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Early UBC Nursing Graduates : The Ethel John's Years 1921 to 1925 : An Annotated List Zilm, Glennis; Warbinek, Ethel 2016

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 EARLY UBC NURSING GRADUATES: THE ETHEL JOHNS’ YEARS 1921 to 1925: An Annotated List                    By Glennis Zilm and Ethel Warbinek    2  © Copyright 2016 Glennis Zilm and Ethel Warbinek  Electronic copy made available through the University of British Columbia Library’s cIRcle Project All items in cIRcle are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.  Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is as described in  the UBC Library’s cIRcle Non Exclusive Distribution License    Early UBC Nursing Graduates: The Ethel Johns’ Years 1921 To 1925: An Annotated List,  by Glennis Zilm and Ethel Warbinek    For more information about this document, contact  Glennis Zilm Ste. 306, 1521 Blackwood St. White Rock, B.C.  V4B 3V6 E-mail: gzilm@telus.net  or  Ethel Warbinek 2448 - 124th Street Surrey, B.C.  V4A 3N2 E-mail: warbinek@telus.net   Photographs, unless otherwise credited on that page, are from the UBC Archives and are used in this document with permission.    Cover photo: Ethel Johns with degree students in 1921. Top L-R: Louise Cook, Dorothy Rogers, Ethel Johns, Director, Everilda Wilson, A. Aylard. Centre L-R: Margaret Healy, Beatrice Pearse. Bottom L-R: A.O. Sisley, Esther Naden, Marion Fisher, Beatrice Johnson.     3  Authors’ Notes:  Glennis Zilm, BSN, BJ, MA, DLitt (H), is a retired registered nurse and a semi-retired freelance writer and editor in the health care fields. She is an honorary professor in the University of British Columbia School of Nursing.    Ethel Warbinek, RN (retired), BSN, MSN, is assistant professor emerita with the University of British Columbia School of Nursing.     The two are co-authors of Legacy: History of Nursing Education at the University of British Columbia School of Nursing 1919-1994 (Vancouver: UBC Press/ UBC School of Nursing, 1994) and of other scholarly articles.  Both are founding members of the B.C. History of Nursing Society and have served in a number of its executive positions.                                   4  EARLY UBC NURSING GRADUATES: THE ETHEL JOHNS’ YEARS 1921 to 1925: An Annotated List   By Glennis Zilm and Ethel Warbinek   This monograph gives brief profiles of UBC Nursing graduates from the first diplomas awarded in 1921 in Public Health Nursing and the first baccalaureates awarded in 1923. All 73 diploma and degree graduates until 1925 are included – in other words, all those graduates from the “Ethel Johns’ Years.”                                      When the University of British Columbia’s School of                                Nursing opened in 1919, it was under the direction of                                 Ethel Johns, who also was appointed superintendent of                                nurses at Vancouver General Hospital at this same        time. Johns had been a school teacher, then took her                                    nursing program at Winnipeg General Hospital. After                                 working a few years, she enrolled in the nursing                                 program at Columbia University, but did not complete         the course and so did not have a formal academic        degree. Therefore, Dr. R.H. Mullin, head of UBC’s Department of Bacteriology and Public Health Officer for the city of Vancouver, was named titular head of the Department of Nursing and Health.   Johns was responsible for working with the Senate to draw up the curriculum for a five-year Nursing degree program, the first degree program for nurses to be offered in Canada (or anywhere in the British Empire). Because at that time, the University had only three faculties – Arts, Science, and Applied Science (mainly various Engineering disciplines) – the nursing program was, after considerable discussion, set up as a School in the Applied Science Faculty. The program was approved by Senate and Johns began recruiting students interested in a degree in nursing. The program required the first two years on campus, then students were enrolled as well into the Vancouver General Hospital School of Nursing for 5  a 28-month clinical portion of the program. This was followed by another academic year on campus during which the student could select a major either in Public Health or in Teaching and Supervision (also called Teaching and Administration at various times).   After reviewing applicants, Johns identified four students who had already completed university courses required in Nursing’s first two years and so were able to enrol at the second-year level; three of these would, in 1923, become Canada’s first baccalaureate-prepared nurses.    At this time, leaders across Canada were becoming convinced that better prepared nurses could provide public health nursing services in remote smaller communities where there were no physicians and, especially, no services for families and children. Nurses long had been involved in pioneer work in small communities, but public health authorities were beginning to recognize that better qualified nurses could offer a myriad of services and public education, but the nurses needed further education beyond what was offered in hospital programs. On her appointment as director in 1919, Ethel Johns quickly recognized the need for short courses for graduate nurses to help meet the demand. As was happening in other provinces, notably Alberta, she began planning for hospital diploma graduates to be able to attend UBC for short courses leading to a diploma. She also recognized the need to better prepare supervisors and instructors and began planning similar short courses to prepare nurses for these careers.    In 1919, only four students were enrolled in the degree program; when Ethel Johns left in 1925, the number had grown to 36; some who initially enrolled in the program left before finishing or transferred to other faculties. But by then, there had been eight baccalaureate graduates, seven in Public Health and one in Teaching and Supervision.  During her tenure, five short courses leading to the diploma in Public Health Nursing had been offered, with a total of 61 graduates.   Names of graduates from 1921 to 1925 came from UBC School of Nursing files. The following lists, by year, contain the names of graduates and notes about their working careers when we could find this information. When considerable data about the individual was available, only a summary is given; reference sources are identified, plus suggested links to online resources or other possible sources. The graduate is identified by 6  the name used by the school, but a married name, if known, is also given in parentheses. Additions and corrections (for example, in spellings) have been made when we identified them.    In doing the research for information on the graduates in this list, we checked B.C. Vital Statistics online records for birth, marriage, and death (http://search.bcarchives.gov.bc.ca/sn-58F1FD1/query/Births, Marriages,Deaths/). We included this information without citation; more possibly could be obtained by searching microfilm records. For all public health nursing graduates, we searched the online version of Green (1984) and the online Public Health Nurses’ Bulletins (1923 to 1936). For those registered in the degree program, because they also were graduates of the VGH School, we also checked VGH graduation lists, Cavers (1949), biographical information from the VGH School of Nursing Alumnae Archives, and the BC History of Nursing Society Archives. For diploma graduates, we cross-checked graduation lists from the following BC hospital schools (the only ones currently available): Vancouver General, Royal Jubilee, Royal Columbian, St. Paul’s, Revelstoke, Vernon Jubilee, and St. Joseph’s. This basic information is included but not specifically footnoted. If there were published histories of these schools, we searched them for additional information, which is footnoted.  If we were able to identify whether graduates returned to UBC for further education this is also noted.   Of great help were the issues of the UBC Annuals, which are available online through http://www.library.ubc.ca/archives/pdfs/yearbooks/ and then click on the relevant year. 7  Session 1920-21:  Diploma in Public Health Nursing – 26 awarded                 Photo of the first diploma awarded to one of the 26 students to graduate  in the PHN Course in 1921. Photo Source: UBC Archives  The UBC School of Nursing began admitting students into its baccalaureate degree program in the fall of 1919. However, because of the urgent need for nurses to work in remote areas and to identify public health issues and do health education in communities, Public Health Nursing short courses had been long desired by Dr. Henry Esson Young; he was a former provincial minister of education and provincial secretary who had helped establish UBC and now was head of the province’s Board of Health. So, when the Canadian Red Cross offered subsidies, through its provincial branches, to five Canadian universities, UBC was one of the first to be awarded a grant. The other universities were Toronto, McGill, Dalhousie, and Alberta. The UBC grant, specifically to prepare nurses to work in public health in remote areas of the province, initially was $5,600 annually for three years. At UBC, this money went for a salary of $5,000 a year for a professor appointed to be the Red Cross Chair of Public Health; Dr. Mullin was appointed but “elected to share the salary with a nurse to ensure the course was truly a nursing course.”1                                                            1  Calendar of the University of British Columbia, Seventh Session, 1921-1922. (1921). Vancouver: University of B.C., pp. 26, 156, 185-186, 244. Retrieved May 16, 2012, from http://www.library.ubc.ca/archives/pdfs/ calendars2/UBC_Calendar_1921_22.pdf  8    The nurse appointed to teach the Public Health courses was Mary Ardchronie MacKenzie, formerly chief superintendent of the Victorian Order of Nurses in Ottawa. A Department of Public Health, separate from the Department of Nursing, was set up under the Faculty of Arts, with Dr. Mullin as its head.   The UBC School of Nursing offered its first Short Course in Public Health Nursing for graduate nurses starting November 15, 1920, just one year after the School was established. The 1920-21 course required 6 weeks of academic work, followed by 8 weeks of field work, and a final comprehensive examination. 1    The 26 graduates received their diplomas April 12, 1921.2     Louise Elizabeth Buckley (later Jones) – Louise Buckley graduated in 1918 from the Royal Jubilee Hospital in Victoria and was one of four RJH graduates to attend this first diploma class at UBC.3 Following graduation, she was employed working as a “dental nurse”4 and                                                                                                                                                                                             1  Calendar of the University of British Columbia, Seventh Session, 1921-1922  (1921), as above.  2  Zilm & Warbinek (Legacy), p. 39.   3  Pearson, 1985, p. 48; Zilm & Warbinek, 1994, p. 38-40.   4  Personals [news item]. Public Health Nurses Bulletin, 1, 13.  Mary Ardchronie MacKenzie, c 1917, when she was Chief Superintendent of the Victorian Order of Nurses in Ottawa.    Photo Source: UBC Archives, Nursing  9  joined the school health department in Saanich. This small community, later a part of the Greater Victoria area, was a model for the rest of the province; Buckley introduced hot lunches in the schools, a first in ensuring that students received at least one hot, healthy meal a day.1 She learned how to change tires on the department’s car, a rather high-technology activity for nurses as horses and carriages were still more common on the roads.2  Dorothy Cuddy (later Barrett) – No information could be found other than she married and moved to Windsor, Ontario.3   Winifred Ehlers (later Keighley)4 – Winnifred Ehlers was a 1919 graduate of Royal Jubilee Hospital in Victoria. After graduation, she went to Eagle Bay, northeast of Kamloops, as a Red Cross nurse. This was a newly established Nursing Station, one of eight set up by the Red   Cross in isolated areas of the province.5 Later she lived in Salmon Arm, BC.6                                                              1  Zilm, G., & Warbinek, E. (1995-95, Winter). Health care changes in the early 1900s. B.C. Historical News, 29 (1), 12.   2 Zilm & Warbinek, 1995-96, p. 8.  3  List of UBC Nursing Alumni 1920-1940.   4  See Bavinton, 2012; Pearson, 1985, p. 48; Zilm & Warbinek, 1994, p. 38-40.  5 Smith, May B. (1990). My experience with the Red Cross Nurse. In Schuswap Chronicles 3 (pp. 39-40). Celista, BC: North Schuswap Historical Society.  6  List of UBC Nursing Alumni 1920-1940.  Winnifred (“Winnie”) Ehlers at the time of her graduation from Royal Jubilee Hospital School of Nursing, in 1919. Family photo taken by Hugh Ehlers.  Photo also available North Shuswap Historical Society, Celista, BC.  10   Gertrude Frazee – Gertrude Frazee was born in Dartmouth, NS, in 1884 and was a graduate nurse living in Nova Scotia when she enlisted in 1917 in the Canadian Army Medical Corps and served in England. On discharge, she returned to Canada in 1919 and then moved to BC and enrolled in the new UBC diploma program. After graduation she worked as a nurse, later living with a brother in Vancouver. She worked at least some of the time with another brother who was a chiropractor in Richmond. She died in the veterans’ hospital at Shaughnessy in 1980 at age 95.  Margaret Gray – No information available.   Margaret Miriam Griffin (later Napier, Dowell) – Margaret Griffin graduated from Royal Jubilee Hospital in 1920 and then entered the PHN diploma program at UBC. She became a public health nurse in Saanich, receiving $43 a month.1 She then moved to other areas of Vancouver Island.  She wrote several articles for the Public Health Nurses’ Bulletin2 over the years until 1931. BC Vital Event records show that a Margaret Miriam Griffin married John Paxton Napier3 in 1933; RJH records show Dowell as a later married name. She died in Victoria in 1988 at age 91.  Elsie Matilda Hackett – A UBC Alumni list shows she married and moved to China. No other information could be found.4   Hazel Dean Hamlin – Alumni records show she moved to the United States; no other information could be found.  Janet Elizabeth Hardy – Janet Hardy became the first public health nurse in Kelowna in 1922.5                                                           1 Zilm & Warbinek, 1994, p. 40; Pearson, 1985, p. 48.   2 See Breast-feeding for the infants of Saanich municipality, PHNB (1927),  24-26; Qualicum and district public health association: Class instruction, PHNB (1929), 12; French Creek and district, PHNB (1930), 22; French Creek and district, PHNB (1931), 7-8. 3  List of UBC Nursing Alumni 1920-1940.   4  List of UBC Nursing Alumni 1920-1940.   5 Green, 1984, p. 158.  11             Muriel Caroline Harman – Muriel Harman was a Royal Jubilee Hospital graduate from 1920.1  She was awarded a $100 Red Cross prize for highest marks in the PH course.2 She worked as a VON nurse in Burnaby following graduation and established the first well-baby clinic there. She later became a missionary and worked in the Belgian Congo (later Zaire) for 37 years and was tortured and killed by rebel forces there in 1964.3  Elizabeth Horton – No information could be found.   Dorothy H. Hornby – No information could be found.   Charlotte Alicia Hughes – No information could be found.  Lillian Florence Kier (later Roberts)4 – Lillian Kier (August 8, 1890, to December 7, 1982) was born in BC and graduated from St. Paul’s Hospital in Vancouver in the spring of 1913. After graduation she joined the Canadian Army Medical Corps Expeditionary Force. She served overseas in France until August 1919 and apparently was decorated with the French Medal of Honour. After her return from Europe she enrolled in the public health nursing course and following graduation was appointed school nurse for Duncan and Genoa Bay. She moved to California about 1924 where she continued nursing until her marriage in February 1927 to Henry Roberts in Los Angeles. She also did some private nursing after her marriage. They lived at Senora, California, where she died in 1982.5                                                                                                                                                                                               1  Pearson, 1985, p. 166.  2  UBC Senate Minutes, April 12, 1921, p. 222.  3 Pearson, 1985, p. 49-50. 4  Most of this material is from Kier, n.d.; that archival document also includes a small photo.   5  Lillian Florence Kier Roberts, RN. Retrieved 24 January, 2014, from Find a Grave Website. http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=62821400  12  Vina Jean Lancaster – No information could be found except a possible marriage record: a Jean Lancaster married Sidney Humphrey October 7, 1922, in Vancouver.   Helen Audrey Lewis (later Lee) – No information could be found about her nursing career. She was born April 26, 1898, in New Westminster and graduated from the Royal Columbian Hospital School in 1919. On December 31, 1921, she married Ray B. Lee in New Westminster.   Helen Barbara McKay – No information could be found.  Helen Gladys Munslow – No information could be found about her nursing career. She was born in 1891, not in BC. She was awarded the PHN Diploma course second prize ($60) donated by the Provincial Board of Health. 1 On January 14, 1928, she married William Ramsay. There is a death record for her on April 10, 1984, at age 93 in Burnaby.   Ethel A. McLaren – No information could be found except a possible marriage record; an Ethel Alberta Mclaren [sic] married a Robert Ernest Carlton in Victoria on April 2, 1921.   Wilhelmina MacKenzie (later Livingstone)2 was born in the Maritimes, took her nursing program in the United States, then her public health nursing diploma at UBC. She was appointed a public health nurse in Kamloops, where she married local rancher and homesteader Roy Livingstone. She then became the postmistress in Little Fort. After her marriage, she continued to work as a volunteer nurse in the Little Fort community area (60 miles from Kamloops), asking people to pay for supplies such as dressings, but giving her nursing services for free. She assisted in industrial accidents at local mills and mines and with care during a scarlet fever epidemic in the community.  A photograph is available in the Kamloops Archives. She died in Kamloops June 4, 1972 at age 77.                                                                 1  UBC Senate Minutes, April 12, 1921, p. 222.  2  Gould, 1975, p. 119, 120.  13                                             Josephine (Jo) Belle Peters1 – Born in 1889 in Saskatchewan, she was a graduate of Vancouver General Hospital in 1916. After graduation, she was the first nurse to hold a position with the Rotary TB Clinic in Vancouver to help with case finding. After graduation from the UBC diploma course, she was appointed to the TB Travelling Clinic and advanced in the BC Provincial Health Nursing Service. From 1937-1948, she was supervisor of TB Nursing for the Provincial Service.2 She retired from the PHN service in 1948 and died in Nanaimo on September 14, 1952, at age 63.3  Ida May Snelgrove (later Elliot) -- She was a graduate of Vancouver General Hospital in 1919. In a transcript in 1981, she recalled the 1919 Influenza Epidemic; she had the flu herself as a student and was nursed in a large ward for nurses.4 As a student, she had field work experience in the new health centre in Duncan. Following graduation she did private duty nursing until her marriage in 1934 to Hector Mclean Elliott in Vancouver.5  Eleanor G. Snider – No information could be found.                                                           1  Zilm & Warbinek, 2006/2012, p. 45.  2  Green, p. 32-33. Illustration on p. 33. 3 Death certificate retrieved 30 July 2012 from /www.bcarchives.gov.bc.ca/ textual/ governmt/vstats/v_events.htm, Reg. Number: 1952-09-010395;  B.C. Archives Microfilm Number: B13213; GSU Microfilm Number: 2032862  4  Ida Snelgrove transcript, Beth McCann, March 10, 1981, UBC SoN Historical Collection.  5  Zilm & Warbinek, 1994, p. 41; Marriage certificate, Reg. Number: 1934-09-418686;B.C. Archives Microfilm Number:  B13768;GSU Microfilm Number: 2135987. Photo of Wilhelmina MacKenzie       Source: Gould, 1975, p. 120. 14   Christina West Thom – Born in 1882, Christina West Thom graduated from the Winnipeg General Hospital in 1909. After graduation she joined her brother, a physician in Trail, B.C.1 In 1912, she was Lady                                  Superintendent of the Trail hospital and then moved to Victoria, where she was the first full-time visiting city nurse to devote herself entirely to TB. After graduation from the UBC diploma course she was hired by the Canadian Red Cross Kamloops Branch as a public health nurse.  Eventually, she moved back to Winnipeg; she died in November 1940 in Vancouver.   Louise Marian Usher – She was awarded the PHN Diploma course second prize ($40) donated by the Provincial Board of Health.2 No other information could be found except that she moved to New York.                                                            1  Personal communication from A. Crossin, WGH Archives, to G. Zilm, Feb. 25, 2004.  2  UBC Senate Minutes, April 12, 1921, p. 222. Photo shows a Well Baby Clinic of this period. The Kamloops Well Baby Clinic officially opened in 1922. Christina Thom, Public Health Nurse for the District and Dr. M.B. Archibald, physician-in-charge, are shown with members of the Red Cross Society.  Photo © Kamloops Museum and Archives photograph collection #1724; used with permission for this cIRcle publication.  15  Frances Marion Whitaker – Little information could be found except a brief mention that she was a public health nurse in Penticton in 1922.1                                                             1  Green, 1984, p. 158.  16  Session 1921-22:  Diploma in Public Health Nursing – 14 awarded   The second PHN Course was extended to three months of academic work and four months of field work. There were 14 graduates.1        Ada Benvie – Born about 1883; died February 4, 1971, at age 88 in Vancouver. 2  A UBC Alumni list shows she was a VON nurse in Wolf River, NS. Nothing else could be found.  Muriel (also known as Elsie) Ashdown Claxton was born in England in 1888. She completed her pediatric, general nursing, and midwifery                                                           1  Zilm & Warbinek (Legacy), 1994, p. 43.  Information on this class retrieved from http://www.library. ubc.ca/archives/pdfs/calendars2/UBC_Calendar_1922_23.pdf 2  BC vital records for deaths: .   (Reg. Number: 1971-09-002221; B.C. Archives Microfilm Number:  B13308; GSU Microfilm Number: 2034216 )  Rertrieved 25 October 2012, from ca/sn-3B5EF5D/ view/ Deaths/find-adv%2B%20givennames%3Dada)%20AND%20surname%3D(benvie)%20%2B%2B%2B%2B/1.  UBC Public Health Nursing Class 1921-1922. Mary Ard. MacKenzie (top row, right), was the instructor.  Muriel Claxton is front row, second from right. 17  certificates before emigrating to British Columbia.1 She worked for one year with the Victorian Order of Nurses in Vancouver, then enrolled in the UBC course. After graduation, she continued to work in public health and from about 1927 to 1930 was a nursing supervisor with the Provincial Department of Health in the Cowichan Health Centre. She then signed on with the Red Cross as a nurse at the Gough Memorial Red Cross Hospital at Cecil Lake in the Peace River area of northern BC where she was the much appreciated community nurse for a large area.2, 3 During these Depression-era years, most services were paid with local farm produce, poultry or firewood; she also grew a large vegetable garden to help supplement patients’ needs in the area.                                                              1  Bavinton, Barbara. (2012). Elsie “Muriel” Claxton (5 MS pages). This excellent in- progress article is full of detail illustrating the work of BC public health nurses of the period; this section is taken from a work-in-progress on nurses who worked in Red Cross Hospitals in BC. Personal communication B.Bavinton to G.Zilm,  August 30, 2012.  2  Ventress, Davies, & Kyllo,  (1973/ 1975), (pp. 163, 367, 386); this local history includes several mentions and 3 snapshot photographs.  3 See Storrs & Fast, 1999; several paragraphs in the May 1937 diary concern the death of Muriel Claxton.     This private photograph shows Muriel Claxton (left) with a friend at the Red Cross Peace River district outpost hospital circa mid-1930s.  It is from a private collection and was reproduced in Gould, 1975, p. 171.  18   She started a local Women’s Institute and a children’s animal protection group; through a friend in Victoria, she obtained books and other comforts for local residents.1  She was well loved in the community and following Claxton’s death at age 49, on March 13, 1937,2 from influenze contracted from one of her patients, the community donated brass candlesticks, communion vessels, and a bell for St. Mathias Anglican Church in Cecil Lake in her memory.3   Gertrude M. Curry – No birth certificate, but was born about 1885. School of nursing is unknown. She became assistant director at Royal Jubilee Hospital in Victoria in 1928 until 1942 and was in charge of student ward rotations; she lived in the Nurses’ Residence during this time.4 There may further information available on her through the RJH Nurses Alumnae Archives. She died August 21, 1946, at age 61 in Victoria.5 .  Jean A. Dunbar – Dates of birth and death and her hospital school of nursing are unknown. She is identified as having opened the Vernon Public Health unit in 19246; a brief item in the Vernon News (March 20, 1924) noted that Miss J.A. Dunbar of Victoria had been appointed the school nurse.    Hester Ann Hill (later Murry) – Little could be found except that she married and eventually lived in Lethbridge.7                                                             1  Brown,  2000,  p. 56-57.  2 BC Vital Statistics Death Registration. http://search.bcarchives.gov.bc.ca/snF8D884/query/ Deaths/findadv%2B%20givennames%3D(muriel)%20AND%20surname%3D(claxton)%20AND%20year%3D(1937)%20%2B%2B%2B%2BCall Number: 1937-09-528743 / Roll b13159 is Result # 1.   3  Retrieved July 9, 2012, from http://www.geotourismcanada.com/documents/687.aspx 4  Pearson, 1985, pp. 68, 79, 83.  5  Retrieved 25 October 2012, from http://search.bcarchives.gov.bc.ca/n-3B 5EF5D/view/Deaths/ find-adv%2B%20givennames%3D(gertrude)%20AND%20surname%3D(curry)%20%2B%2B%2B%2B/3; (Reg. Number: 1946-09-010402;CArchivesMicrofilm Number: B13191; GSU Microfilm Number: 2032423) 6  Green, 1984, p. 158.   7  List of UBC Nursing Alumni 1920-1940. 19  Jane E. Johnstone – No information could be found. A Jane Johnstone died in Haney in 1960 at age 90 and might possibly have been this nurse.  Helen G. Kelly – Birth and graduation records were not found. She was appointed a PHN in Esquimalt Rural District when it opened 1920, so apparently attended the UBC diploma course after her appointment.1  She returned to Esquimalt, and there is a long quotation from one of her reports in Green for 1924.2 A Helen Gardner Kelly died in Victoria in 1950 at age 87 and this might possibly be her.  Elizabeth O. [Olive3] Kilpatrick (later Gordon) – An Elizabeth O. Kilpatrick was born in Wellington, BC [north of Nanaimo] in 1899; this may be her. An Olive Kilpatrick graduated from St. Joseph’s Hospital in 1920. Green (p. 165) identifies a Miss O. E. Kilpatrick being a supervisor of a public health unit in the Vancouver Metropolitan Health unit in 1937 and she may have been a school nurse. It may be possible to find something in the Vancouver City Archives records. A UBC Nursing Alumni list shows she married a James Gordon and later lived in Calgary.  Eva M. Mosher – Eva Maude Mosher was born circa 1886, married James Wilfred Watt in Nelson in 1926, and died in Vancouver April 25, 1964 at age 78.  Rose Constance Nye – Little information could be found except that she graduated from the Royal Jubilee Hospital Class of 1921.4  Bertha Smith – No information could be found except that she later lived in Arthur, ON.   Margaret Allan Thatcher – Born about 1892 in Australia, she came to B.C. with her family in 1907. She attended the University of Alberta, then                                                           1  Green, 1984, p. 13, 158.  2  Green, 1984, p. 24-25.  3  UBC Nurses’ Club Minutes,  April 17, 1924.  4  Pearson, 1985, p. 166.  20  entered the School of Nursing at Kootenay Lake General Hospital in Nelson, BC, graduating in 1922, and working in the Windermere District Hospital, then enrolled at UBC. After graduation she was a staff nurse at the Rotary Clinic in Vancouver, then from 1925 to 1927 worked as a VON nurse in Vancouver then at the Cowichan Health Centre. She worked in Oliver, BC, as a relief nurse when her father became ill to help care for him. About this time, a child welfare worker asked her to care for infant twin boys because their single-parent mother was ill with TB and the infants were TB contacts, malnourished, and needing special care. Although it was unusual for a single woman, she eventually adopted and raised them. From 1930 to 1938, she was a matron at the Windermere District Hospital. From 1938 until her retirement in 1952, she worked with the Division of Tuberculosis Control as the nurse in charge of Willow Chest Clinic; she was charge nurse from 1944 to 1952. After retirement, she worked part-time with BC Electric, then lived near Gibson’s, BC. A BC death record shows she died in Sechelt on October 13, 1987 at age 95.1  Marie L. Thompson – No information could be found; there are many Marie Thompsons in the Marriage and Death records and more information would be needed for a search.  Rose Tranfield – Graduated RJH in 1921.2 A Georgina Rose Tranfield was born in Nanaimo on June 27, 1897, and died in Ladysmith Nov. 23, 1924, and this may be her.  - - -                                                              1  UBC School of Nursing Historical Collection, BC History of Nursing Society Archives; Zilm & Warbinek, 1994, pp. 42-43.  2  Pearson, 1985, p. 166. 21  Session 1922-23:  Bachelor of Applied Science (Nursing) – 3 graduates  The School of Nursing at UBC had accepted its first degree students in the fall 1919. Because some of them had already completed the arts and science courses required, three graduated in 1923, receiving a Bachelor of Applied Science (Nursing) (BASc[N]). All three of these students took the Public Health Nursing elective, expanded from the programs that had been offered to the PHN diploma students, although a Teaching and Administration elective also was offered for their final year. During the fall of 1922, the Nursing students had participated in the “Great Trek” from the Fairview area campus out to Point Grey to lobby the provincial government to complete work on the new campus site.     Marion D. Fisher (later Faris)  – Had taken one year in the UBC McGill University program in 1913, then went to the BC Normal School and During the Great Trek, the students from the downtown Fairview campus marched to Point Grey and assembled on the girders of the unfinished Science Building (now the Chemistry Building). The Nursing students are on the second floor, right, proudly carrying a banner proclaiming, “We are the first three women in the British Empire to get degrees in nursing.” Photo UBC 1.1/1315, part of the UBC Archives Historical Photograph Collection. 22  taught school for three years before she entered the Vancouver General Hospital nursing program in 1919. Because of her university and teaching background, she was interviewed by Ethel Johns and became one of the first to enroll in the newly-established UBC baccalaureate program.1   After graduation from UBC, it was discovered she had tuberculosis and was admitted as a patient to the TB Sanatorium at Tranquille. After a year there, she completed her recovery on Gabriola Island. She then returned to Kamloops to work as a public health nurse. She practiced in Kamloops for at least a brief period.2 She married Donald Kay Faris August 15, 1925, in Vancouver. The couple went to China as United Church missionaries from 1925 to 1942; Don Faris later had a role in the founding of CUSO (Canadian University Services Overseas).3 The couple continued their missionary roles throughout their lives.4 Their daughter-in-law also was a UBC nurse (1954).5                                                                    1  Zilm & Warbinek, 1994, p. 32.   2  Marion Fisher (Faris) interview (transcript). Beth McCann, January 1981, UBC School of Nursing Historical Collection; letter to Beth McCann, Beth McCann Papers, UBC School of Nursing Historical Collection.  3  See pp. 263-264 from Protestant Missions and Local Encounters in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (Hilde Nielssen, Inger Marie Okkenhaug, & Karina Hestad-Skeie. Eds.) available online from http://books.google.ca/books?id=J6EcG3fpl14C&pg=PA263&lpg=PA263&dq=United+Church+Missionaries+Donald+Faris&source=bl&ots=UyHwDzKDkY&sig=-bKhtvKdMAp9nIHF6lCZjVS7Cgw&hl=en&sa=X&ei=H-7-UIqnJdLWiAKZ_oHACg&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=United%20Church%20Missionaries%20Donald%20Faris&f=false  4 Grypma, 2008.  5  Marylyn D. (Dawn) Faris was in the UBC program and graduated from VGH in 1954, UBC BSN 1955, MSN 1979. In 2012, she was still living in Victoria.  Marion Fisher (left) and Margaret Healy (right). Detail from a photo in the UBC School of Nursing Historical Collection, and available in the UBC Archives. 23  Margaret Louise Healy (later Crann) – Graduated from VGH in 1922 and from the degree program in 1923. Marriage records show she was married in Vancouver on April 27, 1923 (almost immediately following graduation) to Benjamin (Bennie) Crann; there are no birth or death records in BC. She moved to Seattle after she was married, and it is possible that she did not practice.  Beatrice F. Johnson (later Wood) –  Beatrice Fordham Johnson was born (November 29, 1899) to a prominent Vancouver family; her father later was one of BC’s Lieutenant-Governors.1  She was interviewed by Ethel Johns to enter the new UBC degree program, took some courses at UBC, then entered VGH (graduating 1922). She received the McKechnie Medal for General Proficiency and the highest marks in the class.        After graduating in 1923, Bea became head nurse of the Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Operating Room at VGH. Soon after, she accepted a position as district nurse with the Victorian Order of Nurses in Montreal, working on the docks, giving health lectures and providing pre- and postnatal care. She returned to Vancouver in 1924, to accept a head nurse position at VGH emergency department. In August 1925, she married Professor Frederic Wood, whom she had met as an undergraduate and member of the UBC Players’ Club.                                                           1  Zilm & Warbinek, 1994, pp. 31-32; UBC Nursing Website/Amazing Alumni 1920s. (Left) Bea Wood, 1922, and (right) speaking at the UBC School of Nursing 50th Anniversary Dinner 1969. Photos from the UBC Nursing Archival Collection;  (R) UBC 56.1/194e , see https://open. library. ubc.ca/collections/arphotos/items/1.0163643/source 24  Typical of women of her era, she left nursing when she married but continued her interest in nursing through her volunteer work at VGH with the Women’s Auxiliary, and during WW2 she worked with the Red Cross. As well as her interests in nursing and health care, her participation in theatre continued throughout her life. She provided encouragement to the UBC Players’ Club and was a patron of the Freddy Wood Theatre, which was built in 1963. She died July 18, 1992.1                                                             1  Interview by Beth McCann, 1981, UBC Schoool of Nursing Historical Collection (transcript available); interview by Sheila Zerr, 1991, BC History of Nursing Oral History Collection; BCHNS Biographical file (Wood).  25  Session 1922-23: Diploma in Public Health Nursing – 12 awarded   The third Public Health Nursing Diploma course was extended to a full academic year, including clinical affiliations. There were 12 graduates.    Beatrice A. Bickley – Beatrice Agnes Bickley took her nursing education at the Manchester Work House Infirmary, graduating in 1913. During World War I, she joined the Queen Alexandra Territorial Nursing Service. A BC History of Nursing Society oral history recording is available1; it discusses how she obtained her early B.C. Nurse Registration, her experiences in nursing scarlet fever, and a bit about the UBC public health nursing course. She married Arthur Leon Stroyan on June 14, 1924, in Burnaby.  She nursed in Quesnel, doing midwifery and nursing pneumonia and diphtheria patients. No death registry in BC.  Janet M. Card – Janet Mildred Card was born in 1893, but not in BC, and no information could be found about her before or after she took the UBC course. She died in Victoria on July 4, 1972.                                                            1  Stroyan, Beatrice. (1989). Oral history tape: Beatrice Stroyan. Available BC History of Nursing Archives.   An early class of degree and public health diploma students  in a classroom on the Fairview campus. Photo UBC Historical Photograph collection 1.1/2305. 26  Marion D. Craig – No information could be found on Marion Craig other than a BC death registration for March 20, 1971, at age 82 (therefore born in 1889) in Vancouver.    Florence May Elcoate – No information could be found other than a mention in an Alumni document that she was living in Australia.1  Margaret I. [probably F.] Glen – Margaret Freebairn Glen married Hugh Dunlop Allan in Ladysmith on September 22, 1926. A death registration shows she died in Duncan on February 1, 1981, at age 91. No information about her work history could be found.                                  Winifred V. Godard –Winifred Godard was born in Cobourgh, ON, in 1890, and was a prize-winning student on graduation from St. Luke’s Hospital in Ottawa in 1913. She served as a Nursing Sister with the Canadian Army Medical Corps in World War 12 before attending UBC. After graduation, she became a missionary nurse in Peking, China. She returned from China in 1928 and planned to attend Yale School of Nursing the following fall.3 No further information could be found.  Minnie Ellen McLennan – A Minnie Ellen McLennan graduated from VGH in 1916. No BC vital statistics for that name.4 No further information could be found.  Charlotte S. McNaughton – No information could be found other than an Alumni note that she was living in Montreal.5                                                            1  Handwritten Alumni follow-up notes on UBC graduates in a list from 1921 to 1940 kept by Beth McCann (circa 1940); available in the UBC Nursing Historical Collection, BCHNS Archives.  2  Nursing Sister Winifred V. Godard. Canadian Great War Project. Retrieved June 15, 2015, from http://www.canadiangreatwarproject.com/searches/soldierDetail.asp?ID=85286.  3  Canadian Nurse (1928), vol. 24, p. 42.  4 An Ellen Jane Mclennan [note sp] was born December 22, 1883, on Saltspring Island.    5 Handwritten Alumni follow-up notes on UBC graduates in a list from 1921 to 1940 kept by Beth McCann (circa 1940); available in the UBC Nursing Historical Collection, BCHNS Archives. 27  Mary S. Miller (later Mrs. Howard Wilis1) – The Miller name is too common to assess the vital statistics accurately; there were no matching B.C. marriage records.  Laura B. [Bell] Timmins – Graduated from VGH in 1922, married Rae Becton Gordon in June 1929. No work history could be found. She died in Vancouver in 1980 at age 84.   Kathryn B. Walsh – No information could be found.  Margaret J. Woods – Following graduation, she worked as a school nurse in Nanaimo, and was the first PHN in the area. In 1924 and 1925, she wrote short reports for the BC Public Health Nurses’ Bulletin. There does not appear to be any other work history available. An Alumni note indicated she was living in Nova Scotia.2 A Margaret Jane Woods died in Saanich in May 1952 at age 67, and this may be her.                                                               1  Handwritten Alumni follow-up notes on UBC graduates in a list from 1921 to 1940 kept by Beth McCann (circa 1940); available in the UBC Nursing Historical Collection, BCHNS Archives.  2  Handwritten Alumni follow-up notes on UBC graduates in a list from 1921 to 1940 kept by Beth McCann (circa 1940); available in the UBC Nursing Historical Collection, BCHNS Archives. 28  Session 1923-24:  Bachelor of Applied Science (Nursing) – 5 graduates   The second degree class graduated in 1924. Five students received Bachelor of Applied Science (Nursing) degrees (BASc[N]). Four took the public health nursing option and one the teaching and supervision option.         [Cora] Louise Cook (later Baigent) – No birth registration for BC was found, but she graduated from VGH in 1923, then UBC with a PHN focus in her final year. Following graduation she worked from 1924 to 1926 as a staff nurse at the Rotary Clinic in Vancouver,1 which did case finding for and follow-up work with patients with tuberculosis. She married Jack Baigent in Chemainus in December 1927, and they moved to San Francisco, where she did general duty for a year at the Stanford University Hospital. We have no further information on her nursing career. She moved to Youbou, BC, at some point, and was living there in 1968.2 She died in North Cowichan in February 1983 at age 81.  Bonnie Gill – Bonnie Gill, who already had an Arts degree, took the PHN option in her final year, and then did private duty in Victoria.3 From                                                           1  UBC Annual 1925, p. 117. 2  Handwritten Alumni follow-up notes on UBC graduates in a list from 1921 to 1940 kept by Beth McCann (c 1940); available in the UBC Nursing Historical Collection, BCHNS Archives.  3  UBC Annual 1925, p. 117. Nursing Class of 1924 (l-r): Bonnie Gill, Esther Naden, Louise Cook, Everilda Wilson, Beatrice Pearce.  Photo from Ninth Annual of the University of British Columbia, UBC, p. 47. UBC digital collection of Annuals /Yearbooks.  29  1925 to 1926, she was a staff nurse at the Rotary Clinic in Vancouver. From 1927 to 1931, she was operating room supervisor at the Manhattan EEN&T Hospital in New York; from 1931 to 1940 she was a social service nurse at Ottawa Civic Hospital, then joined the Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps.1 In 1959, she was living near Victoria with her sister Margaret (also a UBC graduate and a librarian); she remained in the Victoria area until at least 1969, but no other information could be found.   Esther Naden (later Gardom)2 – Esther Stuart Naden was born in Greenwood, BC, on October 16, 1900. She was enrolled in the first class of the UBC Nursing program and graduated from VGH with that group, but a family illness delayed her graduation from UBC. She took the PHN focus in her final year. She worked in the Cowichan Health Centre from 1924 to 1927, then from 1928 to 1933. she was the supervisor of the Saanich Health Centre. She married Reginald Gardom in 1934, the son of a prominent BC family. Esther’s daughter, Marguerite Lawson, shared recollections in about 2008 that are available on the UBC Nursing website.3 BC politician and later the province’s longest-serving Lieutenant Garde Gardom was a great nephew. Her address in 1969 was in Victoria.    Beatrice (”Bea”) [Alexandra] Pearce (later Cassidy) – No BC birth or death records. She took the VGH/UBC course graduating from VGH in 1923 and UBC in 1924; she took the PHN option in final year. Twice during her undergraduate years she was president of the Nursing Undergraduate Society and active in sports. After graduation, she worked with the Victorian Order of Nurses in Victoria until 1926.4 She married Harry Morris Cassidy in August 1, 1925, and moved to                                                                                                                                                                                             11  School of Nursing Graduate Records. BC History of Nursing Society  Archives, UBC School of Nursing  Historical Collection. {October 2015: Records were just being catalogued.]  2  Esther (Naden) Gardom. (1987). Interview by Mary Richmond. BC Historyof Nursing Oral History Collection. BCHNS Archives has a biographical file on her with a transcript containing excellent information. See also Green, 1984, p. 29;  Zilm & Warbinek, 1994, p. 84; and UBC Annual 1924, p. 47.  3  Available 22 May 2014, from http://www.nursing.ubc.ca/Alumni/Stories/alumnistories/aspx?id=1  4  UBC Annuals 1924, p. 47, and 1925, p.117. 30  Berkley, California. In 1945, she became a social worker with the Toronto Welfare Council. In 1969, she was living in Toronto.    Everilda Wilson (later Keith) – No BC vital records were found. She was the first graduate who took the teaching option in the final year and she later taught at Royal Columbian Hospital, New Westminster,1 and was the first educationally prepared instructor there.2 In 1969, her address was listed as Burnaby, BC.                                                              1  UBC Annuals 1924, p. 47, and 1925, p.117. 2  Esther Paulson interview (transcript) by Beth McCann, July 12, 1988, UBC SoN Historical Collection. 31  Session 1923-24:  Diploma in Public Health Nursing or Teaching and Supervision – 6 graduates   The fourth diploma course now offered options in Teaching and Supervision as well Public Health Nursing. As well, the initial funding from the Canadian Red Cross, which had helped launch the public health program, had ended. Both diploma and degree students shared many classes. All six diploma graduates opted for the Public Health option as this was still the popular new field for nurses.   Elizabeth Duncan – No information could be found; the name is too common to be certain of vital records.  Florence [Louisa] Fullerton (later Dowell) – Born in Victoria on 1889 and graduated from RJH in 1923, so likely went directly into the program. Following graduation, she joined the BC Public Health Nursing Service and worked in the Saanich War Memorial Health Centre for one year.1  She married Alfred Dowell in Victoria in July 1925. She died in 1949 in Victoria (age 60).  Grace O. Hill – Following graduation, she worked for a brief period at the Saanich Health Centre, then joined the Victorian Order of Nures and worked in units in Calgary, Westbank, BC, Vancouver, Pembroke, Ontario, and her last known posting was in Victoria in 1959.   Maude Hulburt – No information could be found.  Lavinia C. Moffatt – She became a school nurse in Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. No further information could be found.  Bertha Thorsteinson (later Thomson) 2 – Björg (called “Bertha” at UBC) Thorsteinson was born in Iceland in 1888 and her family emigrated to Winnipeg in 1893. She graduated from Winnipeg General Hospital in 1914. In November 1917, she joined the Queen Alexandra’s Imperial Military Nursing Service and served in England and in 1920                                                           1  Fullerton, F.L. (1925, April). Public Health Nurses Bulletin, 1 (2), pp. 15-17, 26.  2  Gerardi, Josephine. (2003, Friday, July 11). My mother, Bjorg (Jonsdottir) Thorsteinson (Thomson): A story of five-foot two-inch titan. Logberg-Heimskringia, pp. 12-13. Biographical file is available in the BC History of Nursing Society Archives. 32  transferred to the Canadian Army Medical Corps (1920). She was decorated for her services (Distinguished Conduct Medal and perhaps others). On her return after the war, she entered the UBC public health nursing course, graduating in 1924. She married in 1925 to Roy Thomson, who died soon after the birth of their second daughter. From 1927 to1929 she worked at the Tuberculosis Pavilion at VGH. At age 43, with two small daughters, she joined the BC Provincial Public Health Service and was assigned to Keremeos and three surrounding First Nations Reserves. In 1942s, she moved to Lower Mainland and working in Abbotsford then to Vancouver so her daughters could take higher education; one daughter became a nurse at VGH. She purchased a house, where she provided some nursing care for elderly people. A proud member of Vancouver’s Icelandic community, in 1947 she took charge of the Icelandic Old People’s Home (Höfn) in Vancouver, remaining until retirement in 1954. Following retirement, she spent some years living in New York and Toronto with her daughters and then returned to Vancouver where her daughter Jean now lived. She died 1975 following a short illness.       Bertha Thorsteinson in her Queen Alexandra Imperial Military Nursing Service uniform, c 1918. Family photo used by her daughter in a newspaper article.  Family now deceased.  Used with permission for this cIRcle publication; please do not copy. 33  Session 1924-25:  Bachelor of Applied Science (Nursing) – 4 graduates    Session 1924-25 saw the graduation of the third degree course, the last under Ethel Johns’ tenure; she had resigned to take a position in research work with the Rockefeller Institute. Four students graduated that year. Classes were still all held on the Fairview campus near the Vancouver General Hospital.              Helen Bennett (later Wheeler) – Helen Bennett was enrolled in the third graduating class from the degree program, and also graduated from VGH in 1925. She took the Teaching and Supervision option. Following graduation, she worked as a head nurse and later instructor at VGH until 1927.1 She moved and became an instructor at the Kelowna General Hospital until 1928. In 1928, she married LLoyd Wheeler and moved to the United States.2 She became an instructor of nurses at the University Hospital in Madison, Wisconsin. She died in 1968.  Leila [Audrey] Carson – Leila Carson was born in 1895 in Victoria. She graduated from VGH and UBC in 1925, and took the Teaching and Supervision option. While a student, she was twice president of the                                                           1  Reported in Interview with Marion Fisher (later Faris), UBC SoN Historical Collection; letter to Beth McCann, Beth McCann special papers, UBC SoN AC. 2  VGH Student Annual 1930. (1930), p. 81. Vancouver: VGH.    Nursing class of 1925 (l-r): Anne Hedley, Leila Carson, Helen Bennett, and Dorothy Rogers.  Photo from Tenth Annual of the University of British Columbia, UBC, pp. 41. 42. UBC digital collection of Annuals /Yearbooks.  34  Nursing Undergraduate Society. She died January 22, 1929 (age 33), in Tranquille, probably from tuberculosis.    Anne Hedley (later Vater) – Born in 1901, she graduated from VGH and UBC, taking the Public Health Nursing option in the final year. She was the first of the UBC students to take her field work at the Cowichan Health Centre on Vancouver Island. From 1927 to 1929, she was a staff nurse at the Infants' Hospital in Vancouver; from 1929-30, she took a post-graduate course in maternity at the Women's Hospital in New York and then did general duty at Sloane Hospital in New York. She did private duty nursing in Vancouver from 1930 to 1933. She married Charles Frederick Vater in 1934 in Vancouver, and she died in Vancouver in 1981.1  Dorothy Rogers (later Wilson) – Dorothy Matilda Rogers was born in 1901 in Victoria. She graduated from VGH and UBC, taking the Teaching and Supervision option in her final year.  After graduation until 1926, she was a staff nurse at the Columbus Sanitarium in Seattle. From 1927 to 1930, she did general duty at Stanford University Hospital in San Francisco. In 1930 she moved to Whitehorse and worked as a staff nurse at the hospital. She married Yorke Wilson in 1932. Her address in 1969 was Vancouver, and died in 1978 in Victoria.2                                                                1  Handwritten Alumni follow-up notes on UBC graduates in a list from 1921 to 1940 kept by Beth McCann (circa 1940); available in the UBC Nursing Historical Collection, BCHNS Archives.  2  Handwritten Alumni follow-up notes on UBC graduates in a list from 1921 to 1940 kept by Beth McCann (circa 1940); available in the UBC Nursing Historical Collection, BCHNS Archives.  35  Session 1924-25: Diploma in Public Health Nursing or Teaching and  Supervision – 3 awarded   The fifth Diploma course, still one year in length, had only three graduates with one student choosing the teaching option. All three had a two-week field experience at the Cowichan Health Unit on Vancouver Island.1  Hazel Brunker (later Heslop) – Little was available other than a record of a marriage for Hazel Kathleen Brunker to Neil Mcgregor Heslop in September 1932. At some point, she was living in Wainwright, Alberta.2   Janet Campbell – No information available, and there are too many “Janet Campbells” to rely on Vital Statistics indices without more information.  Cassie M. Hyde (later Webber) – Cassie Mildred Hunter had married in 1921 before entering the UBC diploma program and so was the first married nurse enrolled. She later married Cyril Donald Webber in 1928 in Victoria. After graduation, she worked for a time with the School Medical Department in Point Grey. She died in North Vancouver in 1988. No further information could be found.                                                                 1  See Public Health Nurses Bulletin, 1924, Vol. 1, p. 27. 2  Handwritten Alumni follow-up notes on UBC graduates in a list from 1921 to 1940 kept by Beth McCann (c 1940); available in the UBC Nursing Historical Collection, BCHNS Archives.  36  Analysis and Summary  Neither the UBC Alumni Association nor the School of Nursing makes lists of nursing graduates publicly available.1 At times, the Nursing Division of the UBC Alumni Association kept records of nursing graduates by year, but with disbanding of the Nursing Division and reorganization of all alumni divisions, these lists could no longer be found.2 The UBC Yearbooks/ Annuals/ Totems contain lists of degree graduates, but not of diploma graduates. A few faculty members, notably Margaret Kerr in the 1920s and 1930s, Evelyn Mallory for the 1940s and 1950s, Beth McCann in the 1960s to 1980s, and Cathy Ebbehoj in recent years, made serious attempts to organize Nursing Alumni and keep in touch with past graduates.3     Not only is information about UBC Nursing alumni difficult to find, there has been no organized way of tracking graduates and information  is scattered with little attempt to follow up their careers, archive this information, or make it widely known.   We believe it is essential to identify, record, and publicly recognize the contributions of UBC Nursing graduates to nursing and health care. So nearly 100 years later, we set out to try to find:   * what kind of contributions these early university-prepared nurses made and if and how they had contributed to health care and their communities, and  * whether they married and completely left their careers behind.                                                            1  A simple list of graduates (maiden names only), indicating whether then were Diploma or Degree Graduates from 1920 to 1965,  was given to the Authors by the School of Nursing, courtesy of Dr. Marilyn Willman, in the 1990s when we were working on Legacy. In 2015, a collection of cards listing graduates and providing some additional notes on jobs held after graduation was turned over to the UBC Nursing Collection, BC History of Nursing Society Archives; examination of these cards for the Ethel Johns years shows that some names are missing and the collection is not complete.  2 The UBC Development Office, which now keeps the Alumni lists, does not seem to have complete lists for the earliest years and the UBC Registrar’s Office did not respond to repeated requests to supply lists of graduates.  3 A rough, incomplete, manuscript list of alumni was compiled by Beth McCann and is available in the UBC Nursing Collection, BC History of Nursing Archives.  Other notes and letters are available in the Beth McCann Files in the UBC Nursing Collection, BC History of Nursing Archives. 37   Working from a database of the names of graduates from the formative Ethel Johns’ years (1920-1925), we identified 73 nurses (12 degree graduates and 61 diploma graduates). We searched for further information from a variety of primary and secondary sources and listed our findings in the body of this report.    We then classified the kinds of information obtained into three categories: Full information (albeit brief in this report); limited information available; and no information that could be found.   For the degree graduates, we found full or limited information about their lives and careers for all 12 (5 full information; 7 limited). From further analysis of this information, we conclude that these degree nurses did contribute, in various ways, to the development of health care in BC and to the growth of the nursing profession, especially considering the time frame and social mores of the era. For the five for whom we found the most information (for example, Beatrice F. Johnson [later Wood]), it was apparent that, although they may no longer have pursued nursing careers, they supported health care advances and professional nursing throughout their lives.   For the 61 diploma graduates, we found full or limited information on 24 (39%) and little or no information on 37 (61%). Of the 24 nurses, 23 were involved in the new field of public health nursing. They had considerable impact on health care throughout the province; see, for example, Winifred Ehlers (later Keighley), Muriel Caroline Harman, Wilhelmina MacKenzie (later Livingstone), Josephine (Jo) Belle Peters, Muriel Claxton, Margaret Allan Thatcher, and Bertha Thorsteinson (later Thomson). Everilda Wilson, the one graduate from the teaching and supervision program, became the first university-prepared nurse educator in a hospital-based school of nursing in the province. The public health nurses pioneered new roles, such as introduction of school nursing programs, well baby clinics, tuberculosis case-finding and follow-up, family-focused care, and rural community work that would today be done by Nurse Practitioners. They also became advisors and leaders related to health care policies in their communities.   In all, this makes a total of at least some information on 36 of the 73 graduates (49%). We would appreciate information or leads for follow-up on any of these graduates.  38  References and Resources Used  Online Resources:  British Columbia Museum's Vital Events Records: These contain Births, Marriages, and Deaths in BC.  http://search-collections.royalbcmuseum.bc.ca/Genealogy/basicSearch/      Originally these were accessed through http://www.bcarchives.gov.bc.ca/textual/governmt/vstats/v_events.htm   BC Historical Newspapers: http://historicalnewspapers.library.ubc.ca/  BC Public Health Nurses Bulletins (Vols. 1-3): https://archive.org/stream/Public HealthNursesBulletinVol.1/phnbulletinvol1#page/n10/mode/1up  UBC Calendars: http://www.library.ubc.ca/archives/pdfs/calendars . See for example, Calendar of the University of British Columbia, Seventh Session, 1921-1922. (1921). Vancouver: University of B.C. Retrieved May 16, 2012, from http://www.library.ubc.ca/archives/pdfs/calendars2/UBC_Calendar_1921_22.pdf ; this includes pp.  8-9 – “Officers and Staff”; p. 26 – Endowments (Red Cross financing); pp. 153-156 – Description of the courses offered in the Department of Nursing and brief description of the Short Course in PHN;  pp. 185-186 – Full description, including list of subjects and list of instructors, of the Short Course in PHN; p. 233 – List of students in the degree course, by year; p. 237 – Number of students – 26 – in the PHN Short Course; p. 244 – Addenda – List of Prizes awarded – Red Cross Prize ($100) and 2 Provincial Board of Health Prizes ($60 and $40).  UBC Yearbooks (also called “Student Annuals” and “Totems”): http://www.library.ubc.ca/archives/pdfs/calendars.  See for example, University of British Columbia. (1918-1926). Annuals [Yearbooks, Totems] of the University of British Columbia. Vancouver: Author. Available online from http://www.library.ubc.ca/archives/pdfs/yearbooks/1925_totem.pdf.  Go to Index of /archives/pdfs/yearbooks and search by year. This collection of annuals, identified over the years by various names, was published in the Spring of each year and identified the happenings during the previous academic year. These were searched for each year from 1919 onward using keywords (“nursing,” “public health” and individual names of graduates). Occasionally, there were notes related to past graduates. During these years, the baccalaureate students were identified, but not the Public Health Nursing Diploma graduates.   Books and Journals  Bavinton, Barbara. (2012, Spring). Winnifred Ehlers: A very early Red Cross nurse. BC History of Nursing Society Newsletter, 23 (1), pp. 1, 3. [Illustrated]  Bavinton, Barbara. (2012).  Elsie “Muriel” Claxton (5 ms pages). This excellent article is full of detail illustrating the work of BC public health nurses of the period. From a work-in-progress on nurses who worked in Red Cross Hospitals in BC. Personal communication B. Bavinton to G.Zilm, August 30, 2012.   39  British Columbia Provincial Board of Health. (1932). Public health nurses’ bulletin, Vol. 1, 1924-1932. Victoria: Author. Available online http://archive.org/stream/PublicHealthNursesBulletinVol.1/phnbulletinvol1  British Columbia Provincial Board of Health. (1933). Public health nurses’ bulletin, Vol. 2, May 1933 [16-page, ms copy]. Victoria: Author. Available online http://archive.org/stream/PublicHealthNursesBulletinVol.1/phnbulletinvol2.1  British Columbia Provincial Board of Health. (1939). Public health nurses’ bulletin, Vol. 2.2 - 2.6, (April 1935 to March 1938 – annual bulletins). Victoria: Author. Available online http://archive.org/stream/PublicHealthNursesBulletinVol.1/phnbulletinvol2.2  Brown, Debra J. (2000). The challenge of caring: A history of women and health care in British Columbia. Victoria: B.C. Ministry of Health and Ministry Responsible for Seniors / Women’s Health Bureau.  [Available July 14, 2015, online at http://www.health.gov.bc.ca/ library/publications/ year/ 2000/history.pdf]  Calendars of the University of British Columbia (Various sessions from 1919). Vancouver: University of B.C.. Available online from http://www.library.ubc.ca/archives/pdfs/calendars  Cavers, Anne S. (1949). Our school of nursing 1899-1949. Vancouver: Vancouver General Hospital.  Cross, Susan. (1991). Almost 80 years of service: The Red Cross in Kamloops. The Kamloops Daily News, Saturday, October 19, p. B15.  Davies, Marguerite, Ventress, Cora, & Kyllo, Edith. (1973). The Peacemakers of the North Peace. Fort St. John, BC: Authors.  Gould, Jan. (1975). Women of British Columbia. Saanichton, BC: Hancock House Publishers. [Illustrated.]  Green, Monica. (1984). Through the years with public health nursing: A history of public health nursing in the provincial government jurisdiction, British Columbia. Ottawa: Canadian Public Health Association. (Online version [searchable] available at http://archive.org/search.php?query=Through%20the%20years%20with%20Public%20Health%20Nursing )  Grypma, Sonya. (2008). Healing Henan: Canadian nurses at the North China Mission, 1888-1947. Vancouver: UBC Press.  A History of the Royal Columbian Hospital School of Nursing Commemorating its Diamond Jubilee 1901-1976. (1976) [New Westminster: Royal Columbian Hospital School of Nursing Alumnae Association.]  Hoodicoff, Mary (Comp.) (2013). Royal Columbian Hospital School of Nursing 1901-1978 [Complete list of graduates]. Unpublished online document supplied to G. Zilm, January 26, 2012, based on the RCH School of Nursing Alumni Association documents.  40  Kier, Elden. (n.d.) Lillian Florence Roberts (nee Kier). In Memories Never Lost: Stories of the pioneer women of the Cowichan Valley and a brief history of the Valley 1850-1920. Compiled by the Pioneer Researchers. Information collected by G. Zilm during a trip to the library/ archives in Duncan and Nanaimo in the early 1980s.   Minutes of the University of British Columbia Senate. 1919-1925. UBC Archives. Available online at http://www.library.ubc.ca/archives/pdfs/senate/UBC_Senate_Minutes  Pearson, Anne. (1985). The Royal Jubilee Hospital School of Nursing 1891-1982. Victoria: The Alumnae Association of the Royal Jubilee Hospital School of Nursing. [Complete list of graduates]  Reminiscing: St. Joseph's Hospital School of Nursing commemorative yearbook 1900-1981. (1981). Victoria: Victoria General Hospital. [Contains complete list of graduates]  Sisters of Charity of Providence. (1957). St. Paul’s School of Nursing: Progress Record - Golden Jubilee 1907-1957. Vancouver: Author. [Contains list of graduates to 1957]   Smith, May B. (1990). My experience with the Red Cross Nurse. In Schuswap Chronicles 3.  Celista, BC: North Schuswap Historical Society.   Storrs, Monica, & Fast, Edith. (1999). Companions of the Peace: Diaries and Letters of Monica Storrs, 1931 – 1939. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.   Vancouver General Hospital. (1930). V.G.H. nurses’ annual 1930. Vancouver: Vancouver Hospital School of Nursing. [Contains list of graduates to 1929, with married names and addresses, and graduating class of 1930.]  Vancouver General Hospital School of Nursing Alumnae Alumnae Association. (2013). Membership lists. Vancouver: Author. [The Alumnae Association has digital lists of members with name at graduation, some married names, and if known dates of deaths; it also has some contact information, but only on a confidential basis.]  University of British Columbia. (1918-1926). Annuals [Yearbooks, Totems] of the University of British Columbia. Vancouver: Author. Available online from http://www.library.ubc.ca/archives/pdfs/yearbooks/ , then go to Index of /archives/pdfs/yearbooks and search by year.  U.B.C. Nurses’ Club: Reports of Meetings, etc. (1923-1943). UBC Special Collections, Nursing Fonds, Box 7-30,31.  [Also sometimes called the “Science Girls’ Club]  Ventress, Cora, Davies, Marguerite, & Kyllo, Edith. (1973/ 1975). The peacemakers of North Peace (2nd printing). [Fort St. John, BC]: Authors. This local history includes several mentions and 3 snapshot photographs of Muriel Claxton. This second printing has an index of names.  Zilm, Glennis, & Warbinek, Ethel. (1994). Legacy: History of nursing education at the University of British Columbia 1919-1994. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press/ University of British Columbia School of Nursing.    41  Zilm, Glennis, & Warbinek, Ethel. (1995-95, Winter). Health care changes in the early 1900s. B.C. Historical News, 29 (1), 8-14.  Zilm, Glennis, & Warbinek, Ethel. (2006/2012). TB Nurses in B.C. 1895-1960: A Biographical Dictionary. White Rock, BC: Authors.  [Desktop unpublished report. Available through UBC Woodward Library cIRcle Website at https://circle.ubc.ca]  - - - - - - -   February 2016 

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