UBC Faculty Research and Publications

Reasserting 'Namgis Food Sovereignty aka Three Boats and a Pick Up Truck Satterfield, Terre; Robertson, Leslie; Pitts, Anton; Jacobson, Diane, 1955- Aug 14, 2015

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!!!This%study%was%designed%and%conducted%in%close%consultation%with%partners%from%the%‘Namgis%First%Nation.%%The%report%was%written%by%Terre%Satterfield%and%Leslie%Robertson%!Data%Analysis%was%conducted%primarily%by%Anton%Pitts,%with%additional%work%conducted%by%Tee%Lim%and%Jill%Guerra%%%Interviews%on%traditional%foods%were%designed%by%Leslie%Robertson,%Terre%Satterfield%and%Diane%Jacobson.%%Interviews%were%conducted%by%Diane%Jacobson%%Funding%was%provided%by%the%Peter%Wall%Solutions%Initiative%!August&14,&2015&!Reasser&ng)‘Namgis)Food)Sovereignty)aka)Three)Boats)and)a)Pick)Up)Truck!Terre)Sa>erfield,)Leslie)Robertson,)Anton)Pi>s,)and)Diane)Jacobson)Partners:)‘Namgis)First)Na&on,)Centre)for)Policy)Alterna&ves,)Climate)Jus&ce)Project)Funding:/Peter)Wall)Solu&ons)Ini&a&ve)!! 2!!Acknowledgments:&!Many%people%have%contributed%in%significant%ways%to%the%research%and%analysis%contained%in%this%report.%We%thank%Nancy%Turner%for%her%extensive%knowledge%and%documentation%of%traditional%foods%and%Shannon%Hagerman%for%her%early%contributions%in%conceptualizing%this%research.%Hannah%Wittman,%Dawn%Morrison,%and%Johnnie%Manson%each%offered%creative%suggestions%and%insights%on%food%sovereignty.%%%We%are%grateful%for%the%warm%hospitality%and%generous%spirit%of%people%in%‘Yalis.%Staff%of%the%‘Namgis%band%office%and%the%Natural%Resources%department%were%endlessly%helpful%in%sharing%materials%and%insights%key%to%this%research.%Our%special%thanks%go%to%Brian%Svanvick%for%his%humour%and%his%keen%sense%of%the%complexities%surrounding%food%provisioning.%Warm%thanks%to%George%Speck,%Pearl%Alfred,%Ernest%Speck,%Bethany%Reid,%Kelly%Speck%and%many%family%members%who%walked%us%through%costing%for%household%food%production%and%allowed%that%process%to%be%documented.%Early%in%the%research,%“Walrus”%hosted%us%at%Earth%Embassy%on%Hanson%Island,%sharing%knowledge%about%indigenous%plant%foods%and%gardening%possibilities.%Marty%Weinstein%generously%met%with%us%to%discuss%the%project.%His%own%research%and%writing%have%set%the%stage%for%this%work%in%numerous%ways,%including%but%not%limited%to%important%earlier%calculations%on%what%a%traditional%diet%might%have%included%and%also%the%grounding%of%that%work%in%legal%scholarship%in%Rights%and%Title%and%Treaty%considerations.%Randy%Bell%spoke%with%us%at%length%about%possibilities%for%passing%along%values%of%stewardship.%%We%also%gratefully%acknowledge%the%Peter%Wall%Institute%for%Advanced%Studies%at%the%University%of%British%Columbia%who%have%funded%this%work%through%their%‘Solutions%Initiative.’%Our%thanks%extend%especially%to%Bernadette%Mah%who%shepherded%us%through%the%funding%process%with%a%most%appreciated%combination%of%patience%and%interest%in%our%work.%%%%%Lastly,%we%are%very%grateful%to%the%fishers,%berryWpickers,%hunters,%clam%diggers,%and%plant%gatherers%and%to%those%who%expertly%produce,%distribute%and%prepare%foods%and%medicines.%This%work%is%built%upon%knowledge%you%generously%shared%with%us.%%%Gilakas’la%!! !! 3!Table&of&Contents&Acknowledgments:!............................................................................................................................!2!Executive!Summary!..........................................................................................................................!4!“Traditional,”!Western!and!Hybrid!Diets!..............................................................................................!4!A!Possible!Contemporary!“Traditional”!Diet:!Food!Volumes!.......................................................!5!Possibilities!for!Locally!Grown!Western!and!Hybrid!Diets!...........................................................!9!Introduction:!....................................................................................................................................!13!The!Stages!........................................................................................................................................................!16!The!Specific!Steps!.........................................................................................................................................!16!2.0!Food!Volume!and!Types!for!a!Primarily!Traditional!Diet!.........................................!20!2.1!Creating!a!baseline!of!traditional!foods!.......................................................................................!20!2.2!Moving!from!historical!baselines!to!a!possible!contemporary!“Traditional”!Diet!...!26!2.2!Composing!the!Diet!Itself:!Calories,!Proteins,!and!Fats!........................................................!26!2.2.1!Comparing!Salmon’s!Nutrients!for!Traditional!versus!Western!Diet!.........................!30!2.3!Total!volume!of!food!needed!to!provide!a!traditional!diet!for!1000!people!per!year!..............................................................................................................................................................................!31!2.4!Feasting!and!Potlatching!Food!Estimates!...................................................................................!36!2.4.1!Potlatching!and!Feasting!Events:!2013.!...................................................................................!37!2.4.2!Potlatching!and!Feasting!Food!Volumes!by!Event!for!2013.!..........................................!38!2.4.3!Preferred!Feasting!Foods:!Volumes!for!2013.!......................................................................!39!3.0!Food!Volume!and!Types!for!a!Primarily!Western!and!Hybrid!Diet!for!1000!people!per!year!...............................................................................................................................!42!4.0!Estimating!Costs!for!a!Primarily!Traditional!Diet!........................................................!49!4.1!Methods!for!estimating!costs:!Listening!to!Harvesters!........................................................!50!4.2!Converting!Trip!Types!to!Cost!.........................................................................................................!55!4.3!Buying,!Maintaining!and!Using!a!Community!Fleet:!Fixed!and!Variable!Costs!..........!57!4.4!Mapping!Harvest!Locations!and!Cost:!‘Three!Boats!and!Pick\Up!Truck’!......................!62!4.5!Comparing!Locally!Harvested!Costs!to!Market!Costs!............................................................!65!4.6!Summarizing!labour!plus!travel!costs:!Mixed!Scenarios,!High!versus!Low!Cost!Foods!..................................................................................................................................................................!68!5.0!!Household!and!Community!Food!Production:!Needs!and!Barriers!......................!69!6.0!On!the!Possibilities!of!a!Locally!Grown!Western!Diet!.................................................!78!6.1!Cost!in!Labour!and!Land!....................................................................................................................!78!6.2!Jeavons!Plots!Estimates!......................................................................................................................!80!6.3!Comparative!Number!of!Plots!Needed!to!Provide!All!Food!Groups!in!the!Western!Diet!......................................................................................................................................................................!84!6.4!Land!Needed!to!Grow!Yearly!Vegetable,!Fruits!and!Grains!................................................!88!6.4.2!Land!Needed!to!Grow!Inputs!for!Dairy,!Egg!and!Oil!Production!Per!Person!..........!91!6.5!Estimating!Costs!for!Local!Production!of!Western!Foods!...................................................!93!6.6!Production!Costs!Not!Inclusive!of!Land!......................................................................................!94!6.7!The!Aggregate!Cost!of!Western!Foods!Grown!Locally!..........................................................!97!6.8!The!Relative!Cost!of!Local!Purchasing!versus!Local!Production!......................................!98!Conclusion!......................................................................................................................................!100!Possible!Barriers!for!Growing!a!Western!and/!or!Hybrid!Diet:!...................................!106!Toward!Food!Sovereignty:!Suggestions!from!all!Directions!..........................................!107!A!Few!Quotes:!................................................................................................................................!107!References!......................................................................................................................................!109!!! &! 4!Executive&Summary&%This%collaborative%project%began%with%the%question:%What%would%it%take%for%the%‘Namgis%First%Nation%to%become%food%sovereign?%By%food%sovereign,%we%mean%being%able%(and%having%the%right)%to%access,%control%and%produce%what%is%needed%for%a%healthy%(and/or%more%heavily%traditional)%diet.%What%would%it%take,%to%feed%1,000%‘Namgis%for%one%year%in%their%own%territory?%This%includes%approximations%for%both%a%daily%diet%and%food%volumes%required%for%one%example%year%of%feasting%and%potlatching,%that%is,%feeding%the%many%who%attend%events%hosted%by%‘Namgis.%We%also%sought%to%answer%what%it%would%cost%to%both%harvest%and/or%produce%most%of%what%is%needed%for%traditional,%western%and%hybrid%diets,%keeping%in%mind%costs%of%infrastructure%for%harvests%(e.g.,%purchasing,%maintaining%and%fueling%boats%and%pick%up%trucks%for%harvested%foods),%for%local%agriculture%(e.g.,%hectares%or%plots%of%land,%farming%inputs),%and%the%sheer%labour%needed%for%both.%%%“Traditional,”&Western&and&Hybrid&Diets&!We%began%with%the%overall%premise%that%the%composition%of%any%‘Namgis%diet%could%be%mostly%‘traditional’,%or%mostly%‘western’%and/or%a%hybrid%combination%of%the%two.%We%have%thus%provided%estimates%for%all%three%dietWtypes,%where%‘hybrid’%would%simply%be%comprised%of%half%of%each%of%a%traditional%and%western%diet.%%%We%developed%a%baseline%diet%composition%for%the%contemporary&traditional&diet%from%a%number%of%sources:%archival%records%on%traditional%foods%eaten%historically,%published%ethnoWbotanical%works%and%oral%histories%on%what%is%eaten%now,%and%the%range%of%estimates%available%for%what%a%relatively%high%protein,%high%fish%and%seafoods%diet%might%once%have%been.%For%the%western&diet%we%used%the%Canada%Food%Guide%calibrated%to%a%healthy%diet%appropriate%to%the%west%coast%of%B.C.%%%We%asked%what%and%how%much%food%people%need%to%eat%daily%on%average,%be%that%mostly%traditional%or%mostly%western%foods.%We%converted%that%perWpersonWperWday%figure%to%a%constellation%of%total%foods%needed,%in%traditional%and/or%hybrid%western%and%traditional%diets%and%expressed%that%need%in%intuitively%useable%units%(e.g.,%kg%of%meat%or%#%of%salmon%or%sacks%of%clams)%perWpersonW%perWday%and%year.%We%did%the%same%for%a%community%level%of%1,000%people%for%one%year.%The%diets%were%calculated&for&2000&calories&/person/day%as%widely%recommended.%%%%The%volume%of%calories%from%proteins%for%a%traditional%diet%was%set%at%45%%versus%24%%for%the%western%diet;%similarly%the%carbohydrate%level%for%a%traditional%diet%was%! 5!comparatively%lower%at%24%%of%calories%as%compared%to%39%%of%calories%estimated/recommended%by%the%Canada%Food%Guide.%%%Remaining%questions%that%we%will%address%in%a%future%report%include:%%What%might%a%changing%climate%mean%for%the%status%of%foods%discussed%here?%%What%might%future%species%be?%What%might%be%abundant,%what%absent,%and%what%is%not%sensitive%to%climate%but%might%well%face%other%threats?%%This%work%on%climate%change%effects%is%forthcoming%in%2015W2016.%&A&Possible&Contemporary&“Traditional”&Diet:&Food&Volumes&!We%identified%120%possible%key%foods;%listed%their%kwak’wala%names%and%their%scientific%names;%information%on%their%habitat,%harvest%season,%harvest%technology%and%(historical%and%current)%preparation%methods%when%available.%The%profile%of%traditional%foods%included%cultural%narratives%that%accompany%foods,%ceremonially%important%foods,%chiefly%foods,%etc.%%%We%reduced%the%list%to%foods%we%could%estimate%as%being%widely%available%and%desirable%by%many.%Nutritional%information%was%gathered%for%27%foods%(e.g.,%małik%/%sockeye%salmon)%or%food%groups%(e.g.,%łak’astan/seaweeds).%%%Total%yearly%needs%were%calculated%in%units%that%made%sense%for%harvesting%(e.g.,%one%doesn’t%harvest%½%an%elk%and%so%on).%%%%Estimated%total%food%needs%for%a%traditional%diet%for%1,000%people%for%one%year%include%the%following%volumes%of%selected%foods:%(see%table%2.1)%%!! 23,928%sockeye%%! 4,466%%%halibut%%! 87,%955%%%eulachon%%! 62,571%kg%of%seaweeds%! 83%%%elk%%! 85,882%kg%of%fruits%and%berries%! 29,915%crabs%! 14,957,%20lb%sacks%of%clams%and%other%mollusks%! 66,364%kg%of%starchy%vegetables%! 14,116%kg%grains%! 58,400%kg%green%vegetables%! 6!!Broken%down%to%a%per%person/per%year%representation,%some%of%these%volumes%are,%roughly:%%%23%sockeye,%30%crabs,%15%bags%of%clams,%approximately%80%kilos%of%berries%and%fruits,%12%waterfowl,%and%60%kilos%of%roots.%%%These%food%volumes%for%the%contemporary%“traditional”%diet%do%not%include%foods%consumed%during%cultural%events%like%feasting%and%potlatching%referenced%below.%%%Feasting&and&Potlatching&Foods&!Given%the%powerful%symbolic%and%political%meanings%of%traditional%foods%served%at%ceremonial%events,%we%do%not%attempt%to%calculate%the%costs%or%value%these.%But%we%do%provide%sample%volumes%for%the%year%2013%as%the%most%recent%source%available%at%the%time%of%preparing%this%report%%! For%the%year%2013,%approximately%6,%550%people%were%served%traditional%foods%at%3%potlatches%and%6%feasts%held%at%gok’wamdzi%(Big%House)%in%‘Yalis.%%%! Estimated%volumes%do%not%include%the%significant%amount%and%variety%of%foods%exchanged%and%distributed%as%gifts,%nor%do%they%include%other%cultural%events%or%occasions%when%the%‘Namgis%host%and%feed%guests.%%For%example,&approximate%volumes%for%a%single,%mediumWsized%feast%(hosting%approximately%500%people)%might%include:%%! 125%%%%%%%%%%%małik%/Sockeye%! 2%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%gallons%łak'astan/%Seaweed%! 125lbs%%%%%%ṕo'yi%%/%Halibut%! 6%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%gallons%%a'ant%/&Herring%Eggs%(on%kelp)%! 75lbs%%%%%%%%%ṫła'xwsam%/%Cod%or%Rockfish%! 800%%%%%%%%%%%dzaxwan%/%Eulachon%! 5,000%%%%%%%'was'wani%/&Prawns%! 150%%%%%%%%%%%ḱu'mis%/Crabs%! 4%sacks%%%%%gawiḱanam%/Clams%! ½%gallon%%%%t’łina%/%eulachon%grease%! 200lbs%%%%%%ṫławal's%/%Elk%! 7!! 200lbs%%%%%%ṫławal's%/%Moose%! 200lbs%%%%%%giwas%/&Deer%&A&Primarily&Western&Diet:&Food&Volumes&!The%initial%western%diet%was%calibrated%to%reflect%foods%more%widely%consumed%and%locally%grown%in%the%Canadian%west,%Vancouver%Island%in%particular.%It%was%then%further%calibrated%to%reflect%a%‘westernWstyle’%diet%more%likely%in%a%Vancouver%Island%and/or%First%NationsWinfluenced%diet%of%the%kind%advocated%by%health%experts%such%as%Dr.%Wortman%(e.g.,%higher%than%average%fish,%shellfish%and%green%vegetable%consumption).%%%Estimated%total%food%needs%for%a%western%diet%for%1,000%people%for%one%year&include%the%following%volumes%of%selected%foods%(section%2):%%%! 5,743%sockeye%! 1,489%halibut%! 7,479%crabs%! 3,739%20lb%sacks%of%clams%and%other%mollusks%%! 301%lambs%! 90%pigs%! 20,%397%chickens%! 118%cows%! 57,255%kg%fruits%and%berries%! 66,%364%kg%of%starchy%vegetables%! 50,414%kg%grains%! 87,600%kg%green%vegetables%%Estimating&Costs&for&a&Contemporary&&“Traditional”&Diet&%Estimates%include%the%cost%of%procuring%the%total%foods%needed%for%a%traditional%diet%based%on%the%volumes%for%daily%diets.%Variations%in%harvest%success%follow%from%harvesters’%narratives%on%trip%types%%! Estimates%include%buying&and&maintaining&gear%(pick%up%trucks%for%hunting%and%berry%picking,%as%well%as%seine%boats,%gill%netters%and%punts%for%fishing);%fuel&costs%for%all%types%of%trips%and%transport;%related%travel&expenses%(food%for%days%on%boats%or%at%hunting%or%harvesting%camps)%as%well%as%time&or&labour%needed%(e.g.,%! 8!in%person%hours%per%trip.%We%assumed%trip&types:%good%trips%and%bad%trips%and%things%coWcaught%on%trips.%For%example,%catching%some%prawns%when%out%fishing%for%something%else).%%%! The%average%total%cost%of%fleet&and&travel&for%procuring%a%traditional%diet%for%1,000%‘Namgis%is%$360,490%per%year.%This%is%the%equivalent%of%just%over%$30%a%month%per%person,%or%$360.00%per%year%per%person,%or%about%$1800.00%per%year%for%a%household%of%five.%%! Total%labour&hours%amount%to%14,310%person%days%per%year,%or%114,480%hours,%assuming%8%hour%days.%As%a%total%year%of%work%for%one%person%is%about%2,000%hours,%this%is%just%under%60%fullWtime%equivalent%persons.%%! The%total&labour&costs%per%year%are%between,%roughly%$1.7%and%$2.86%million%per%year%at%$15.00%versus%$20.00%per%hour%respectively,%though%in%reality,%at%least%20W25%%of%all%labour%might%be%highly%skilled%and%so%$50.00%per%hour%and%a%possible%remaining%75%%at%$15.00%per%hour%is%reasonable.%Nor%does%this%number%include%other%possible%employer%payroll%costs,%which%at%minimum%might%be%an%additional%3W5%%and%more%typically%for%full%time%employees,%15W20%.%%! Even%roughly,%at%an%overall%assumed%labour%cost%of%$20.00%per%hour,%the%combined&vehicle&and&travel&costs%amount%to%$3.25%million%per%year.%%! This%is%the%equivalent%of%a%‘food’&budget,%rounded%off,%of%$3,220.00%per%person%per%year%or%$268.00%per%month,%per%person.%This%remains%extremely%inexpensive%given%(a)%a%good%local%wage%that%(b)%also%provides%a%very%high%quality%diet%(one%that%would%cost%at%least%twice%this%if%purchased%through%retail%venues).%%%There%are%other%proportions%of%cost%not%yet%calculated;%for%example,%a%wharf%for%the%fishing%fleet%might%be%a%concern%as%would%processing%and%storage%costs.%!Additional%Costs:%Food%Production%%!Using%the%example%of%food%fish%and%wild%meat%preparation,%additional%costs%include:%flash%freezing,%butchering%and%cleaning%facilities%and%associated%equipment;%canning%machines;%drying%racks/%machines;%largeWscale%cookers;%smokehouses;%and,%storage%freezers.%Regulations%for%licensing,%property%bylaws%and%insurance%present%further%costs%as%do%more%recent%training%requirements%for%boat%crews%(e.g.,%Food%Safe%and%First%Aide).%! 9!Hunting%and%wild%meat%processing%includes%license%fees%and%training%for%handling%rifles.%Time%off%regular%work%would%also%be%figured%into%harvesting%and%production%costs.%%%Comparing&Locally&Harvested&Costs&to&Market&Costs&!We%list%harvest%versus%purchase%costs%on%key%traditional%foods%available%at%market%outlets.%Comparing%market%versus%locally%produced%foods%indicates%that%it%is%vastly%cheaper%to%harvest%these%foods%locally.%At%a%glance,%and%by%ratio%only%(section%4.5):%%! Mussels%and%cockles%(when%available)%are%cheaper%by%a%factor%of%4:1%! Clams%are%cheaper%by%a%factor%of%5:1%! Halibut%is%cheaper%by%a%factor%of%18:1,%and%! Salmons%are%cheaper%by%a%factor%of%20:1%and%possibly%closer%to%35:1%per%kilogram%%%A%large%uncertainty%range%should%be%assumed%because%traditional%food%costs%include%only%vehicle%and%travel%costs%(maintenance,%vehicle%purchase%and%depreciation,%fuel,%ferry).%%They%do%not%include%the%cost%of%processing%or%packaging%foods%once%harvested%(a%task%beyond%the%scope%of%this%project).%But%even%if%one%were%to%generously%assume%that%traditional%foods%therefore%cost%twice%as%much,%the%ratio%is%still%remarkable%%%Possibilities&for&Locally&Grown&Western&and&Hybrid&Diets&What!would!it!take!to!grow!all!or!a!very!large!portion!of!western!foods!within!‘Namgis!territory!\!on!Cormorant!Island,!portions!of!Malcolm!Island!and!in!the!vicinity!of!Nimpkish!River!and!Woss!Lake?!!&How%many%100WsquareWfoot%plots%would%be%required%to%provide%the%amount%of%food,%per%person,%per%year,%represented%by%our%‘western’%diet?!!!! Our%diet%profiles%suggest%57%kg%of%fruits&or&berries%per%person;%given%the%average%yield%of%the%fruits%and%berries%(section%6)%this%would%require%approximately%two%and%oneWhalf%10%x%10Wfoot%plots%per%person,%10%plots%for%a%family%of%5%and%2500%plots%for%a%community%of%1000.%%! For%animal&products,%we%use%either%forage%or%grains,%assuming%10%kg%of%feed%is%required%to%produce%1%kg%of%meat%or%eggs.%%For%milk,%we%assume%1%kg%of%forage%required%to%produce%one%litre%of%milk,%and%10%L%milk%required%to%make%1%kg%of%cheese.%%Cheese,%for%example%requires%5%plots%per%person%per%year%or%5000%plots%! 10!at%the%community%scale.%For%cheese%alone%for%1000%persons,%this%is%the%rough%equivalent%of%500,000%square%feet,%4.6%hectares%or%11.5%acres%in%land.%%! A%typical%‘Yalis%yard%is%approximately%50%feet%by%60%feet.%Leaving%4Wfoot%walkways%between%4Wfoot%raised%beds;%this%area%could%support%14%‘plots’.%These%14&plots%could%provide%a%significant%portion,%if%not%the%entirety,%of%a%family’s%needs%for%vegetables,%fruits,%and%starches%or%root%crops.%%%! Focusing%on%the%most&productive&crops%(e.g.,%cabbage,%carrots,%celery,%chard,%cucumbers,%lettuce,%onions,%radishes,%zucchini,%tomatoes)%would%produce%a%higher%average%yield%than%giving%equal%space%to%lowerWyielding%crops%(e.g.%asparagus,%broccoli,%peas).%! A%hybrid&diet%replacing%much%of%the%fruit%and%berry%needs%with%wild%harvests%(blueberries,%blackberries,%seaweed,%etc.)%would%further%reduce%land%needs%for%fruit%and%berry%growing.&%! Growing&forage%required%for%animal%agriculture%would%require%far%larger%land%areas%than%even%intensive%backyard%gardening%could%provide.%%At%these%scales,%hand%labour%may%not%be%a%practicable%approach.%If%much%of%the%animal%products%consumed%are%wildWcaught%(fish%and%game),%then%growing%some%forage%on%marginal%lands%using%more%extensive%methods,%to%support%a%small%amount%of%animal%agriculture,%may%however%be%practicable.%%%! Growing%grains&and&oilseeds%would%require%around%5000%square%feet%each%(plus%walkway%allowances)%per%family,%or%around%20%ha%for%the%community%of%1000%people.%%However,%grains%and%oils%store%and%transport%well,%so%continuing%to%import%much%of%the%community’s%needs%for%these%staples%may%be%preferable.%%! Growing%animal&products%from%locally%grown%feeds%may%not%be%reasonable%given%the%size%of%the%island;%growing%at%least%some%reasonable%fraction%of%vegetables,%fruits,%berries,%etc.%seems%more%practical.%&! &! 11!Costs&for&Local&Production&of&Western&Foods&%Our%estimated%costs%for%local%production%of%foods%for%a%western%diet%do%not%include:%%land;%processing%facilities;%crop%storage;%mulch;%fuel%for%trucks;%delivery%/%transportation%cost%of%materials;%raised%beds;%or%covered%structures%for%compost.%%%We%estimated%the%total%cost%per%kilogram%(or%litre,%or%egg)%of%food%types%from%the%combined%costs%of%labour,%equipment,%and%inputs%(e.g.,%manure,%forage%feed,%compost,%etc.).%%%Totals&($)&for&selected&food&types%(without&costs&for&land&required)&are%as%follows:%%! Milk% % % $%%0.79%/%L%! Starchy%vegetables%%%%%%%%%%0.95%/%kg%%! Green%vegetables% %%%%1.08%/%kg%! Fruits%/%Berries% %%%%3.45%/%kg%! Cheese% % %%%%7.48%/%kg%! Beef% % % %%%%8.52%/%kg%! Chicken% % %%%%8.64%/%kg%! Eggs% % % %%%%0.63%/%egg%! Grains% % %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%16.00%/%kg%! Nuts% % % %%20.41%/%kg%!What&are&estimated&total&volumes&and&costs&for&a&western&diet&for&1,000&people&for&one&year?&!! 23,000%L%of%milk% % %%%%%%%$%%18,170%! 66,000%kg%of%starchy%vegetables%%%%%%%%62,700%%! 88,000%kg%of%green%vegetables%%%%%%%%%%%95,040%! 57,000%kg%of%fruits/%berries%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%196,650%! 9,000%kg%%of%cheese% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%67,320%! 37,000%kg%of%beef% % %%%%%%%%%%315,240%! 20,372%kg%chicken% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%176,014%! 19,000%eggs/%doz% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%143,%640%! 50,000%kg%of%grains%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%800,000%! 1,200%kg%of%nuts% % %%%%%%%%%%%%24,492%%! 12!A%ballWpark%estimate%for%growing%foods%locally%is%consistent%with%costs%for%households%who%seek%to%buy%fresh,%local%and%wild%in%niche%grocery%stores%or%farmer’s%market%contexts.%It%is%less%viable%for%lower%income%households%for%whom%this%is%not%an%available%option.%[These%figures%are%based%on%a%total%diet%at%$1.9%million%for%a%community%of%1000%or%roughly%$1900.00%per%year%per%person.%For%a%household%of%5%this%amounts%to%just%under%$800%per%month.]%%Statement&on&Valuing&Foods&!Cost%of%food%is%in%no%way%meant%to%stand%for%worth%of%food%as%it%goes%without%saying%that%many%things%that%matter%flow%from%the%act%of%harvesting%one’s%own%food%–%be%that%the%transmission%of%knowledge%and%skills%across%generations,%the%oral%histories%told%in%place%at%key%food%producing%or%gathering%sites,%or%the%importance%of%being%present%on%traditional%land%and%marineWscapes,%among%other%things.%Using%cost%as%an%initial%filter%for%decisionWmaking,%only%throws%some%light%on%which%foods%are%obviously%better%to%harvest%locally,%assuming%the%available%quota%allows%one%to%do%so%and/or%limitations%on%quota%can%be%defensibly%improved.%&%%Under%what%conditions%does%it%make%sense?%Answering%this%question%is%beyond%the%scope%or%responsibility%of%this%project.%One%possibility%is%that%‘making%sense’%can%be%a%simple%function%of%cost%but%it%can%equally%be%about%the%knowledge%and%skills%gained,%the%available%labour%to%conduct%such%work%as%compared%to%available%marketWbased%sources,%or%the%satisfaction%of%control%over%both%the%production%of%foods%and%its%distribution%and%quality.%!&! &! 13!Introduction:&!Food!sovereignty!is!the!right!of!peoples!to!healthy!and!culturally!appropriate!food!produced!through!ecologically!sound!and!sustainable!methods,!and!their!right!to!define!their!own!food!and!agriculture!systems.!It!puts!those!who!produce,!distribute!and!consume!food!at!the!heart!of!food!systems!and!policies!rather!than!the!demands!of!markets!and!corporations.!It!defends!the!interests!and!inclusion!of!the!next!generation.!It!offers!a!strategy!to!resist!and!dismantle!the!current!corporate!trade!and!food!regime,!and!directions!for!food,!farming,!pastoral!and!fisheries!systems!determined!by!local!producers.!Food!sovereignty!prioritizes!local!and!national!economies!and!markets!and!empowers!peasant!and!family!farmer>driven!agriculture,!artisanal!fishing,!pastoralist>led!grazing,!and!food!production,!distribution!and!consumption!based!on!environmental,!social!and!economic!sustainability.!Declaration!of!Nyéléni.!Forum!for!Food!Sovereignty!in!Sélingué,!Mali,!27!!February!2007.!!(Adopted%by%500%delegates%from%more%than%80%countries.)!!!The!Kwakiutl!relation!to!marine!resources!is!at!the!heart!of!the!culture;!it!is!not!simply!a!means!to!obtain!food.!And,!if!the!satisfaction!of!need!is!to!conform!with!the!present!legal!understanding!of!aboriginal!rights!and!if!marine!resources!are!to!continue!to!play!their!traditional!role!in!the!maintenance!and!reproduction!of!Kwakiutl!culture,!the!concept!of!need!must!be!considered!more!broadly!than!bare!numbers.!!Marty!Weinstein!and!Mike!Morrell!1994,!Need!is!not!a!Number:!Report!on!the!Kwakiutl!Marine!Food!Fisheries!Reconnaissance!Survey,!p.11.!%&This%collaborative%project%began%with%the%question:%What%would%it%take%for%the%‘Namgis%First%Nation%to%become%food%sovereign?%The%language%of%“becoming”%is%instructive%here%as%the%full%reach%of%historical%disruptions%of%food%procurement%is%nothing%short%of%profound.%Briefly%stated,%food%sovereignty%was%first%compromised%during%the%early%period%of%colonization%in%First%Nations%territories.%Interventions%forbade%access%to%harvesting%sites%and%food%species;%prohibited%customary%technologies,%and%criminalized%transactions%such%as%trade.%The%aboriginal%food%fishery%(for%subsistence%purposes%only)%was%created%in%the%1880’s%to%regulate%and%limit%aboriginal%fishing%in%the%context%of%an%expanding%commercial%fishery%in%BC%waters.%%Food%fish%permits%were%issued%“to%allow%Indians%to%catch%fish%for%the%purpose%of%providing%food%for%themselves%and%their%families%but%for%no%other%purpose”%(Harris%2009:112).%During%the%1890’s,%aboriginal%fishing%rights%depended%largely%on%the%“discretionary%power”%of%colonial%agents%who%oversaw%the%“ordinary%confrontations%and%administrative%decisions%over%fishing%spaces,%gear,%closed%seasons,%and%licenses”%(Schreiber%2008:87).%The%1888%Indian%Food%Fishery%Regulation%made%it%illegal%to%sell%any%yield%from%the%food%catch;%also,%the%use%of%spears%and%nets%for%salmon%! 14!fishing%were%banned.%“Exclusive%fisheries”%were%relinquished%by%the%DIA%in%the%1890’s%and%turned%over%to%the%Department%of%Marine%and%Fisheries%(Harris%2008:178).%By%1894,%aboriginal%fishers%had%to%acquire%permission%from%the%Inspector%of%Fisheries%to%fish%for%food.1%NonWaboriginal%fishers%were%able%to%purchase%a%licence%for%one%dollar;%they%did%not%require%permission.%Provincially,%the%BC%Game%Amendment%Act%(1905)%introduced%fines%and%imprisonment%for%violations%related%to%hunting,%trapping,%and%fishing.%%%In%1913,%when%‘Namgis%chiefs%testified%at%the%McKennaWMcBride%Royal%Commission%(MMRC)%in%‘Yalis%(Alert%Bay),%aboriginal%fishers%were%forbidden%from%using%traps,%weirs,%and%spears;%they%had%little%access%to%cannery%licenses%then%issued%almost%exclusively%to%Japanese%fishers;%and%no%access%to%“independent%licenses”%provided%to%“whiteWonly”%fishers%(UBCIC:%142).2%Through%these%(and%other)%barriers,%First%Nations%people%were%initially%compelled%into%the%market%food%system%to%purchase%from%local%venues%such%as%cannery%stores%(UBCIC:69).3%Following%Sparrow!v!Queen%(1990),%the%aboriginal%right%to%fish%for%food,%social,%and%ceremonial%purposes%has%been%upheld.%%The%pursuit%of%food%sovereignty%is%no%less%pertinent%today,%given%its%fundamental%importance%to%every%aspect%of%social,%cultural%and%physical%life.%For%the%purposes%of%this%study,%by%food%sovereign,%we%mean%being%able%(and%having%the%right)%to%access,%control%and%produce%what%is%needed%for%a%healthy%(and,%where%desired,%more%heavily%traditional)%diet.%Hence,%again,%our%driving%question:%What%would%it%take,%to%feed%1,000%‘Namgis%for%one%year%in%their%own%territory?%This%includes%approximations%for%a%daily%diet%as%well%as%an%example%of%the%food%that%was%required%for%one%year%of%feasting%and%potlatching%and%so%feeding%the%many%who%attend%ceremonial%events.%[We%by%no%means%wish%to%indicate%that%this%amount%is%stable%as%volumes%of%food%and%the%social%and%material%infrastructure%needed%for%feasting%and%potlatching%is%and%will%continue%to%vary%across%years.]%A%population%of%1,000%was%given%to%us%as%a%close%approximation%of%the%future%on%site%population%(assuming%some%increase%in%the%next%one%or%two%generations).%%!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!1!Canada!Gazette,!19!May!1894,!“Regulations!Relating!to!Fishing!in!Manitoba!and!the!North\west!Territories,”!and!3!March!1894,!“Fishery!Regulations!for!the!Province!of!British!Columbia.”!In!Schrieber!2008,!89.!2!Union!of!BC!Indian!Chiefs,!MMRC!Testimony,!142.!!!3!In!1913,!“Nahkwockte!Band!Chief”!George!Pokleetami!told!MMRC!commissioners!about!the!cost!of!supplies!bought!at!cannery!stores:!a!tin!of!biscuits!was!three!dollars;!a!sack!of!flour!was!two!dollars!and!fifty!cents;!18!lbs!of!sugar!cost!one!dollar!and!fifty!cents;!a!sack!of!potatoes!were!three!dollars;!and!tea!was!fifty!cents!per!pound.!Women!then!working!at!the!canneries!cut!fish!and!filled!cans;!they!were!paid!three!cents!per!“tray,”!(at!25!cans!/!tray),!and!generally!made!about!twenty\five!dollars!over!the!course!of!five!weeks.!MMRC!Testimony,!p.!69.!! 15!The%question%–%what%would%it%take?%–%is%compelling%for%a%number%of%reasons.%People%worldwide%seek,%more%than%ever,%to%become%food%sovereign%given%the%increasing%pressure%on%local%resources%and%rising%costs%of%food%transportation,%access%and%production.%This%is%especially%so%for%residents%of%‘Yalis%whose%commercial%foods%from%even%relatively%local%markets%are%tied%to%rising%ferry%costs%and%fuel%prices.%%Local%access%to%traditional%foods%has%declined%in%recent%years%due%to%a%number%of%conditions:%the%relatively%small%number%of%boat%owners%since%the%decline%of%commercial%fishing;%fewer%people%with%the%opportunity%to%harvest%due%to%the%costs%to%purchase,%maintain,%fuel%and%license%vehicles%(e.g.,%boats%and%trucks).%Like%all%First%Nations%peoples,%‘Namgis%also%share%many%contemporary%worries%about%developments%that%threaten%the%integrity%of%their%terrestrial%and%marine%territories.%%%%Secondly,%perhaps%best%indicated%by%the%‘traditional%food%study’%led%by%Dr.%Jay%Wortman%and%captured%in%the%documentary%film%“My!Big!Fat!Diet,”!nutrition%is%central%to%health%and%no%diet%has%been%more%popular%than%a%traditional%one,%potent%with%meaning%from%the%perspective%of%identity%and%culture.%Harvesting%and%production%activities%are%sites%for%the%intergenerational%transmission%of%knowledge%and%skills.%The%distribution%of%foods%through%kinship%and%other%networks%builds%and%reinforces%social%connections%and%ties%people%to%important%cultural%landscapes.%%%Thirdly,%there%exists%already%a%longWstanding%passion%and%history%of%fishing,%estuarine%gardens,%harvests%of%vast%varieties%of%grasses,%berries,%seaweeds,%etc.,%alongside%substantial%knowledge%and%history%of%traditional%use%sites%and%food%resources%throughout%the%region.%%As%well,%‘Namgis%territory%is%home%to%what%is%long%considered%one%of%the%most%robust%environments%for%marine%foods%in%the%world;%a%territory%that%has%supported%both%vast%wealth%in%salmon%and%marine%foods,%and%highly%elaborated%cultural%and%social%complexes%and%processes.%%Ultimately,%there%were%a%number%of%ways%to%answer%our%‘what%would%it%take’%question.%In%this%case,%it%involved%several%working%assumptions%at%each%stage%of%work.%We%began%with%the%overall%premise%that%the%composition%of%any%‘Namgis%diet%could%be%mostly%‘traditional’,%or%mostly%‘western’%and/or%a%hybrid%combination%of%the%two.%We%have%thus%provided%estimates%for%all%three%dietWtypes,%wherein%‘hybrid’%is%simply%half%of%each%of%a%traditional%and%western%diet.%%%Any%useful%answer%also%involved%several%necessary%subWquestions:%%%1.%How%much%food%and%in%what%combinations%of%proteins,%fats%and%macroWnutrients%%! 16!does!one!need!to!eat!each!day!and!how!would!that!vary!across!the!diet!types?!!%2.%What%would%it%cost%to%both%harvest%and/or%produce%most%of%what%is%needed%for%each%diet,%keeping%in%mind%costs%of%infrastructure%for%harvests%(e.g.,%purchasing,%maintaining%and%fueling%boats%and%pick%up%trucks%for%harvested%foods),%for%local%agriculture%(e.g.,%hectares%or%plots%of%land,%farming%inputs),%and%the%sheer%labour%needed%for%both.%%%Various%calibrations%and%questions%were%needed%to%keep%things%realistic:%%%1.%When%and%where%did%it%make%sense%to%exclude%some!traditional%foods%(e.g.,%few%people%eat%seal%or%clover%roots%anymore)?%%2.%When%and%where%is%it%just%too%expensive%(in%land%for%example,%or%given%the%needed%growing%conditions),%to%produce%some%things%locally%(e.g.,%growing%your%own%canola%for%oil%when%purchasing%it%in%bulk%makes%a%lot%more%sense)?%%Keeping%the%above%in%mind,%the%project%and%its%results%can%be%broken%down%into%three!stages%and%eight!basic%steps.%%%The&Stages&%The&Specific&Steps&%How!much!food!and!of!what!types!are!needed!to!provide!traditional!and/or!hybrid!diets!for!1,000!'Namgis!?!!What!would!providing!a!traditional!diet!cost!in!dollars!and!labour?!!What!would!producing!western!foods!locally!cost!in!dollars,!land!and!labour?!! 17!1.%%Determine%baseline&diet&compositions%for%both%a%traditional%and%western%diet,%including%foods%possible%to%obtain%in%the%current%and%foreseeable%future.%Develop%the%diet’s%composition%using%multiple%sources:%archival%records%on%traditional%foods%eaten%historically%and%oral%histories%on%what%is%eaten%now.%For%western%foods,%develop%a%diet%composition%using%such%sources%as%the%Canada%Food%Guide%calibrated%to%a%healthy%diet%appropriate%to%the%west%coast%of%B.C.%%2.%%Figure%out%what&and%how&much&people&need&to&eat&daily%on%average%to%be%healthy,%be%that%mostly%traditional%or%mostly%western%foods.%Convert%that%perWpersonWperWday%figure%to%a%constellation%of%total%foods%needed,%in%traditional%and/or%hybrid%western%and%traditional%diets.%Express%that%need%in%intuitively%useable%units%(e.g.,%pounds%of%meat%or%#%of%salmon%or%sacs%of%clams)%perWpersonW%perWday%and%year,%or,%in%aggregate,%for%1,000%people%for%one%year.%%%3.%Calculate%food&volumes%and%develop%a%constellation%of%food&types%for%primarily%traditional,%western%and%hybrid%diets%for%1,000%people%per%year%%%%4.%Figure%out%the%cost%of%procuring%total%annual%foods%needed%for%a%traditional&diet,%where%cost%is%a%combination%of%buying%and%maintaining%gear%(e.g.,%boats%and%trucks%needed%for%harvest%trips)%as%well%as%travel%costs%(fuel,%ferry%and/or%trip%supplies)%and%time%or%labour%needed%(e.g.,%in%person%hours%per%trip),%assuming%good%trips%and%bad%trips%and%things%coWcaught%on%trips%(e.g.%catching%some%prawns%when%out%fishing).%%%5.%Calculate%feasting&and&potlatching&food&estimates%given%one%year’s%record%of%the%total%number%of%small,%medium%and%large%feasts%and%potlatches%held%at%the%Big%House,%the%volumes%and%types%of%food%served%for%those%events.%%As%a%sample%year,%we%used%Big%House%bookings%for%2013%and%‘Namgis%researchers%conducted%interviews%with%food%specialists.%This%is%a%sample%year%only%and%thus%not%instructive%of%prior%or%future%years.%&6.%Investigate%general%infrastructure%and%supply%costs%for%household&food&production,&as%well%as%the%financial%and%social%barriers%for%harvesting%and%processing%foods%in%household%groups%and%communally.%We%did%not%calculate%costs%for%processing%food%fish%per%se,%but%do%list%primary%equipment%and%facilities%needed%for%jarring%/%canning,%smoking%and%freezing%fish.%%%%%! 18!7.%Figure%out%the%cost%of%producing%as%many%of%the%foods%within%the%western&diet%as%is%reasonably%possible%given%what%might%grow%or%has%been%grown%in%the%region%in%the%last%60%years%and/or%assuming%some%things%won’t%grow%well%on%or%near%Cormorant%Island.%This%included%finding%a%reasonable%basis%or%‘proxy’%for%estimating%production%where%information%sources%were%poor.%For%example,%available%information%tended%to%be%split%between%two%poles:%high%yield,%large%scale%agriculture%estimates%provided%by%Agriculture%Canada%but%really%only%appropriate%to%large%commercial%operations%versus!estimates%for%this%region%appropriate%for%smallWscale%mostly%organic%production%of%the%kind%associated%with%‘artisanal’%growers%(e.g.,%the%scale%included%everything%from%a%100sq%foot%backyard%garden%to%an%operation%of%several%hectares%in%size).%%8.%Compare%what%it%would%cost&to&produce&or&harvest&different&foods&locally%versus%purchasing%them%from%local%grocers;%that%is,%buying%food%locally%using%local%retailers%on%Cormorant%Island%or%in%Port%McNeil%plus%additional%expenses%for%ferry%once%a%month.%%%% !&wa’yanx''(January)''“Herring'Spawning'4me”'Ło’yanx'(December)''“Leaves'Fallen'Time”''gwaxsam'(November)''“Dog'Salmon'Time”'‘magwabo’yi'(October)''“Round'Moon'Underneath”''dzadza’wanx!'(February)''“First'Eulachon'Run'Time”'‘lixam'(September')''“WideNFaced'Moon”'xamsxamsdi'(August)''“Time'of'Empty'Fish'Storage'Boxes”'ninak’wanx'(July)''“Salalberry'Time”'gwagwat’anx''(June)''“Red'Huckleberry'Time”'k’amk’amdzak’wanx''(May)''''“Salmonberry'Time”'!‘ma’wa’et’łanx''(April)'''“Time'of'moving'to'the''''''Eulachon'Grounds”'k’wik’wa’lanx''(March)''“Everything'sprou4ng'4me”'tak'astan''(seaweed)''tłi'na''(eulachon''grease)'Winter ' '''Spring'‘Namgis'Harvest'Fall ' ''''Summer'ṫła'xwsam'(red'snapper)'hanu'n'(pink'salmon)'''''''''''''''''''''małik'(sockeye)'gwax'nis'dog'salmon''Dzaxwan'(eulachon)'nuxwa(blueberry)'kamdzaxw'mas'(salmonberries)'ṕo'yi'(halibut)'ṫławal’s'(elk)'gawiḱanam  (butter clam)'ḱu'mis(crab)'a’ant'(herring'roe''on'kelp)'ḱu'mis(crabs'&'prawns)'dusdak'wa'(blackberry)'tsagał'(thimbleberries)'tsalxw''(crabapple)''na̱k̕wa̱ł''(salal)'gwadam'(red''huckleberry)'ḱu'mis(crabs)'ṕo'yi''(halibut)'Giwas'(mule'deer)''!'malxtu'(mountain'goat)''ṫals'mas''(highIbush''cranberry)'ṫławal’s'(elk)'giwas'(mule'deer)''ṕo'yi''(halibut)''ReNasser4ng''‘Namgis'Food''Sovereignty.'UBC'&'‘Namgis''First'Na4on.'2.0&Food&Volume&and&Types&for&a&Primarily&Traditional&Diet&% % % %2.1&Creating&a&baseline&of&traditional&foods&%Establishing%a%baseline%traditional%diet%in%the%current%period%involved%looking%first%at%the%historical%diet%of%Kwakwaka’wakw%peoples.%We%used%multiple%published%sources%including%primary%historical%references:%George%Hunt%and%Franz%Boas’s%discussion%about%48%foods%in%“Kwakiutl%recipes”%(Boas%1921)%as%well%as%Juanita%Pasco%and%Brian%Compton’s%book%%“The%Living%World”%(Pasco,%Compton,%and%Hunt%1998);%and%Nancy%Turner’s%ethnoWbotanical%work%(Turner%1995).%Further%references%to%foods%are%found%in%traditional%narratives%recorded%by%Hunt%and%Boas%in%“Kwakiutl%Texts”%(1905;%1906),%and%Helen%Codere’s%further%analysis%of%the%recipes%they%collected,%the%occasions%for%different%foods%and%their%associations%with%gender,%rank%and%social%position%(Codere%1957).%Additionally,%testimonies%at%the%McKennaWMcBride%Royal%Commission%(1914)%provide%details%about%food%species%and%early%colonial%policies%that%hindered%access%to%harvesting%sites%and%outlawed%customary%harvesting%techniques%(Ware%1975).%Nancy%Turner%and%Dawn%Loewen%(Turner%and%Loewen%1998)%may%be%consulted%for%historical%trade%networks%among%First%Nations%on%Vancouver%Island%and%the%mainland.%%We%identified%120%key%foods.%These%are%fully%described%across%Appendix%A1WA9.%In%each%table%we%have%listed%their%kwak’wala%names%and%their%scientific%names;%information%on%their%habitat,%harvest%season,%harvest%technology%and%(historical%and%current)%preparation%methods%when%available.%The%profile%of%traditional%foods%included%cultural%narratives%that%accompany%foods,%ceremonially%important%foods,%chiefly%foods,%etc.%The%full%set%of%appendices%includes%the%following%categories%of%traditional%foods:%%1.%Appendix&AZ1:&Seaweeds!and!their!relatives%%2.&Appendix&AZ2:&Ferns%%%3.&Appendix&AZ3:&Flowering!Plants%%4.&Appendix&AZ4:&Clams!and!their!Relatives!5.&Appendix&AZ5:&Crustaceans%%6.%Appendix&AZ6:&Fishes!7.&Appendix&AZ8:&Marine!Mammals!8.&Appendix&AZ9:&Birds!!!%Below%are%tables%providing:%(a)%an%example%from%the%brief%table%for%seaweeds,%and%(b)%an%overview%of%the%content%of%all%appendices.%The%full%set%of%appendices%will%accompany%this%report%via%digital%files.%%%%!! 21!Appendix!AY1:!Seaweeds!and!their!relatives!!Seaweeds!and!their!relatives!Table!A\1.1!Kwak’wala!name!! tak'astan!! wawadi! ṫłasṫłakw!!!Scientific(name! Porphyra!abbottae! Nereocystis!luetkeana! Fucus!gardneri!!Common!name! Edible!Seaweed;!Seaweed! Bull!kelp!or!bottle!kelp;!kelp!Rockweed!!!Habitat! Marine!shore!at!low!tide! 6\8!meters!from!the!shore!4! Foreshore!Harvest/!cultivation!season!May!4! ! Rocks!on!the!beach!5!Harvest!location! Green!Island,!Numas!Island!and!Cormorant!Island.!From!smooth!rocks!along!the!shore!at!low!tide!4,6!!! !Labour! Historically!Female!6! ! !Type!of!use!(historical)!!! Towed!to!and!anchored!at!herring!spawning!grounds.!Once!spawning!complete,!after!four!days,!kelp!with!spawn!on!it!removed!from!water.!Dried!and!stored,!then!eaten!in!winter!6!!Medicinal:!used!mainly!for!healing!people,!as!a!dressing!to!treat!sores!and!swollen!feet,!or!fresh,!rubbed!on!legs!and!feet!to!treat!aches,!pains!and!paralysis!of!the!legs.!Mixed!with!yellow!cedar!boughs!in!steam!baths!to!treat!rheumatism.!Material:!sometimes!used!for!steaming!clams!in!a!steam!pit.!Also!used!with!eel\grass!for!steaming!wood!to!make!it!soft!and!flexible.!4!Preparation!(historical)!!Covered!and!left!to!ripen!4\5!days,!then!pressed!into!rectangular!wooden!frames!and!sun\dried.!4!Cut!up!with!an!adz,!and!chewed!and!put!into!a!large!dish,!boiled,!and!mixed!with!oil!7!!! For!steaming.!!Desirability!!!Highly!valued,!nutritious,!tasty,!often!obtained!through!trade!4! ! !!%%%%!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!4!(Pasco!&!Compton,!1998)!5!(Pasco!&!Compton,!1998,!p.!9)!6!(Boas!&!Hunt,!1921)!7!(Boas!&!Hunt,!1921,!p.!514)!!! 22!%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%Drying%Seaweed,%‘Yalis%2013,%George%Speck%and%Terre%Satterfield.%%%! 23!%!!!Appendix!A:!Historical*Food**Index***Appendix(subtitle((Table!number!Kwak’wala!name*Scientific(name*Common*name!Appendix!A51:!Seaweeds!and!their!Relatives!!Seaweeds(and(their(relatives(Table*A61.1( tak'astan!Porphyra(abbottae*Edible*Seaweed;*Seaweed* wawadi!Nereocystis(luetkeana*Bull*kelp*or*bottle*kelp;*kelp* ṫłasṫłakw!!!Fucus(gardneri*Rockweed*Appendix!A52:!Ferns((Ferns(Table*A62.1* sakwäxa!sāgŭmē?!*Pteridium(aquilinum*Bracken*fern;*bracken*root** łaḱwe'*Polypodium(glycyrrhiza*Licorice*fern* *Appendix!A53:!Flowering(Plants((Flowering(Plants*Table*A63.1** gwadam!(fruit);!gwada'_mas!(plant)*Vaccinium(parvifolium*Red*huckleberry;*Huckleberry** ṫaxwsus*Trifolium(wormskjoldii*Springbank*clover;**Clover** dłaxsam!(herb)*Potentilla(pacifica((Pacific(cinquefoil),(Potentilla(anserina*Cinquefoil*roots;*Pacific*cinquefoil;*Pacific*silverweed**Flowering(Plants*Table*A63.2** Tslōsaxa!hōqlwalē?!*Glaux(maritima*Sea*milkwort* Red!elderberry!fruit:!ṫsixina!*Red(elderberry:(Sambucus(racemosa(*Elderberries*na̱k̕wa̱ł((((((((((((((((*Gaultheria(shallon*Salal*Flowering(Plants*Table*A63.3* ḱisina*Ribes(bracteosum*Stink*currant;*greyberry;*blue*currant** ṫals!(fruit),!ṫals'mas*Viburnum(edule*High6bush*cranberry;*squashberry;*mooseberry;*viburnum*berries*kikalis!(fruit)*Oxycoccus(oxycoccos*Bog*cranberry*Flowering(Plants*Table*A63.4** N/A*Cornus(canadensis*Dogwood*berries;*bunchberry?*(Dogwood*famliy)**t̕a̱mxwa̱li*Gooseberry;*Coastal*Black*Gooseberry** "Clicksum"?!wild!lupin,!MMRC*Lupinus(nootkatensis*Blue*Lupine*6*or*possibly*Seashore*Lupine;*lupine*roots**Flowering(Plants*Table*A63.5** xatam*Conioselinum(pacificum*Carrot;*Pacific*Hemlock6parsley;*'Wild*Carrot';*'Indian*Carrot'**qot!xolē?!*Oemlaria(cerasiformis?(*Indian*Plum;*Chokecherry** tsalxw!(fruit)*Malus(fusca*Crabapple;*Pacific*crab*apple**! 24!! !Flowering(Plants*Table*A63.6** ḱamdzakw!(fruit!in!general);!!ṫsuṫsałtsam!(dark!berries);!'ma'ma'lik;!kamdzaxw'mas!(plant);!ḱwa'łam!(edible!shoots);!ḱwa'łmas!!(plant)!*Rubus(spectabilis*Salmonberry**lagu*Fragaria(chiloensis*Coastal*strawbery;*wild*strawberry* tsagał!(fruit),!tsagał'mas!(plant)*Rubus(parviflorus*Thimbleberry*Flowering(Plants*Table*A63.7* dusdak'wa*Rubus(ursinus*Trailing*blackberry;*Pacific*trailing*blackberry* nuxwa*Vaccinium(ovalifolium*Oval6leaved*blueberry* !N/A*Erythronium(revolutum*Erythronium;*Pink*Fawn*Lily;*Pink*Easter*Lily*Flowering(Plants*Table*A63.8** "Kukum"?!Fritillaria(camschatcensis*Lily;*Rice*Root;*Mission*Bells;*'Indian*Rice';*Black*Lily;*Chocolate*Lily**t'sat'sa'ya!(to!collect!eel!grass)!!Zostera(marina*Common*eel6grass* N/A!Polygonatum*Solomon's*Seal*Appendix!A54:!Clams(and(their(Relatives((Clams(and(their(Relatives*Table*A64.1**dzoli!Clinocardium(nuttalli*Cockle,*basket*cockle,*heart*cockle* ma'łana'yi!Tresus(capax*Horse*clam,*gaper**gawiḱanam!Saxidomus(gigantean*Butter*clam*Clams(and(their(Relatives*Table*A64.2* xu'la!Mytilus(californianus*California*mussel;*sea*mussel(*la'is!Mytilus(edulis*Edible*mussel;*blue**mussel,*bay*mussel,*common*blue*mussel*Kanas!Katharina(tunicate*Black*katy*chiton*Clams(and(their(Relatives(Table*A64.3**N/A!Cryptochiton(stelleri*Giant*Pacific*chiton,*gumboot,*chiton;*cryptochiton* gwa'li!ṫsa*Haliotis(kamtschatkana*Northern*abalone;*Japanese*abalone* masi'kw!Strongylocentrotus*red*sea*urchin;*Sea*eggs**Clams(and(their(Relatives*Table*A64.4**amda'ma;!*Stronglyocentrostus*Green*sea*urchin;*flat*sea*eggs**N/A!Littorina(littorea*Winkle;*common*periwinkle** *Appendix!A55:!Crustraceans((Crustaceans(Table*A65.1** ḱwiṫa'a!Balanus(nubilus*Giant*acorn*barnacle;*barnacle* ḱu'mis!Cancer(magister*Dungeness*crab*** *Appendix!A56:!Fishes((Fishes(Table*A66.1!* dzaxwan,!t'ti'na!(oil/grease)*Thaleichthys(pacificus*Eulachon* ḱada*Platichthys(stellatus*Flounder;*starry*flounder* xwaldzus*Hexagrammos(decagrammus*Kelp*greenling;*"tommy*cod";*kelp6fish**Fishes(Table*A66.2!* tłama'wa*Cymatogaster(aggregata*Shiner*perch;*shiner;*perch* ḱamax*Clupea(harengus*Pacific*herring;*herring* a'ant*Herring*roe;*spawn*! 25!! !Fishes(Table*A66.3!* N/A*Mobula(mobular*Devil*fish;*giant*devil*ray* gwax'nis*Oncorhynchus(keta*Dog*salmon;*chum*salmon** *Fishes(Table*A66.4!* dza'wan*Oncorhynchus(kisutch*Silver*salmon;*coho*salmon** małik*Oncorhynchus(nerka*Sockeye*salmon** hanu'n*Oncorhynchus(gorbuscha*Pink*salmon;*humpback*salmon;*humps;*humpies*Fishes(Table*A66.5!* ṕo'yi*Hippoglossus(stenolepis*Halibut* dłax̱stala!Codfish* *Fishes(Table*A66.6!* ṫuṫupa*Sebastes(melanops*Black*rockfish* ḱwa'ma*Myoxocephalus(polyacanthocephalus*Great*sculpin;*bullhead* *Appendix!A57:!Terrestrial(Mammals((Terrestrial(Mammals*Table*A67.1**!'malxtu*Oreamnos(americanus*Mountain*goat* ṫławal's*Cervus(elaphus*Elk* *Terrestrial(Mammals*Table*A67.2* giwas*Odocoileus(hemionus*Mule*deer* ṫławal's*Alces(alces*Moose* ṫłe'*Ursus(americanus*Black*bear*Appendix!A58:!Marine(Mammals(Marine(Mammals*Table*A68.1* xa'wa*Callorhinus(ursinus*Northern*fur*seal* migwat*Phoca(vitulina*Harbour*or*hair*seal* k"ulut̕a*Porpoise*Marine(Mammals*Table*A68.2** gwa'yam*Megaptera(novaengliae*Humpback*whale;*as*well*as*any*type*of*large*whale*including*grey*(Eschrichtush*robustu)*but*excluding*minke.**max'inux*Orcinus(orca*Killer*whale;*blackfish;*orca* *Appendix!A59:!Birds((Birds*Table*A69.1** gwadin*Bucephala(calngula*Common*goldeneye* xubi*Bucephala(albeola*Bufflehead;*butterball;*butterball*duck* gagos,!gwagwos!(male),!ṫłamkayu!!(female)!Mergus(merganser*Common*merganser;*sawbill*Birds(Table*A69.2** lagapala*Melanitta(perspicillata*Surf*scoter* łałḱu.!ḱwayu'xw!(all!ducks,!especialy!mallards)!!Anas(platyrhynchos*Mallard!madzina*Histironicus(histironicus*Harlequin*duck*Birds*Table*A69.3** No!Kwak'wala!name!verified!!Fratercula(cirrhata*Tufted*Puffin! xiba*Cerorhinca(monocerata*Rhinoceros*Auklet* he'anxayugwa*Uria(aalge*Common*Murre**!!!! 26!2.2&Moving&from&historical&baselines&to&a&possible&contemporary&“Traditional”&Diet&!To%estimate%the%total%quantity%of%food%required,%we%started%with%Canada%Food%Guide%recommendations%of%2000%calories%per%person%per%day%and%recommended%macronutrient%breakdowns.%%We%then%found%macronutrient%compositions%for%as%many%food%types%as%possible%and%entered%these%into%a%spreadsheet.%%We%also%found%total%Canadian%perWcapita%consumption%figures%(http://www4.agr.gc.ca/AAFCWAAC/displayWafficher.do?id=1172757124631&lang=eng).%While%the%exact%foods%and%groupings%differ%somewhat%between%the%various%sources%used,%we%combined%the%data%iteratively%to%define%a%percentage%of%calories%from%each%food%we%had%nutrient%data%for,%aiming%for%a%diet%profile%that%would%be%reasonably%close%to%the%Canadian%consumption%figures,%but%would%also%land%within%an%estimated%range%for%a%traditional%diet%(e.g.,%the%higherWprotein,%lowerWcarbohydrate%end%of%these%ranges).%%%In%order%to%move%from%a%total%possible%list%of%120%foods%to%something%we%could%reasonably%estimate%as%being%widely%available%and%desired%by%many%to%consume,%we%drew%from%both%interviews%conducted%by%Diane%Jacobson,%and%discussions%with%band%staff.%Nutritional%information%was%gathered%for%27%foods%(e.g.,%małik%/%sockeye)%or%food%groups%(e.g.,%tak’astan/seaweeds).%For%some%foods%nutritional%information%is%readily%available%(e.g.%małik/Sockeye);%for%other%groupings%we%used%a%representative%food%item%for%which%nutritional%information%is%available.%%For%instance,%we%assumed%that%various%roots%consumed%as%part%of%historical%diet%(xatam/Tslōsaxa%hōqlwalē/dłaxsam/ṫaxwsus)%would%have%roughly%similar%macroWnutrient%content%as%potato,%not%because%this%was%precisely%the%case%but%because%it%served%as%the%closest%available%proxy.%We%also%made%a%somewhat%finer%distinction%between%meat%and%seafood%sources,%while%grouping%plant%foods.%%This%is%for%three%main%reasons.%%First,%there%is%a%much%higher%diversity%of%plant%foods,%so%breaking%these%down%to%species%level%would%add%a%lot%of%complexity%to%the%calculations.%%Second,%especially%for%traditional%roots,%seeds,%and%other%starchy%crops,%the%nutrient%composition%database%we%used,%while%containing%a%lot%of%‘country’%(wild)%meats%and%berries,%did%not%have%data%on%these%plant%foods.%%Third,%band%staff%and%community%members%we%talked%to%tended%to%think%of%the%animal%foods%as%distinct%in%terms%of%harvesting%strategies,%vehicles%used%to%access%them,%yields,%and%needs,%these%distinctions%were%not%as%apparent%for%harvesting%fruits,%berries,%roots,%and%seed%crops.%%%2.2&Composing&the&Diet&Itself:&Calories,&Proteins,&and&Fats&%The%relatively%higher%protein%component%of%our%estimated%‘Namgis%traditional%diet%is%shown%in%Table%1%below.%Macronutrient%breakdowns%of%the%traditional%diet%as%compared%to%our%estimated%western%diet%are%provided.%The%percentages%shown%here%were%then%adjusted%iteratively%until%reasonable%macronutrient%breakdowns%were%obtained%in%the%form%of%2000%cal/person/day%for%a%! 27!potential%1000%people%in%the%community.%Total%yearly%needs%were%then%calculated%in%units%that%made%sense%for%harvesting%calculations%(e.g.,%one%doesn’t%harvest%½%an%elk%and%so%on).%Because%we%did%aim%for%a%traditional’%diet%higher%in%protein%and%with%a%lower%carbohydrate%content%than%the%Canada%food%guidelines,%without%being%too%extreme,%that%comparison%is%below.%For%instance,%we%set%the%volume%of%calories%from%proteins%for%a%traditional%diet%at%45%%versus%24%%for%the%western%diet;%similarly%the%carbohydrate%level%for%a%traditional%diet%was%comparatively%lower%at%24%%of%calories%as%compared%to%39%%of%calories%estimated/recommended%for%the%average%Canadian%diet.%%%%While%specific%estimates%for%what%proportions%of%carbohydrates%or%proteins%were%traditionally%consumed%in%this%part%of%the%world%are%uncertain,%we%did%our%best%to%research%and%propose%a%reasonable%proxy%traditional%diet.%This%included%the%consideration%of%a%number%of%streams%of%evidence.%For%instance,%current%fish%consumption%rates%in%US%Native%American%communities%are%high%(e.g.,%an%average%of%148%grams%per%day%with%much%higher%(double%and%more)%for%traditional%diets%(Donatuto%and%Harper%2008).%Less%disputed%are%historical%rates%of%returning%salmon.%The%most%widely%cited%research%from%the%peerWreviewed%literature%indicates%depletion%of%salmon%(measured%in%biomass)%return%to%US%Pacific%Northwest%waters%(Oregon,%California,%Washington%and%Idaho)%to%be%160W226%million%kg%historically%versus%11.8W13.7%million%kg%in%the%current%period%(Gresh,%Lichatowich,%and%Schoonmaker%2000).%Regardless,%a%few%anchoring%points%for%developing%a%diet%were%as%follows,%based%in%particular%on%Weinstein’s%estimates,%which%remains%the%most%comprehensive%review%of%evidence%pertinent%to%the%‘Namgis%First%Nation%available%at%this%writing%(1994,%pp%39W41):%%1.%Following%Chisholm’s%1983%analysis%of%preWcontact%diets,%Weinstein%suggests%that%90%%of%proteins%were%from%fish%and%seafoods,%based%on%evidence%from%multiple%sites%between%Nass%River%and%Crescent%Beach%%2.%%Overall,%Weinstein%finds%that%45%%of%calories%were%from%salmon,%with%an%additional%10%%of%caloric%intake%from%terrestrial%resources.%By%this%measure%we’re%actually%lower%than%the%‘historic’%range%of%calories%from%salmon,%though%we%deemed%this%necessary%given%declining%salmon%stocks%over%time%and%given%annual%variability%in%temperature%and%populations%of%returning%salmon.%Weinstein%suggests%an%annual%range%historically,%given%variation%of%25W45%,%and%so%we%held%sockeye%at%the%lower%level,%25%,%with%an%additional%5%%each%made%up%of%pink%and%chum%salmon,%followed%by%proteins%from%other%finfish%and%shellfish%%3.%Weinstein%also%notes%that%harvest%levels%in%Alaska%and%Canadian%north%in%the%1990s%ranged%from%1/2%to%2%pounds%of%edible%meats%and%fish%per%person%per%day.%He%also%assumes%5%lbs%of%food%per%sockeye.%By%this%estimate,%the%lower%range%of%½%lb%per%day%would%involve%36,500%sockeye%per%! 28!year%or%36.5%per%person%per%year.%We%have%roughly%29%sockeye%in%our%diet%per%person%per%year%or%23,928 sockeye per year for 1000 people. We consider this a slightly more conservative estimate, and it also assumes a higher proportion of edible meat per fish (‘Namgis%partners%who%were%fishWknowledgeable%suggested%we%work%with%10lb%edible%weight%for%sockeye%and%pinks,%18lb%for%chum).%%Again, we sought%a%reasonable%approximation%of%a%traditional%diet%for%today’s%population,%and%not%a%replica%of%earlier%periods.8%%4.%More%recently,%Ströhle%+%Hahn%(2011)%have%looked%at%the%carbohydrate%intake%of%peoples%considered%to%be%contemporary%“hunterWgatherers.”%%That%is,%peoples%who%do%not%maintain%an%agricultural%food%economy%simply%because%marine%foods%were%so%fully%available%within%their%territory%that%storage%and%surplus%has%long%been%possible.%In%Ströhle%+%Hahn’s%classification,%the%’Namgis%would%be%considered%either%‘northern%coniferous%and%tundra’%people,%for%whom%carbohydrates%are%<15%%of%the%diet,%or%temperate%forest%(mostly%mountain),%whose%carbohydrate%intake%ranges%between%23W26%.%We%thus%chose%the%more%conservative%proportion%of%24%%given%its%alignment%with%other%diets,%such%as%Dr.%Jay%Wortman’s%lowWcarb%highWfat%diet,%which%is%somewhat%higher%in%fat%and%slightly%less%protein.9%%Diet%composition%would%also%change%with%regional%preferences.%If%one%were%to%eat%much%more%Chinook%salmon%than%Sockeye,%for%example,%the%former%has%about%twice%the%volume%of%fat%equivalent%volume,%than%the%later.10&Another%consideration%was%the%purpose%of%this%estimate%itself.%In%answering%the%linked%central%question%–%what%would%it%cost%–%we%aimed%for%conservative%estimates.%By%this%we%mean%we%preferred%to%err%on%the%side%of%volumes%that%were%reasonable%but%not%as%high%as%could%be%the%case%precisely%because%this%guards%against%any%impression%that%harvesting%local%foods%or%growing%them%is%unrealistically%‘cheap’%because%of%economies%of%scale,%or%unrealistically%expensive%because%harvest%rates%are%set%at%very%low%levels.%%!!In%summary,%we%selected%a%traditional%diet%comparatively%high%in%protein,%(but%not%as%high%as%might%be%justifiable),%and%low%in%carbohydrates,%all%the%while%also%recognizing%the%social%and%cultural%well%being%benefits%of%fish%and%shellfish%(Stiles%and%Sofield%2013).!Our%work%is%also%consistent%with%recent%research%indicating%low%carbohydrate%diets%as%more%effective%with%regard%to%weight%loss%and%reducing%risk%factors%for%cardiovascular%disease%and%type%2%diabetes%(Bazzano%et%al.%2014;%Hu%et%al.%2012).%%!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!8%Weinstein%also%included%an%additional%10%%for%ceremonial%purposes,%but%we%address%these%numbers%separately%by%way%of%using%an%example%of%one%year,%but%do%not%pretend%to%otherwise%recommend%a%proportion%for%these%purposes%as%this%is%beyond%the%scope%of%this%work.%%%9!Wortman%(2011),%My%Big%Fat%Diet.%http://ihlcdp.ok.ubc.ca.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/__shared/assets/obesitydrwortman38894.pdf!10!Seafood%Health%Facts:!http://seafoodhealthfacts.org/seafood_choices/salmon.php!! 29!%The%basic%breakdown%of%the%diets%are%below:%%Nutrient Percent of calories   Traditional Western Guidelines Carbohydrate 24.0% 39.4% 45-65 (avg 55) Protein 45.9% 24.4% 10-35 (avg 15) Fat 30.1% 36.2% 20-35 (avg 30) !!The%particulars%of%this%breakdown%of%distribution%in%percentage%of%calories%per%each%food%are%in%table%2.1%below,%expressed%as%both%portion%of%diet%and%the%conversion%of%this%to%yearly%estimates%of%that%food%needed%to%feed%1000%people%a%traditional%versus%western%diet.%By%way%of%example,%in%our%traditional%diet,%roughly%25%%of%a%year’s%total%calories%are%provided%by%sockeye%whereas%only%6% %of%total%calories%would%come%from%sockeye%in%our%north%island/central%coast%western%diet.%%Volumes%would%necessarily%vary%with%availability%or%preference%of%specific%species.%%%Table&2.1:&An&overview&of&a&volume&and&calorie&content&for&a&proposed&traditional&versus&western&diet&&Food Percent (%) of calories from food Estimated Yearly community food needs   Traditional Western Traditional Western Finfish             Sockeye 25 6 23,928 fish 5,743 fish Pink 5 2 6,931 fish 2,772 fish Chum 5 2 3,602 fish 1,441 Fish Rockfish 2 0.5 1,961 fish 490 Fish Halibut 6 2 4,466 fish 1,489 Fish Eulachon 2   87,955 fish    Herring 2   7,487 kg    Herring eggs 1   9,865 kg     Shellfish             Crab 4 1 29,915 crabs 7,479 Crabs Clams 4 1 14,957 bags 3,739 Bags Cockles and mussels 0.5   935 bags    Shrimp and prawn 0.25   190 bags    Urchin 0.25        Oysters   0.5   4,963 Bags Country meats             Moose 1   32 moose    Elk 2   83 elk    Deer 3   558 deer    ! 30!Duck 1   3,810 birds    Goose 2   3,810 birds    Grouse 2   22,647 grouse    Domestic meats             Lamb   2   301 Sheep Goats   2   738 Goats Beef   12   118 Cows Pork   4   90 Pigs Chicken   6   20,397 Chicken Traditional plants             Seaweed 3   62,571 kg    Fruits/berries 6 4 85,882 kg 57,255 Kg Nuts 2 1 2,325 kg 1,162 Kg Western plants             Grains 7 25 14,116 kg 50,414 Kg Starchy vegetable 7 7 66,364 kg 66,364 Kg Vegetables (greens) 2 3 58,400 kg 87,600 Kg Other             Sugars and syrups 2 5 4,294 kg 10,735 Kg Oils and fats   5   4,506 Kg Eggs   2   19,337 Dz Cheese   5   9,057 Kg Milk   2   3 Cows Eulachon grease 3   2,704 kg     %2.2.1&Comparing&Salmon’s&Nutrients&for&Traditional&versus&Western&Diet&%An%easier%way%to%think%about%this%is%to%consider%some%comparisons.%Take,%for%example,%the%different%species%of%salmon.%%About%35%%of%calories,%20%%of%proteins,%and%13%%of%fats%in%a%heavily%salmonWdependent%traditional%diet%are%made%up%of%different%species%of%salmon.%In%the%western%diet,%(even%when%assuming%salmonWconsuming,%nonWNative%residents%of%B.C.’s%west%coast),%the%total%macronutrients%from%salmon%is%vastly%less%at%roughly%9%%of%calories,%5%%of%proteins,%and%3.5%%of%fats%derived%from%salmon%species.%%This%comparative%breakdown%is%demonstrated%below%in%Table%2.2.1:%Estimated!percentage!of!select!nutritional!requirements!met!by!salmon!in!traditional!‘Namgis!versus!Western!diet.!!%! 31!%%Table&2.2.1:&Estimated&percentage&of&select&nutritional&requirements&met&by&salmon&in&traditional&‘Namgis&versus&western&diet.&&%&2.3&Total&volume&of&food&needed&to&provide&a&traditional&diet&for&1000&people&per&year&&%The%estimated%total%food%needs%for%a%traditional%diet%are%difficult%to%comprehend.%What,%for%instance,%might%annual%food%fish%provide,%versus%the%volumes%that%might%actually%be%needed?%Table&2.3.1%below%is%a%first%look%at%our%answer%to%this%question.%The%horizontal%bars%in%blue%represent%all%fish%and%shellfish%needed%by%kilogram%weight,%red%depicts%all%terrestial%meats,%yellow%all%seaweeds,%vegetables%and%berries,%whereas%orange%and%light%purple%indicate%grains,%starches,%sugars%and%oils.%%A%quick%look%reveals%the%following%approximate%needs:%%%! 108,600%kilos%of%sockeye%! %40,500%kilos%of%halibut%! %62,500%kilos%of%seaweeds%0%#10%#20%#30%#40%#50%#60%#Tradi/onal## Western# Tradi/onal# Western# Tradi/onal# Western#Es#mated)percentage)of)select)nutri#onal)requirements)met)by)salmon)in)tradi#onal)‘Namgis)diet)vs.)western)diet))Non8salmon#sources#Gwax'nis#(Chum)#Hanu'n#(Pink)#Małik#(Sockeye)#Non8salmon#sources#Gwax'nis#(Chum)#Hanu'n#(Pink)#Małik#(Sockeye)#Calories# Protein# Fat##! 32!! %13,100%kilos%of%elk%meat%! %89,000%kilos%of%fruits%and%berries%! Nearly%40,000%crabs%! Nearly%16,000,%20%lb%bags%of%clams%and%other%mollusks%! 66,000%kilos%of%starchy%vegetables%%Items%such%as%the%last%one%(starchy%vegetables)%as%well%as%sugars%and%syrups%should%be%assumed%to%be%relatively%more%uncertain%because%macroWnutrient%or%volume%proportions%of%traditional%sources%of%these%were%not%available.%Using%proxies%often%means%very%loose%equivalents%such%as%potatoes%(well%known%to%be%high%in%carbohydrates)%and%might%well%be%constitutionally%quite%distinct%from%foods%such%as%dłaxsam/cinquefoil%roots.%%%Converting%these%volume%estimates%is%also%useful%as%it%can%be%difficult%to%work%at%the%scale%of%volumes%such%as%>%80,000%kilos%of%berries%or%130,000%kilos%of%sockeye.%Thus%the%2nd%table%below,%Table&2.3.2,%breaks%these%down%to%a%per%person/per%year%representation.%These%volumes%are%listed%in%the%colour%boxes.%A%brief%review%indicates,%for%example:%29%sockeye,%30%crabs,%15%bags%of%clams,%approximately%80%kilos%of%berries%and%fruits,%12%waterfowl,%and%60%kilos%of%roots.%The%vertical/Y%axis%of%the%table%depicts%calories%provided%for%each%person,%thus%48%%of%all%calories%are%provided%by%the%different%fish%species,%especially%sockeye/małik%at%30%%of%calories.%A%further%20%%(approximately)%of%calories%are%provided%by%meats%and%shellfish,%with%a%remaining%27%%provided%by%nuts,%fruits%and%berries,%vegetables,%seaweeds,%roots%and%grains,%and%a%final%10%%provided%by%fats%and%oils%(e.g.,%t'łi'na)%and%sugars/syrups.%%The%high%proportion%of%total%calories%from%fish,%meats%and%seafoods%is%not%necessarily%surprising%as%these%are%the%highly%caloric%foods%in%any%diet.%At%roughly%230%kilos%per%person%per%year,%a%very%large%volume%of%plant%foods%are%still%required%(despite%their%lesser%caloric%load).%%%Lastly,%Table&2.3.3%(the%third%visual%in%the%table%sequence%below)%provides%the%volume%need%of%locally%harvestable%protein%sources%only.%This%includes%a%list%with%a%rough%estimate%of%all%marine%and%terrestial%proteins,%indicating%total%volume%needed%by%#%of%fish%or%#%of%elk%for%1000%persons%per%year.%As%before,%this%assumes%2000%calories%per%day.%%%!33!2.3.1:&Yearly&Food&Need&by&Kilogram&for&a&Traditional&Diet&for&1000&people&per&year!!!!!!34!Table&2.3.2:&Per&Person&Per&Year&Traditional&Diet&Food&Needs&!!!!35!&Table&2.3.3:&Select&Foods&Required&Per&Year&for&1000&persons&!!! 36!2.4$Feasting$and$Potlatching$Food$Estimates$$Given&the&powerful&symbolic&and&political&properties&of&foods&served&at&ceremonial&occasions,&we&do&not&attempt&to&calculate&the&costs&or&value&these.&Often&regarded&as&the&“wealth”&of&the&‘na’mi’ma&(clan),&family&or&Nation,&foods&are&harvested&in&traditional&territories&or&acquired&through&trade&or&purchase&by&hosting&Chiefs,&relatives&and&supporters.&Family&groups&contribute&fresh&and&frozen&fish,&and&processed&foods&(e.g.,&tłina,&jarred,&canned,&and&or&smoked&salmon,&eulachon,&clams,&berry&jams&etc.).&&The&‘Namgis&Band&also&contributes&seafoods&and&wild&meats&for&feasting&and&potlatching&and&for&hosting&a&variety&of&events&including:&Sea&Fest,&June&Sports,&Treaty&meetings,&and&cultural&days&at&schools&in&‘Yalis.&In&addition,&traditional&foods&are&served&at&non&“traditional”&funerals&and&weddings.&The&volumes&estimated&in&the&following&pages&do&not&include&the&significant&amount&and&variety&of&foods&exchanged&and&distributed&as&gifts.&What&follows&is&for&gok’wamdzi&(Big&House)&events&in&one&year&only.!&Understanding&that&‘Namgis&food&needs&include&traditional&foods&required&for&hosting&potlatches&and&feasts&in&‘Yalis,&we&coTdesigned&a&second&interview&protocol&to&provide&some&sense&of&prioritized&foods&for&these&events.&Interviewees&were&asked&to&list:&a)&all&of&the&traditional&seafoods,&wild&meats,&grains,&grasses&and&berries&or&other&land&based&plants&that&are&often&eaten&at&feasts&and&potlatches;&and,&b)&of&those&foods,&list&which&foods&they&see&as&essential$for&feasting&and&potlatching&–&by&that&we&meant&foods&“you!can’t!imagine”!doing!without!for!potlatching!and!feasting.!Interviews&about&ceremonial&foods&were&conducted&by&Diane&Jacobsen&and&other&‘Namgis&researchers&who&spoke&with&food&specialists&–&harvesters,&producers&and&caterers&(Audio&interview&recordings&are&in&the&control&and&ownership&of&the&‘Namgis&Band.)&&&The&second&part&of&the&interview&included&questions&about&the&approximate&volume&of&each&food&species&served&at&different&sized&events&(defined&by&numbers&of&people&served/attending).&The&volume&of&foods&for&one&year&was&calculated&from&the&record&of&the&total&number&of&feasts&and&potlatches&held&at&the&Big&House&in&2013;&numbers&of&people&in&attendance;&number&of&meals&of&traditional&foods&served;&and,&approximations&of&the&volumes&and&types&of&food&served&for&those&events.&&From&the&frequency&of&feasts&and&potlatches&for&2013,&as&well&as&the&estimates&for&ceremonial&food&volumes,&we&developed&a&list&of&‘Preferred&Ceremonial&Foods:&Estimated&Volumes&for&One&Year.’&11&This&year&is&meant&to&be&instructive&by&way&of&example&only&and&not&an&overall&estimate&of&annual&volumes&needed,&as&these&vary&considerably.&& &!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!11!Marty&Weinstein&(2006)&estimates&ceremonial&foods&as&an&additional&10%&over&and&above&dietary&volumes.!! 37!2.4.1$Potlatching$and$Feasting$Events:$2013.$!&For&the&year&2013,&approximately&6,&550&people&were&served&traditional&foods&over&the&course&of&13&days&of&ceremonial&events&in&gok’wamdzi&‘Yalis.&&&&!! &Feast / Potlatch Size Feast or Potlatch Type  Typical  # of these held per year Typical # in Attendance/ Served Typical # Traditional Food meals  Small  Wedding Feast  1 150 1 Small Feasts  3 300 1  Medium  Feast   1  500 1 Medium Community dinner  1 500 1 Large  Potlatch 3 1,500 2 Gixsam!Feast!2007.!!38!2.4.2$Potlatching$and$Feasting$Food$Volumes$by$Event$for$2013.$$$Courtesy,!Donna!Stauffer!!Typical Items Served Volume for potlatch of 200 people (e.g. bags, barrels, sacks or and #s of …) Volume for potlatch of 500 people  (e.g. bags, barrels, sacks or and #s of …) Volume for potlatch of 800 people (e.g. bags, barrels, sacks or and #s of …) Volume for potlatch of 1000 people  (e.g. bags, barrels, sacks or and #s of …) małik /Sockeye 60 125 200 300 hanu'n / Pink 10 25 35 50 łak'astan/ Seaweed 1 Gallon 2 Gallon 4 Gallon 8 Gallon ṕo'yi../.Halibut 75 lbs 125 lbs 150lbs 200lbs a'ant./$Herring Eggs 4 gallons 6 gallon 8 gallon 10 gallon ṫła'xwsam / Cod (Rockfish) 75lbs 125 lbs 150 lbs 200lbs dzaxwan/ Eulachon 600pcs 800 pcs 1,000 pcs 1,200pcs 'was'wani./$Prawns 2,000 pcs 5,000 pcs 8,000 pcs 10,000 pcs gawiḱanam /Clams  3 sacks 1sack= 1 gallon cleaned (ice cream bucket)   4 sacks     6 sacks     8 sacks dzoli / Cockles (a “delicacy”) 4 pint jars ¼ sack  ½ sack  1 sack ḱu'mis /Crabs –  100 served in ½ & legs separate. 150  200  300 t’łina. ¼ gallon ½ Gallon (1/2 gallon= $250) ¾ Gallon 1 Gallon ṫławal's./ Elk (roasts / stews) 100 lbs 200 lbs 300 lbs 400 lbs ṫławal's / Moose (roasts / stews) 100 lbs 200 lbs 300 lbs 400 lbs giwas./$Deer   50lbs 100 lbs 200lbs 250lbs ! 39!2.4.3%Preferred%Feasting%Foods:%Volumes%for%2013.%!% Total!consumption!during!3!potlatches!and!6!feasts!%Food%Source%małik!!!!!!!!!!Sockeye!Salmon!% !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!3,265!fish!hanu'n!!!!!!!!!Pink!!Salmon!% !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!553!fish!!łak'astan!!!!!!!!Seaweed!% !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!81!Gallons!!ṕo'yi!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Halibut!% !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!2,444!lbs!a'ant!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Herring!Roe!% !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!123!Gallons!ṫła'xwsam!!!!Cod!(Rockfish)!% !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!2,444!lbs!dzaxwan!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Eulachon!% !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!15,550!pieces!!'was'wani%!%!!!!!!!!!Prawns!% !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!110,500!pieces!!gawiḱanam!!!!!!!!Clams!%%!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!96!!sacks!1!sack!=!1!gallon!bucket!cleaned.!dzoli!!!%%%%%%%!!!!!!!!Cockles% !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!10!5/8!sacks!and!3!pint!jars!!%ḱu'mis!!!!%%%%%%%%%%%Crabs!%%!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!3,525!pieces!!!!!!!!!!served!in!halves,!legs!separate!tłi’na!!%%%%Eulachon%Grease% !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!11!Gallons!ṫławal's!!!!!%%%%%!!!Elk!% !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!4,525!lbs!ṫławal's!!!!!%%%%%%!Moose!% !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!4,525!lbs!giwas!%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%Deer!% !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!2,713!lbs!!**!This!table!does!not!include!gifting!foods.!!!!! 40!FEASTING%3%Potlatches%and%6%Feasts%in%2013%%%%%%%%%%gok’wamdzi!!(Big!house)!%%3,818%fish%Estimated!number!of!salmon!consumed!/served!!Of!this,!3,265!are!Małik!!and!!553!are!Hanu’n!!!!!!!!!Wild%Meats%%%%11,%763%lbs%meat%!elk!!!!!!!!4,!525!lbs!moose!4,525!lbs!deer!!!!!2,713!lbs!!!!!!41!małik / sockeye salmon –  3,265 hanu'n / pink salmon – 553 !ṕo'yi / halibut – 2,444 lbs  dzaxwan / eulachon –   15, 550  ḱu'mis / crabs –    3,525  'was'wani!/ prawns110, 500! a'ant / herring roe –  123 gallons łak'astan / seaweed – 81 gallons!ṫła'xwsam / cod – 2,444 lbs  gawiḱanam / clams –  96 sacks* dzoli / cockles – 105 sacks t’łi’na / eulachon grease – 11 gallons ṫławal's / elk –  4, 525 lbs!giwas / deer –   2, 713 lbs 'ma'ma'lik / salal berry!Ḱamdzakw  / salmon berry !tsagał / thimbleberry!dusdak'wa / black berry   nuxwa / blue berry!ṫławal's / moose –  4,525 lbs!gwadam / huckleberry **gilakas’la!‘Namgis!harvesters!and!caterers.!‘Re9asser:ng!‘Namgis!Food!Sovereignty,’!a!collabora:on!between!UBC!researchers!and!‘Namgis!First!Na:on!researchers.!Funded!by!Peter!Wall!Solu:ons!Ini:a:ve,!UBC.!2015.!*  1 sack = 1gallon bucket cleaned.  !! 42!3.0$Food$Volume$and$Types$for$a$Primarily$Western$and$Hybrid$Diet$for$1000$people$per$year$!To!estimate!an!exclusively!western!diet!we!again!used!the!Canada!Food!Guidelines!noted!above;!that!proportion!as!compared!to!a!traditional!diet!is:!!Nutrient Percent of calories   Traditional Western Guidelines Carbohydrate 24.0% 39.4% 45-65 (avg 55) Protein 45.9% 24.4% 10-35 (avg 15) Fat 30.1% 36.2% 20-35 (avg 30) !!We!also!assumed!a!relatively!higher!proportion!of!marine!foods!as!is!true!of!most!people!living!in!or!near!BC’s!coast,!and!we!sought!a!healthy!diet.!In!this!sense,!we!iteratively!developed!different!combinations!of!foods!widely!eaten!and!available,!most!of!which!can!be!grown!locally!or!easily!imported!from!proximate!growing!regions.!The!diet!below!could!be!shifted!in!various!directions!(e.g.,!goats!might!not!be!desirable!and!so!replaced!with!more!chicken).!Regardless,!the!one!provided!was!simply!our!best!effort!at!the!right!balance!of!foods!across!caloric!need!and!macronutrient!content.!The!western!diet!reported!here!was!also!further!calibrated!to!reflect!a!‘westernIstyle’!diet!more!likely!still!in!a!Vancouver!Island!and/or!First!NationsIinfluenced!diet!(e.g.,!higher!than!average!fish,!shellfish!and!green!vegetable!consumption).!That!diet!with!caloric!and!food!breakdown!is!provided!in!table!3.1!below.![Granted,!some!people!eat!prawns!and!urchins,!but!in!small!enough!number!that!they!are!only!included!in!the!traditional!diet.]!!In!this!diet,!see!table!3.1!(same!as!table!2.1!above),!about!10%!of!calories!still!come!from!salmon;!2%!from!halibut,!2.5%!from!crab!and!shellfish;!whereas!meats!from!landIbased!animals!amount!to!26%!of!the!total!caloric!load,!and!just!under!20%!of!the!calories!come!from!dairy,!sugars,!eggs!and!oils.!!! $! 43!Table$3.1:$An$overview$of$a$volume$and$calorie$content$for$a$proposed$traditional$versus$western$diet$$!!Food % of calories from food Yearly community food needs   Traditional Western Traditional Western Finfish             Sockeye 25 6 23,928 fish 5,743 fish Pink 5 2 6,931 fish 2,772 fish Chum 5 2 3,602 fish 1,441 fish Rockfish 2 0.5 1,961 fish 490 fish Halibut 6 2 4,466 fish 1,489 fish Eulachon 2   87,955 fish    Herring 2   7,487 kg    Herring eggs 1   9,865 kg    Shellfish             Crab 4 1 29,915 crabs 7,479 crabs Clams 4 1 14,957 bags 3,739 bags Cockles and mussels 0.5   935 bags    Shrimp and prawn 0.25   190 bags    Urchin 0.25        Oysters   0.5   4,963 bags Country meats             Moose 1   32 moose    Elk 2   83 elk    Deer 3   558 deer    Duck 1   3,810 birds    Goose 2   3,810 birds    Grouse 2   22,647 grouse    Domestic meats             Lamb   2   301 sheep Goats   2   738 goats Beef   12   118 cows Pork   4   90 pigs Chicken   6   20,397 chicken Traditional plants             Seaweed 3   62,571 kg    Fruits/berries 6 4 85,882 kg 57,255 kg Nuts 2 1 2,325 kg 1,162 kg Western plants             Grains 7 25 14,116 kg 50,414 kg Starchy vegetable 7 7 66,364 kg 66,364 kg Vegetables 2 3 58,400 kg 87,600 kg ! 44!(greens) Other             Sugars and syrups 2 5 4,294 kg 10,735 kg Oils and fats   5   4,506 kg Eggs   2   19,337 dz Cheese   5   9,057 kg Milk   2   3 cows Eulachon grease 3   2,704 kg     !The!western!diet!is!also!depicted!via!three!visuals!across!the!page!below!–!covering!volume!needs!and!food!compositions!for!the!community!as!a!whole!and!per!individual.!!!Table$3.1.2$directly!below!converts!western!diet!foot!needs!to!kilogram!for!1000!persons!for!1!year.!An!initial!glance!indicates!the!follow!foods!from!higher!to!lower!total!volume:!! approximately!260,000!kilogram!of!fruits,!nuts,!berries,!grains,!starchy!(e.g.,!potatoes)!and!green!vegetables!(salad!greens,!beans!and!broccoli,!etc.)!! domestic!meats!comprise!a!much!lesser!84,000!kilograms!of!food,!with!beef!and!chicken!as!the!single!largest!components!! Another!42,000!kilograms!would!come!from!finfish,!primarily!salmons!!More!detailed!equivalents!across!specific!locally!produced!foods!are!provided!as!part!of!the!land!and!labour!estimates!in!section!6.0!below.!!Table$3.1.3!indicates!volumes!needed!per!person!per!year!with!proportion!of!total!calories!provided!by!each!on!the!Y!or!vertical!axis.!Again,!a!quick!glance!indicates!a!few!summative!points!of!this!more!imaginable!version,!the!relative!proportion!of!foods!remains!the!same!of!course,!but!the!comparative!weights!are!a!little!more!visible:!!! about!twice!as!much!in!the!way!of!nuts,!fruits,!roots!and!grains!as!compared!to!dairy,!cheese,!eggs,!oils!and!sugars!! about!5I6!times!as!much!finfish!as!compared!to!shellfish!! and!a!little!less!than!twice!as!much!domestic!meet!as!compared!to!finfish!and!shellfish!combined!!The!actual!volumes!are!also!easier!to!imagine!here,!wherein!each!person!(assuming!more!for!adults!in!their!20’s!to!50’s!as!compared!to!children)!would!need,!say,!11!fish!of!various!kinds,!7!crabs!and!8!bags!of!clams/bivalves,!20!chickens,!1/10th!of!a!cow,!50!kilos!of!grains,!nearly!60!kilos!of!berries!and!fruits,!etc.!!The!last!two!tables!represent!a!potential!hybrid!diet.!That![hybrid]!diet!is!a!50:50!composition!whereby!50%!each!of!the!local!‘western’!diet!and!the!‘Namgis!diet!is!assumed.!Table!3.1.4!provides!volumes!needed!of!different!foods!for!1000!persons!per!year;!whereas!table!3.1.5!indicates!volume!needs!per!person!per!year!for!the!hybrid!diet.!!!45!Table&3.1.2:&Total&local&‘western’&dietary&needs&by&kilogram&for&1000&people&!!!!46!Table&3.1.3&Food&volumes&needed&per&person&per&year&by&proportion&of&total&calories&provided&by&each&&!!47!Table&3.1.4&Providing&a&hybrid&diet&for&1000&persons&per&year&!!48!Table&3.1.5&Volume&needs&per&person&per&year&for&the&hybrid&diet&!!!! 49!4.0$Estimating$Costs$for$a$Primarily$Traditional$Diet$!Ultimately,!decisions!about!local!food!systems!only!become!viable!if!the!cost!of!doing!so!is!reasonably!similar!to!or!better!than!existing!options.!!Cost!itself!can!be!considered!in!a!few!ways.!People!might!be!happy!to!contribute!labour!but!not!dollars,!and!many!people!do!pay!a!‘quality’!premium!for!locally!produced!foods!if!and!when!household!or!community!income!permits!this!possibility.!!Regardless,!cost!of!food!is!in!no!way!meant!to!stand!for!worth!of!food!as!it!goes!without!saying!that!many!things!that!matter!flow!from!the!act!of!harvesting!one’s!own!food!–!be!that!the!transmission!of!knowledge!and!skills!across!generations!or!the!oral!histories!told!in!place!at!key!food!producing!or!gathering!sites,!among!other!things.!!This!next!section!addresses!just!two!aspects!of!estimating!costs!for!a!traditional!diet:!(1)!identifying!the!cost!of!that!needed!to!provide!a!daily!traditional!diet!(e.g.,!‘gear!such!as!boats!and!pick!up!trucks’!and!‘labour’),!and!(2)!providing!costs!for!specific!key!foods!normally!served!in!one!year!at!feasts!and!potlatches!held!at!the!Big!House!(using!2013!as!a!guide).!Estimating!costs!is!difficult!given!the!extremely!high!uncertainty!associated!with!estimating!future!versus!existing!costs.!Future!possibilities!can!only!allow!for!a!reasonable!basis!for!estimating!costs,!whereas!comparisons!with!existing!options!is!always!a!matter!of!known!current!costs.!In!the!case!of!harvesting!a!large!volume!of!marine!foods,!for!example,!the!costs!of!boats!might!rise!significantly!in!one!year,!not!the!next.!Similarly,!from!June!2014!through!January!2015!the!commodity!cost!of!oil!has!dropped!by!50%,!which!has!introduced!a!near!equivalent!drop!in!fuel!per!litre!costs.!This!is!a!very!large!shift,!but!serves!well!as!an!example!of!kind!of!uncertainty!to!think!with!when!considering!these!estimates.!!In!short,!all!estimated!costs!are!carefully!explained!but!must!also!assume!a!high!level!of!uncertainty.!!These!caveats!aside,!the!steps!taken!for!the!estimates!below!include!the!cost!of!procuring!the!total!foods!needed!for!a!traditional!diet!based!on!the!volumes!provided!above!for!daily!diets.!The!estimates!include!buying!and!maintaining!gear!(pick!up!trucks!for!hunting!and!berry!picking,!as!well!as!seine,!gill!netter!and!punts!for!fishing);!fuel!costs!for!all!types!of!trips!and!transport;!related!travel!expenses!(food!for!days!on!boats!or!at!hunting!or!harvesting!camps)!as!well!as!time!or!labour!needed!(e.g.,!in!person!hours!per!trip,!assuming!good!trips!and!bad!trips!and!things!coWcaught!on!trips!for!example,!catching!some!prawns!when!out!fishing).!Labour!as!a!cost!is!extremely!variable!–!minimum!wage!sits!at!10.25,!but!many!suggest!a!wage!of!15.00W20.00!as!a!more!viable!wage.!!! 50!4.1$Methods$for$estimating$costs:$Listening$to$Harvesters$!To!focus!our!thinking!on!estimating!costs,!we!had!multiple!discussions!with!band!employees!and!experienced!harvesters!during!visits!to!‘Yalis.!These!discussions!focused!primarily!on!hunting!and!fishing!activities!–!what!was!involved,!what!a!successful!trip!might!yield!versus!a!less!successful!one,!how!far!do!harvesters!go!and!how!long!do!trips!take,!and!so!on?!!Similarly,!while!some!foods!might!be!very!local!and!so!not!costly!from!a!travel!point!of!view,!we!also!sought!time!and!distance!estimates!on!gathering!of!plantWbased!foods!such!as!berries!and!!seaweeds.!For!this!purpose,!we!consulted!with!some!local!berry!pickers!and!designed!a!survey!with!Diane!Jacobson!that!provided!insights!into!available!species,!general!volumes,!costs!and!labour!for!acquiring:!berries!(blackberry,!salal!berry,!huckleberry!and!salmon!berry);!seaweed;!starches!(eel!grass,!wild!rice,!sea!asparagus,!salmon!berry!shoots);!and,!medicinal!foods!(Balsam!Bark,!Devil’s!Club,!Labrador!Tea,!Stinging!Nettle,!and!Alder!leaves).!!‘Namgis!researchers!conducted!audio!interviews!with!John!Macko,!Emma!Svanvick,!Val!Hunt,!and!others!who!preferred!not!to!be!identified.!!!!Initially,!we!assumed!we!could!generate!cost!estimates!for!time,!labour,!and!travel!per!unit!of!each!food.!But!it!soon!became!clear!that!this!thinking!did!not!adequately!reflect!the!reality!of!gathering,!hunting!or!fishing.!!In!many,!or!even!most!cases,!whether!there!are!one!or!two!focal!food!species!for!a!given!harvesting!excursion,!other!species!are!often!also!sought!as!the!opportunity!arises.!!And!in!some!cases,!notably!for!deer,!most!of!the!deer!taken!were!shot!and!processed!opportunistically,!during!moose!or!elk!hunts,!or!during!clam!digging!trips!or!at!other!harvesting!/!food!production!sites!(e.g.!t’łina).!For!this!reason,!it!was!then!inaccurate!to!even!attempt!to!partition!the!cost!of!a!trip!into!fractions!representing!the!cost!of!deer,!or!moose,!or!clams.!!To!continue!the!current!example,!if!one!did!that,!it!may!suggest!hunting!deer!by!boat!along!clam!beaches!is!cheaper!per!pound!of!deer!than!hunting!them!by!pickWup!truck!in!elk!territory.!!Yet!it!may!be!that!most!of!the!community’s!deer!is!supplied!by!deer!hunted!opportunistically!during!elk!hunts.!!!!We!thus!switched!our!method!to!identifying!specific!trip!types!where!a!“type”!is!loosely!described!by:!the!primary!species!sought!(alongside!which!other!things!might!well!be!harvested);!the!vehicle!used,!the!destination,!and!the!duration.!!Table!4.1.1!provides!some!flavour!of!these!discussion!as!well!as!our!initial!conversations!about!trip!types.!!!51!Table&4.1.1&Conversations&about&Trip&Types&and&Costs&! People Time Distance Yield Salmon'spp.'(sockeye,'chum,!and$pink)!!5!2"days!$2500%in%fuel!2000fish!‘ṫ uṫ upa/ṫ ła’xwsam((Rockfish)!2!1"day!15#km#one"way$(Swanson%Island)!20#fish!ṕ o’yi%(Halibut)!2!1"day!5"km"one"way$(Mitchell$Bay) !!20#fish!Dzaxwan'(Eulachon)!1!4"weeks!150km&one"way$(Knight$Inlet)!250$kg!Ḱamax$(Herring)!2!1"day!15km%one"way!200#kg!A’ant&(Herring&eggs)!2!1"day!15#km#one"way!200kg!ḱ u’mis&(Crabs)!2!1"day!10#km#one"way$(Hanson$Island) !!25#kg!Shellfish!2!1"day!10#km#one"way$(Hanson$Island) !!25#kg!Moose!5!4"days!150$km$one"way$(Knight$Inlet) !!5"moose!ṫ ławal’s'(Elk)!2!3"days!Ferry%+%40km%car%(Nimpkish%Lake) !!1"elk!!52!Giwas&(Deer)!4!2"days!Ferry%+%40km%car%(Nimpkish%Lake) !!8"deer!ḱ wayu’xw'(Duck)!1!1"day!3"km"(Nimpkish"river"mouth) !!8"ducks!Naxak%(Goose)!1!1"day!3"km"(Nimpkish"river"mouth) !!5"goose!tak’astan'(seaweed)!1!1"day!0"(Alert"Bay) !!5"bags!tsalxw/gwadam/+etc.+(fruits/berries)!2!2"day!Ferry%+40%km%one"way$(Mt.$Cain)!20#kg!nuts!1!1"day!40#km#one"way!100#kg!tłi’na'(eulachon'grease)!2!2"weeks!150$km$one"way$(Knight$Inlet) !!250$kg!Sources:)Notes%from%band%office%meetings;#Tobias!maps!(Tobias(2010);!conversations+with+harvesters,+June%2013,"‘Yalis.!!!!!! 53!To#improve#the#‘on#the#ground’#reality#of#trips#and#their#many#variations,#we#next#tried#to#elicit##‘typical’#mixed;yield;trips#that#such#a#type#might#produce.#For#example,#the#goal#of#the#trip#might#be#“to#go#to#Woss#Lake#and#harvest#two#elk.”#In#this#case,#while#the#to;and;from#travel#was#somewhat#fixed,#the#total#trip#costs#increased#the#longer#one#stayed#at#Woss.#And,#the#longer#one#stayed,#the#higher#the#cost#of#driving#back#roads#in#search#of#animals#or#signs#of#their#presence.##A#longer#trip,#for#example,#would#generally#have#a#higher#yield#of#‘co;catch’#in#deer,#grouse,#and#possibly#other#species.#Using#this#logic#we#elicited#low,#high,#and#typical#trips#and#thus#costs.#One#of#the#difficulties#here#is#that#further#mathematical#calculations#ideally#require#an#average#yield#per#trip,#but#again,#conversations#with#hunters#and#natural#resource#staff#at#the#band#office#indicated#best;case,#worst;case,#and#‘typical’#trips#and#so#food#yields.#In#this#sense,#we#could#not#be#certain#whether#the#‘typical’#yield#really#represents#an#average,#an#optimal,#or#most#common#range,#or#some#other#‘rule#of#thumb’.##Nevertheless,#with#that#caveat#in#mind,#and#keeping#in#mind#that#hunting#and#fishing#success#may#vary#markedly#between#levels#of#skill,#we#used#the#best#estimates#we#could#for#trips,#or#in#some#cases#entered#different#trips#with#different#successes#into#our#database#to#capture#this#range.#The#trip#types#identified#are#presented#in#table#4.1.2#below#where#we#again#define#trip#types#by#primary#food#species#sought#on#that#trip#(e.g.,#ṫławal’s#/#elk),#alongside#other#species#co;caught#during#such#trips.###The#yield#column#indicates#harvesters#and#band#employees’#knowledge#about#the#reported#range#of#or#mixed#yields#of#food#types#and#their#travel#costs.#These#are#listed#as#ranges#of#expenses#and#yields#given#different#travel#distances,#time#spent#harvesting,#and#so#on.#A#quick#look#at#table#4.1.2#provides#a#robust#sense#and#summary#of#what#people#thought#great;to#poor;trips#were.#For#example,#a#really#successful#trip#to#hunt#elk#might#involve#2#people#for#one#day#with#minimal#travel#costs#for#a#day#up#and#back#to#Nimpkish/Woss#Lake.#The#trip#estimate#here#was#about#$200#per#trip;#whereas,#its#also#possible#that#the#trip#takes#7#days,#4#people,#$500#in#costs#but#only#yields#1#elk,#2#deer#and#5#grouse.###Similarly,#one#might#catch#halibut#from#a#line#off#the#government#dock.#But#a#more#serious#effort#to#fish#halibut#with#a#gill#netter#might#involve#2#people,#a#full#day#of#fishing,#and#yield#more#like#300#fish,#5#crabs#and#a#bucket#of#prawns#at#a#cost#of#$311#per#trip#of#this#type.#The#row#for#salmon#instead#uses#the#fairly#stable#number#of#2000#fish#per#trip#for#sockeye#with#some#pinks.#This#is#because#people#were#well#aware#of#great#yields#per#trip,#for#example#3,500#salmon,#but#one#might#also#encounter#a#very#dreaded#‘no#fish’#run.#Overall,#however,#discussions#with#those#who#fish#regularly#thought#an#average#yield#of#2000#was#a#reasonable,#but#also#conservative#so#as#to#not#underestimate#the#! 54!costs#of#providing#salmon.##Again,#the#general#reporting#and#costing#of#trips#are#listed#in#table#4.1.2#directly#below.##Table&4.1.2&Range&of&Possibility&Across&Trip&Types&Focal#species&Destination& Vehicle& Travel#costs&Time& Yild&Elk&(best)& Nimpkish/Woss# Pickup#truck# $200# 2#people,##1#day#2#elk#Elk&(typical)& Nimpkish/Woss# Pickup#truck# $500# 2#people,##3#days#1#elk,##2#deer,##5#grouse#Elk&(worst)& Nimpkish/Woss# Pickup#truck# $500# 4#people,#7#days#1#elk,#2#deer,#5#grouse#Deer&(road)& Nimpkish/Woss# Pickup#truck# $500# 2#people,##2#days#2#deer,##2#grouse#Deer&(shore)&Gilford#Island# Gill#netter# $133# 8#people,##5#days#10#deer,##5#grouse#Deer&(shore)&Gilford#Island# Punt/skiff# $77# 3#people,##2#days#3#deer,##2#grouse#Moose& Knight#Inlet# Seine#boat# $2500# 8#people,#4#days#4#moose,#24#deer,#20#grouse#Eulachon&(grease)&Knight#Inlet# Seine#boat# $1726# 3#people,#28#days#250kg##tłi’na,#15#waterfowl,#20#grouse#Eulachon&(fish)&Knight#Inlet# Punt/skiff# $350# 3#people,#2#days#5000#eulachon#Salmon& Various# Seine#boat# $2500# 5#people,#2#days#2000#fish,#5#crabs,#1#bucket#prawns#Halibut& Government#dock#None# None# Hours# 1#halibut#Halibut&or&Rockfish&Various# Gill#netter# $311# 2#people,##1#day#300#fish,#5#crabs,#1#bucket#prawns#Prawns& Various# Punt/skiff# $51# 2#people,#half;day#10#buckets#prawns#Prawns& Various# Gill#netter# $89# 2#people,## 50#buckets#! 55!&4.2&Converting&Trip&Types&to&Cost&#The#final#stage#of#cost#estimates#involved#converting#trip#types#to#costs#and#then#calibrating#these#to#available#data#on#everything#from#fuel#costs#to#boat#maintenance.#This#involved#three#steps:#(1)#We#used#the#‘food#volume#needed’#tables#in#section#3.0#for#the#traditional#diet#to#generate#a#yearly#round#of#trips#needed#to#meet#those#food#demands.#That#is,#we#calculated#the#number#of#trips#needed#to#meet#that#need,#assuming#a#variety#of#trip#types.#(2)#We#did#this#first#with#the#most#highly;prized#focal#foods#(e.g.,#salmon,#eulachon,#elk),#seeing#how#many#trips#focused#on#those#species#would#need#to#occur.#We#then#added#to#that,#step#(3),#proportions#of#co;catches#of#other#species#across#the#different#trip#types.##Thereafter,#we#repeated#these#steps#focusing#on#the#second;most;highly;discussed#foods,#and#so#on.#The#variation#in#trips#and#their#associated#travel#costs#are#presented#below#in#Table&4.2.1,#which#combines#yearly#food#needs#with#the#costs#and#yields#for#different#harvesting#activities,#given#a#range#of#possible#hunting,#fishing#and#gathering#trips.#For#example,#we#assumed#that#in#order#to#meet#a#possible#80#elk#per#year#(and#assuming#local#herd#populations#could#support#that),#we#combined#6#highly#successful#trips,#20#medium#success#trips,#and#50#less#successful#ones#to#meet#that#need.#By#this#logic,#the#total#harvest#cost#of#meeting#a#year’s#volume#of#elk#for#1000#people#would#be#$36,200,#whereas#the#total#cost#of#2#days# prawns#Clams& Gilford#Island# Punt/skiff# $77# 2#people,##2#days#50#bags#clams,#1#deer#Cockles& ?# Punt/skiff# $77# 2#people,#1#day#20#bags#cockles#Crabs& Local# Punt/skiff# $13# 2#people,#few#hours#8#crabs#Waterfowl& Nimpkish#estuary#Punt/skiff# $14# 2#people,#half;day#10#birds#Herring&eggs&Vancouver#Island#Pickup#truck# $50# 1#person,#1#day#200#kg#eggs#(in#trade#for#sockeye)#Herring& Various# Seine#boat# $324# 5#people,##2#days#200#kg#herring#Berries&(high)&Mt.#Cain# Pickup#truck# $200# 2#people,#2#days#200#kg#berries#Berries&(low)&Mt.#Cain# Pickup#truck# $200# 2#people,#2#days#25#kg#berries#Seaweed& Local# Punt/skiff# $15# 2#people,#1#day#50#kg#seaweed#! 56!procuring#a#year’s#need#of#salmon#(all#species)#would#cost#a#similar#amount#at#$37,500.#Other#species#appear#to#be#‘free’#but#this#again#is#because#these#are#species#that#are#most#often#co;caught#as#a#part#of#other#trips,#notably#deer#and#prawns.##Lastly,#in#column#1,#the#percentage#of#total#calories#represented#for#each#food#species#in#section#2.0#is#offered.#Thus,#salmon#represents#25%#of#total#calories,#halibut#and#rockfish#8%,#berries#and#seaweed#6%#and#3%#respectively.###Table&4.2.1&Trip&Types&with&Food&Species&and&Estimated&Costs&Focal#species#w/#percent#of#calories#in#traditional#diet&Destination& Trips/year& Total#person;days&Total#travel#costs&Elk&(best)&(2%)& Nimpkish/Woss# 6# 12# $1,200#Elk&(typical)&& Nimpkish/Woss# 50# 300# $25,000#Elk&(worst)& Nimpkish/Woss# 20# 560# $10,000#Deer&(road)&(3%)& Nimpkish/Woss# 0# 0# 0#Deer&(shore)& Gilford#Island# 0# 0# 0#Deer&(shore)& Gilford#Island# 0# 0# 0#Moose&(1%)& Knight#Inlet# 8# 256# $20,000#Eulachon&(grease)& Knight#Inlet# 11# 924# $19,000#Eulachon&(fish)& Knight#Inlet# 15# 90# $5,250#Salmon&(25%)& Various# 15# 150# $37,500#Halibut&& Government#dock# 200# 100# 0#Halibut&or&Rockfish&(8%)&Various# 21# 42# $6,500#Prawns&(0.25%)& Various# 7# 7# $350#Prawns& Various# 1# 4# $90#Clams&(4%)& Gilford#Island# 300# 1200# $23,000#Cockles&and&Mussels&Rarely'available' 50# 100# $3,850#Crabs&(4%)& Local# 4000# 4000# $51,000#Waterfowl&(5%)& Nimpkish#estuary# 1200# 1200# $16,000#Herring&eggs&(1%)& Vancouver#Island# 15# 15# $750#Herring&(2%)& Various# 35# 350# $11,000#Berries&(high)&(6%)& Mt.#Cain# 150# 600# $30,000#Berries&(low)& Mt.#Cain# 500# 2000# $100,000#Seaweed&(3%)& Local# 1200# 2400# $0#TOTAL&COSTS:&PersonTDays&and&Travel&Costs&# # 14,310# $360,490#! 57!###Across#all#food#types#in#the#table#above#(using#the#rule#of#thumb#of#feeding#1000#people),#the#average#total#cost#of#fleet#and#travel#costs#for#procuring#such#a#diet#is#roughly#;;##$360,500'per'year'in'gear'and'travel'costs'and'14,310'person'days'of'labour;'if'labour'is'converted'to'15.00'per'hour,'this'amounts'to'roughly'1.7'million'dollars'in'labour'costs'@'20.00'dollars'per'hour,'this'rises'to'2.86'million.'Clearly,'labour'is'a'very'considerable'part'of'the'cost'of'procuring'a'traditional'diet.'Further'breakdowns'of'these'figures'are'offered'in'section'4.4'including'different'combined'scenarios.&&&!4.3&Buying,&Maintaining&and&Using&a&Community&Fleet:&Fixed&and&Variable&Costs&#Ultimately,#there#is#much#variation#in#travel#costs#to#be#considered#and#so#great#uncertainty#in#estimations.#Another#way#to#think#about#this#is#to#break#out#relatively#stable#costs#and#relatively#unstable#costs.#By#this#logic,#things#like#the#cost#of#boats,#trucks#and#their#estimated#lifespan#and#depreciation#involve#‘one#time’#purchases#across#several#decades#–#for#instance#15#or#20#years#for#a#truck#and#twice#that#for#some#boats.#Whereas#things#like#fuel#costs,#ferry#fares,#and#labour#and#maintenance#on#boats#and#trucks#is#much#more#variable.#Consider#the#huge#increases#in#ferry#costs#over#the#last#10#years,#or#the#near;term#precipitous#drop#in#fuel#prices#this#year,#though#few#economists#expect#that#to#last#more#than#two#or#three#years#at#this#writing.###Table&4.3.1#below#expresses#this#combination#of#relatively#stable#costs#versus#relatively#variable#costs#as#a#proportion#of#expenses#for#each#element#of#a#fleet#of#vehicles#(seine#boats,#gill#netters,#punts,#and#pick#up#trucks).#About#½#of#the#total#cost#of#punts#is#variable,#the#other#half#more#fixed.#Thus#when#thinking#about#foods#that#are#‘punt’#dependent,#such#as#most#shellfish,#some#deer#and#eulachon#–#it#would#be#wise#to#assume#some#cost#uncertainty.#Similarly,#well#over#half#of#the#total#cost#of#seine#boats#involves#variable#costs,#so#these#too#should#be#viewed#as#estimates#that#could#go#up#or#down#a#lot#depending#on#fuel#and#maintenance#costs#over#time.#Some#assumptions#behind#these#figures#are#included#below,#such#as:#initial#purchase#costs,#service#life,#fuel#cost,#and#total#cost#per#km#given#all#other#expenses#(e.g.,#scheduled#maintenance,#vehicle#depreciation,#and#average#fuel#economies),#etc.#####!58!Table&4.3.1&Costing&a&Fleet&of&Marine&and&Land&Vehicles&to&feed&1000&per&year&!! 59!Another(way(to(think(about(fleet(costs(is(to(consider(the(relative(cost(of(each(vehicle,(and(then(compare(this(to(the(relative(volume(in(kilograms(each(vehicle(provides.(Table&4.3.2(provides(our(working(assumptions(for(the(number(and(cost(of(each(vehicle,(converted(to(per(year(costs(given(all(vehicles(and(all(costs((purchase,(depreciation,(maintenance(and(other(travel(costs).(!Table&4.3.2:&Vehicle&type,&number,&life&and&summary&costs&per&year&!Vehicle&Type&Initial&Purchase&Price&Per&Vehicle&Service&LifeANumber&of&Years&#&of&Vehicles&Needed&Converted&total&Cost&Per&Year&Per&Vehicle&(inclusive&of&columns&1A3&and&all&other&costs)&Pick&Up&& $40,000( 15(( 50( 200,281((Seine& $400,000( 40( 3( 144,813 (Gill&Netter&$80,000( 30( 6( 200,281(Punt/Skiff& $40,000( 20( 50( 200,086 (((The(next(table,&4.3.3,(looks(at(the(cost(of(each(vehicle(as(compared(to(the(volume(of(food(in(kilograms(only(that(each(provides.(By(cost,(in(this(table,(seine(boats(and(punts(or(skiffs(provide(relatively(greater(volumes(of(food(than(do(gillInetters(or(pick(up(trucks.(We(do(not(mean(to(assume(in(any(way(that(one(is(therefore(better(than(the(other((e.g.,(that(obtaining(shellfish(via(punts(is(more(important(than(eulachon(via(gill(netters).(Rather,(we(just(mean(to(provide(‘ball(park’(comparisons(on(costs(versus(yield(by(vehicle(type.(((!60! !!!!!!!!0!50,000!100,000!150,000!200,000!250,000!Seine!boat!Gill!netter!Punt/skiff!Pickup!truck!Total&annual&cost&($)&by&vehicle&type&to&yield&(kg)&&all&non8walkable&harvested&foods&for&&1000&people&(3&Seine&boats,&6&gill&netters,&50&punts,&50&trucks)&Yearly!yield!(combined,!kg)!Total!yearly!costs!($)!!61! !!Terre!Sa'erfield,!Anton!Pi's,!Leslie!Robertson,!Diane!Jacobson,!Brian!Svanvik,!George!Speck,!Doug!Aberley!!Acknowledgements:!‘Namgis!First!NaGon!and!Peter!Wall!SoluGons!Fund!‘Namgis!Food!Sovereignty:!The!story!of!!salmon!!!!Research!QuesGon!!What!would!it!take!to!re5establish!food!sovereignty!for!a!community!of!1,000!of!the!'Namgis!First!Na@on?!!!!Working!AssumpGons!!5 Figures!reflect!a!contemporary!“tradi@onal”!diet!built!on!research!about!consump@on!paFerns!in!consulta@on!with!'Namgis!community!members.!!5 The!contemporary!tradi@onal!'Namgis!diet!reflects!a!high!propor@on!of!proteins!such!as!salmon,!shellfish,!and!wild!game!&!fowl.!5!!!!The!diet!is!based!on!2000!calories!per!day!per!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!person!as!recommended!by!the!Canadian!Food!!Guide.!!!!Yearly!household!salmon!needs!by!salmon!type!in!esGmated!tradiGonal!diet!(excluding!ceremonial!needs)!!małik!(sockeye)!guax’nis!(Chum)!!hanu’n!(Pink)!Approximate!number!of!salmon!!consumed!per!household!each!!year!!173!fish!!gok’wamdzi!!!(Big!house)!!!3!Potlatches!and!6!Feasts!(2013)!!!!3,818!fish!Es@mated!number!of!salmon!consumed!/served!!Of!this,!3,265!are!Małik!and!553!are!Hanu’n!!Approximate!cost!of!!buying!salmon!locally!!EsGmated!cost!of!!catching!salmon!locally!Labour!!$0.16/kg!!Travel!!$0.25/kg!!!f!$21.99/kg!!$3,725,106!cost!to!meet!salmon!food!needs!for!a!year!for!a!community!of!1000!!!!!!!$0.41/kg!!$69,454!cost!to!meet!salmon!food!needs!for!a!year!for!a!community!of!1000!!!!NUTRITION!FOOD!NEEDS!!COST!COMPARISON!!Catching!salmon!locally!instead!of!buying!locally!could!mean!and!a!poten@al!savings!of!$14,664!per!household!each!year!based!on!es@mated!household!consump@on!needs.!120!fish!!!(543!kg)!!!35!fish!!(157!kg)!18!fish!(147!kg)!Approximate!amount!of!salmon!!consumed!per!household!each!!year!!!!847!kg!!A!household!is!assumed!to!be!5!individuals!(n=5)!!Each!picture!represents!10!fish!!!FEASTING!!0%!10%!20%!30%!40%!50%!60%!Tradi@onal!!Western!Tradi@onal!Western!Tradi@onal!Western!EsGmated!percentage!of!select!nutriGonal!requirements!met!by!salmon!in!tradiGonal!‘Namgis!diet!vs.!western!diet!!Non5salmon!sources!Gwax'nis!(Chum)!Hanu'n!(Pink)!Małik!(Sockeye)!Non5salmon!sources!Gwax'nis!(Chum)!Hanu'n!(Pink)!Małik!(Sockeye)!! 62!4.4#Mapping#Harvest#Locations#and#Cost:#‘Three#Boats#and#Pick<Up#Truck’#!To!re&image!traditional!food!possibilities!in!‘Namgis!territory,!we!developed!a!map!representing!the!total!number!of!trips!needed!and!the!cost!per!species,!to!harvest!food!for!1,000!people!for!one!year.!!!Overall,!the!map!represents!the!general!location!or!regions!for!harvesting!traditional!foods!and!what!that!might!cost.!It!includes!information!about:!what!vehicles!are!used!(e.g.,!boat!or!truck),!how!much!food!might!be!harvested!on!an!average!trip;!and!what!a!trip!costs.!And!it!is!based!on!the!number!of!harvest!trips!for!each!food!species!it!would!take!to!harvest!the!amounts!of!traditional!food!needed!to!feed!1000!people!for!one!year!(again,!accepting!that!sometimes!one!has!a!productive!trip,!other!times!not).!!To!read!the!map,!familiarize!yourself!with!the!icons!on!the!left!side!of!the!figure.!Each!icon!on!the!map,!for!example!the!icon!for!salmon!or!for!money,!is!`sized'!or!proportional!to!the!amount!of!food!it!represents.!An!example!is!a!prawn!trip,!using!the!large!prawn!icon/symbols.!That!`large!prawn'!trip!is!based!on!using!a!gill&netter!to!catch!50!bags!(454!kg)!of!prawns.!For!a!smaller!prawn!trip,!the!smaller!prawn!icon!represents!one&fifth!the!volume!or!10!bags!(91!kg)!of!prawns!harvested.!Similarly,!the!sockeye!icon!is!large!and!represents!4500!kg!of!fish!(that!is!the!above!estimate!of!an!average!catch!of!2000!fish!in!a!seine!boat).!!The!deer!icon!is!scaled!to!represent!a!single!deer,!or!about!33kg!of!edible!meat.!!We!have!four!vehicles!represented!on!the!map,!each!scaled!to!reflect!their!length:!a!70&foot!seiner,!a!35&foot!gillnetter,!and!20&foot!open!boat!and!pickup!truck.!Costs!for!using!these!vehicles!to!get!to!and!stay!at!harvesting!sites!(e.g.,!while!trolling)!include!fuel!cost,!vehicle!cost,!maintenance!and!depreciation.!These!are!added!together!to!equal!the!travel!costs!for!each!trip.!The!trip!costs!are!shown!on!the!map!as!moneybag!icons.!!There!are!three!sizes!of!money!bags,!where!small!=!10!dollars,!medium!=!100,!and!large!=!1000!dollars.!Combinations!of!these!are!shown!to!reflect!the!cost!of!each!trip.!For!example,!a!'best&case'!elk!hunt,!where!two!elk!are!taken!close!to!the!highway!with!little!driving!around!back&roads,!is!relatively!cheap!at!$200!(2!medium!money!bags).!A!more!typical!elk!hunt!(one!not!as!immediately!successful)!requires!more!driving!around!the!back!roads,!and!might!harvest!one!elk,!two!deer,!and!a!few!grouse!on!the!side.!!The!extra!driving!around!back!roads!means!this!trip!costs!closer!to!$500.!You!will!also!see!numbers!on!the!map!next!to!the!combinations!of!vehicles!and!money&bags.!These!numbers!(e.g.,!7x)!show!how!many!trips!for!each!food!the!community!as!a!whole!needs!in!a!year.!Also,!some!trips!(in!particular,!dedicated!deer!harvesting!trips)!! 63!show!up!with!0x!trips!required.!!This!is!because!a!moose&hunting!trip!to!Knight!inlet!might!also!harvest!``a!couple!dozen''!deer,!or!the!same!might!be!true!for!clam&digging!trips!(e.g.,!people!might!come!home!with!one!and!several!bags!of!clams!on!average).!!!We!also!have!very!high!numbers!for!trips!very!close!to!Alert!Bay.!!4000x!crabbing!trips!sounds!high,!but!our!assumption!for!a!`trip'!here!is!2!traps!set!and!checked.!!This!assumes!that!the!traps!are!re&baited!and!returned!to!the!water!each!time,!and!are!checked!every!day.!Also,!the!map!assumes!that!harvesting!activities!on!Cormorant!Island!(e.g.,!halibut!fishing!off!the!government!dock,!seaweed!and!seafood!gathering,!berries!or!other!terrestrial!foods!growing!on!the!island)!have!NO!travel!costs,!and!so!they!show!up!as!`no'!cost.!!!One!last!example!appears!counter&intuitive!but!in!fact!reflects!what!people!had!to!say!about!the!‘Namgis!geography!of!food.!On!Vancouver!Island,!toward!Campbell!River!you’ll!see!a!pick!up!truck,!money!bags!and!the!icon!for!herring!eggs.!This!reflects!not!the!location!of!harvest!but!a!typical!local!of!trade!or!purchase!of!roe!when!it!is!not!available!in!‘Namgis!territory.!!!!Poster!sized!versions!of!this!map!are!available!from!the!band!office.!You!many!also!contact!either!of!the!report!authors!for!an!electronic!version.!!!!64!4.4#Mapping#Harvest#Location#and#Cost:#‘Three#Boats#and#Pick<Up#Truck’!#! 65!4.5$Comparing$Locally$Harvested$Costs$to$Market$Costs$!Knowing'something'about'the'possible'costs'of'procuring'traditional'foods'locally'in'sufficient'number'for'a'healthy'‘Namgis'population,'one'critically'important'question'for'decision;making'about'local'food'harvesting'or'production'is:'Under'what'conditions'does'it'make'sense?'Answering'this'question'is'beyond'the'scope'or'responsibility'of'this'project.'But'one'possibility'is'that'‘making'sense’'can'be'a'simple'function'of'cost.'It'can'equally'be'about'the'knowledge'and'skills'gained,'the'available'labour'to'conduct'such'work'as'compared'to'available'market;based'sources,'or'the'satisfaction'of'having'control'over'both'the'production'of'foods'and'its'distribution'and'quality.'''Regardless,'using'cost'itself'as'an'initial'filter'for'making'decisions,'does'throw'some'light'on'which'foods'are'obviously'better'to'harvest'locally,'assuming'the'available'quota'allows'one'to'do'so'and/or'limitations'on'quota'can'be'defensibly'improved.''A'list'of'harvest'versus'purchase'costs'on'key'traditional'foods'is'below'across'several'figures'–'some'covering'several'food'types,'other'focuses'on'highly'prized'marine'foods'such'as'salmon.''We'cover'here'only'those'traditional'foods'available'at'market'outlets.'Market'values'were'drawn'from'Market'Place'IGA’s'website,'though'only'the'prices'for'Vancouver'were'available'online.'One'might'also'assume'an'‘island’'premium'of'10;15%'higher.''In'general,'figure'4.5.1'below,'comparing'market'versus'locally'produced'foods'indicates'that'it'is'vastly'cheaper'to'harvest'these'foods'locally.'At'a'glance,'and'by'ratio'only:''! Mussels'and'cockles'(when'available)'are'cheaper'by'a'factor'of'4:1'! Clams'are'cheaper'by'a'factor'of'5:1'! Halibut'is'cheaper'by'a'factor'of'18:1,'and'! Salmons'are'cheaper'by'a'factor'of'20:1'and'possibly'closer'to'35:1'per'kilogram'''A'large'uncertainty'range'should'be'assumed,'however,'because'traditional'food'costs'include'only'all'vehicle'and'travel'costs'(maintenance,'vehicle'purchase'and'depreciation,'fuel,'ferry).'They'do'not'include'the'cost'of'processing'or'packaging'foods'once'harvested'(a'task'beyond'the'scope'of'this'project).'But'even'if'one'were'to'generously'assume'that'traditional'foods'therefore'cost'twice'as'much'as'depicted'below,'the'ratio'is'still'remarkable'and'no'food'comes'closer'than'a'cost'ratio'of'2:1.''$$!!66!!$#!!!!!$5.00!!!$10.00!!!$15.00!!!$20.00!!!$25.00!!!$30.00!!ḱwa'łam/tsagał'mas!(Green!vegetables)!tsalxw/gwadam/!etc.!(Fruits/berries)!Nuts!Grains!xatam/!kwu'si!(root!vegetables)!Chicken!Eggs!Es#mated)Price)per)kg)(or)per)egg))($))Food)Type)Es#mated)cost)comparison)for)producing)locally)versus)buying)locally)for)select)food)types)in)the)Western)diet))Produce!Locally!Purchase!Locally!!! 67!!Prices!from!Market!Place!IGA;!Shoprite,!and!Vancouver!retailers!(e.g.,!Stong’s!Market)!for!rarer!foods.!!!**!!Sugars:!We!do!not!have!cost!estimates!for!bee6keeping,!but!in!Western!Washington,!a!single!hive!can!produce!from!zero!to!80!lbs!per!year,!with!an!average!of!approximately!30!lbs.!Beaver!Cove!Honey!on!northern!Vancouver!Island!produced!145!lbs!from!two!hives!in!2014,!whereas!dryer!years!generally!mean!less!honey.!!! !! Producing!Locally! Purchasing!Locally!Foods! Average!cost!per!unit! Average!cost!per!unit!małik!(sockeye)! $0.41kg! $21.99!hanun!(pink)! $0.41kg! $14.00!gwax'nis!(chum)! $0.41!kg! $14.00!ṫuṫupa/ṫ ła'xwsam!(rockfish)! $0.22!kg! N/A!ṕo'yi!(halibut) $2.48!kg! $36.90!ḱu'mis!(crab) $19.27!kg! $35.00!ma'łana'yi/!gawiḱanam!(clams)!$0.46!kg! $13.90!dzaxwan!(eulachon)! ??! N/A!ḱamax!(herring) $5.31! $10.00!a'ant!(herring!eggs)! $1.94! N/A!dzoli/!xu'la/!la'is!(cockles!and!mussels)!$4.42! N/A!ḱuḱułť ̕anaǥa/!'was'wani!(shrimp/!prawn) $1.40! $32.20!ťławaľs!(moose)! $4.56! N/A!ťławaľs!(elk)! $7.95! N/A!giwas!(mule!deer)! N/A! N/A!ḱwayu'xw!(duck) N/A! $30.00!naxak!(goose)! N/A! $15.00!frozen!tak'astan!(seaweed)! ??! !ḱwa'łam/tsagał'mas!(green!vegetables) $0.82!kg! $4.33!tsalxw/gwadam/!etc.!(fruits/berries)!$2.62!kg! $16.70!Nuts! $15.50!kg! $24.72!Grains! $12.15!kg! $3.35!xatam/!kwu'si!(root!veg.)!! $0.72!kg! $8.53!! 68!4.6!Summarizing!labour!plus!travel!costs:!Mixed!Scenarios,!High!versus!Low!Cost!Foods!!Overall,!a!hard!look!at!fleet!costs!only!(i.e.,!vehicle!purchase,!depreciation!and!maintenance!costs!over!time,!as!well!as!fuel!and!other!costs!per!trip)!indicates!that!(a)!feeding!1000!people!per!year!is!quite!inexpensive.!This!is!no!doubt!an!‘economy!of!scale’!in!that!the!price!of!a!seine!boat!is!roughly!$400,000,!but!costed!over!its!long!life!span!of!40!years,!and!given!that!it!provides!a!significant!portion!of!total!calories,!its!per6year!cost!is!less!daunting.!!! The!average!total!cost!of!fleet!and!travel!only!for!procuring!a!traditional!diet!for!1000!‘Namgis!is!$360,490!per!year.!!! This!is!the!equivalent!of!just!over!$36.00!per!year!per!person,!or!about!$180.00!per!person!per!household!of!five!!! Total!labour!hours!amount!to!14,310!person!days!per!year,!or!114,480!hours!assuming!!!!!!!!!8!hour!days.!!!! As!a!total!year!of!work!for!one!person!is!about!2000!hours,!this!is!just!under!60!Full6Time!Equivalents!!! The!total!labour!costs!per!year!are!between,!roughly!1.7!and!2.86!million!per!year!at!15.00!versus!20.00!per!hour!respectively,!though!in!reality,!at!least!20625%!of!all!labour!would!be!highly!skilled!at!50.00!per!hour!(e.g.,!a!skipper!or!highly!skilled!person!at!the!processing!of!grease!or!seaweed)!and!a!possible!remaining!75%!at!15.00!per!hour.!Nor!does!this!number!include!other!possible!employer!payroll!costs,!which!at!minimum!might!be!and!additional!365%!and!more!typically!for!full!time!employees,!15%620%.!!! Even!roughly,!at!an!overall!assumed!labour!cost!of!$20.00!per!hour,!the!combined!vehicle!and!travel!costs!is!the!equivalent!of!3.25!million!per!year.!!!! This!is!the!equivalent!of!a!‘food’!budget,!rounded!off,!of!$3220.00!per!person!per!year!or!62.00!per!month.!!!There!are,!of!course,!other!proportions!of!cost!not!yet!calculated:!a!wharf!for!the!fishing!fleet!might!be!a!concern,!as!would!be!processing!and!storage!costs,!some!of!which!are!detailed!in!section!5.0!with!the!example!of!processing!food!fish.!!! 69!5.0!!Household!and!Community!Food!Production:!Needs!and!Barriers!!!!We!are!unable!to!estimate!reliable!numbers!for!costs!of!procuring!and!processing!food!fish.!Time!and!labour!likely!depend!on!whether!the!fish!are!frozen,!dried,!canned,!smoked,!or!preserved!in!other!ways.!!Some!combination!of!all!of!the!above!is!the!most!likely!scenario.!!Community!preferences!as!to!the!ownership!and!management!of!processing!infrastructure!affect!future!scenarios.!!We!understand,!for!example,!that!communal!flash6freezers!exist!for!initial!freezing!of!fish,!but!that!it!is!expected!that!domestic6sized,!household!level!freezers!are!used!for!storage!of!the!fish!once!frozen.!!Commercial6scale!canning!facilities!have!previously!existed!on!the!island,!but!currently!most!people!we!spoke!to!informally!prefer!home!canning!or!jarring!for!their!own!use.!Foods!prepared!and!stored!for!winter!include:!canned!and!jarred!sockeye!salmon;!smoked!dog!salmon,!sockeye!and!pink!salmon;!dried!halibut!“gawas;”!frozen!halibut!steaks;!smoked!eulachons;!dried!seaweed;!berry!jams!and!frozen!berries;!pickled!fish;!dried!seaweed.!Wild!meats!including!elk,!moose!and!deer!are!butchered,!carved!into!cuts!for!roasts,!stews,!steaks!and!frozen,!or!they!are!prepared!in!other!ways!including!drying.!!!!The!four!pages!that!follow!describe!basic!stages!of!household!food!production!for!sockeye!salmon!and!pink!salmon.!Included!are!lists!of!essential!costs!and!basic!infrastructure.!!This!information!was!gathered!over!three!days!of!food!production!in!August!2014.!Many!thanks!to!George!Speck,!Pearl!Alfred!and!other!family!members!for!sharing!their!knowledge!and!skills!and!for!their!permission!for!photographs!to!appear!in!this!report.!The!processed!and!frozen!fish!was!distributed!to!12!households!(estimated!to!include!100!–120!people).!This!does!not!include!foods!also!later!gifted!to!others.!15!adults!and!several!children!worked!approximately!28!hours!to!cut,!freeze,!smoke!jar!and!cook!food!fish.!!!Following!these!pages!is!a!brief!consideration!of!barriers!to:!Household!Food!Production,!Communal!Food!Production,!Communal!Smokehouses,!Freezers!and!Freezing!Facilities.!!!! 70!!Sockeye!Empty!fish!from!truck!into!totes!in!ice;!Bag!whole!sockeye!and!take!to!the!ice!plant;!Clean!and!cut!fish!for!jars!(500ml)!!!!Infrastructure:!!PickAup!truck!!Tote!boxes!and!small!coolers!(right)!!Ice!Plant!access!for!flash!freeze!!CuHng!area!–!tables,!running!water.!!Fish!knives.!!0!Supplies:!Ice!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!$!!50.00!/!1!large!tote!Freezer!Bags:!!!!!$!250.00!/!1000!bags!Mason!Jars!!!!!!!!!$!!!11.00!to!$15.00!/!dozen!Lids !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!$!!!!!4.00!/dozen!(reusable)!Cans!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!$!!60.00!/!24!cans!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Day01:09am–8!pm:!whole!fish!bagged!for!freezer;!400+!fish!are!cut!and!jarred!(9!hours).!Pearl!Alfred!(above).!!! 71!!Cooking:!Load%cooker%(below,%12.6%cases%salmon)%Cool%jars%–%remove%lids%<%wash%/%dry%jars%and%lids<%pack%in%cases.%%%%1%“burn”%=%4%hours%%%%%%=%12.6%cases%of%jars % % %%%%%%%%% %%%%=%15%lbs%propane%!Infrastructure:!!!!(Pressure)%Cooker!!Supplies:!!Propane%%%$35.00%–%$40.00%/%30lb%tank%(!!Day%2:%%%9am%–%11%pm%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%–%34%cases%sockeye%%cooked%%%(includes%waiting%for%cooking);%cool%jars,%wash%jars%and%remove%lids,%screw%on%rings%and%pack%in%cases.%%!! 72!!!! !Day!1:!120!Pink!salmon!cut!/!lightly!salted!/!hung!outside/!hung!in!smoke!house.!!!!Smoking:)Pink)Salmon))! Cut!and!clean!! Salt!(Kosher!/!coarse)!! Hang!outside!! Smoke!1.5!days!(by!preference)!!Infrastructure:!! Smoke!house!! Cutting!area!–!tables,!running!water.!! Fish!knives.!!!Supplies:!!! Wood!! Salt!! Racks!/!planks!!! 73!!Day$3:$$$9am$)11am$$)$6$people$$$$$$removed$3ish$from$smokehouse$/$cut$off$tails$/$bagged$to$freeze$! 74!!!!Harves(ng!Barriers!No!ac(ve! family!harvesters;! limited!or!no!access! to!harvest! sites!–requires!boats!and!automobiles;!required!(me!off!work;!Regula(ons!and!expenses:!registra(on;!licensing;!training!–!e.g.!Rifles,!Food!Safe;!First!Aide;!bivalve!tes(ng;!hun(ng!tags;!knowledge!...!!!!Affordability!of!Food!Produc(on!Infrastructure:!PickKup!truck;!B.O.A.T!–!“break!out!another!thousand”!costs!of!fuel,!!!amor(zing,!maintenance;!Canning!machine;!industrialKsized!Cooker;!Freezers;!!Totes;!!Smokehouse;!Yard!space!and!tables!to!clean,!cut,!bag!fish;!Running!water;!!other!facili(es!for!workers;!facility!to!butcher!meat...!!!Supplies:!Fish!K!Jars!and!Cans,!Propane,!Freezer!Bags,!Salt,!Food!for!workers!(2K4!!days),!firewood;!cuYng!and!cleaning!gear...!!!!!5.1!Barriers!to!Household!Food!Produc(on!! 75!! !Barriers'to'Collec-ve'Food'Produc-on''!  “memory'foods”'–'family:centred'preferences'for'foods'and'produc-on'methods.'!  “household'sovereignty”'–'ac-ve'harvesters'&'access'to'boats'in'the'family.'!  Few'boats'(especially'gillneCers'and'punts).'!  Storage'facili-es'for'community':'security.'!  Equity'of'distribu-on'–'family,'elders,'off:reserve'members,'socio:economic'circumstances.'!  “once'your'family'is'looked'aKer'and'commercial'fishing'is'over'what'mo-va-on'is'there'to'get'more'fish'for'the'community?”'!  “loss'of'an'ethic'among'the'community'regarding'collec-ve'food'provisioning.”'!  TRUST:''What'are'the'catching'prac-ces?'How'many'-mes'has'the'fish'been'frozen?'Who'cleans'it?'How?''What'are'the'hygienic'condi-ons'where'the'fish'is'cut'and'cleaned?'Who'does'the'canning?''How'long'do'you'cook'or'smoke'the'salmon?''! 76!!Smokehouses))Currently:)10)family)smokehouses,)1under8used)community)smokehouse))Barriers)for)households:)!  Limited)yard)space)–)housing)regula?ons)require)distance)from)house.))!  Insurance)costs)for)smokehouse)on)residen?al)property.)Barriers)for)Community:)Strong)preference)for)family)smokehouse)and)for)curing)and)smoking)techniques.)!  Concern)about)theD)&)need)for)constant)supervision.)!  Dog)salmon)season)is)in)the)Fall)when)it)is)cold)–)tending)away)from)home))is)difficult.)! 77!!! !!Storage:)Freezers))Commercial*/*Family.Household*/*Community**Currently:**2*walk.in*flash*freezers**!  *Ice*Plant*has*a*3*day*max.*storage*!  Storage*freezers*at*Big*House*and*the*Soccer*Field.*!  Bait*freezers*for*off*/*old*fish.**Barriers:**!  ***Household*affordability.**!  *Access*to*freezers*for*Winter.**!  *No*locks*on*community*freezers.**! !!! 78!!6.0!On!the!Possibilities!of!a!Locally!Grown!Western!Diet!!This!section!addresses!the!question!and!so!estimates!of!what!it!would!take!to!grow!all!or!a!very!large!portion!of!western!foods!within!‘Namgis!traditional!territory,!primarily!on!Cormorant!Island,!portions!of!Malcolm!Island!and!in!the!vicinity!of!the!Nimpkish!River!and!Woss!Lake.!While!estimates!in!aggregate!have!been!provided!by!the!Ecotrust!report!on!food!security!(2007),!very!little!data!is!available!for!conducting!food!or!food(s)6specific!estimates!of!this!kind!for!four!reasons:!!!1.!The!data!available!either!applies!to!a!different!region!and!so!different!soil!and!climactic!conditions!(e.g.,!the!Okanagan!Valley).!!2.!The!data!available!pertains!to!large6scale!production!of!the!kind!appropriate!to!‘industrial’!agriculture!and!so!uses!an!economy!of!scale!that!would!not!be!possible!in!‘Yalis.!!3.!There!are!many!smaller!artisanal!farms!in,!say,!the!Cowichan!Valley!and!a!few!greenhouses!in!the!vicinity!of!Campbell!River,!Malcolm!Island!and!other!adjacent!areas,!but!these!are!smaller!private!farms!and!so!information!is!proprietary!(again,!some!available!data!was!summarized!by!Ecotrust,!by!using!Rees’!footprint!model,!which!was!not!yet!calibrated!more!specifically).!(Ecotrust,!p.!8).!!!4.!Most!production!logics!assume!a!lot!of!mechanized!machinery,!and!chemical!inputs,!which!simply!don’t!make!sense!at!this!scale.!!!For!these!reasons,!firstly,!we!offer!a!brief!summary!of!what!the!Ministry!of!Agriculture!data!does!say,!however!inapplicable!here.!Secondly,!we!provide!estimates!based!on!what!are!known!as!Jeavons’!plots!(Jeavons!2012).!These!are!publicly!available!and!published!sources!on!what!could!be!grown,!at!what!volume,!assume!a!series!of!100!square!foot!community!or!bag!yard!gardens!or!raised!beds.!6.1!Cost!in!Labour!and!Land!!Initial!attempts!to!estimate!costs,!were!based!on!Ministry!of!Agriculture!“Planning!for!Profit”!sheets!(http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/busmgmt/budgets/berries.htm).!These!results!were!based!on!assumptions!that!simply!do!not!convert!to!the!‘Namgis!context.!They!are!provided!here!as!a!point!of!comparison.!They!are!unsuitable!because!of!the!commercial!scale!of!operations!assumed!by!the!Ministry,!and!the!assumption!of!using!optimal!growing!terrain,!such!as!that!available!for!the!Fraser!and!Okanagan!valleys.!!Some!data!is!also!available!for!the!Cowichan!Valley!but!less!so!still.!By!way!of!example,!consider!the!costs!of!providing!lamb!for!1000!persons!per!year.!The!volume!calculated!in!section!3.1!above!suggests!providing!5!kg!or!0.3!sheep!per!person,!per!year,!or!5000!kg!of!lamb!per!year!for!1000!people.!Scaling!the!Ministry!estimates!to!! 79!a!local!scale!suggest!an!the!necessary!costs!as!22!acres!of!land,!capital!costs!of!$100,000,!input!costs!(feed,!etc.)!of!$50,000!and!labour!at!the!equivalent!of!one!person!working!½!time!per!year!(e.g.,!$20,000!at!20.00!an!hour).!!Capital!costs,!input!and!labour!costs!alone!equate!to!$34.00!a!kg!for!lamb,!about!average!for!medium6priced!cuts!of!lamb!at!a!mid6range!non6organic!grocer!(Stong's!Market!Vancouver6January!28,!2015).!For!example,!lamb!burgers!and!shanks!are!approximately!$20.00!a!kg;!whereas!lamb!leg,!loin!chops!and!rack!of!lamb!range!from!$30!6!$60!a!kg!across!cuts!of!meat.!!!6.1.1!Ministry!of!Agriculture!Estimates!for!LargeXScale!Product!!!! 80!6.2!Jeavons!Plots!Estimates!!Given!the!earlier!referenced!data!on!agricultural!yields!and!inputs,!which!we!found!to!be!extremely!variable!and/or!not!applicable,!we!elected!to!instead!‘scale6up’!from!garden!level!production,!a!more!reasonable!assumption!given!the!likelihood!of!a!few!larger!gardens!or!beds!with!several!more!dispersed!ones.!Starting!at!the!garden!scale!would!allow!the!community!to!determine!local!yields!without!large!investments!in!infrastructure!or!machinery.!!Our!principle!sources!for!the!information!that!follow,!are!the!plot!sizes!and!yields!from!John!Jeavons’!book!“How!to!grow!more!vegetables”!(Jeavons!2012).!!Particularly!useful!is!the!fact!that!Jeavons!publishes!high,!medium,!and!low!yield!estimates.!These!ranges!are!represented!by!‘error!bars’!within!each!plotted!set!of!data:!aka!the!black!lines!that!extend!before!and!after!the!coloured!bars!in!each!graph.!!In!general,!we!assumed!the!average!end!of!his!yield!but!using!the!lower!estimates!is!also!a!defensible!possibility.!Some!things!would!not!be!viable!regardless,!given!shorter!growing!seasons!this!far!north.!The!total!set!of!estimates!provided!by!Jeavons!can!be!found!in!his!book,!and!a!quick!look!at!his!estimates!on!which!much!of!what!follows,!is!below.!!When!reading(the(Jeavons(graphs(immediately(below,(it!is!also!important!to!pay!attention!to!the!different!scales!used!on!both!the!horizontal!and!vertical!axes!in!each!figure.!This!is!because!some!things!might!necessarily!be!grown!in!enormous!quantities!(e.g.,!the!group!labeled!green!and!starchy/root!vegetables)!versus!oilseed!and!nuts.!The!former!have!yields!in!the!hundreds!of!pounds!per!plot,!while!grains,!oilseeds!and!nuts!have!the!lowest!yields!in!the!5!to!20!pounds!per!plot!range.!These!numbers!also!assume!garden!plots!that!are!intensively!gardened!with!hand!labour!and!relatively!low!inputs.!Specifically!each!plot!is!the!equivalent!of!4!rows!totalling!100!square!feet,!that!is,!a!256foot!long!section!of!46foot!rows.!!It!is!reasonable,!as!a!‘rule!of!thumb’,!to!also!scale!these!estimates!up!a!bit!and!so!some!reporting!is!expressed!in!areas!such!as!1000!square!feet,!for!example,!100ft!x!100ft!square!plots.!!Some!additional!land!would!also!be!needed!in!this!later!case!of!larger!plots,!as!scaling!up!requires!adding!surface!area!for!walkways!to!access!growing!beds.!!Four!tables!appear!in!the!next!pages!in!the!following!order,!all!based!on!yields!per!100!square!foot!plot:!Vegetable!yields!in!pounds;!fruit!and!berry!yields!per!pound;!grain!and!forage!foods!for!feeding!chicken,!cattle,!etc.;!and!yields!per!pound!of!oilseeds,!nuts,!and!bean!yields.!!!The!most!productive!crops!overall!are:!cabbage,!carrots,!celery,!chard,!cucumbers,!lettuce,!onions,!radishes,!zucchini,!and!tomatoes.!These!would!yield!a!higher!average!yield!than!giving!equal!space!to!lower6yielding!crops!(e.g.!asparagus,!broccoli,!peas).!!!! 81!6.2.1!Vegetable!yields!in!pounds!!!!!!!!!!!!!0" 100" 200" 300" 400" 500" 600" 700" 800"Turnips"Squash,"winter"Rutabagas"Pumpkin"Potatoes,"irish"Parsnips"Corn,"sweet"Tomatoes"Squash,"zucchini"Spinach,"regular"Rhubarb"Radishes"Peppers,"green"Peas,"Bush"Onions,"regular"LeIuce,"leaf"Kale"Garlic"Eggplant"Cucumbers"Collards"Chard,"swiss"Celery"Cauliflower"Carrots"Cabbage,"regular"Brussel"sprouts"Broccoli"Beets,"regular,"roots"Beets,"regular,"greens"Beans,"snap,"pole"Beans,"lima,"pole"Asparagus"Vegetable(yields,(pounds(per(1005square5foot(plot(! 82!!6.2.2!Fruit!and!berry!yields!per!pound!!! !0! 20! 40! 60! 80! 100!Strawberries!Raspberries!Plums!Pears!Cherries!Blackberries!Apples!Fruit!and!berry!yields,!pounds!per!100XsquareXfoot!plot!! 83!!6.2.3!Grain!and!forage!foods!for!feeding!chicken,!cattle,!etc.!!! !0! 20! 40! 60! 80! 100! 120!Timothy!Clover!Alfalfa!Wheat,!white!Wheat,!red!winter!Wheat,!durum!Rye!Rice!Quinoa!Oats!Millet,!proso!Corn,!]lour!or!fodder!Barley!Grain)and)forage)yields,)pounds)per)1009square9foot)plot)! 84!!!6.2.4!Yields!per!pound!of!oilseeds,!nuts,!and!bean!yields.!!!!!!6.3!Comparative!Number!of!Plots!Needed!to!Provide!All!Food!Groups!in!the!Western!Diet!!In!what!follows,!we!use!these!estimates,!but!reverse!the!data!to!ask:!How!many!of!the!1006square6foot!plots!would!be!required!to!provide!the!amount!of!food!represented!by!our!‘western’!diet!volumes!in!section!3.0?!We!also!convert!pounds!to!kilograms,!using!the!conversion!ratio!of!.454!lbs!per!kilogram.!!!The!western!food!volumes!are!restated!directly!below!for!easy!reference;!note!too!that!this!section!does!not!pertain!to!locally!harvested!portions!of!the!‘western’!diet!and!so!excludes!finfish,!shellfish,!crabs,!and!wild!meats.!!!!0! 5! 10! 15! 20!Walnut!Pecan!Chestnut!Almond!Lentils!Beans,!pinto!Beans,!kidney!Beans,!fava!Soybeans!Saf]lower!Canola!Oilseeds,)nuts,)and)bean)yields,)pounds)per)1009square9foot)plot)! 85!6.3.1!Western!Food!Volumes!Restated!Food Percent (%) of calories from foods Estimated Yearly community food needs Domestic meats       Lamb 2 301 Sheep Goats 2 738 Goats Beef 12 118 Cows Pork 4 90 Pigs Chicken 6 20,397 Chicken Local Plants       Fruits/berries 4 57,255 Kg Nuts 1 1,162 Kg Western plants       Grains 25 50,414 Kg Starchy vegetable 7 66,364 Kg Vegetables (greens) 3 87,600 Kg Other       Sugars and syrups 5 10,735 Kg Oils and fats 5 4,506 Kg Eggs 2 19,337 Dozen Cheese 5 9,057 Kg Milk 2 3 Cows !!Assuming!these!volumes,!the!next!table,!table!6.3.2,!provides!a!summary!look!at!the!comparative!land!or!plot!areas!needed!to!provide!these!key!groups!of!western!foods.!Reading!this!figure!allows!one!to!ask!what!makes!comparative!sense!to!grow!because!that!crop!yields!a!lot!of!food!per!plot!or,!conversely,!has!a!very!low!comparative!yield.!This!quick!look!considers!yield!only,!costs!appear!thereafter!(again,!based!on!Jeavons’!averages).!!!In!general,!growing!grain!for!all!meats!is!considerably!less!productive,!especially!for!chicken!and!beef.!Growing!oil!seeds!(e.g.,!to!produce!canola!oil)!or!edible!grains!is!also!more!difficult!or!comparatively!less!productive.!Whereas!the!tiny!bars!for!vegetables,!fruits,!nuts!and!root!crops!indicate!these!are!quite!productive!comparatively!and!so!may!make!a!lot!of!sense!to!produce!locally.!A!hybrid!diet!replacing!much!of!the!fruit!and!berry!needed!with!wild!harvests!(blueberries,!blackberries,!seaweed,!etc.)!would!further!reduce!land!needs!for!fruit!and!berry!growing.!![An!aside:!when!growing!forage!required!for!animal!agriculture!we!assume!1!kg!of!meat!would!require!10!kg!(dry!weight)!of!forage.!For!milk,!we!assume!1!kg!of!forage!required!to!produce!1!litre!of!milk,!and!10!L!milk!required!to!make!1!kg!of!cheese.!!We!assume!that!it!makes!more!sense!to!grow!forage!as!this!would!require!far!less!land!overall.!Also,!! 86!given!the!scales!required!for!forage!grains,!our!logic!of!required!manual!hand!labour!may!not!be!a!practicable!approach.!Conversely,!if!much!of!the!animal!products!consumed!in!a!hybrid!diet!are!wild6caught!(fish!and!game),!then!growing!some!forage!on!marginal!lands!using!more!extensive!methods!to!support!a!small!amount!of!animal!agriculture!may!be!entirely!practicable.!Similarly,!growing!grains!and!oilseeds!(we!assume!1!kg!of!oil!extracted!from!10!kg!seed)!would!require!around!5000!square!feet!each!(plus!walkway!allowances)!per!family,!or!around!20!ha!for!the!community!of!1000!people.!!However,!grains!and!oils!store!and!transport!well,!so!continuing!to!import!much!of!the!community’s!needs!for!these!staples!may!be!preferable.]!!!!!87!6.3.2%Overall%Comparisons%of%Land%Needed%to%Produce%Western%Foods%Locally0"10,000"20,000"30,000"40,000"50,000"60,000"70,000"80,000"Milk"from"forage7fed"cows"Cheese"from"milk"Eggs"from"grain7fed"chickens"Oil"from"local"oilseeds"Starches/"rootcrops"Grains"Nuts"Fruits/"berries"Vegetables"Chicken"fed"local"grains"Pork"fed"local"forage"Beef"fed"local"forage"Lamb"fed"local"forage"Number%of%100AsquareAfoot%plots%needed%for%community%Land%needed%to%grow%food,%or%inputs%for%animal%producFon,%for%community%of%1000%people%! 88!Breaking)the)above)picture)down)to)something)more)imaginable)reveals)more)fully)the)comparative)land9burden)of)food)groups.)6.4$Land$Needed$to$Grow$Yearly$Vegetable,$Fruits$and$Grains$)First,)consider)the)land)needed)for)individual)(and)so,)community))food)needs)for)vegetables,)fruits)and)grains)based)on)average)yields)from)Jeavons.)The)figure)below)expresses)this)at)a)‘per)household’)level.)Converting)these)to)the)community)level)roughly)equates)to)a)multiple)of)1000.)For)instance,)our)diet)profiles)suggest)57)kg)of)fruits)or)berries)per)person;)given)the)average)yield)of)the)fruits)and)berries)shown)in)table$6.4.1)below.)This)would)require)on)the)order)of)2.5)ten9foot9by9ten9foot)plots)per)person,)10)plots)for)a)family)of)5)and)2500)plots)for)a)community)of)1000.)))To)ground)these)estimates)a)bit,)consider)a)typical)Alert)Bay)yard,)which)Google)Earth)measures)as)approximately)50)feet)by)60)feet.)Leaving)49foot)walkways)between)49foot)raised)beds,)this)area)could)support)14)‘plots’.)These%14%plots%could%provide%a%significant%portion,%if%not%the%entirety,%of%a%family’s%needs%for%vegetables,%fruits,%and%starches%or%root%crops,%if%Jeavons’%‘medium’%yields%are%attainable.)(This)is)a)conclusion)not)dissimilar)from)Ecotrust,)2007).)Again,)as)noted)above,)focusing)on)the)most)productive)crops)(e.g.,)cabbage,)carrots,)celery,)chard,)cucumbers,)lettuce,)onions,)radishes,)zucchini,)tomatoes))would)yield)a)higher)average)yield)than)giving)equal)space)to)lower9yielding)crops)(e.g.)asparagus,)broccoli,)peas).))The)next)figure,$6.4.2,)on)providing)yearly)dairy,)egg)and)oil)production)per)person.)Notice)first)that)the)‘y’)or)vertical)axis)is)0950)not)the)lower)0925)of)the)figure)for)vegetables,)fruits,)etc.)This)2nd)figure)indicates)that)comparatively)speaking)it)might)makes)sense)to)grow)enough)forage)to)provide)milk)and)cheese,)less)so)forage)for)enough)eggs)and)oil.)But)even)cheese)is)demanding)as)it)is)a)single)item)and)yet)requires)5)plots)per)person)per)year)or)5000)plots)at)the)community)scale.)For)cheese)alone)for)1000)persons,)this)is)the)rough)equivalent)of)500,000)square)feet,)4.6)hectres)or)11.5)acres)for)cheese)in)land)only.)))The)last)figure)in)the)sequence)below,)6.4.3,)calculates)the)land)needed)to)provide)forage)feed)for)yearly)meat)production)per)person.)Again,)notice)that)the)‘y’)or)vertical)axis)for)this)figure)is)09100)not)the)lower)0925)or)0950)of)the)earlier)figures.)This)3rd)figure)indicates)that)comparatively)speaking)it)will)require)considerable)land)not)for)free)range)meats,)but)even)for)growing)forage)for)those)meats.)Lamb)at)2%)of)calories)makes)the)most)sense)from)a)forage)pov,)whereas)chicken)at)an)equivalent)2%)of)calories)or)10kg)per)person)per)year)would)take)20)plots)per)person.)Were)chicken)to)make)up)4%)of)calories)in)the)diet)composition,)this)would)take)40)plots)per)person,)for)1000)persons.)This)is)the)rough)equivalent)of)4,000,000)square)feet,)37)hectares)or)92)acres)for)forage9fed)chickens.)))! 89!In)general,)then,)one)conclusion)is)that)growing)animal)products)from)locally)grown)feed)may)not)be)reasonable)given)the)size)of)the)island;)growing)at)least)some)reasonable)fraction)of)vegetables,)fruits,)berries,)etc.)seems)more)practical.)!90!6.4.1%Land%Need%to%Grow%Yearly%Vegetable,%Fruits%and%Grains%Per%Person%!!!66!kg!crops/!person/year!50!kg!grains/!person/year!1.2!kg!nuts/!person/year!57!kg!fruits!or!berries/!person/year!88!kg!vegetables/!person/year!0.0! 5.0! 10.0! 15.0! 20.0! 25.0!Starches/!rootcrops!Grains!Nuts!Fruits/!berries!Vegetables!Number'of'100,square,foot'plots'needed'Land'needed'to'grow'yearly'fruit'and'vegetable'requirements,'per'person'!91!6.4.2%Land%Needed%to%Grow%Inputs%for%Dairy,%Egg%and%Oil%Production%Per%Person%!!!!!!!!!23!L!milk/!person/year!9!kg!cheese/!person/year!19!dz!eggs/!person/year!4.5!kg!oil/!person/year!0.0! 5.0! 10.0! 15.0! 20.0! 25.0! 30.0! 35.0! 40.0! 45.0! 50.0!Milk!from!forageKfed!cows!Cheese!from!milk!Eggs!from!grainKfed!chickens!Oil!from!local!oilseeds!Number'of'100,square,foot'plots'needed'Land'needed'to'grow'inputs'for'yearly'dairy,'egg'and'oil'production,'per'person'!92!!6.4.3%Land%Needed%to%Grow%Inputs%for%Meats%!!!!!20!kg!chicken/!person/year!7.8!kg!pork/!person/year!37!kg!beef/!person/year!5.5!kg!lamb/!person/year!0.0! 10.0! 20.0! 30.0! 40.0! 50.0! 60.0! 70.0! 80.0! 90.0! 100.0!Chicken!fed!local!grains!Pork!fed!local!forage!Beef!fed!local!forage!Lamb!fed!local!forage!Number'of'100,square,foot'plots'needed'Land'needed'to'grow'inputs'for'yearly'meat'production,'per'person'! 93!6.5$Estimating$Costs$for$Local$Production$of$Western$Foods$$!!As!with!costing!traditional!foods!by!labour!and!travel!costs,!western!foods!have!their!own!complications.!Labour!prices!are!relatively!stable!but!inputs!and!equipment!costs!are!less!so.!Thus!we!cannot!stress!enough!that!these!are!uncertain!estimates.!In!general!we!sought!local!sources!whenever!possible!or!reasonable!equivalents!as!the!best!available!sources!come!from!a!small!group!of!agricultural!universities!and!extension!services.!And!while!Jeavons’!plots!were!our!primary!source!for!land!estimates!above,!this!was!not!necessarily!an!ideal!source!for!labour!estimates.![Jeavons,!for!instance,!used!a!rule!of!thumb!of!½!of!labour!per!day!per!plot.!But!this!is!just!that:!a!rule!of!thumb.]!!Our!primary!sources!are!listed!below.!The!costs!should!not!be!read!as!literal!estimates!but!as!with!traditional!foods,!they!should!be!read!as!‘ratios’!whereby!one!can!reasonably!anticipate!the!ratio!of!producing!locally!versus!purchasing!locally!even!when!this!might!involve!the!prohibitive!cost!of!a!ferry!and!fuel.!!The!primary!costs!included!here!are:!inputs!(manure!or!compost,!shelter!for!farm!animals)!and!labour!(20.00!an!hour).!We!used!the!following!sources!for!these!data:!!1.!Hendrickson’s!(Hendrickson!2005)!‘Grower!to!Grower’!guide!to!estimate!average!annual!labour!time!for!cultivation,!which!is!estimated!to!be!850!hours!per!acre!in!a!6!month!period!for!cultivation,!and!year!round!for!livestock.!!2.!For!chickens,!only!larger!scale!sources!were!available.!We!used!a!source!from!University!of!Wisconsin!extension!service:!CIAS!Wisconsin!(LargeYScale!Pastured!Poultry!Farming!in!the!U.S.!(Research!Brief!#63)!|!Center!for!Integrated!Agricultural!Systems!(n.d.)!!3.!For!crop!equipment!we!used:!!a.!Tool!suggestions!from:!http://www.hobbyfarms.com/farmYequipmentYandYtools/toolsYequipmentY14995.aspx!!b.!Tool!prices!from!Canadiantire.ca.!But!the!estimates!do!not!include:!!o Composting!container!o Crop!storage!containers!o Shed!o Fuel!for!truck!!o Maintenance/!repairs!!!c.!Canadian!Organic!Standards!was!consulted!for!requirements!of!space!for!chickens.!http://www.cog.ca/uploads/standards.pdf!$ Shelter!costs!do!not!include:!! 94!o Labour!costs!for!building!o Maintenance/repair!costs!o Heating!!c.!For!cows,!we!used!estimates!for!mature!cows,!and!shelter!space!needed!per!cow!based!on:!http://beef.unl.edu/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=138d4657Y164bY4c03Y8ed2Ycb96b4a769c0!$ Estimates!are!for!mature!cows!!$ Estimate!that!a!1200!ft2!barn!will!cost!about!$45,000!from:!http://www.fixr.com/costs/buildYbarn!$ 6!of!these!needs!based!on!the!amount!of!shelter!space!per!cow.!!$ Costs!only!include!the!cost!of!the!building.!They!do!not!include:!labour!costs!for!building,!maintenance/repair!costs!or!heating!costs!!d.!For!crops!we!assumed!that!all!crops!need!similar!amounts!of!manure/compost/lime!and!that!Soil!type!(siltYloam)!is!based!on!a!working!report!titled:!‘Description!of!Soil!Types!of!Northern!Vancouver!Island.’!Estimates!are!taken!from!data!on!Port!McNeill,!as!a!location!near!to!the!study!site:!http://sis.agr.gc.ca/cansis/publications/surveys/bc/bc45/bc45_report.pdf!!!e.!We!assumed!a!2Y4!inch!layer!of!manure,!applied!once!given!the!short!growing!season:!(http://homeguides.sfgate.com/waysYamendYsiltYloamYsoilY46600.html)!and,!http://learningstore.uwex.edu/assets/pdfs/a3601.pdf:!!!f.!Compost:!http://www.beyondcomposting.ca/.!We!assumed!$65!a!cubic!metre,!but!subtracted!from!that!average!household!compost!of!2.5!kg!compost!per!week!=!130!kg/year/hh!=!13,000!kg/year!!g.!For!chickens,!given!the!above!cost!of!growing!feed,!we!assumed!NO!local!forage,!but!cost!estimates!would!likely!be!lower!if!for!parts!of!the!year,!the!animals!are!able!to!graze!on!local!forage.!!!i.!When!comparing!store!prices,!we!gathered!prices!from!Shoprite!in!Alert!Bay;!Market!Place!IGA;!and!for!rarer!foods,!Vancouver!retailers.!$$6.6$Production$Costs$Not$Inclusive$of$Land$!An!enormous!agricultural!cost!is,!quite!simply,!land.!Above!we!have!indicated!what!can!be!grown!given!a!reasonable!number!of!plots!for!Cormorant!Island,!but!we!do!not!value!that!land!in!any!market!sense!of!the!word.!One!general!observation!in!that!section!was!that!growing!animal!products!from!locally!grown!feeds!may!not!be!reasonable!given!the!! 95!size!of!the!island;!but!that!growing!a!significant!portion!of!vegetables,!fruits,!and!berries,!might!be!more!practical.!Thus,!from!the!point!of!view!of!labour!and!input!costs!only,!a!few!conclusions!can!be!drawn.!They!are!provided!on!the!table!7.6.1!below!along!with!the!volume!estimates!for!a!western!diet!provided!in!section!2.1.!!!96!From%the%point%of%view%of%cost,%not%land,%the%relatively%cheaper%foods%per%kilogram%unit%are%still:%locally%produced%starchy%vegetables,%and%green%vegetables%as%well%as%milk.%Only%fruits%and%berries%become%somewhat%less%attractive%per%kilogram%than%were%estimates%for%land,%primarily%because%of%higher%unit%costs%for%labour%in%this%case.%%%6.6.1$Summarizing$the$Cost$of$Local$Production$$!Food$type$Unit/Volume$Labour$costs/unit$($)$Equipment$costs/unit$($)$Input$costs/unit$($)$Total$cost/unit$($)$$Starchy%Vegetables%%kg%0.47%0.0256%0.46%0.95%Grains%%kg%7.90%0.4304%7.67%16.00%Nuts%%kg%10.08%0.5492%9.79%20.41%Fruits/berries%%kg%1.70%0.0929%1.66%3.45%Green%Vegetables%kg%0.53%0.0291%0.52%1.08%Milk%%%Litres%.64%0.1466%n/a%0.79%Cheese%%kg%6.01%1.4664%n/a%7.48%Beef%%%kg%1.75%6.7682%n/a%8.52%Eggs%%eggs/doz%.29%0.0245%0.32%0.63%per%egg%Chicken%%kg%4.06%2.4996%2.09%8.64%! 97!6.7$The$Aggregate$Cost$of$Western$Foods$Grown$Locally$!If#we#accept#considerable#uncertainty#in#these#figures,#a#ball#park#estimate#for#growing#foods#locally#is#a#very#expensive#cost#for#grains#at#roughly#800#thousand#dollars,#just#over#$300,000#for#beef,#as#compared#to#lesser#prices#for#green#and#starchy#vegetables.#This#is#certainly#consistent#with#normal#grocery#costs.#More#surprising#is#the#cost#of#the#total#diet#at#1.9#million#for#a#community#of#1000#or#roughly#1900.00#per#year#per#person.#For#a#household#of#5#this#amounts#to#just#under#$800#per#month.##6.7.2$Total$Costs$of$Western$Foods$Food$type$ Unit/Volume$ Total$cost/unit$($)$$Total$Cost$Starchy#Vegetables##66000#kg# 0.95# $62,700#Grains##50000#kg#16.00# $800,000#Nuts##1200#kg#20.41# $24,492#Fruits/berries##57000#kg#3.45# $196,650#Green#Vegetables# 88000#kg#1.08# $95,040#Milk###23000#Litres#0.79# $18,170#Cheese##9000#kg#7.48# $67,320#Beef###37000#kg#8.52# $315,240#Eggs##19000#eggs/doz#0.63#per#egg#or#7.53#doz#$143,640#Chicken##20372#kg#8.64# $176,014#!! 98!6.8$The$Relative$Cost$of$Local$Purchasing$versus$Local$Production$!Perhaps(the(most(frequent(question(people(might(ask(is:(What(is(the(relative(cost(of(producing(locally(versus(purchasing(locally,(accepting(that(the(proximate(cost(of(local(foods(is(high(given(ferry(and(fuel(costs,(let(alone(time,(to(shop(off(Cormorant(Island(when(grocery(inventory(is(low(or(prices(are(high?(The(cost(of(grocery(foods(is(highly(variable,(thus(one(way(to(answer(this(question(is(to(consider(ratios(–(is(it(twice(as(much(or(10(times(as(much(to(purchase(western(foods(versus(produce(them(locally?((From(this(perspective:((! It(is(roughly(4x(cheaper(to(produce(fruits(and(berries(locally(that(to(purchase(them.(! The(same(is(roughly(true(for(green(vegetables.(! By(far(the(most(obvious(choice(from(a(cost(point(of(view(are(root(vegetables(as(they(are(estimated(to(be(8x(cheaper(to(produce(locally.((Conversely:((! Purchasing(and(producing(chickens(and(eggs(are(about(the(same.(! Nuts(are(only(slightly(cheaper(to(produce(locally.(! And(grains(are(considerably(more(expensive(to(produce(locally(than(to(purchase.!99!6.8.1%Local%Purchasing%versus%Local%Production%!!$#!!!!!$5.00!!!$10.00!!!$15.00!!!$20.00!!!$25.00!!!$30.00!!ḱwa'łam/tsagał'mas!(Green!vegetables)!tsalxw/gwadam/!etc.!(Fruits/berries)!Nuts!Grains!xatam/!kwu'si!(root!vegetables)!Chicken!Eggs!Es#mated)Price)per)kg)(or)per)egg))($))Food)Type)Es#mated)cost)comparison)for)producing)locally)versus)buying)locally)for)select)food)types)in)the)Western)diet))Produce!Locally!Purchase!Locally!!! 100!Conclusion)!In!this!research!we!hope!to!have!provided!the!‘Namgis!First!Nation!with!a!“data!rich”!report!that!will!be!of!use!for!future!decisions!about!food!sovereignty.!Included!in!the!report!is!detailed!information!about!nutritional,!social!and!economic!options!for!a!contemporary!“Traditional”!diet,!a!Western!diet,!and!a!Hybrid!diet.!!Traditional)Diet)and)Harvest)Costs))!For!the!traditional!diet,!we!worked!from!(and!developed)!lists!of!food!species!and!food!types!suggested!to!us!by!collaborators!as!culturally!important,!available!and!desired!by!many.!!Studies!that!informed!this!work!include!Dr.!Jay!Wortman’s!longitudinal!research!in!Alert!Bay!on!the!“traditional!diet;”!Marty!Weinstein’s!many!superb!research!papers!on!First!Nations!and!‘Namgis!food!fish!allotments;!and!the!Ecotrust!‘Assessment!of!Food!Security’!conducted!for!‘Namgis!in!2007.!!We!moved!from!a!total!possible!list!of!120!foods!to!a!list!of!27!foods!about!which!some!nutritional!information!was!available.!!When!it!wasn’t,!we!assumed!proxies!(e.g.,!we!assumed!that!various!roots!consumed!as!part!of!a!historical!diet!(xatam/Tslōsaxa!hōqlwalē/dłaxsam/ṫaxwsus)!would!have!roughly!similar!macroXnutrient!content!as!potato.)!Because!we!did!aim!for!a!traditional!diet!higher!in!protein!and!with!a!lower!carbohydrate!content!than!the!Canada!Food!guidelines,!we!set!the!volume!of!calories!from!proteins!for!a!traditional!diet!at!45%;!similarly!the!carbohydrate!level!for!a!traditional!diet!was!24%!of!calories.!!!Roughly!48%!of!all!calories!are!provided!by!the!different!fish!species,!especially!małik!/!sockeye!at!30%!of!calories.!A!further!20%!(approximately)!of!calories!are!provided!by!meats!and!shellfish,!with!a!remaining!27%!provided!by!nuts,!fruits!and!berries,!vegetables,!seaweeds,!roots!and!grains,!and!a!final!10%!provided!by!fats!and!oils!(e.g.,!t'łi'na)!and!sugars/syrups.!!The!high!proportion!of!total!calories!from!fish,!meats!and!seafoods!is!not!necessarily!surprising!as!these!are!the!more!caloric!foods!in!any!diet.!At!roughly!230!kilos!per!person!per!year,!a!very!large!volume!of!plant!foods!is!still!required!(despite!their!lesser!caloric!load).!!!Broken)down)to)a)per)person/per)year)representation,)some)of)the)volumes)for)the)traditional)diet)are:)))! 23!sockeye,!30!crabs,!15!bags!of!clams,!approximately!80!kilos!of!berries!and!fruits,!12!waterfowl,!and!60!kilos!of!roots.!!! 101!!Volumes!for!traditional!food!requirements!should!also!include!foods!for!feasting!and!potlatching.!Though!we!do!not!value!these!in!economic!terms,!we!did!estimate!volumes!of!traditional!foods!based!on!one!year!of!events!in!the!Big!House.!!!An)example)of)estimated)yearly)volumes)for)feasting)in)the)big)house)in)2013,)serving)6,550)people:)))3,265!małik!/!sockeye;!2,444!lbs!of!ṕo'yi!/!halibut;!11,500!'was'wani!/)prawns;!3,500!ḱu'mis!/!crabs;!11!gallons!of!t’łi’na;!15,!500!dzaxwan!/eulachons;!and,!4,!525!lbs!each!of!ťławaľs!/!elk!and!moose. !Harvesting)Costs)!To!develop!information!about!harvesting)for!this!contemporary!traditional!diet,!we!built!solely!on!criteria!of!success!and!failure!described!by!harvesters!themselves!when!possible.!!Our!figures!on!costs!for!harvesting!traditional!foods!were!derived!from!fishers’!or!berryXpickers’!or!hunters’!shared!knowledge!about!labour!requirements,!time!requirements,!required!infrastructure!(e.g.,!vehicles,!gear!etc.),!related!costs!(e.g.,!food,!fuel),!and!expected!yields.!These!were!calculated!for!“good!trips,”!“average!trips”!and!“poor!trips”!including!many!complicated!variations!such!as!particular!food!species!coXcaught!or!opportunistically!harvested!while!hunting,!fishing!or!gathering!some!other!food.!!!Future!possibilities!can!only!allow!for!a!reasonable!basis!for!estimating!costs.!In!the!case!of!harvesting!a!large!volume!of!marine!foods,!for!example,!the!costs)of)boats!might!rise!significantly!in!one!year,!not!the!next.!Similarly,!from!June!2014!through!January!2015!the!commodity)cost)of)oil!has!dropped!by!50%,!which!has!introduced!a!near!equivalent!drop!in!fuel!per!litre!costs.!This!is!a!very!large!shift,!but!serves!well!as!an!example!of!the!kind!of!uncertainty!to!think!with!when!considering!these!estimates.!In!short,!all!estimated!costs!are!carefully!explained!but!must!also!assume!a!high!level!of!uncertainty.!!The!estimates!include!buying!and!maintaining!gear!(pick!up!trucks!for!hunting!and!berry!picking,!as!well!as!seine!boats,!gill!netters!and!punts!for!fishing,!hunting!and!some!berry!picking);!fuel!costs!for!all!types!of!trips!and!transport;!related!travel!expenses!(food!for!days!on!boats!or!at!hunting!or!harvesting!camps)!as!well!as!time!or!labour!needed!(e.g.,!in!person!hours!per!trip,!assuming!good!trips!and!bad!trips!and!things!coXcaught!on!trips.!For!example,!catching!some!prawns!when!out!fishing).!Labour!as!a!cost!is!extremely!! 102!variable!–!minimum!wage!sits!at!$10.25,!but!many!suggest!a!more!viable!wage!of!$15.00X20.00.!!We!used!estimates!for!the!‘food!volumes!needed’!for!the!traditional!diet!to!generate!a!yearly!round!of!trips!needed!to!meet!those!food!demands.!That!is,!we!calculated!the!number!of!trips!needed!to!meet!that!need,!assuming!a!variety!of!trip!types.!We!did!this!first!with!the!most!highlyXprized!foods!(e.g.,!the!salmon,!eulachon,!elk),!seeing!how!many!trips!focused!on!those!species!would!need!to!occur.!We!then!added!to!that,!proportions!of!coXcatches!of!other!species!across!the!different!trip!types.!!Thereafter,!we!repeated!these!steps!focusing!on!the!secondXmostXhighlyXdiscussed!foods,!and!so!on.!!Traditional)Diet:)Estimated)Costs))The)average)total)cost)of)fleet)and)travel)costs)for)procuring)a)contemporary)traditional)diet)is)roughly:)!! $360,500!per!year!in!gear!and!travel!costs!and!14,310!person!days!of!labour;!were!labour!converted!to!$15.00!per!hour,!this!amounts!to!roughly!1.7!million!dollars!in!labour!costs!@!20.00!dollars!per!hour,!this!rises!to!$2.86!million.!Clearly,!labour!is!a!very!considerable!part!of!the!cost!of!procuring!a!traditional!diet.!!!! This!is!the!equivalent!of!just!over!$36.00!per!year!per!person,!or!about!$180.00!per!person!per!household!of!five.!!! This!is!the!equivalent!of!a!‘food’!budget,!rounded!off,!of!$3220.00!per!person!per!year!or!62.00!per!month.!!!! Total!labour!hours!amount!to!14,310!person!days!per!year,!or!114,480!hours!assuming!eightXhour!days.!!!We!compared)harvest)costs)to)purchase)costs)on)key)traditional)foods!available!at!market!outlets.!These!comparisons!indicate!that!it!is!vastly!cheaper!to!harvest!these!foods!locally.!At!a!glance,!and!by!ratio!only:!!! Mussels!and!cockles!(when!available)!are!cheaper!by!a!factor!of!4:1!! Clams!are!cheaper!by!a!factor!of!5:1!! Halibut!is!cheaper!by!a!factor!of!18:1,!and!! Salmons!are!cheaper!by!a!factor!of!20:1!and!possibly!closer!to!35:1!per!kilogram!!!! 103!A!large!uncertainty!range!should!be!assumed!because!traditional!food!costs!include!only!all!vehicle!and!travel!costs!(maintenance,!vehicle!purchase!and!depreciation,!fuel,!ferry).!!They!do!not!include!the!cost!of!processing!or!packaging!foods!once!harvested!(a!task!beyond!the!scope!of!this!project).!But!even!if!one!were!to!generously!assume!that!traditional!foods!therefore!cost!twice!as!much,!the!ratio!is!still!remarkable!and!no!food!comes!closer!than!a!cost!ratio!of!2:1.!!!Total!costs!for!procuring!a!contemporary!traditional!diet!should!also!consider!costs!associated!with!food)production!by!household!or!as!a!collectivity.!We!did!not!calculate!costs!for!food!processing!but!do!note!that!these!include:!!!Infrastructure!costs:!vehicles;!smokehouses;!canning!machines;!drying!machines;!industrial!sized!cookers;!access!to!flash!freezing;!household!or!community!freezers;!suitable!space!and!facilities!for!cleaning,!cutting!/!butchering!foods;!larger!equipment!needs.!Supplies!required!for!food!production!include:!cans!($30/doz.);!jars!($11X$15!/!doz)!(and!lids!X!$4!/!doz);!propane,!coolers,!knives,!ice,!freezer!bags!etc.!These!represent!smaller!costs!however,!considering!the!number!of!fish!often!processed!at!once!–!these!definitely!add!!up.!!!The!greatest!barrier)to)household)food)production!is!affordability.!Currently,!large!scale!harvesting!for!food!production!is!limited!to!those!who!own!or!have!access!to!boats!and!pickXup!trucks,!live!on!properties!large!enough!to!accommodate!a!smokehouse!(and!are!able!to!afford!insurance!for!it),!and!can!afford!large!capacity!freezers!for!winter!storage.!Diane!Jacobson!conducted!interviews!with!food!specialists!that!address!perceptions!about!which!foods!might!be!more!amenable!to!household!VS!community!efforts!at!food!production.!The!‘Namgis!band!has!control!and!ownership!of!these!interviews!materials.!!In!very!general!terms,!we!found:!!! People!have!strong!preferences!for!food!preparation!techniques!associated!with!tastes!or!!“memory!foods”!in!their!families.!!So,!“household!sovereignty”!is!a!social!priority.!!! A!significant!barrier!to!collective!food!provisioning!involves!trusting!others!in!their!harvesting!practices,!their!abilities!and!standards!for!cleaning!and!butchering,!canning!and!smoking!foods.!!!! 104!! People!are!concerned!about!the!security!of!community!wide!freezers!and!smokehouses!in!plans!for!collective!food!production.!Several!people!mentioned!preferred!proximity!to!their!homes.!!! While!the!‘Namgis!Nation,!the!Guardians,!individual!hunters!and!fishers!distribute!traditional!foods!to!elders!and!to!those!without!family!harvesters,!food!sharing!networks!also!include!offXreserve!members,!gifting!and!trade!networks.!Questions!would!include!how!equitable!distribution!might!be!determined!in!a!model!of!collective!food!provisioning.!!The)Western)Diet))!The!initial!Western!diet!was!calibrated!to!reflect!foods!more!widely!consumed!and!locally!grown!in!the!Canadian!west,!Vancouver!Island!in!particular.!It!was!then!further!calibrated!to!reflect!a!‘westernXstyle’!diet!more!likely!in!a!Vancouver!Island!and/or!First!NationsXinfluenced!diet!(e.g.,!higher!than!average!fish,!shellfish!and!green!vegetable!consumption).!!!Estimated)total)food)needs)for)a)western)diet)for)1,000)people)for)one)year)include)the)following)volumes)of)(selected))foods:)5,743!sockeye;!1,489!halibut;!7,479!crabs;!301!lambs;!90!pigs;!20,397!chickens,!57,!255!kg!fruits!and!berries;!50,!414!kg!grains;!87,600!green!vegetables.)!Growing)the)Western)Diet)!What!would!it!take!to!grow!all!or!a!very!large!portion!of!western!foods!within!‘Namgis!territory!X!on!Cormorant!Island,!portions!of!Malcolm!Island!and!in!the!vicinity!of!the!Nimpkish!River!and!Woss!Lake?!!!We!provide!estimates!based!on!what!are!known!as!Jeavon’s!plots.!These!are!published!sources!detailing!what!could!be!grown,!at!what!volumes,!assuming!a!series!of!100!square!foot!community!or!backyard!gardens!or!raised!beds.!Starting!at!the!garden!scale!would!allow!the!community!to!determine!local!yields!without!large!investments!in!infrastructure!or!machinery.!!! A!typical!Alert!Bay!yard!is!approximately!50!feet!by!60!feet.!Leaving!4Xfoot!walkways!between!4Xfoot!raised!beds,!this!area!could!support!14!‘plots’.!These!14)plots!could!provide!a!significant!portion,!if!not!the!entirety,!of!a!family’s!needs!for!vegetables,!fruits,!and!starches!or!root!crops.!!! 105!! A!hybrid)diet!replacing!much!of!the!fruit!and!berry!needs!with!wild!harvests!(blueberries,!blackberries,!seaweed,!etc.)!would!further!reduce!land!needs!for!fruit!and!berry!growing.)!! Focusing!on!the!most)productive)crops!(e.g.,!cabbage,!carrots,!celery,!chard,!cucumbers,!lettuce,!onions,!radishes,!zucchini,!tomatoes)!would!produce!a!higher!average!yield!than!giving!equal!space!to!lowerXyielding!crops!(e.g.!asparagus,!broccoli,!peas).!!! Growing!animal)products!from!locally!grown!feeds!may!not!be!reasonable!given!the!size!of!the!island;!growing!at!least!some!reasonable!fraction!of!vegetables,!fruits,!berries,!etc.!seems!more!practical.!!! Growing!grains)and)oilseeds!would!require!around!5000!square!feet!each!(plus!walkway!allowances)!per!family,!or!around!20!ha!for!the!community!of!1000!people.!Continuing!to!import!much!of!the!community’s!needs!for!these!staples!may!be!preferable.!! !Western)Diet:)Estimated)Costs)!To!summarize,!cost!of!food!is!in!no!way!meant!to!stand!for!worth!of!food.!Many!things!that!matter!flow!from!the!act!of!harvesting!one’s!own!food!–!be!that!the!transmission!of!knowledge!and!skills!across!generations,!the!oral!histories!told!in!place!at!key!food!producing!or!gathering!sites,!or!the!importance!of!being!present!on!‘Namgis!terrestrial!and!marineXscapes,!among!other!things.!!The!total!cost!per!kilogram!(or!litre!or!egg)!of!food!types!from!the!combined!costs!of!labour,!equipment,!and!inputs!(e.g.,!manure,!forage!feed,!compost,!etc.).!!!Totals)($))for)selected)food)types!(without)costs)for)land)required))are!as!follows:!!! Milk! ! ! $!!0.79!/!L!! Starchy!vegetables!!!!!!!!!!0.95!/!kg!!! Green!vegetables! !!!!1.08!/!kg!! Fruits!/!Berries! !!!!3.45!/!kg!! Cheese! ! !!!!7.48!/!kg!! Beef! ! ! !!!!8.52!/!kg!! Chicken! ! !!!!8.64!/!kg!! Eggs! ! ! !!!!0.63!/!egg!! Grains! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!16.00!/!kg!! Nuts! ! ! !!20.41!/!kg!!! 106!What%are%estimated%total%volumes%and%costs%for%a%Western%diet%for%1,000%people%for%one%year?%!! 23,000!L!of!milk! ! !!!!!!!$!!18,170!! 66,000!kg!of!starchy!vegetables!!!!!!!!62,700!!! 88,000!kg!of!green!vegetables!!!!!!!!!!!95,040!! 57,000!kg!of!fruits/!berries!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!196,650!! 9,000!kg!!of!cheese! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!67,320!! 37,000!kg!of!beef! ! !!!!!!!!!!315,240!! 20,372!kg!chicken! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!176,014!! 19,000!eggs/!doz! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!143,!640!! 50,000!kg!of!grains!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!800,000!! 1,200!kg!of!nuts! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!24,492!!!Overall,!some!costs!are!daunting,!some!not.!Chicken!fed!locally!produced!grains!for!instance,!would!require!roughly!40,000!100!square!foot!plots.!While!its!not!likely!that!this!would!be!so!–!larger!plots!make!sense!in!this!case!–!the!conversion!is!in!the!order!of!!37!hectares!or!92!acres.!!Vegetables!and!fruits!make!vastly!more!sense!at!about!14!small!plots!to!provide!all!that!might!be!needed!in!fruits!and!vegetables!for!a!family!of!5.!!!!Yet,!while!land!is!usually!the!largest!single!cost!in!food!production,!even!in!the!absence!of!that!(assuming!collectively!owned!territorial!lands),!growing!all!that!is!needed!makes!less!sense!for!an!entirely!Western!diet.!Our!rough!estimate!for!this!is!$800!per!month!per!household!of!5,!even$though$land$price$is$not$included.!But,!again,!were!one!to!focus!primarily!on!fruits,!and!all!vegetables!(green!and!starchy),!this!makes!a!great!deal!of!sense!as!a!more!likely!healthy!diet!is!the!‘hybrid’!diet!or!the!modified!‘traditional’!diet,!both!of!which!rely!on!considerable!amounts!of!locally!harvested!proteins,!which!are!themselves!among!the!more!expensive!foods!to!cultivate!or!produce,!not!harvest.!!Possible)Barriers)for)Growing)a)Western)and/)or)Hybrid)Diet:)!We!heard!from!people!with!whom!we!worked!about!possible!barriers!to!growing!a!Western!or!hybrid!diet:!!!! Given!the!sense!of!pride,!status!and!prestige!associated!with!fishing!and!marine!harvesting,!people!lack!the!will!and!confidence!to!grow!their!own!foods.!!! 107!! Among!some!generations,!garden!tending!and!agriculture!is!stigmatized!because!of!associations!with!missionary!instruction!and!historical!labour!at!St.!Michael’s!Residential!School.!!! Land!along!the!Nimpkish!River!that!may!be!most!suitable!for!raising!animal!stock!is!also!populated!by!cougars!and!bears!and!so,!may!not!be!secure.!!Toward)Food)Sovereignty:)Suggestions)from)all)Directions)!!We!heard!many!express!the!sense!that!there!is!a!need!to!include!upcoming!generations!in!practices!that!transmit!skills,!knowledge!and!pride!in!food!provisioning.!Regarding!gardening!for!example,!an!important!message!to!pass!on!is!that!growing!foods!will!allow!‘Namgis!to!again!be!selfXsufficient,!rather!than!dependent!on!corporate!supply!chains.!!!Other!suggestions!for!moving!toward!this!goal!included!identifying!dormant!fruit!orchards!on!Cormorant!Island!and!“waking!up”!the!trees!to!produce!again.!Youth!camps!at!important!harvesting!sites!(e.g.,!Woss!Lake,!the!Grease!Trail,!Nimpkish!River)!could!include!skillXbuilding!programs!for!hunting!and!sockeye!harvesting,!as!well!as!the!identification!and!understanding!of!medicinal!foods.!Youth!could!also!be!involved!in!building!garden!beds!as!this!will!instill!a!sense!of!ownership!needed!to!begin!a!new!course!of!food!production.!Hanson!Island!is!a!great!resource!for!teaching!children!about!wild!foods!and!wild!gardens.!(Walrus!has!already!instructed!school!groups!there).!The!Guardian!program!has!great!potential!for!increasing!the!public!profile!in!‘Yalis!of!harvest!sites!and!historical!camps!used!by!‘Namgis.!All!suggestions!emphasize!the!importance!of!intergenerational!dialogue!and!meaningful!participation!of!men!and!women!of!all!ages!who!are!harvesters!and!growers.!!A)Few)Quotes:)!“We!used!to!know!about!the!sacredness!of!seasons,!now!food!is!a!convenience.!What!was!the!traditional!system?”!“We’ve!lost!an!ethic!of!connection!among!the!community!as!a!whole!regarding!collective!food!provisioning.”!“We!have!to!teach!children!it’s!there”!“The!more!wild!foods!we!can!get,!the!more!they!will!eat.”!“Only!a!handful!of!people!have!access!to!harvesting.”!“We’re!fighting!for!this!territory!that!noXone!has!a!clue!about.”!“We!need!a!longXterm,!multiXgenerational!view!of!stewardship.”!! 108!Perhaps!the!single!most!important!question!for!the!future!is!based!on!concerns!about!climate!change.!The!final!phase!of!this!work!will!address!these!questions:!What!might!future!species!be,!given!a!changing!climate?!What!might!be!abundant?!What!absent?!What!is!not!sensitive!to!climate,!but!might!well!face!other!threats?!!!We!close!by!stating!that!the!possibilities!are!near!endless,!the!baseline!of!data!can!answer!most!imaginable!questions,!and!in!the!end!it!is!undeniable!that!for!the!most!part!a!strong!combination!of!local!harvest!and!locallyXproduced!plantXbased!foods!(less!so!feed!grains),!makes!a!lot!of!sense.!This!is!true!whether!one!is!considering!cost,!land,!infrastructure!or!labour.!The!‘worth’!of!knowledge!transmitted,!skills!gained!and!food!independence!realized!is!of!course,!priceless.!!!! 109!REFERENCES))Bazzano,!Lydia!A.,!Tian!Hu,!Kristi!Reynolds,!et!al.!2014!!Effects!of!LowXCarbohydrate!and!LowXFat!DietsA!Randomized!TrialEffects!of!LowXCarbohydrate!and!LowXFat!Diets.!Annals$of$Internal$Medicine$161(5):!309–318.!!Boas,!Franz!!1921! Ethnology!of!the!Kwakiutl,!vol.35.!US!Government!Printing!Office.!!Boas,!Franz,!and!George!Hunt!!1905! Kwakiutl!Texts,!vol.5.!EJ!Brill.!!1906! Kwakiutl!Texts–second!Series.!http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/pubman/faces/viewItemOverviewPage.jsp?itemId=escidoc:403039:4,!accessed!January!30,!2015.!!Codere,!Helen!!1957! Kwakiutl!Society:!Rank!without!Class.!American$Anthropologist!59(3):!473–486.!!Donatuto,!Jamie,!and!Barbara!L.!Harper!!2008! Issues!in!Evaluating!Fish!Consumption!Rates!for!Native!American!Tribes.!Risk$Analysis$28(6):!1497–1506.!!Gresh,!Ted,!Jim!Lichatowich,!and!Peter!Schoonmaker!!2000! An!Estimation!of!Historic!and!Current!Levels!of!Salmon!Production!in!the!Northeast!Pacific!Ecosystem:!Evidence!of!a!Nutrient!Deficit!in!the!Freshwater!Systems!of!the!Pacific!Northwest.!Fisheries!25(1):!15–21.!!Harris,!Douglas!C.!!2009! Landing!Native!Fisheries:!Indian!Reserves!and!Fishing!Rights!in!British!Columbia,!1849X1925.!UBC!Press.!!!Hendrickson,!John!A.!!2005! Grower!to!Grower:!Creating!a!Livelihood!on!a!Fresh!Market!Vegetable!Farm.!Center!for!Integrated!Agricultural!Systems.!http://www.purplepitchfork.com/uploads/4/2/5/9/42595701/guide_grower_to_grower.pdf,!accessed!January!30,!2015.!!Hu,!Tian,!Katherine!T.!Mills,!Lu!Yao,!et!al.!!2012! Effects!of!LowXCarbohydrate!Diets!Versus!LowXFat!Diets!on!Metabolic!Risk!Factors:!A!MetaXAnalysis!of!Randomized!Controlled!Clinical!Trials.!American$Journal$of$Epidemiology$176(suppl!7):!S44–S54.!!Jeavons,!John!! 110!!2012! How!to!Grow!More!Vegetables,!Eighth!Edition:!(and!Fruits,!Nuts,!Berries,!Grains,!and!Other!Crops)!Than!You!Ever!Thought!Possible!on!Less!Land!Than!You!Can!Imagine.!Clarkson!Potter/Ten!Speed/Harmony.!!LargeXScale!Pastured!Poultry!Farming!in!the!U.S.!(Research!Brief!#63)!|!Center!for!Integrated!Agricultural!Systems!!N.d.! !http://www.cias.wisc.edu/largeXscaleXpasturedXpoultryXfarmingXinXtheXus/,!accessed!January!30,!2015.!!Pasco,!Juanita,!Brian!Douglas!Compton,!and!Lorraine!Hunt!!1998! The!Living!World:!Plants!and!Animals!of!the!Kwakwaka’wakw.!U’mista!Cultural!Society.!!Schreiber,!Dorothee!!2008! “A!Liberal!and!Paternal!Spirit”:!Indian!Agents!and!Native!Fisheries!in!Canada.!Ethnohistory!55(1):!87–118.!!Stiles,!Jennifer,!and!Ruth!Sofield!!2013! Fish!and!Shellfish!Consumption:!Traditions,!Regulations,!and!a!Cleaner!Environment!in!the!US!Pacific!Northwest.!Integrated!Environmental!Assessment!and!Management!9(3):!539–540.!!Ströhle,!Alexander,!and!Andreas!Hahn!!2011! Diets!of!Modern!HunterXGatherers!Vary!Substantially!in!Their!Carbohydrate!Content!Depending!on!Ecoenvironments:!Results!from!an!Ethnographic!Analysis.!Nutrition$Research!31(6):!429–435.!!Tobias,!Terry!N.!!2010! Living!Proof:!The!Essential!Data!Collection!Guide!for!Indigenous!Use!and!Occupancy!Map!Surveys.!http://ifapXisXobservatory.ittk.hu/taxonomy/term/474,!accessed!January!31,!2015.!!Turner,!Nancy!J.!!1995! Food!Plants!of!Coastal!First!Peoples.!,!34.!UBC!Press.!!!Turner,!Nancy!J.,!and!Dawn!C.!Loewen!!1998! The!Original!“Free!Trade”:!Exchange!of!Botanical!Products!and!Associated!Plant!Knowledge!in!Northwestern!North!America.!Anthropologica$40(1):!49–70.!!Ware,!R.!!1975! Our!Homes!Are!Bleeding:!A!History!of!Indian!Reserves.!Victoria,!BC:!Union!of!BC!Indian!Chiefs,!Http://www.!Ubcic.!Bc.!ca/files/PDF/McKenna_!McBride/ourhomesarebleeding.!Pdf!Accessed!10(04):!2007.!!! 111!!Weinstein,!Martin!2007!Teaching!Each!Other:!The!Canadian!Struggle!over!Aboriginal!Rights!to!Marine!Fish!and!Fisheries.!A!Chapter!Prepared!for!the!Norwegian!Whitepaper!on!Global!Aboriginal!Rights!to!Fish!and!Fisheries!Relevant!to!the!Implementation!of!Sámi!Aboriginal!Fish!and!Fisheries!Rights!within!Norway.!The!Norwegian!Commission:!Kystfiskeutvalget!For!Finnmark.!!Weinstein,!Martin!2006!The!Full2Basket:!An!alternative!Model!for!Aboriginal!Fisheries!Allocation!based!on!the!social!sciences!and!Canadian!Aboriginal!Rights!Law.!Peper!presented!at!the!Society!for!Applied!Anthropology!Annual!Meeting:!Vancouver,!March!282April!2,!2006.!!Weinstein,!Martin!and!Mike!Morrell!!1994!Need!is!not!a!Number:!Report!of!the!Kwakiutl!Marine!Food!Fisheries!Reconnaissance!Survey.!Prepered!for!Kwakiutl!Territorial!Fisheries!Commission,!Campbell!River,!BC.!!!

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