	  classification	  of	  projects,	  and	  the	  one	  where	  Jenkinson	  and	  collegues	  (2006)	  present	  an	  available	  international	  and	  U.S.	  databases	  for	  locating	  stream	  restoration	  projects.	  In	   Latin	   America,	   there	   are	   fewer	   resources	   documenting	   experiences	   in	   urban	   river	   restoration.	  International	  organizations	  and	  initiatives,	  as	  UNWater,	  present	  few	  cases	  in	  Latin	  America	  as	  part	  of	  a	  river	  restoration	  network.	  Another	  example	   is	   the	  “Seeds	  of	  a	  Latin	  Network	  on	  Fluvial	  and	  Aquatic	  Ecosystems	  Restoration”	   (SERELAREFA)	   project,	   created	   to	   foster	   the	   river	   restoration	   while	   providing	   fundamental	  conceptual,	   methodological	   and	   operational	   framework	   (SERELAREFA,	   2011).	   They	   present	   useful	  information	   in	   regards	   legislation,	   methodologies	   and	   experiences.	   However,	   the	   SERELAREFA	   database	  focuses	  on	  the	  ecological	  components	  of	  fluvial	  restoration,	  rather	  than	  the	  planning	  process	  or	  projects	  that	  have	   been	   executed.	   As	   a	   result,	   there	   is	   no	   complete	   and	   exhaustive	   review	   of	   urban	   river	   restoration	  projects	   in	  Latin	  America.	   	  This	  paper	  aims	   to	   fill	   this	  gap,	  by	  providing	  a	   systematic	   review	  of	  urban	   river	  restoration	  projects	  in	  Latin	  America.	   We	  conducted	  a	  systematic	  review	  in	  order	  to	  generate	  results	  that	  are	  reliable,	  traceable	  and	  replicable.	  A	  systematic	   review	   is	   a	   scientific	   tool	   to	   appraise,	   summarize	   and	   communicate	   results	   of	   unmanageable	  quantities	  of	  research	  (Hussain,	  Hussain,	  Bhandari,	  &	  Morshed,	  2011).	  Is	  important	  to	  take	  advantage	  of	  the	  existing	   available	   information	   and	   practices	   in	   river	   restoration	   to	   measure	   outcomes	   and	   learn	   from	  successes	  and	  failures.	  We	  anticipate	  that	  practitioners,	  decision-­‐makers,	  professional	  planner	  or	  citizen	  may	  be	  able	  to	  use	  this	  study	  to	  contextualize	  their	  own	  river	  restoration	  efforts	  in	  Latin	  America.	  	  To	  that	  end,	  4	  	  this	  systematic	  review	  can	  be	  a	  basis	  or	  background	  for	  further	  specialized	  studies	  on	  urban	  rivers	  and	  urban	  planning.	  	  2. Method: Systematic Review We	   systematically	   reviewed	   the	   academic	   and	   grey	   literature	   to	   identify	   cases	   of	   urban	   river	   restoration	  plans	  and	  projects	  in	  Latin	  America.	  Our	  methodology	  involves	  4	  stages:	  the	  search,	  narrowing	  and	  filtering,	  the	  selection	  of	  cases	  and	  the	  analysis	  of	  cases.	  In	  the	  search	  stage,	  we	  reviewed	  three	  sources	  of	  literature:	  first,	   the	   academic	   literature	   in	   English;	   second,	   the	   academic	   literature	   in	   Spanish;	   and	   third,	   the	   grey	  literature	  in	  Spanish.	  By	  searching	  in	  both	  languages	  we	  aimed	  to	  capture	  most	  of	  the	  rivers	  that	  are	  being	  restored	   or	   planned	   to	   be	   restored	   in	   the	   Latin	   American	   region.	   While	   the	   English	   sources	   gave	   us	   an	  international	  overview	  the	  Spanish	  documentation	  provided	  more	  details	  on	  the	  local	  projects.	  Because	  we	  anticipated	  that	  many	  urban	  river	  restoration	  projects	  would	  not	  be	  described	  in	  the	  academic	  literature,	  we	  also	  searched	  the	  grey	  literature	  using	  Google’s	  online	  search	  platform.	  We	  restricted	  our	  search	  results	  to	  hits	  from	  2000	  to	  2016	  in	  order	  to	  focus	  on	  the	  most	  recent	  cases	  and	  current	  trends.	  In	  the	  second	  stage,	  we	  narrowed	  the	  searches	  with	  a	  first	  filter	  by	  titles	  and	  abstracts	  for	  both	  the	  academic	  and	  grey	  literature.	  Further,	   in	  order	  to	  find	  only	  Latin	  American	  cases	  related	  to	  rivers	  a	  second	  filter	  was	  applied	  for	  the	  two	  academic	   literatures	  by	  categorizing	  the	  articles´	  content	   into	  specific	  river	  restoration	  actions.	  	  In	  the	  third	  stage,	  we	  identified	  cases	  by	  their	  frequency	  of	  their	  appearance	  in	  our	  search	  results	  and	  the	  ones	  with	  a	  high	  frequency	  were	  selected.	  In	  the	  fourth	  stage,	  we	  analyzed	  the	  selected	  cases.	  	  	  2.1 Search We	  searched	   the	  English	   academic	   literature	  on	   June	  8th	   and	  9th,	   2016,	  using	   six	   search	   combinations:	   (1)	  “river	   restoration”	   AND	   “best	   practices”	   OR	   “case	   study”;	   (2)	   “river	   restoration”	   AND	   “plan”;	   (3)	   “river	  restoration	   plan”;	   (4)	   “river”	   AND	   “urban	   planning”;	   (5)	   “river”	   AND	   “urban”	  AND	   “plan”;	   (6)	   “river”	   AND	  “public	   space”.	  We	   separately	   introduced	   these	   keywords	   in	   nine	  databases:	  Web	  of	   Science,	   CAB	  Direct,	  Avery	   Index	   to	   Architectural	   Periodicals,	   Art	   Full	   Text,	   PAIS	   index,	   Urban	   Studies	   Abstracts,	   Worldwide	  Political	  Science	  Abstracts,	  Engineering	  Village	  and	  GreenFILE	  (Appendix	  1).	  We	  performed	  the	  search	  of	  the	  Spanish	  academic	  literature	  between	  June	  13th	  and	  15th,	  2016,	  and	  used	  five	  search	  combinations:	  (1)	  (“recuperación”	  AND	  “río”)	  OR	  (“restauración”	  AND	  “río”)	  OR	  (“rehabilitación”	  AND	  “río”)	  OR	  (“rescate”	  AND	  “río”);	  (2)	  “río”	  AND	  “plan”	  AND	  “urbano”;	  (3)	  “río”	  AND	  “planeación	  urbana”;	  (4)	  (“fluvial”	  OR	  “río”)	  AND	  (“parque”	  OR	  “paseo”	  OR	  “corredor”);	  (5)	  “recuperación	  del	  río”.	  We	  searched	  seven	  databases	  with	  published	  academic	  literature	  in	  Spanish:	  Fuente	  Academica	  Premier,	  Hospitality	  &	  Tourism	  Complete,	   PRISMA	  database,	  Web	  of	   Science,	  OECD	  and	  Redalyc	   (Appendix	  2).	   For	   this	   last	   database,	   the	  searches	  that	  resulted	  in	  more	  than	  4,000	  hits	  were	  not	  inspected.	  	  The	  Spanish	  grey	  literature	  search	  was	  performed	  on	  June	  16th,	  2016	  with	  only	  one	  search	  combination;	  this	  way	  we	  would	  have	  a	  manageable	  amount	  of	  results.	  The	  combination	  was	  chosen	  from	  the	  ones	  that	  gave	  the	  best	  results	  in	  the	  Spanish	  academic	  literature	  and	  from	  adding	  the	  words	  “plan”	  and	  “proyecto”	  in	  our	  intention	  to	  capture	  official	  plans.	  If	  during	  the	  search	  a	  file	  that	  provided	  the	  master	  plan	  for	  a	  project	  was	  found,	  it	  was	  downloaded.	  5	  	  2.2 Narrowing In	  the	  academic	  literature,	  we	  first	  filtered	  based	  on	  title	  and	  abstract,	  and	  selected	  a	  subset	  of	  articles	  that	  seemed	  to	  be	  related	  with	  (i)	  a	  Latin	  American	  river	  and	  (ii)	  a	  river	  restoration	  project	  or	  activity.	  Following	  this	  initial	  filter,	  we	  applied	  a	  second	  filter	  to	  narrow	  the	  studies	  in	  our	  review.	  An	  exploration	  of	  each	   article’s	   content	   led	   us	   to	   identify	   if	   they	   proposed	   a	   specific	   river	   restoration	   action.	   Articles	  were	  categorized	  according	  its	  restoration	  action	  proposal	   in:	  flooding,	   infrastructure,	  public	  space,	  ecological	  or	  water	  quality	  (Table	  1).	  Those	  that	  did	  not	  fit	  with	  our	  criteria	  were	  excluded.	  With	  this	  our	  final	  academic	  literature	  sample,	  in	  English	  and	  Spanish,	  was	  established.	  	  Table	  1.	  River	  restoration	  actions	  categories	  CATEGORY	   DESCRIPTION	  FLOODING	   Presents	   a	   study	   pertaining	   to	   flooding	   or	   risk	   that	   conducted	   a	   river	  restoration	  measure	  INFRASTRUCTURE	   Suggest	   a	   technical	   or	   engineering	   intervention	   in	   the	   river´s	   space,	  surrounding	  or	  geometry	  (channels,	  dams,	  bridges)	  PUBLIC	   SPACE	   &	  LANDSCAPE	  Presents	  a	  re-­‐design	  of	  the	  river´s	   landscape	  or	  recommendation	  for	  the	  adaptation	  of	  the	  river´s	  surrounding	  spaces	  for	  recreational	  uses	  ECOLOGICAL	   Suggests	  an	  action	  for	  restoring	  the	  river´s	  natural	  balance,	  vegetation	  or	  fauna	  conservation	  WATER	  QUALITY	   Recommends	  a	  measure	  for	  improving	  a	  river´s	  water	  quality	  	  Independently,	  we	  examined	  the	  grey	   literature	  search	  results	  from	  Google.	  A	  record	  was	  created	  for	  only	  the	  rivers	  of	  Latin	  America	  that	  appeared	  during	  the	  search.	  This	  record	  included	  the	  name	  of	  the	  river,	  the	  country	  and	  the	  frequency	  in	  which	  they	  were	  mentioned.	  In	  this	  way	  we	  pretended	  to	  keep	  a	  record	  of	  the	  geographical	  location	  of	  rivers,	  for	  which	  a	  project	  is	  presented	  or	  proposed.	  2.3 Selection of cases A	  case,	  in	  our	  study,	  is	  conceived	  as	  a	  particular	  river	  that	  is	  located	  in	  the	  Latin	  America	  region	  and	  in	  which	  governmental,	  private	  or	  public	  interests	  are	  creating	  river	  restoration	  actions	  and	  plans.	  The	  frequencies	  in	  search	   results	   were	   important	   for	   identifying	   cases	   that	   are	   more	   mentioned	   or	   more	   studied.	   We	  categorized	  each	  potential	  case	  into	  three	  levels:	  high	  frequency,	  medium	  frequency,	  and	  low	  frequency.	  	  The	   frequency	   criteria	   were	   used	   in	   both	   academic	   and	   grey	   literature	   reviews	   but	   with	   different	  specifications	  (Table	  2).	  The	  cases	  which	  had	  a	  high	  frequency	  were	  selected	  for	  a	  further	  analysis;	  with	  the	  hope	  of	  selecting	  cases	  appearing	  in	  both	  the	  academic	  and	  grey	  literature.	  	  Table	  2.	  Frequency	  definition	  for	  academic	  review	  FREQUENCY	   SEARCH	   FREQUENCY	   FOR	  ACADEMIC	  REVIEW	  SEARCH	  FREQUENCY	  FOR	  GREY	  LITERATURE	  REVIEW	  HIGH	   Appeared	  3	  or	  more	  times	   Appeared	  more	  than	  5	  times	  MEDIUM	   Appeared	  2	  times	   Appeared	  3	  to	  5	  times	  LOW	   Appeared	  once	  	   Appeared	  once	  or	  twice	  	  	  6	  	  2.4 Cases analysis For	   each	   of	   the	   selected	   cases,	   we	   reviewed	   all	   the	   information	   that	   came	   up	   during	   our	   searches.	   We	  identified	  data	  and	  information	  that	  described	  a	  case	  on	  its	  generality	  and	  review	  them	  in	  detail.	  Every	  case	  is	  structured	  in	  the	  same	  way	  and	  presents	  the	  following	  information:	  the	  context	  of	  the	  city	  and	  the	  river´s	  description,	  details	  and	  specifications	  of	  the	  proposed	  project	  or	  projects,	  and	  most	  relevant	  information	  in	  terms	  of	  the	  project´s	  status	  or	  performance.	  	  3. Results 3.1 Search The	   search	   in	   the	   academic	   English	   literature	   revealed	   a	   total	   of	   3,398	   articles	   with	   duplicates.	   	   A	   high	  number	   of	   Brazilian	   articles	   appeared	   in	   our	   searches	   and	   they	   might	   be	   due	   to	   language	   use.	   Brazilian	  academic	  articles	  were	  found	  to	  be	  written	  in	  Portuguese	  with	  English	  abstracts,	  while	  some	  of	  them	  were	  written	   in	  English	  but	  not	   in	  Spanish.	  For	   this	   search	  we	  can	  highlight	   that	   the	   fourth	  search	  combination,	  “river”	  AND	  “urban	  planning”,	  was	  the	  most	  effective	  one	  for	  gathering	  river	  restoration	  studies.	  	  In	   the	   Spanish	   academic	   literature,	  we	   examined	   a	   total	   of	   8,165	   articles	  with	   duplicates.	   The	   number	   of	  results	   and	   the	   variety	   of	   studies	   in	   different	   countries	   grew	   significantly	   with	   the	   use	   of	   Spanish	   search	  combinations.	  This	  means,	  Latin	  America	   information	  appears	  more	   in	  Spanish	   than	   in	  English	  sources.	   	   In	  this	  search,	  we	  found	  that	  when	  using	  the	  first	  combination:	  (“recuperación”	  AND	  “río”)	  OR	  (“restauración”	  AND	   “río”)	  OR	   (“rehabilitación”	   AND	   “río”)	  OR	   (“rescate”	   AND	   “río”),	   provided	   us	  with	   the	  most	   relevant	  articles	   related	   to	   river	   restoration.	  The	  word	   “recuperación”	  appeared	   to	  be	   the	  most	   common	   in	  article	  titles.	  	  For	  the	  academic	  literature,	  the	  idea	  of	  performing	  the	  search	  in	  two	  languages	  was	  successful	  because	  we	  were	  able	   to	  gather	   the	  Brazilian	  projects	   that	  did	  not	  appeared	   in	   the	  Spanish	  academic	   search.	   In	  other	  words,	  we	  could	  identify	  studies	  all	  around	  the	  region.	  Even	  so,	  in	  the	  academic	  literature	  we	  were	  not	  able	  to	  find	  any	  official	  plans.	  	  For	   the	   grey	   literature,	   as	   explained	   in	   the	   method,	   we	   attempted	   only	   one	   search	   combination.	   It	   was	  constructed	   using	   the	   word	   “recuperación”	   AND	   “río”	   that	   worked	   the	   best	   in	   the	   Spanish	   academic	  literature	   search	   plus	   the	  words	   “plan”	   and	   “proyecto”,	   these	  words	  were	   added	  with	   the	   aim	   of	   finding	  specific	  plans.	  Our	  search	  revealed	  260	  results	  which	  included	  information	  about	  projects	  in	  Latin	  America,	  Spain	   and	   other	   countries.	   The	   used	   combination	   was:	   ((“recuperación	   del	   río”	   AND	   “plan”)	   OR	  (“recuperación	  del	  río”	  AND	  “proyecto”)).	  Is	  important	  to	  mention	  that	  if	  no	  date	  specification	  was	  given	  the	  results	  were	  around	  300,000.	  	  3.2 Narrowing The	  initial	  filter	  for	  the	  academic	  literature,	  generated	  66	  academic	  references	  after	  duplicates,	  38	  from	  the	  English	  search	  and	  28	  from	  the	  Spanish	  search.	  From	  the	  total	  38	  in	  the	  English	  search,	  24	  articles	  described	  studies	  in	  Brazil	  and	  the	  rest	  in	  Argentina,	  Chile,	  Colombia,	  Cuba,	  Mexico	  and	  Uruguay.	  	  In	  comparison	  with	  the	  English	  search,	  the	  Spanish	  search	  had	  only	  one	  article	  from	  Brazil.	  7	  	  After	  the	  second	  filter,	  keeping	  only	  the	  articles	  that	  present	  a	  specific	  river	  restoration	  action,	  we	  kept	  and	  categorized	  22	  articles.	  They	  were	  classified	  based	  on	  the	  type	  of	  information	  they	  present	  in	  their	  content	  (Table	  3).	  8	  	  	  Table	  3.	  Academic	  literature	  categorized	  river	  restoration	  actions	  ARTICLE	  TITLE	   COUNTRY	   CITY	   RIVER	  FLOODING	  INFRASTRUCTURE	  PUBLIC	  SPACE	  &	  LANDSCAPE	  ECOLOGICAL	  WATER	  QUALITY	  SELECTION	  OF	  SUSTAINABLE	  PROJECTS	  FOR	  FLOODPLAIN	  RESTORATION	  AND	  URBAN	  WASTEWATER	  MANAGEMENT	  AT	  THE	  LOWER	  CHUBUT	  RIVER	  VALLEY	  (ARGENTINA)	  (ARES	  &	  SERRA,	  2008)	  Argentina	   N/S	   Chubut	   x	   x	   	    x	  A	  ORILLAS	  DEL	  RÍO.	  LA	  RELACIÓN	  PUERTO-­‐CIUDAD	  EN	  LA	  TRANSFORMACIÓN	  URBANA	  DE	  ROSARIO	  (C.	  GALIMBERTI,	  2015)	   Argentina	   Rosario	   Paraná	  	    x	   	    LA	  REINVENCIÓN	  DEL	  RÍO	  DESDE	  LO	  RECREATIVO.	  LA	  TRANSFORMACIÓN	  DE	  LA	  RIBERA	  METROPOLITANA	  DE	  ROSARIO	  (ARGENTINA)	  DESDE	  UNA	  MIRADA	  SOBRE	  EL	  ESPACIO	  PÚBLICO	  Y	  LAS	  HUELLAS	  PATRIMONIALES	  (C.	  I.	  GALIMBERTI,	  2014)	   Argentina	   Rosario	   Paraná	  	   x	   x	   	    FLOOD	  RISK	  ASSESSMENT	  AND	  MANAGEMENT:	  A	  CASE	  STUDY	  IN	  RIO	  DE	  JANEIRO	  (M	  G	  MIGUEZ,	  VERÓL,	  &	  BIANCHINI,	  2013)	   Brazil	   Rio	  de	  Janeiro	   Dona	  Eugenia	   x	   x	   x	   	   x	  URBAN	  FLOODS	  IN	  LOWLANDS—LEVEE	  SYSTEMS,	  UNPLANNED	  URBAN	  GROWTH	  AND	  RIVER	  RESTORATION	  ALTERNATIVE:	  A	  CASE	  STUDY	  IN	  BRAZIL	  (GOMES,	  VERÓL,	  MARTINS,	  &	  MOURA,	  2015)	  Brazil	   Rio	  de	  Janeiro	   Iguacu-­‐Sarapuí	  River	  Basin/	  Botas	   x	   x	   x	   x	   	  MULTI-­‐CRITERIA	  SPATIAL	  DECISION	  ANALYSIS	  FOR	  DEMARCATION	  OF	  GREENWAY:	  A	  CASE	  STUDY	  OF	  THE	  CITY	  OF	  RIO	  CLARO,	  SAO	  PAULO,	  BRAZIL	  (GIORDANO	  &	  SETTI,	  2008)	  Brazil	   Sao	  Paulo	   Corumbataí	  	    x	   x	   x	  IMPLEMENTATION	  OF	  RIVERSIDE	  PARKS	  IN	  THE	  CITY	  OF	  SÃO	  PAULO	  –	  PROGRESS	  AND	  CONSTRAINTS	  (SILVA-­‐SÁNCHEZ	  &	  JACOBI,	  2014)	   Brazil	   Sao	  Paulo	   N/S	  	    x	   	    INNOVATION	  IN	  ENVIRONMENTAL	  GOVERNANCE	  IN	  THE	  CITY	  OF	  SÃO	  PAULO:	  IMPLEMENTATION	  OF	  LINEAR	  PARKS	  (SILVA-­‐SANCHEZ	  &	  JACOBI,	  2013)	  Brazil	   Sao	  Paulo	   Guarapiranga	  Basin	  	   x	   x	   	    PLANNING	  AND	  DESIGN	  OF	  URBAN	  FLOOD	  CONTROL	  MEASURES:	  ASSESSING	  EFFECTS	  COMBINATION	  (MARCELO	  GOMES	  MIGUEZ,	  MASCARENHAS,	  DE	  MAGALHÃES,	  &	  D’ALTERIO,	  2009)	  Brazil	   Rio	  de	  Janeiro	   Joana	   x	   x	   x	   x	   	  COMMUNITY	  PARTICIPATION	  IN	  FLOOD	  MAPPING	  IN	  THE	  AMAZON	  THROUGH	  INTERDISCIPLINARY	  METHODS	  (NOGUEIRA	  DE	  ANDRADE	  &	  SZLAFSZTEIN,	  2015)	   Brazil	   Santarém	   Amazon/	  Tapajós	   x	   	      9	  	  ARTICLE	  TITLE	   COUNTRY	   CITY	   RIVER	  FLOODING	  INFRASTRUCTURE	  PUBLIC	  SPACE	  &	  LANDSCAPE	  ECOLOGICAL	  WATER	  QUALITY	  	  CONTIGUOUS	  URBAN	  RIVERS	  SHOULD	  NOT	  BE	  NECESSARILY	  SUBMITTED	  TO	  THE	  SAME	  MANAGEMENT	  PLAN:	  THE	  CASE	  OF	  TIETÊ	  AND	  PINHEIROS	  RIVERS	  (SÃO	  PAULO-­‐BRAZIL)	  (CUNHA	  ET	  AL.,	  2011)	  Brazil	   Sao	  Paulo	   Tiete/	  Pinheiros	  	      x	  PRIORITY	  TARGETS	  FOR	  ENVIRONMENTAL	  RESEARCH	  IN	  THE	  SINOS	  RIVER	  BASIN	  (SPILKI	  &	  TUNDISI,	  2010)	   Brazil	  Rio	  Grande	  do	  Sul	   Sinos	   	     x	   x	  REC	  THE	  POPULAR	  STRUGGLE	  (MONTEIRO	  &	  CARVALHO,	  2014)	   Brazil	   Recife	   Capibaribe	  	   x	   x	   	   x	  PASEO	  RIBEREÑO	  RÍO	  HUASCO	  (LOBIANO	  &	  ARAYA,	  2009)	   Chile	   Vallenar	   Huasco	   	    x	   	    PROYECTO	  INTEGRAL	  MARINA	  DEL	  SOL	  S.A.	  (UNIVERSIDAD	  DEL	  BIO-­‐BIO,	  2008)	   Chile	   Arauco	   Andalién	   x	   x	   	     	  INFRAESTRUCTURA	  VERDE,	  SERVICIOS	  ECOSISTÉMICOS	  Y	  SUS	  APORTES	  PARA	  ENFRENTAR	  EL	  CAMBIO	  CLIMÁTICO	  EN	  CIUDADES:	  EL	  CASO	  DEL	  CORREDOR	  RIBEREÑO	  DEL	  RÍO	  MAPOCHO	  EN	  SANTIAGO	  DE	  CHILE	  (A.	  E.	  VÁSQUEZ,	  2016)	   Chile	   Santiago	   Mapocho	  	    x	   	    EL	  ESPACIO	  PÚBLICO	  DE	  CONCEPCIÓN.	  SU	  RELACIÓN	  CON	  LOS	  PLANES	  REGULADORES	  URBANOS	  (1940-­‐2004)	  (PÉREZ	  &	  ESPINOZA,	  2006)	   Chile	   Concepcion	   Bío	  Bío	  	    x	   	    ESPACIO	  PÚBLICO,	  RESIGNIFICACIÓN	  Y	  NEOLIBERIZACIÓN	  EN	  CALI	  (URIBE	  &	  FRANCO,	  2013)	   Colombia	   Cali	   Cali	  	    x	   	    IMPACTO	  DE	  OBRAS	  DE	  PROTECCIÓN	  CONTRA	  INUNDACIONES	  EN	  LA	  HIDRODINÁMICA	  DEL	  RIO	  CAUCA	  TRAMO	  LA	  BALSA-­‐	  LA	  VIRGINIA	  (RAMÍREZ,	  BOCANEGRA,	  &	  SANDOVAL,	  2006)	  Colombia	   Cali	   Cauca	   x	   x	   	     BASES	  PARA	  EL	  MANEJO	  INTEGRADO	  DEL	  RÍO	  MARTÍN	  PÉREZ	  (I.	  TORRES	  &	  MARTÍN,	  2005)	  Cuba	   La	  Habana	   Martín	  Perez	  	    x	   x	   x	  ESTRATEGIA	  PARA	  LA	  CREACIÓN	  DEL	  CORREDOR	  TURÍSTICO	  FLUVIAL	  NACAJUCA-­‐TECOLUTA	  (VEGA,	  2015)	   Mexico	   Tabasco	   Nacajuca-­‐tecoluta	  	    x	   x	   	  ESTRATEGIAS	  DE	  INTERVENCIÓN	  EN	  ÁREAS	  URBANAS	  INUNDABLES:	  EL	  CASO	  BELLA	  UNIÓN,	  URUGUAY	  (PIPERNO	  &	  SIERRA,	  2013)	   Uruguay	   Bella	  Union	   Uruguay	   x	   	   x	   	    *N/S	  (not	  specified	  in	  the	  text)	  10	  	  Within	  this	  review,	  it	  was	  clear	  that	  river	  restoration	  efforts	  are	  not	  new	  in	  Latin	  America,	  and	  they	  can	   be	   traced	   back	   to	   the	   1970s	   and	   1980s	   when	   there	   was	   a	   claim	   among	   the	   population	   of	  Rosario	  in	  Argentina	  to	  stop	  giving	  the	  back	  to	  the	  Paraná	  river	  (Galimberti,	  2014).	  Silva-­‐Sanchez	  &	  Jacobi	   (2013)	   mentions	   that	   projects	   for	   environmental	   recovery	   included	   water	   and	   sewage	  collection	   systems;	   as	   well	   as	   urbanization	   projects,	   housing	   construction	   and	   resettlement	  programs	  since	  1990s.	  Another	  example	   is	   the	  Paseo	  ribereño	  río	  Huasco,	  which	  was	  product	  of	  the	  concern	  of	  architects	  to	  create	  multifunctional	  public	  spaces,	  the	  project	  was	  divided	  in	  several	  stages	  developed	  between	  1994	  and	  2009	  (Lobiano	  &	  Araya,	  2009).	  	  The	   reviewed	   articles	   seek	   to	   evaluate,	   support	   or	   add	   to	   past	   and	   current	   projects	   but	   official	  plans	  were	  not	  found	  during	  the	  academic	  search.	  This	  might	  be	  because	  urban	  plans	  are	  written	  by	  governments	  and	  are	  not	  published	  in	  academic	  journals.	  Urban	  plans	  exist	  all	  around	  in	  Latin	  America	  and	  even	  without	  uncovering	  a	  document	  itself,	  in	  our	  review	  7	  from	  22	  articles	  make	  a	  clear	  allusion	  to	  a	  specific	  local	  plan.	  In	  regard	  to	  the	  architectural	  designs,	  even	  that	  we	  searched	  on	  specialized	  architectural	  databases	  we	  were	  not	  able	   to	  uncover	  a	  design	  project	  and	  maybe	  they	  might	  be	  published	  in	  different	  databases	  that	  the	  consulted	  in	  our	  review.	  	  	  The	  nature	  of	   the	  plans	  varied,	   some	  of	   them	  refer	   to	  governmental	  urban	  strategies,	  others	   to	  water	   management,	   flooding,	   sustainability	   and	   land	   use	   planning.	   For	   example,	   the	   Water	  Resources	  Master	  Plan	   for	   Iguaçu-­‐Sarapuí	   rivers	   focuses	  on	   flood	  control	   (M	  G	  Miguez,	  Veról,	  &	  Bianchini,	  2013),	  the	  Strategic	  Master	  Plan	  for	  the	  city	  of	  Sao	  Paulo	  establishes	  urban	  actions	  and	  interventions	  to	  recover	  the	  municipality´s	  water	  courses	  (Silva-­‐Sánchez	  &	  Jacobi,	  2014),	  and	  the	  Sectional	   North	   Shore	   Plan	   of	   the	   Bío	   Bío	   river	   (Plan	   Seccional	   Ribera	   Norte	   del	   río	   Bío	   Bío)	  proposes	  an	  interconnection	  of	  public	  spaces	  for	  restoring	  the	  river	  (Pérez	  &	  Espinoza,	  2006).	  	  Studies	  present	  how	  parks	  and	  greenways	  are	  used	  as	   river	   restoration	  actions.	  These	  elements	  address	   public	   space	   and	   landscape	   needs.	   The	   city	   of	   Sao	   Paulo	   created	   seventeen	   parks	   in	  different	  regions	  between	  2002	  and	  2012,	  promoting	  public	  spaces	  and	  reintegrating	  creeks	   into	  the	  city	  as	   social-­‐environmental	   systems	   (Silva-­‐Sánchez	  &	   Jacobi,	  2013).	  Giordano	  &	  Setti	   (2008)	  propose	  a	  greenway	  along	  the	  Coumbataí	  River	  in	  Brazil.	  And	  in	  Cali	  Colombia,	  linear	  parks	  are	  one	  of	  the	  three	  types	  of	  public	  spaces	  proposed	  in	  local	  plans	  (Uribe	  &	  Franco,	  2013).	  	  In	  general,	  parks	  and	  greenways	  include	  recreative	  areas	  and	  cycle	  paths.	  	  Santiago	  de	  Chile	  has	  a	  riparian	   corridor	   along	   the	  Mapocho	  River,	   and	   the	  project	   called	   “Mapocho	  42K”	  proposes	   the	  construction	  of	  a	  cycle	  path	   (Vásquez,	  2016).	  Monteiro	  &	  Carvalho	  (2014)	  presents	  a	  network	  of	  open	  spaces	  in	  the	  Capibaribe	  Park	  Project	  at	  Brazil	  with	  cycle	  and	  pedestrian	  paths.	  	  	  Urban	  parks	  and	  flooding	  parks	  appeared	  to	  be	  proposals	  for	  connecting	  rivers	  with	  society.	  M	  G	  Miguez	   et	   al.	   (2013)	   considered	   an	   urban	   park	   in	   the	  middle	   reach	   of	   the	   river	   for	   recreational	  purposes	  and	  to	  substitute	  the	  irregular	  occupation	  of	  river	  banks.	  Also,	   the	   suggestion	   for	   relocating	   population	   in	   flooding	   risk	   areas	   is	   highly	   considered	   during	  river	   restoration.	   A	   case	   in	   Sao	   Paulo	   show	   us	   a	   success	   in	   relocating	   the	   population	   that	   was	  concentrated	  on	  risky	  bank	  creeks	  areas.	  For	   the	   implementation	  of	   the	  proposed	  park,	  over	  six	  hundred	  families	  living	  in	  precarious	  and	  risk	  locations	  were	  moved	  (Silva-­‐Sanchez	  &	  Jacobi,	  2013).	  11	  	  A	  case	  in	  Rio	  de	  Janeiro	  intends	  to	  relocate	  people	  in	  risky	  conditions	  and	  especially	  the	  ones	  living	  in	  sub-­‐habitations	  over	   the	   river	  banks.	  The	  authors	  propose	   to	   relocate	   the	  population	   in	   flood	  proofing	  new	  buildings	   (M	  G	  Miguez,	  Veról,	  &	  Bianchini,	  2013).	   	  Another	  example	   is	   the	  case	   in	  Uruguay	  in	  which	  authors	  propose	  housing	  policies	  and	  the	  delimitation	  of	  relocation	  zones.	  The	  study	   evaluates	   the	   compatibility	   between	   the	   residential	   use	   and	   flood	   return	   periods	   to	  strategize	  relocation	  in	  flooded	  urban	  areas	  (Piperno	  &	  Sierra,	  2013).	  These	  proposals,	  along	  with	  structural	  delimitations,	  pretend	  to	  give	  back	  space	  to	  the	  river	  and	  decreasing	  flood	  hazards.	  	  From	   the	   reviewed	   articles,	   70%	   discussed	   or	   propose	   an	   action	   for	   public	   space,	   39%	   for	  infrastructure,	   35%	   for	   flooding	   and	   only	   30%	   discussed	   about	   ecological	   and	   water	   quality	  actions.	  Clearly,	  studies	  proposed	  to	  create	  public	  spaces	  for	  restoring	  rivers;	  while	  ecological	  and	  water	   quality	   studies	   are	   performed	   but	   not	   always	   mentioned	   as	   river	   restoration	  recommendations.	  	  We	  found	  that	  three	  articles	  in	  our	  review	  include	  4	  of	  the	  5	  river	  restoration	  actions	  categories.	  Miguez,	   Veról	   &	   Bianchini	   (2013),	   based	   on	   an	   overall	   assessment,	   say	   that	   river	   restoration	  scenario	  produced	  minor	   flood	   risks	   compared	   to	   traditional	   alternatives.	   In	   the	   article,	   authors	  present	   a	   scenario	   for	   Dona	   Eugenia	   River	   in	   Rio	   de	   Janeiro	   where	   they	   propose	   a	   natural	  composition	  upstream	  with	  an	  extension	  of	  the	  natural	  park,	  an	  urban	  park,	  detention	  reservoirs	  in	  the	  middle	  reach	  of	  the	  river,	  and	  a	  wetland	  at	  the	  downstream	  for	  temporary	  storage	  and	  as	  a	  quality	  control	  measure.	  	  Gomes	   et	   al.	   (2015)	   present	   four	   case	   studies	   in	   the	   Iguacu-­‐Sarapuí	   River	   Basin.	   This	   study	  proposes	  an	  interconnection	  of	  reservoirs,	  relocation,	  creation	  of	  fluvial	  parks	  and	  environmental	  parks	  for	  the	  Jardim	  Levee	  Systems.	  For	  the	  Sarapuí	  River,	  they	  discuss	  the	  recovery	  of	  old	  existing	  levee,	  the	  implementation	  of	  a	  connected	  reservoir,	  and	  the	  creation	  of	  multifunctional	  areas.	  In	  the	  Iguacu	  River,	  they	  propose	  actions	  such	  as	  the	  opening	  of	  a	  levee	  system,	  removing	  dykes,	  and	  restoring	   the	   river	   space.	   Finally,	   for	   the	   Botas	   River	   they	   propose	   to	   preserve	   floodplains	   and	  control	  urban	  growth	  with	  the	  establishment	  of	  formal	  environmental	  preservation	  areas.	  Gomes	  et	  al.	   (2009)	  propose	  a	   combination	  of	   structural	  and	  non-­‐structural	  measures	   for	  urban	  flood	  control.	  Some	  actions	  such	  as	  damping	  storage,	  reforestation,	  on-­‐site	  detention,	  detention	  reservoirs	   at	   squares	   and	  parks,	   reservoirs	   at	   slope	   areas,	   and	   traditional	   canalization	  measures	  were	   assumed	   as	   essential.	   They	   conclude	   that	   the	   combination	   of	   interventions	   can	   solve	  flooding	  problems	  while	  restoring	  a	  river	  area.	  	  	  	  	  	  	  12	  	  3.3 Selection of cases As	  explained	   in	  the	  previous	  section,	  during	  the	  academic	   literature	  review,	  English	  and	  Spanish,	  we	  narrowed	  to	  22	  articles	  that	  met	  our	  criteria.	  They	  describe	  20	  cases	  in	  7	  countries	  (Table	  4).	  	  Table	  4.	  River	  restoration	  cases	  in	  Latin	  America	  identified	  from	  the	  academic	  literature	  NO.	   RIVER	   COUNTRY	   FRECUENCY	  1	   Chubut	   Argentina	   Low	  2	   Paraná	   Argentina	   Medium	  3	   Dona	  Eugenia	   Brazil	   Low	  4	   Iguacu/Sarapuí	   Brazil	   Low	  5	   Corumbataí	   Brazil	   Low	  6	   Sinos	   Brazil	   Low	  7	   Guarapiranga	   Brazil	   Low	  8	   Joana	   Brazil	   Low	  9	   Amazon/Tapajós	   Brazil	   Low	  10	   Tiete/Pinheiros	   Brazil	   Low	  11	   Capibaribe	   Brazil	   Low	  12	   Huasco	   Chile	   Low	  13	   Andalién	   Chile	   Low	  14	   Mapocho	   Chile	   Low	  15	   Bío	  Bío	   Chile	   Low	  16	   Cali	   Colombia	   Low	  17	   Cauca	   Colombia	   Low	  18	   Martín	  Pérez	   Cuba	   Low	  19	   Nacajuca-­‐tecoluta	   Mexico	   Low	  20	   Uruguay	   Uruguay	   Low	  	  The	   academic	   literature	   review	   did	   not	   show	   any	   case	  with	   a	   high	   frequency	   of	   search	   results.	  Parana	   river,	   in	   Argentina,	   was	   the	   only	   river	   that	   appeared	   twice	   in	   the	   review.	   This	   result	  suggests	  that	  researchers	  are	  working	  on	  different	  river	  bodies,	  without	  much	  overlap.	  	  	  We	   also	   identified	   instances	   in	   which	   research	   was	   conducted	   on	   tributaries	   or	   upstream	   of	   a	  larger	  river	  stem.	  Some	  projects	  present	  a	  case	  of	  a	  river	  connected	  to	  a	  bigger	  one,	  for	  example	  Cauca	  and	  Cali	  in	  Colombia	  or	  Iguacu	  river	  and	  Tiete	  river	  with	  the	  Paraná	  river.	  With	  this,	  we	  can	  see	  that	  river	  restoration	  efforts	  in	  Latin	  America	  are	  being	  considered	  for	  tributaries	  as	  well	  as	  for	  main	  rivers.	  	  	  	  	  13	  	  The	  Grey	  Literature	  review,	  including	  only	  the	  rivers	  in	  Latin	  America,	  came	  up	  with	  45	  cases	  in	  12	  countries	  (Table	  5).	  Table	  5.	  River	  restoration	  cases	  in	  Latin	  America	  identified	  from	  the	  grey	  literature	  NO.	   RIVER	   COUNTRY	   FRECUENCY	  1	   Salí**	   Argentina	   Low	  2	   Suquía	   Argentina	   Low	  3	   Negro	   Argentina	   Low	  4	   Arenales**	   Argentina	   Low	  5	   Yaguari	   Bolivia	   Low	  6	   Rocha	  de	  Cochabamba**	  Bolivia	   Low	  7	   Tamborada	   Bolivia	   Low	  8	   Vallenar	   Chile	   Medium	  9	   Copiapó	   Chile	   Medium	  10	   Mapocho	   Chile	   Low	  11	   La	  Serena	   Chile	   Low	  12	   Calle	   Chile	   Low	  13	   Medellín**	   Colombia	   High	  14	   Magdalena	   Colombia	   High	  15	   Bogotá**	   Colombia	   High	  16	   Manzanares	   Colombia	   Medium	  17	   Unete	   Colombia	   Low	  18	   Cali	   Colombia	   Medium	  19	   Cauca	   Colombia	   Medium	  20	   Tunjuelo	   Colombia	   Low	  21	   Fucha	   Colombia	   Low	  22	   Pance	   Colombia	   Low	  23	   Soacha	   Colombia	   Low	  24	   Parrita	   Costa	  Rica	   Low	  25	   Monjas**	   Ecuador	   Low	  26	   Cutuchi	   Ecuador	   Low	  27	   Manchángara	   Ecuador	   Medium	  28	   Acelhuate	   El	  Salvador	   Low	  29	   Cholulteca	   Honduras	   Low	  30	   Magdalena**	   Mexico	   Medium	  31	   La	  piedad	   Mexico	   Medium	  32	   Tijuana	   Mexico	   Low	  33	   Sabinal	   Mexico	   Low	  34	   Nazas	   Mexico	   Low	  35	   Cuautla	   Mexico	   Medium	  36	   Sabinas	   Mexico	   Low	  37	   Atoyac	   Mexico	   Medium	  14	  	  38	   Verde-­‐	  Rimac	   Peru	   High	  39	   Huantanay	   Peru	   Medium	  40	   Mantaro	   Peru	   Low	  41	   Chili/quilca	   Peru	   Low	  42	   Ramís	   Peru	   Low	  43	   Lurín**	   Peru	   Low	  44	   Nigua	   Rep.Domin	   Low	  45	   Orituco/Guárico	   Venezuela	   Low	  **	  A	  Plan	  document	  appeared	  during	  the	  search	  In	   comparison	  with	   the	   academic	   literature	   list,	   this	   one	   revealed	   a	   greater	   variety	   of	   countries	  and	  rivers.	  In	  the	  grey	  literature	  review,	  cases	  appeared	  in	  different	  extents	  and	  in	  different	  stages	  of	   implementation.	  There	  were	  cases	  only	  mentioned	  in	  news	  articles	  as	  a	  future	  project	  or	  as	  a	  municipal	   project,	  while	   others	  were	   part	   of	   a	   developed	   governmental	   plan	   or	   private	   project.	  The	   countries	   with	   more	   cases	   were	   Colombia	   (24%),	   Mexico	   (18%)	   and	   Peru	   (13%).	   These	  countries	  are	  working	  hard	  in	  restoring	  their	  rivers	  as	  well	  as	  in	  publishing	  their	  projects.	  	  The	   cases	   that	  we	   found	   to	   overlap	   in	   both	   literatures	  were:	   Parana,	  Mapocho,	   Cali	   and	   Cauca	  rivers.	   This	   means	   they	   appeared	   to	   have	   background	   technical	   studies	   as	   well	   as	   information	  published	   in	   news,	   and	   governmental	   plans.	   Importantly,	   there	   was	   little	   overlap	   between	   the	  cases	  identified	  in	  the	  grey	  literature	  results,	  with	  what	  was	  identified	  in	  the	  systematic	  search	  of	  the	   academic	   literature.	   This	   result	   suggests	   there	   remains	   insufficient	   collaboration	   between	  practitioners	   and	   the	   academy,	   or	   that	   urban	   river	   restoration	   projects	   are	   not	   being	   well	  documented	   in	   the	  academic	   literature.	  Rather,	   the	  grey	   literature	  appears	   to	  be	  a	  more	  useful	  resource	  for	  learning	  about	  current	  projects	  and	  plans	  to	  reform	  urban	  rivers	  in	  Latin	  America.	  	  3.4 Cases analysis We	   selected	   four	   cases	   to	   analyze	   in	   greater	   detail,	   three	   from	   Colombia,	   and	   one	   from	   Peru.	  These	   cases	   had	   considerable	   more	   information,	   and	   contained	   features	   that	   made	   them	  particularly	   interesting.	  We	   describe	   only	   four	   cases	   in	   greater	   detail,	   because	   analyzing	   all	   45	  cases	  from	  the	  grey	  literature	  and	  20	  cases	  from	  the	  academic	  literature	  was	  not	  possible.	  Below	  we	   review	   the	   cases	   of	   the	  Magdalena,	   Bogotá,	  Medellín	   rivers	   in	   Colombia	   and	   Rímac	   river	   in	  Peru.	  	  4. Cases 4.1 Magdalena River The	  Magdalena	   River	   flows	   through	   the	  western	   part	   of	   Colombian	   and	  multiple	   agencies	   have	  jurisdiction	  over	  the	  basin,	  734	  municipalities	  in	  13	  states.	  The	  river	  flows	  south	  from	  the	  Andean	  Cordilleras	  Central	  and	  Oriental	   to	   the	  Caribbean	  Sea	   in	   the	  north	   	  The	  Magdalena	  river	  basin	   is	  the	   social,	   environmental	   and	  economic	  heart	  of	  Colombia	  and	  home	   to	  80%	  of	   the	  nation’s	  48	  million	   inhabitants	   (The	   Nature	   Conservancy,	   n.d.).	   The	   river	   is	   1,467km	   in	   length	   and	   receives	  waters	  from	  the	  San	  Jorge,	  César	  and	  Cauca	  rivers	  (Brittanica,	  2016).	  	  15	  	  The	   Recovery	   Project	   of	   the	   Navigability	   of	   the	   Magdalena	   River	   is	   a	   planned	   intervention	   of	  908km	  between	  La	  Dorada	  (Caldas),	  Puerto	  Salgar	  (Cundinamarca)	  and	  Barranquilla	  (Atlántico).	  It	  aims	   to	   reduce	   40%	   of	   the	   national	   freight	   industry	   costs	   and	   to	   establish	   a	   multimodal	  transportation	   system	   in	   the	   country	   with	   seaports,	   river	   ports,	   roads	   and	   air	   transport.	   It	   is	  estimated	  that	  the	  works	  last	  13	  and	  a	  half	  years	  (Mejía,	  2014).	  	  The	  project	  was	  awarded	  to	  the	  consortium	  Navalena	  SAS	  on	  August,	  15	  2014	  (Diario	  del	  Huila,	  2014)	  and	  the	  restoration	  officially	  started	  on	  December	  11,	   2014	   (Vicepresidencia,	   2014).	   The	   consortium	   is	   formed	  by	  Obredecht	  Brazil	  and	  Contracts	  &	  Securities	  of	  Barranquilla	  (Figueroa,	  2016).	  The	   project	   is	   motivated	   by	   commerce	   and	   transportation.	   It	   seeks	   to	   make	   Colombia	   more	  competitive	  in	  the	  international	  market.	  Additionally,	  is	  stated	  to	  achieve	  a	  greater	  fuel	  economy	  and	   address	   an	   environmental	   benefit	   by	   generating	   less	   greenhouse	   gases	   by	   replacing	   land	  transport	  (Mejía,	  2014).	  	  The	  project	   is	  organized	   in	   two	  type	  of	  public	  works,	   first	   the	  channeling	  works	   that	   include	   the	  placement	  of	  rocks	  and	  longitudinal	  dykes	  for	  settle	  the	  river	  banks	  and	  to	  bring	  water	  to	  a	  main	  channel	   without	   affecting	   the	   original	   one.	   Second,	   the	   dredging	   and	   maintenance	   of	   the	  waterway	  to	  keep	  the	  waterway	  with	  7	  feet	  deep,	  52m	  wide	  and	  900m	  minimum	  bend	  radius	  all	  year	  long	  (CORMAGDALENA,	  2016).	  Nowadays,	  the	  Magdalena	  river	  mobilize	  1.5	  million	  tons	  per	  year	  and	  is	  expected	  to	  achieve	  10	  million	  tons	  with	  the	  Project	  (Vicepresidencia,	  2014).	  The	   contract	   is	   a	   Public-­‐Private-­‐Partnership	   and	   the	   investment	   is	   estimated	   to	   be	   2.5	   billion	  Colombian	   pesos	   (Figueroa,	   2016).	   The	   investment	   will	   be	   raised	   with	   contributions	   from	   the	  nation,	   departments	   and	  municipalities,	   and	   from	  Cormagdalena	   and	   Ecopetrol	   (El	   pilón,	   2013).	  The	   70%	   of	   the	   total	   investment	  will	   go	   to	   civil	   and	   hydraulic	   works,	   while	   the	   rest	   will	   be	   for	  maintenance	   and	   dredging	   (Mejía,	   2014).	   But	   the	   project	   expects	   to	   contribute	   0.25%	   of	   GDP	  between	  2016	  and	  2026,	  reduce	  businessmen	  expenses	  in	  10%	  to	  50%,	  create	  jobs,	  and	  increase	  the	  foreign	  trade	  (Acosta,	  2016).	  Is	   important	   to	  mention	  that	   the	  proposed	  project	  arose	  diverse	  opinions	  and	   is	  polemic	  among	  experts.	   The	   engineer	   Jaime	   Iván	   Ordóñez,	   president	   of	   the	   Water	   Resources	   Engineering	  Commission	   of	   the	   Colombian	   Society	   of	   Engineers,	   says	   the	   project	   has	   no	   technical	   feasibility	  and	   represents	   a	   risk	   transporting	   loads	   such	  as	  oil,	   coal,	   and	   similar	  mineral	  products.	  Also,	  he	  states	  the	  project	  is	  unrealizable	  because	  of	  its	  magnitude	  and	  runtime.	  This	  is	  presented	  to	  be	  a	  reason	   why	   other	   expert	   companies	   withdrew	   from	   the	   project	   tender.	   Regarding	   the	   river’s	  navigability,	   the	   natural	   sedimentation	   is	   a	   major	   constraint	   and	   it	   has	   been	   since	   1823.	   The	  engineer	   also	   states	   that	   studies	   were	   not	   used	   when	   making	   the	   project	   and	   tests	   were	   not	  performed	  in	  laboratories	  at	  a	  physical	  scale	  (El	  Espectador	  de	  Bogotá,	  2014).	  The	  project	  seems	  to	  be	  restricted	  to	  benefit	  a	  few	  companies	  (El	  Espectador	  de	  Bogotá,	  2014)	  and	  to	  be	  immersed	  on	  uncertainties	   regarding	   the	   executing	   company	   (V.	   Torres,	   2016).	   In	   2016,	   the	   financial	   close	  appeared	  to	  be	  not	  completed	  and	  the	  project	  on	   loan	  by	  the	  contractor,	  but	  with	   intentions	  of	  continuing	  (V.	  Torres,	  2016).	  This	  presents	  an	  infrastructure	  scope	  on	  navigability	  to	  achieve	  river	  restoration.	  	  4.2 Bogotá River The	  Bogotá	  river	  is	  located	  on	  the	  west	  of	  the	  Savannah	  of	  Bogotá	  about	  2640	  m	  above	  sea	  level	  on	  a	  high	  plateau	  in	  the	  Andes	  mountains	  (Off2	  Travels,	  n.d.-­‐a).	  It	  runs	  through	  41	  municipalities	  16	  	  with	  1.3	  million	  inhabitants	  (DAMA,	  2004)	  and	  also	  through	  the	  Bogotá	  District	  with	  6.763	  million	  inhabitants	   in	   2005	   (UN,	   2005).	   From	   the	   total	   basin	   population	   75%	   is	   urban	   and	   25%	   is	   rural	  (Urbano,	   2014).	   The	   channel	   length	   of	   the	   Bogotá	   river	   is	   380	   km,	   with	   a	   basin	   total	   area	   of	  6,000km2	  (DAMA,	  2004).	  The	   river	   restoration	   project	   is	   called	   “Megaproyecto	   del	   río	   Bogotá”	   and	   is	   directed	   by	   the	  Regional	  Autonomous	  Corporation	  of	  Cundinamarca	  (Vásquez,	  2014).	  It	  is	  planned	  to	  be	  a	  68.8km	  intervention	   which	   includes	   a	   hydraulic	   adequacy	   and	   water	   quality	   improvement	   (Noticias	  Colombianas,	   2015).	   The	   project	   includes	   the	   construction	   of	   a	   linear	   ecological	   corridor	   with	  pedestrian	   and	   bike	   paths,	   the	   construction	   of	   passive	   and	   active	   recreational	   spaces,	   the	  plantation	   of	   500,000	   trees	   native	   species,	   the	   extension	   of	   the	   existing	   Salitre	   Waste	   Water	  Treatment	  Plant	   in	   Soacha	   (WWTP),	   and	   the	   construction	  of	   the	  Canoas	  WWTP	   (El	  Nuevo	  Siglo,	  2014).	   Plus,	   the	   relocation	   of	   188	   families	   stablished	   in	   the	   riverbank	   area	   is	   planned	   by	   giving	  them	  three	  subsides	  covering	  their	  property´s	  total	  value	  (Noticias	  Colombianas,	  2015).	  The	  project	  will	  be	  developed	  during	  the	  next	  35	  years	  and	  three	  main	  objectives	  were	  established	  to	   achieve	   an	   ecological	   sustainable	   restoration.	   First,	   to	   have	   a	   river	   with	   minimal	   aesthetic	  conditions,	  second	  to	  make	  its	  water	  usable	  without	  risks,	  and	  third	  to	  transform	  the	  river	  into	  a	  stable	  ecosystem	  capable	  of	  sustaining	  life	  (Publimetro,	  2014).	  	  Despite	   different	   quantities	   presented	   in	   diverse	   sources,	   it	   is	   clear	   that	   the	   river	   restoration	  project´s	  investment	  is	  valuated	  in	  more	  than	  USD	  500	  million	  (Cabana,	  2011).	  It	  is	  financed	  by	  the	  city’s	   resources	   from	   property	   taxes	   and	   by	   a	   World	   Bank	   loan	   of	   USD	   250	   million	   (Lucero	   &	  Vengoechea,	  2014).	  The	  World	  Bank	  granted	  a	  20	  years	   credit	  plan	   to	   indict	   the	   river,	  build	   the	  WWTPs	  and	  to	  recover	  the	  river´s	  life	  in	  the	  middle	  and	  low	  basin	  (Buitrago,	  2011).	  The	   project	  was	  moved	   by	   a	   legislative	   claim	   and	   is	   an	   answer	   to	   the	   legal	   judgment	   stated	   in	  March	   28,	   2014	   by	   the	   institution	   exercising	   advisory	   functions	   of	   the	   supreme	   organ	   of	  government.	  It	  declares	  that	  23	  national	  entities	  and	  43	  municipal	  administrations	  are	  responsible	  of	   the	   environmental	   catastrophe	   in	   the	   river,	   and	   they	   needed	   to	   trace	   strategies	   for	   its	  sanitation	   and	   restoration	   (Publimetro,	   2014).	   The	   total	   intervention	   progress	   in	   2015	   was	   of	  52.2km,	  and	  during	  the	  first	  stage	  the	  San	  Nicolas	  park	  was	  built	  and	  around	  50,000	  trees	  planted	  (Noticias	  Colombianas,	  2015).	  The	  project	  is	  still	  in	  process	  and	  up	  today	  several	  actions	  have	  been	  concreted.	  Some	  of	  them	  are	  the	  6	  million	  square	  meters	  of	  sediments	  removed	  (El	  Nuevo	  Siglo,	  2014)	  so	  the	  dredged	  areas	   in	  the	  middle	  river	  basin	  reach	  depths	  of	  up	  to	  8m,	  the	  extension	  of	  the	  riverbed	  from	  30m	  to	  60m,	  and	  the	  construction	  of	  marginal	  slopes	  dimensions	  based	  on	  over	  a	  hundred	  years	  flood	  return	  period	  studies	  (Lucero	  &	  Vengoechea,	  2014)	  	  Within	   the	   review	   we	   found	   that	   the	   information	   about	   this	   project	   is	   very	   accessible	   and	  homogenous,	   it	   presents	   approximately	   the	   same	   data	   and	   details	   in	   every	   source.	   Also,	   is	  important	   to	   highlight	   that	   the	   project	   was	   cataloged	   as	   a	   model	   in	   a	   continental	   level	   at	   the	  Integrated	   Management	   Seminar	   in	   Buenos	   Aires	   and	   in	   a	   national	   level	   recognized	   by	   the	  Superior	   Council	   of	   Ecologies	   Environmental	  Organizations	   as	   the	   best	   environmental	   project	   in	  Colombia	  in	  2014	  (Noticias	  Colombianas,	  2015).	  	  17	  	  4.3 Medellín River Medellín	  is	  the	  second	  largest	  city	  in	  Colombia	  and	  the	  capital	  of	  the	  department	  of	  Antioquia	  and	  lies	  within	   the	  Aburrá	  valley	  at	  an	  elevation	  of	  1500	  m.	  The	  city	  has	  2.1	  million	   inhabitants	   (UN,	  2005)	   and	   is	   divided	  by	   the	  Medellin	  River,	   also	   known	  as	  Porce	  River,	  which	   also	   runs	   through	  other	  8	  municipalities	  (Off2	  Travels,	  n.d.-­‐b).	  The	  river	  has	  an	  approximate	  100	  km	  total	  length	  and	  presents	  mostly	  an	  urban	   feature,	   it	   is	  a	   tributary	  of	   the	  Nechi	  River	  which	   flows	   into	  the	  Cauca	  river	  (Cardona,	  n.d.).	  	  Parques	  del	  Río	  Medellín	   is	   a	  project	   that	   aims	   to	   renew	   the	   strategic	   intervention	  areas	  of	   the	  river	  with	  a	  corridor	  that	  will	  provide	  urban	  vitality	  and	  public	  spaces.	  The	  project	  also	  intends	  to	  recover	  natural	  and	  landscape	  values;	  and	  reassess	  the	  river’s	  civic,	  historical,	  and	  representative	  characteristics.	  	  The	  project	  aims	  to	  address	  the	  deficit	  of	  public	  space	  and	  to	  connect	  west-­‐east	  neighborhoods.	  	  It	  is	  part	  of	  the	  Land	  Use	  Plan	  of	  Medellín	  (POT)	  and	  the	  proposed	  actions	  includes	  an	  environmental	  corridor	  as	  a	  main	  ecological	  structure,	  the	  construction	  of	  protection	  edges	  and	  the	  addressing	  of	  urban	   renewal	   with	   land	   use.	   Further,	   it	   includes	   the	   introduction	   of	   city´s	   equipment	   and	  urbanistic	  operations	  through	  urban	  parks	  and	  densification	  of	  the	  river´s	  areas.	  The	  corridor	  will	  have	  river	  parks,	   recreational	  metropolitan	  parks,	  plazas	  and	  civil	  parks	  as	  an	  effort	   to	  maximize	  public	  accessibility	  and	  meeting.	  The	  project	  itself	  is	  a	  strategy	  for	  obtaining	  effective	  green	  space	  to	  7m2	  per	  habitant.	  Additionally,	  the	  project	  plans	  to	  relocate	  the	  population	  and	  activities	  that	  invades	   60m	   of	   the	   river	   shore	   (“Antecedentes	   Parque	   del	   Río	   Medellín,”	   2011).	   34km	   of	  pedestrian	  paths	  and	  32km	  of	  cyclepaths	  are	  going	  to	  be	  created	  in	  10	  years;	  transforming	  19.8km	  of	  ways	  into	  green	  areas	  for	  the	  city	  (SPDA	  Actualidad	  Ambiental,	  2015).	  The	  cost	  will	  be	  of	  USD	  1.72	  million	  and	  the	  stage	  of	  the	  project	  is	  not	  clear	  but	  it	  seems	  to	  be	  in	  progress	  (SPDA	  Actualidad	  Ambiental,	  2015).	  	  The	  project	  is	  interconnected	  with	  other	  local	  plans.	  As	  an	  example	  the	  Parques	  del	  Río	  Medellín	  project	  is	  contemplated	  in	  the	  Mobility	  Master	  Plan	  for	  the	  Metropolitan	  Region	  Aburrá	  Valley,	  in	  which	   the	   corridor	  will	   respect	   the	   bands	   corresponding	   to	   the	   national	   railway	   and	   it	   will	   add	  value	  to	  the	  “vial	  local”	  project	  by	  enable	  the	  river	  highway	  between	  Ancón	  Sur	  and	  Ancón	  Norte.	  Also,	  the	  project	  promotes	  the	  non-­‐motorized	  transport	  and	  is	  coordinated	  within	  the	  General	  Vial	  Project	  for	  the	  Medellín	  River	  Park	  (“Antecedentes	  Parque	  del	  Río	  Medellín,”	  2011).	  	  4.4 Rimac River Lima	  is	  the	  largest	  city	  and	  capital	  of	  Peru.	  The	  urban	  area	  is	  known	  as	  the	  Metropolitan	  Lima,	  and	  its	  population	  in	  2007	  was	  of	  8,473	  million	  (UN,	  2007).	  The	  city	  lies	  on	  Peru´s	  desert	  coast	  but	  also	  is	   located	  on	   the	   central	   coast	  of	   the	   country,	  on	   the	   shores	  of	   the	  Pacific	  Ocean	  and	  extended	  over	  the	  valleys	  of	  the	  rivers	  Chillón,	  Rímac	  and	  Lurín	  (Universia,	  n.d.).	  The	  Rímac	  river,	  also	  known	  as	  “Río	  Hablador”,	  is	  a	  main	  water	  source	  for	  the	  city,	  fulfilling	  industrial	  and	  domestic	  demands.	  The	   river´s	  main	   channel	   length	   is	   134	   km	   and	   two	  major	   tributaries	   the	   Santa	   Eulalia	   and	   San	  Mateo	  rivers	  (Orbegoso	  &	  Alcántara,	  1998).	  	  The	  private	  iniciative	  (PI)	  Vía	  Parque	  Rímac,	  first	  known	  as	  PI	  Línea	  Amarilla,	  is	  a	  23km	  express	  vial	  system	  with	  14km	  of	  existing	  ways	  and	  9km	  of	  new	  ones	   intended	  to	  vacate	  and	  rehabilitate	  25	  hectares	  of	  green	  spaces	  and	  equipment.	  At	  the	  same	  time,	  this	  project	  was	  part	  of	  the	  Road	  Plan	  18	  	  of	   the	   Metropolitan	   Highway	   System	   (Ord.	   N°	   341-­‐MML)	   and	   part	   of	   the	   planned	   “vía	   de	  evitamiento”.	  These	  plans	  along	  with	  the	  Vía	  Parque	  Rímac	  project	  planned	  to	  create	  a	  continuous	  100km	  path	  for	  connecting	  Lima´s	  ends	  in	  20	  minutes	  and	  to	  derive	  the	  traffic	  into	  a	  2km	  tunnel	  under	   the	   Rímac´s	   riverbed	   at	   the	   historic	   center.	   	   Additionally,	   the	   project	   included	   a	   fund	   for	  relocating	  266	  families	  that	  live	  in	  extreme	  poverty	  in	  the	  riverbank	  area,	  such	  as	  the	  The	  Shipiba	  indigenous	  community	  which	  is	  established	  in	  the	  Cantagallo	  region.	  The	  project,	   in	  coordination	  with	   the	   Integral	   Involuntary	   Resettlement	   Plan,	   planned	   to	   relocate	   that	   population	   in	   new	  multifamily	   housing	   (Zeballos,	   2012).	   The	  Multisectoral	   Commission	   for	   the	   Recovery	   of	  Water	  Quality	  in	  the	  Rímac	  River	  was	  created	  for	  coordinate,	  establish,	  determine	  and	  take	  actions	  about	  the	  Rímac	  river	  restoration	  project	  (La	  Republica,	  2015).	  The	   project	  was	   clearly	  motivated	   to	   address	   transit	   issues,	   as	  well	   as	   landscape	   and	   ecological	  problems	   in	   the	  city.	  The	  PI	  Vía	  Parque	  Rímac	  contemplated	  a	   referential	   investment	  amount	  of	  USD	   461	   million	   and	   was	   proposed	   to	   pay	   for	   itself	   with	   road	   tolls	   (Zeballos,	   2012).	   But	   the	  restoration	  project	  was	  cancelled	  in	  2015	  by	  the	  Lima´s	  Metropolitan	  Municipality	  and	  the	  funds	  were	   allocated	   to	   the	   construction	   of	   a	   bypass	   on	   “avenida	   28	   de	   Julio”	   (SPDA	   Actualidad	  Ambiental,	  2015).	  The	  same	  year,	  in	  July	  19th	  2015	  the	  effort	  to	  restore	  the	  river	  was	  addressed	  by	  an	  international	  cooperation.	  The	  Korean	  public	  Enterprise	  K-­‐Water	  and	  the	  Pyunghwa	  company	  presented	  a	  final	  report	  where	  they	  discussed	  the	  structure	  of	  the	  Recovery	  Master	  Plan	  for	  the	  Rímac	  River.	  They	  highlighted	   the	   predisposition	   for	   a	   voluntary	   funding	   to	   the	   implementation	   of	   an	   Information	  Center	   of	   Water	   Resources.	   These	   efforts	   are	   the	   result	   of	   the	   Agreement	   on	   Cooperation	   in	  Water	  Resources	  Management	  and	  Basin	  Development	  signed	  between	  Peru	  and	  South	  Korea	  in	  October	  16,	  2012.	  	  The	   Korean-­‐Peruvian	   Master	   Plan	   included	   three	   stages	   of	   implementation:	   water	   cleaning,	  improve	  water	  quality	  by	  building	  reservoirs,	  and	  achieve	  high	  standard	  sustainable	  maintenance.	  This	  Plan	   intends	   to	  divide	   the	  Rímac	  Basin	   into	   three	  preservation	   zones,	   six	   restoration	   zones,	  and	   two	   riverside	   zones.	   It	   was	   proposed	   to	   reuse	   the	   treated	  water	   from	   the	   Taboada	  Water	  Treatment	  Plant,	  and	  to	  build	  a	  dam	  to	  ensure	  reliable	  water	  supply	  during	  dry	  seasons	  (Informa,	  2015).	  The	  execution	  time	  was	  expected	  to	  be	  of	  9	  months,	  but	  it	  is	  not	  clear	  if	  the	  Plan	  is	  still	  in	  progress	  and	  if	  is	  associated	  with	  the	  previous	  restoration	  project.	  	  The	  situation	  with	  the	  Rímac	  River	  restoration	   is	  complicated.	  The	  first	  project	  Vía	  Parque	  Rímac	  was	   expected	   by	   the	   citizens	   to	   be	   implemented.	   The	   cancellation	   of	   the	   project	   was	   very	  controversial	   and	   diverse	   opinions	   appeared	   within	   the	   reviewed	   information.	   Also,	   the	  cancellation	  deprived	  the	  city	  of	  having	  green	  spaces	  and	  to	  improve	  the	  quality	  of	  life	  of	  informal	  settlements	  and	   indigenous	  population.	  At	  some	  point	   the	  Vía	  Parque	  Rímac	  project	  was	  one	  of	  the	  most	  important	  vial	  infrastructure	  projects	  in	  Latin	  America	  (Zeballos,	  2012).	  	  Regarding	   the	  Korean-­‐Peruvian	  collaboration,	   the	  project	   seems	  to	  be	  ambitious	  but	  not	   further	  information	  was	  available	  to	  make	  a	  deeper	  insight.	  	  19	  	  5 Conclusions This	   systematic	   review	   allowed	   us	   to	   survey	   the	   river	   restoration	   projects	   taking	   place	   in	   Latin	  America.	  The	  results	  show	  us	  the	  variety,	  extents	  and	  status	  of	  the	  projects	  by	  country.	  Within	  this	  review	  we	  found	  that	  Brazilian	  academic	  articles	  were	  found	  mostly	  in	  English,	  and	  the	  use	  of	  the	  Spanish	   language	   led	   us	   to	   find	   a	   greater	   variety	   of	   results.	   We	   found	   that	   the	   scope	   in	   the	  academic	   articles	   is	   narrow	   and	   deep.	   They	   give	   recommendations	   based	   on	   knowledge	   and	  feedback	  to	  the	  proposed	  actions.	  The	  academic	  literature	  encourages	  decisions	  and	  actions	  to	  be	  supported	   by	   technical	   analysis,	   mathematical	   modeling,	   or	   original	   ecological	   and	   biophysical	  research.	  Also,	  articles	  provide	  technical	  feedback	  and	  support	  to	  diverse	  actions.	  Even	  without	  an	  official	  plan	  in	  the	  academic	  literature,	  studies	  refer	  to	  local	  plans.	  We	  found	  that	  river	  restoration	  efforts	  are	  not	  new	  in	  Latin	  America	  and	  can	  be	  traced	  since	  1970s	  when	  the	  public	  called	  for	  the	  recovery	  of	  the	  river’s	  space	  and	  sanitation.	  Studies	  present	  parks	  and	  greenways	  to	  be	  considered	  in	  a	  great	  extent	  into	  river	  restoration	  projects.	  In	  these	  spaces,	  recreational	  areas	  and	  cycle	  paths	  are	  constructed.	  	  We	  found	  more	  cases	  of	  river	  restoration	  projects	   in	  our	  search	  of	  the	  grey	   literature,	  and	  given	  the	   vast	   amount	   of	   information	   available	   online,	   it	   is	   likely	   that	   additional	   cases	   may	   be	   left	  undocumented.	   The	   grey	   literature	   search	   succeeded	   in	   revealing	   many	   active	   or	   proposed	  projects	  in	  Latin	  America,	  but	  also	  included	  many	  projects	  in	  Spain.	  Even	  so,	  more	  Latin	  American	  projects	   appear	   in	   the	   search	   and	   valuable	   information	  was	   found	   in	   news	   articles,	   the	   popular	  press	  or	  opinion	  articles.	  The	  Magdalena	  river	  project	  aimed	  to	  address	  commercial	  and	  fluvial	  transportation	  needs.	  They	  are	   trying	   to	   make	   a	   navigable	   river	   for	   making	   the	   local	   commerce	   more	   affordable.	   Several	  considerations	  in	  regards	  public	  space,	  ecological	  restoration	  or	  public	  participation	  are	  excluded	  as	  well	  as	  technical	  support.	  The	  river	  restoration	  proposal	  is	  different	  for	  this	  river	  and	  does	  not	  follow	  the	  common	  traditional	  ways	  of	  restoration	  in	  Latin	  America.	  The	  Bogotá	   river	  project	  was	   intended	   to	   restore	   the	  environmental	   quality	   and	   landscape.	   The	  project	   itself	   is	  a	   result	  of	  a	  public	  and	   legal	   claim	  that	   involves	   several	   stages	  and	  objectives.	   It	  seeks	   to	   recover	   the	   river’s	   balance	   and	   provide	   valuable	   public	   spaces	   for	   the	   population.	   The	  project	   remains	   in	   progress	   and	   the	   information	   found	   in	   the	   grey	   literature	   is	   clear	   and	  homogenous.	  The	  Medellín	   river	   project	   is	   aims	   to	   increase	   public	   space	   in	   the	   city	   and	   to	   connect	  west-­‐east	  neighborhoods	  avoiding	  segregation.	  The	  intention	  is	  to	  restore	  the	  river	  as	  well	  as	  the	  connection	  between	  the	  population	  and	  the	  river.	   	  The	  found	  information	  is	  dispersed	  and	  does	  not	  provide	  details	  about	  the	  current	  project’s	  status.	  	  The	  Rímac	  river	  project	  was	  motivated	  by	  transportation	  interests	  and	  sought	  to	  provide	  Lima	  with	  green	   spaces.	   The	   cancellation	   of	   the	   project	   was	   controversial	   and	   generated	   diverse	   public	  opinions.	   Later,	   an	   international	   collaboration	   (Korean-­‐Peruvian)	   Plan	   was	   presented,	   but	   the	  relation	  with	  the	  previous	  project	  and	  its	  status	  was	  not	  possible	  to	  determine.	  	  We	   found	   that	   little	   information	   is	   published	   on	   urban	   river	   restoration	   projects,	   and	   if	   it	   is	  published,	  it	   is	  highly	  dispersed	  and	  mostly	  in	  the	  grey	  literature.	  There	  remains	  no	  single	  source	  or	  database	  of	  urban	   river	   restoration	  projects.	  We	  also	   found	   that	  our	   review	  of	   the	  academic	  20	  	  literature,	  regardless	  of	  the	  language,	  gave	  us	  a	  very	  different	  set	  of	  projects	  and	  cases	  than	  our	  results	   from	   the	   grey	   literature	   review.	   This	   lack	   of	   overlap	   suggests	   that	   researchers	   and	  practitioners	  are	  examining	  and	  writing	  about	  different	  cases	  at	  different	  locations.	  	  Collaboration	  between	  practitioners	  and	  the	  academy	  may	  help	  citizens	  and	  practitioners	  address	  urban	  river	  problems.	  Involving	  students	  and	  universities	  in	  the	  early	  stages	  of	  a	  river	  restoration	  project	  may	   help	   generate	   new	   ideas	   and	   creative	   approaches	   to	  meeting	   the	   needs	   for	   public	  space,	   restored	   ecosystems,	   and	   safe	   flood	   control	   (Arroyo-­‐Robles	   et	   al	   2016).	   The	   intrinsic	  interdisciplinary	   of	   river	   restoration	   work	   may	   also	   explain	   why	   our	   systematic	   search	   of	   the	  academic	   literature	  did	  not	  reveal	  peer-­‐review	  articles	  that	  provided	  a	  comprehensive	  or	  holistic	  review	  of	   restoration	  projects.	  Rather,	   the	  disciplinary	   journals	  published	  articles	   that	  addressed	  one	  narrow	  component	  of	  a	  larger	  restoration	  effort.	  Nevertheless,	  our	  review	  shows	  that	  urban	  river	   restoration	   projects	   are	   increasingly	   common	   in	   Latin	   America	   and	   people	   are	   raising	  awareness	  of	  the	  importance	  of	  urban	  rivers.	  	  6 References Acosta,	  A.	  (2016).	  Con	  recuperación	  del	  Río	  Magdalena,	  economía	  crecería	  0,25%	  adicional.	  Retrieved	  August	  2,	  2016,	  from	 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 Latin	  America	  river,	  (ii)	  Discusses	  about	  a	  river	  restoration	  action	  2	  CAB	  direct	   1	   0	  Avery	  Index	  to	  Architectural	  Periodicals	  1	   0	  Art	  Full	  Text	  	   1	   0	  PAIS	  index	   1	   0	  Urban	  Studies	  Abstracts	  8	   0	  Worldwide	  political	  science	  abstracts	  1	   0	  Engineering	  Village	   137	   	   1	  GreenFILE	   26	   	   0	  	   	   TOTAL	   3	  “river	  restoration”	  AND	  “plan”	  Web	  of	  science	   38	   	   1	  CAB	  direct	   147	   	   1	  Avery	  Index	  to	  Architectural	  Periodicals	  3	   	   0	  Art	  Full	  Text	  	   8	   	   0	  PAIS	  index	   2	   	   0	  Urban	  Studies	  Abstracts	  28	   	   0	  Worldwide	  political	  science	  abstracts	  1	   	   0	  Engineering	  Village	   19	   	   0	  GreenFILE	   27	   	   0	  	   	   TOTAL	   2	  “river	  restoration	  plan”	  Web	  of	  science	   17	   	   0	  CAB	  direct	   11	   	   0	  Avery	  Index	  to	   0	   	   0	  26	  	  Architectural	  Periodicals	  Art	  Full	  Text	  	   0	   	   0	  PAIS	  index	   0	   	   0	  Urban	  Studies	  Abstracts	  0	   	   0	  Worldwide	  political	  science	  abstracts	  0	   	   0	  Engineering	  Village	   4	   	   1	  GreenFILE	   4	   	   0	  	   	   TOTAL	   1	  “river”	  AND	  “urban	  planning”	  Web	  of	  science	   251	   	   12	  (9)	  CAB	  direct	   168	   	   7	  Avery	  Index	  to	  Architectural	  Periodicals	  10	   	   0	  Art	  Full	  Text	  	   322	   	   2	  PAIS	  index	   113	   	   0	  Urban	  Studies	  Abstracts	  269	   	   5	  (3)	  Worldwide	  political	  science	  abstracts	  9	   	   0	  Engineering	  Village	   533	   	   4	  GreenFILE	   125	   	   0	  	   	   TOTAL	   25	  “river”	  AND	  “urban”	  AND	  “plan”	  Web	  of	  science	   297	   	   4	  (2)	  CAB	  direct	   31	   	   0	  Avery	  Index	  to	  Architectural	  Periodicals	  68	   	   0	  Art	  Full	  Text	  	   120	   	   1	  PAIS	  index	   15	   	   0	  Urban	  Studies	  Abstracts	  73	   	   0	  Worldwide	  political	  science	  abstracts	  7	   	   0	  Engineering	  Village	   196	   	   0	  GreenFILE	   48	   	   0	  	   	   TOTAL	   3	  “river”	  AND	  “public	  space”	  Web	  of	  science	   44	   	   4	  (3)	  CAB	  direct	   8	   	   0	  Avery	  Index	  to	   17	   	   0	  27	  	  Architectural	  Periodicals	  Art	  Full	  Text	  	   40	   	   1	  PAIS	  index	   2	   	   0	  Urban	  Studies	  Abstracts	  5	   	   0	  Worldwide	  political	  science	  abstracts	  3	   	   0	  Engineering	  Village	   41	   	   0	  GreenFILE	   0	   	   0	  	   	   TOTAL	   4	  	    Grand	  Total	  	  38	  	  	   	  28	  	  Appendix	  2.	  Spanish	  Academic	  literature	  search	  summary	  Database	   Total	  Hits	  Filtering	  conditions	   Total	  references	  (after	  duplicates)	  (“recuperación”	  AND	  “río”)	  OR	  (“restauración”	  AND	  “río”)	  OR	  (“rehabilitación”	  AND	  “río”)	  OR	  (“rescate”	  AND	  “río”)	  Fuente	  Academica	  Premier	   114	   (i)	  discuses	  a	  Latin	  America	  river,	  (ii)discusses	  a	  river	  restoration	  action	  4	  Hospitality	  &	  Tourism	  Complete	   4	   0	  PRISMA	  database	   958	   9	  (7)	  Web	  of	  Science	   32	   0	  OECD	   32	   0	  Redalyc	   3907	   1	  	   	   TOTAL	   12	  “río”	  AND	  “plan”	  AND	  “urbano”	  Fuente	  Academica	  Premier	   9	   	   2	  (1)	  Hospitality	  &	  Tourism	  Complete	   0	   	   0	  PRISMA	  database	   265	   	   2	  Web	  of	  Science	   9	   	   1	  (0)	  OECD	   32	   	   0	  	   	   TOTAL	   3	  “río”	  AND	  “planeación	  urbana”	  Fuente	  Academica	  Premier	   2	   	   0	  Hospitality	  &	  Tourism	  Complete	   0	   	   0	  PRISMA	  database	   30	   	   1	  Web	  of	  Science	   0	   	   0	  OECD	   0	   	   0	  Redalyc	   1328	   	   1	  	   	   TOTAL	   2	  (“fluvial”	  OR	  “río”)	  AND	  (“parque”	  OR	  “paseo”	  OR	  “corredor”)	  Fuente	  Academica	  Premier	   149	   	   0	  Hospitality	  &	  Tourism	  Complete	   30	   	   2	  PRISMA	  database	   708	   	   4	  (2)	  Web	  of	  Science	   473	   	   1	  OECD	   19	   	   0	  	   	   TOTAL	   5	  “recuperación	  del	  río”	  Fuente	  Academica	  Premier	   1	   	   0	  Hospitality	  &	  Tourism	  Complete	   0	   	   0	  PRISMA	  database	   3	   	   1	  Web	  of	  Science	   2	   	   0	  OECD	   1	   	   0	  Redalyc	   57	   	   6	  (5)	  	   	   TOTAL	   6	  29	  	  	  	   	   Grand	  Total	  	   28	  

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