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PAZAR: a framework for collection and dissemination of cis-regulatory sequence annotation Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Kirov, Stefan; Lim, Jonathan; Lithwick, Stuart; Swanson, Magdalena I; Ticoll, Amy; Snoddy, Jay; Wasserman, Wyeth W Sep 28, 2007

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Open Access2007Portales-Casamaret al.V lume 8, I sue 10, Article R207SoftwarePAZAR: a framework for collection and dissemination of cis-regulatory sequence annotationElodie Portales-Casamar¤*, Stefan Kirov¤†‡, Jonathan Lim*, Stuart Lithwick*, Magdalena I Swanson*, Amy Ticoll*, Jay Snoddy†§ and Wyeth W Wasserman*Addresses: *Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, CFRI, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC., V5Z 4H4, Canada. †Graduate School for Genome Science and Technology, Oak Ridge National Laboratory-University of Tennessee, Oak Ridge, TN, 37830, USA. ‡Applied Genomics Department, Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Bristol-Myers Squibb, NJ, 08534, USA. §Biomedical Informatics Department, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, 37235, USA. ¤ These authors contributed equally to this work.Correspondence: Wyeth W Wasserman. Email: wyeth@cmmt.ubc.ca© 2007 Portales-Casamar et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.The PAZAR database<p> is an op n-access and open-source database of transcription factor and regulatory sequence annotation with associated web int rface an  programming tools f r data submission and extraction.</p>AbstractPAZAR is an open-access and open-source database of transcription factor and regulatorysequence annotation with associated web interface and programming tools for data submission andextraction. Curated boutique data collections can be maintained and disseminated through theunified schema of the mall-like PAZAR repository. The Pleiades Promoter Project collection ofbrain-linked regulatory sequences is introduced to demonstrate the depth of annotation possiblewithin PAZAR. PAZAR, located at http://www.pazar.info, is open for business.RationaleThe study of gene regulation has emerged as a focus of effortsto understand how genome sequences give rise to diverse andcomplex cells and tissues. From gene-centric dissection ofpromoter sequences [1] to regulon-based analysis of cis-regu-latory modules [2] through to genome-scale chromatinprobes [3], researchers across the subdisciplines of modernbiology strive to understand how cells regulate the flow ofgenetic information from DNA to RNA via the process of tran-scription. This developing knowledge, and more critically thedata produced, has unleashed a wealth of computational-driven approaches to predict the locations of regulatorystood and independently confirmed function, are necessaryto serve as gold standards to support the validation of newmolecular techniques and computational algorithms. As con-fidence in regulatory annotation and prediction advances,researchers will increasingly draw on such knowledge todesign sequences capable of directing targeted gene expres-sion in molecular applications such as gene therapy.Existing regulatory sequence data collections are generatedprimarily in a need-driven manner. A dedicated researcherpursuing an idea will extract from the scientific literature asufficient set of annotations to support their own studies. ForPublished: 28 September 2007Genome Biology 2007, 8:R207 (doi:10.1186/gb-2007-8-10-r207)Received: 30 April 2007Revised: 5 September 2007Accepted: 28 September 2007The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at http://genomebiology.com/2007/8/10/R207Genome Biology 2007, 8:R207sequences, as well as to discover classes of binding sites fortranscription factors and models of regulatory programs [4-8]. Annotated sets of regulatory sequences, with well under-example, the widely used JASPAR collection of transcriptionfactor binding profiles [9] was developed initially for thestudy of binding pattern similarities across families of07.2http://genomebiology.com/2007/8/10/R207 Genome Biology 2007,     Volume 8, Issue 10, Article R207       Portales-Casamar et al. R2structurally related transcription factors [10]. Similarly theORegAnno database [11] was compiled initially for the studyof genetic variations known to alter binding sites of transcrip-tion factors. The best of these reference collections are subse-quently used by researchers within bioinformatics to improveand assess the performance and efficiency of computationalmethods. These boutique data collections are the backbone ofthe current generation of regulatory sequence analysis stud-ies (examples include [9,11-20]). It is our perception that bou-tique reference databases will likely remain the primarysources for regulatory sequence annotations for much time tocome. While large centrally curated database have emergedfor proteins (UniProt [21]) or human genetics (OMIM [22]),funding for large-scale curation of an open-access regulatorysequence collection appears unlikely.The existing pool of annotated data for transcriptional regu-lation is not optimal. There is an unfortunate long-term prob-lem that stems in part from the fact that databasemaintenance is tiresome. The operators of the boutique data-bases quickly move on to other tasks, motivated equally by adearth of monetary support and the excitement of the nextproject. Few regulatory sequence collections have endured forlong periods of time with evidence of substantial expansion.The widely used TRANSFAC collection of regulatorysequences has been a central tool for bioinformatics [23].However, the transfer of the collection to a commercial fund-ing model makes it difficult for the system to build on com-munity participation. The scientific community is less likelyto add to and improve upon data annotation distributed in afor-profit tool. Limited commercial curation may tend tofocus on commercially relevant annotation rather than basicscience research needs.The boutique model of database development suffers fromseveral fundamental problems. As mentioned, collections canstagnate after the initial enthusiasm of the creator wanes. Forcurrent research, reference collections must increasingly maponto genome sequence coordinates, and thus the utility of thecollections rapidly diminishes if such coordinates are not keptup to date. Furthermore, data need to be delivered in adynamic manner accessible by web interfaces, programminginterfaces and emergently via support of semantic interfaces.Flat file data models are too rigid and cannot capture data atits full granularity.In this report we introduce the PAZAR information mall forregulatory sequence annotation (Figure 1). Building on theresource of boutique database owner-operators, PAZAR (theBulgarian word for shopping mall) provides a computinginfrastructure for the creation, maintenance and dissemina-tion of regulatory sequence annotation. Incumbent upon thepurpose, PAZAR provides tools for data exchange (XML andPAZAR utilizes an extremely flexible data schema to supporta broad range of data annotation. While PAZAR itself is anopen-access and open-development project, the systemallows for boutique operators to limit access to a data collec-tion in order to facilitate their ongoing collaborative projectsor early stage development of reference collections. PAZAR[24] is now open for business.Database organization and controlled vocabulariesPAZAR is designed around two main concepts: first, thenecessity for unambiguous identification of the chromosomelocation for any given cis-regulatory element (CRE) usinggenomic coordinates (this restricts the allowed species tothose for which a genome assembly is resolved); and second,a flexible database schema allowing for the capture of annota-tions derived from a wide range of experiments (Figure 2). Inbrief, nucleotide sequence and transcription factor (TF)information is stored independently. Relationships (forexample, TF 1 binding to sequence A) are established throughan 'analysis' object, which describes the analysis properties(the method used, the cell type in which the experiment wasperformed, the PubMed abstract identifier, and so on). TheTF and sequence are then treated as inputs of this analysis,the output being the effect that is observed (interaction orchange in expression). This representation of data gives thedatabase significant flexibility regarding the type of informa-tion that can be captured, a characteristic that is essential forhandling the diversity of annotations most often used todescribe gene regulation.This flexible design enables PAZAR to represent data consist-ent with our current understanding of transcriptional regula-tion. First, the system refers to 'transcription start region'instead of 'transcription start site' as increasing evidenceshows that transcription start sites are more 'fuzzy' than pre-viously thought and often cannot be confined to uniquenucleotides [25,26]. Second, it takes into account the fact thatTFs often act as complexes containing more than one subunit.For instance, members of the bZIP family of TFs, includingFos, Jun, Maf/Nrl, CREB/ATF and CEBP/NFIL-6, displaysubtle differences in DNA binding specificity depending onthe dimers formed [27]. PAZAR is the first system to acknowl-edge this fact and to allow the annotator to differentiatebetween different dimer compositions. Furthermore, PAZARis the first database to capture mutation data in an efficientway, enabling the user to correlate each base pair change witha change in regulatory sequence activity. We anticipate thatthis 'negative' information will allow for the development ofmore diverse TF binding models. PAZAR not only capturesinformation on individual TF binding sites but also on thelonger cis-regulatory modules at which TFs interact. In addi-Genome Biology 2007, 8:R207GFF formats), dynamic data access (application program-ming interface) and internet-based user interaction. In orderto provide a framework for independent data boutiques,tion, to better represent data, the PAZAR system allows forthe storage of TF binding profiles in matrix format. This isimportant in order to accommodate external data that do not07.3http://genomebiology.com/2007/8/10/R207 Genome Biology 2007,     Volume 8, Issue 10, Article R207       Portales-Casamar et al. R2PAZAR MallFigure 1PAZAR Mall. The PAZAR database can be viewed as a mall bringing together independent boutiques. The user can visit each store separately by clicking on the corresponding boutique and search through the data using various filters. Global search engines, allowing searching of the entire PAZAR mall, are Genome Biology 2007, 8:R207available by clicking on one of the three department stores. The user can then search PAZAR by gene (Genes), transcription factor (TFMART), or transcription factor binding profiles (TF PROFILES).07.4http://genomebiology.com/2007/8/10/R207 Genome Biology 2007,     Volume 8, Issue 10, Article R207       Portales-Casamar et al. R2provide individual binding site information, such as JASPAR[9] or computational motif predictions [28].The aforementioned design features have been implementedusing the mySQL relational database. The current databasestructure is developed and maintained through the DBDe-signer software application, which provides an integratedgraphic development interface and tools for automatic SQLscript generation and data exchange.The wide array of PAZAR hostable datasets contains a greatheterogeneity of information. To overcome the challengesimposed by such data diversity, we incorporate controlledvocabularies as a means to consistently annotate regulatorycell types and tissues; and experimental methods. For theformer, we chose the BRENDA Tissue Ontology as our refer-ence [30] and are providing updates to the BRENDA develop-ers on a periodic basis as PAZAR users expand thevocabulary. With respect to the experiment type ontology, weare collaboratively working with the developers of the ORe-gAnno database [11].PAZAR web interface and programming toolsAs illustrated in Figure 1, the PAZAR database can be viewedas a mall bringing together independent boutiques. The CGI-based interface builds on this theme through the incorpora-tion of a mall map that serves as the entry to the search inter-PAZAR central concept: analysis and input/output systemFigure 2PAZAR central concept: analysis and input/output system. The sequences and transcription factors are stored independently in the database and are then linked together as inputs of an analysis. Other types of input can be used, such as a biological sample (for example, nuclear extract) or a condition (for example, addition of a chemical compound). The analysis is defined by various properties (the method and cell type used, the PubMed identifier, and so on) and links inputs and outputs together. An output could be the observed effect, for example expression response or interaction level. The system is very flexible, allowing various combinations of inputs and outputs.Analysis inputs Analysis propertiesANALYSIS(central concept)- Sequence- Transcriptionfactor- Biologicalsample- Condition- Method- Evidence- Cell- Time- Pubmed ID- Expression- InteractionAnalysis outputsGenome Biology 2007, 8:R207sequences and expression patterns. Bio-ontologies offer com-mon semantics for biological functional annotations [29].Two topics requiring controlled vocabularies in PAZAR are:face. Users can search by gene ('Genes' department store), TF('TFMART' department store) or TF binding profile ('TFPROFILES' department store). If interested in only one07.5http://genomebiology.com/2007/8/10/R207 Genome Biology 2007,     Volume 8, Issue 10, Article R207       Portales-Casamar et al. R2specific dataset hosted in PAZAR, users can also search thisspecific store by clicking either on the store on the map or onits name in the mall directory.Use-case number 1If one is looking for regulatory information for a specific gene,one should click on the 'Genes' department store and enterthe gene identifier (several options are available). As a result,the gene view page is loaded with a summary table of all genescorresponding to the query. For each of the displayed genes,the list of all annotated regulatory sequences is located intables further down the page (Figure 3). More informationcan then be obtained by clicking on the 'RegSeq ID' to enterthe 'Sequence View' (Figure 3). From these pages one canaccess greater detail by clicking on the 'Analysis ID' to enterthe 'Analysis View' (Figure 3). In the gene and sequenceviews, one can click on the UCSC or EnsEMBL icons to dis-play the sequences within the UCSC or the EnsEMBL genomebrowser, respectively.Use-case number 2When looking for binding sites for a given TF, one can use the'TFMART' department store. Various identifiers can be usedfor the query and the results will be displayed in the 'TF View'(Figure 4). First, a summary table shows all available TFs cor-responding to the query. Then, for each, the list of all anno-tated binding sites is displayed. The binding sites can refer tospecific genomic coordinates, with accompanying hyperlinksthat take the user to the corresponding Sequence or GeneView, or they can be artificial (for example, oligonucleotiderepresenting a consensus sequence). All the sites are alignedand a TF binding profile is built dynamically using the MEMEpattern discovery algorithm [31].Use-case number 3One might desire to limit queries to a single collection. To doso, the user must find the corresponding boutique in the mallmap or directory and click on it. The 'Project View' provides abrief description of the dataset as well as some statistics onthe data it contains (Figure 5). Below, the user can chooseamongst various filters to search through the data and displayit in the 'Gene View', where regulatory sequences will begrouped by the genes they regulate, or in the 'TF View', wherethe sequences will be grouped by the TFs with which theyinteract.PAZAR provides a submission interface that one can accessby clicking on 'Submit' in the left menu. This web-basedstreamlined user interface provides a simplified entry point tothe database for non-professional curators, such as scientiststhat want to deposit their own experimental data to the publicrepository.programmers with different layers of abstraction, allowingadvanced users to create 'high-layer' objects and methods tosuit project-specific needs.To best serve users, PAZAR must frequently retrieve datafrom external sources. For example, sequence coordinatesmust be updated when genome assemblies are released,updated, or re-annotated. The API pazar::talk modules makethis possible by delegating all external queries to an appropri-ate pazar::talk::database module. Currently, three moduleshave been developed to interact with the GeneKeyDB [32],JASPAR [9], and EnsEMBL [33] databases. The open sourcenature of this project allows users to develop or adapt addi-tional modules to work with any database of their choice.A PAZAR-specific exchange format has been implemented inXML (extensible markup language). In addition to facilitatingdata transfer between 'boutiques' and the central masterdatabase, the XML format can support custom stand-aloneuser interfaces that do not have direct database access. Somebasic sequence features can also be exported in GFF (generalfeature format). API methods are available to parse PAZARXML or GFF format data for importation into the database.Database contentEach data collection within PAZAR is called a project and isidentified by a project ID, a project name, a status and a list ofusers. The project status can be 'restricted' (only the project-specific users have read and write access), 'published' (onlythe project-specific users have write privileges, but everyonehas read access) or 'open' (everyone has read and write privi-leges). For this purpose, each record in the database is linkedto a project ID, allowing all projects to share the same tableswithin the database schema, yet retaining their project iden-tity so that they remain independent data collections.At the time of submission of this manuscript, there were 11projects present in the database (Table 1). Included are theJASPAR database for TF binding profiles (core sub-database)[9], the ABS collection of annotated regulatory binding sites[14], extensively annotated genes from the Pleiades PromoterProject (see below), muscle-specific and liver-specific collec-tions of regulatory regions [7,8], a collection of antioxidantresponse elements, a dataset related to the regulation of theMUC5AC gene and a collection of predicted regulatory motifsfrom human promoters and 3' untranslated regions [28]. Weare currently in the process of importing the ORegAnnodatabase [11]. The ORegAnno boutique within PAZARincludes the annotations directly submitted to the ORegAnnosystem. Externally generated collections available from theORegAnno database are given unique PAZAR project identi-fiers as they are successfully imported. To date, these collec-Genome Biology 2007, 8:R207We have developed a Perl API (application programminginterface) that hides the intrinsic complexity of the schemafrom database users. The object-oriented approach providestions include the PennState erythroid cis-regulatory modules[34] and the ChIP-TS STAT1 literature-derived binding sites[35].07.6http://genomebiology.com/2007/8/10/R207 Genome Biology 2007,     Volume 8, Issue 10, Article R207       Portales-Casamar et al. R2Genome Biology 2007, 8:R207Figure 3 (see legend on next page)07.7http://genomebiology.com/2007/8/10/R207 Genome Biology 2007,     Volume 8, Issue 10, Article R207       Portales-Casamar et al. R2The 'Pleiades genes' project is a good example of the level ofannotation that can be captured in PAZAR. This dataset isbeing collected by data curators working for the Pleiades Pro-moter Project [36], a Genome Canada project focused on thecreation of short regulatory sequences to drive gene expres-sion in defined brain regions of therapeutic interest. Thus,one major component of the project is to identify genesexpressed in specific brain regions and annotate their knownregulatory sequences. PAZAR is used for this regulatory datacollection, providing the required level of annotation details(experiments, cell types, level of interaction or expression,mutations, and so on). As an example of how data fromPAZAR can be visualized, Figure 6a shows a graphical repre-sentation in Cytoscape [37] of the 'Pleiades genes' project,focusing on the human gene-TF interactions. The box in Fig-ure 6a highlights the human PU.1 transcription factor (alsoknown as SPI1) and all the genes containing a recorded PU.1binding site within the 'Pleiades genes' project. Figure 6bshows the PAZAR display for those PU.1 transcription factorbinding sites and the binding profile for the combined set.PAZAR availability and distributionPAZAR is open-access and open-source, providing a com-pletely transparent development and data compilation. Boththe code and the data (except for any restricted projects) areavailable through the PAZAR website [24] or the develop-ment website [38].Conclusion: growth and developmentA large fraction of gene regulation data comes from high-throughput techniques such as gene expression and chroma-tin immunoprecipitation microarrays. Unfortunately, theobserved data are difficult to interpret as they often reflectcontributions from overlapping processes. One means toimprove the interpretation of results is to incorporate priorknowledge of regulatory processes [39,40]. The JASPARdatabase of TF binding profiles is widely used for such pur-poses [9], yet provides merely a fraction of the informationnecessary to support the research community. An excellentand extensive comparison of the existing binding site predic-mentally derived reference data, such as provided by PAZAR,could facilitate both improved interpretation of high-throughput data and assessment of computational methods.Considering the future of gene regulation databases, threethings are apparent. First, the motivation and expertise ofindividual researchers, as well as their focus on deep annota-tion of specific pathways and processes, make boutique oper-ators a key resource in long-term compilation of regulatorysequences and annotations. Second, based on principlesshared by the authors, any database should provide data andsoftware in an open, unrestricted manner to all researchers inall settings. Third, the ongoing technical challenges for data-bases require a long-term commitment of talented technicalstaff. PAZAR was developed based on these observations.While our laboratory will maintain PAZAR for the long-termas it is necessary for our on-going research, ideally the projectwould expand through the engagement of a cooperativeresearch community. Recent events suggest that the globalresearch community is prepared to participate in regulatorysequence annotation projects. In late 2006, a group of open-access motivated scientists contributed regulatory sequenceannotations to the ORegAnno database [11]. While PAZARand ORegAnno differ substantially in mission and approach,both address the need for open-access data collections andthe developers are working together on common componentssuch as controlled vocabularies. Contributions to a sharedsystem could be combined synergistically to provide theresearch community with a valued resource.Development of PAZAR will require ongoing effort to expandthe data represented, the means to access the data and thequality of the data curation tools. At present, existing datacollections are being added to PAZAR with the permissionand collaboration of the boutique operators. We anticipatethe boutique database creators will be strongly motivated touse the system as it eases their own work. For instance, mosthigh-throughput datasets currently generated never becomeavailable through a database and web interface because of thelimited time researchers want to put into this effort. PAZARprovides an easy way to make these data available and toExample query: search by geneFigure 3 (s e previous page)Example query: search by gene. By clicking on the 'Genes' department store at the upper right corner of the mall, users can perform a gene-specific query. One can view the list of all genes in PAZAR by clicking on the 'View Gene List' button. Alternatively, users can search for a specific gene within all of PAZAR based upon several gene-specific identifiers. At the top of the 'Gene View' page is a summary table of all of the genes obtained from the search. Here, the results show that the queried gene (EnsEMBL gene ID ENSG00000131095) has annotations in two different projects. Below, users can find the details and all annotated regulatory sequences for each of the resulting genes individually as, in PAZAR, each boutique stays independent within the mall. By clicking on the regulatory sequence ID for a specific regulatory sequence, found in the far left column, users can access the PAZAR Sequence view for that sequence. In this view, data are color-coded, with gene-specific information presented in blue and sequence-specific data in orange. A gene-specific summary table is presented at the top of the page followed by a table detailing the regulatory sequence of interest. A third table summarizes the supporting experimental data for this regulatory sequence. Clicking on the Analysis ID found in the leftmost column of this table takes users to the PAZAR Analysis View, color-coded in green and containing a more in-depth description of the supporting experimental data.Genome Biology 2007, 8:R207tion tools [41] suggests that one of the biggest hurdles in eval-uating these tools objectively is the lack of an adequatereference collection. Thus, access to a larger pool of experi-maintain them. Readers of this paper are encouraged to con-sider opening a boutique or working with the PAZAR team tomove an existing data collection into the system.07.8http://genomebiology.com/2007/8/10/R207 Genome Biology 2007,     Volume 8, Issue 10, Article R207       Portales-Casamar et al. R2Genome Biology 2007, 8:R207Figure 4 (see legend on next page)07.9http://genomebiology.com/2007/8/10/R207 Genome Biology 2007,     Volume 8, Issue 10, Article R207       Portales-Casamar et al. R2Example query: search by transcription factorFigure 4 (s e previous page)Example query: search by transcription factor. By clicking on the 'TFMART' department store at the left hand side of the mall, users can perform a TF-specific query. The 'TF View', color-coded in red, is very similar to the 'Gene View' (see Figure 3) with a summary table of all of the TFs obtained from the search at the top followed by details and binding sites for each of them individually. Here, the results show that the queried TF (HUMAN_NF1) has annotations in two different projects. The binding sites can be genomic sequences with defined coordinates or they can be artificial (for example, oligonucleotide representing a consensus sequence). All the sites are aligned and a TF binding profile is built dynamically using the MEME pattern discovery algorithm [31]. Users can construct a custom scoring matrix and binding profile based upon a subset of the sequences for that TF by clicking in the check boxes of those sequences meant to be included and clicking 'Generate PFM with selected sequences'. Alternatively, users can generate scoring matrices and binding profiles based upon just genomic or artificial sequences by clicking on 'Select genomic sequences' or 'Select artificial sequences', respectively.Example query: search within a specific boutique projectFigure 5Example query: search within a specific boutique project. One might desire to limit queries to a single collection. To do so, the user must find the corresponding boutique in the mall map or directory and click on it. The 'Project View' provides a brief description of the dataset (here the ABS project) as well as some statistics on the data it contains. Below, the user can choose amongst various filters to search through the data and display it in the 'Gene Genome Biology 2007, 8:R207View', where regulatory sequences will be grouped by the genes they regulate, or in the 'TF View', where the sequences are grouped by the TFs that bind to them.07.10http://genomebiology.com/2007/8/10/R207 Genome Biology 2007,     Volume 8, Issue 10, Article R207       Portales-Casamar et al. R2Our goal is for PAZAR to become the public repository fordata and annotations pertaining to transcriptional regulation.By promoting strong integration with tools for computationalanalysis and prediction of cis-regulatory sequences, boutiquedatabase operators will be motivated to participate in theexpansion of the system.AbbreviationsAPI, application programming interface; CRE, cis-regulatoryelement; GFF, general feature format; TF, transcription fac-tor; XML, extensible markup language.Authors' contributionsEPC and SK participate in creating the vision of the system,designed the database and implemented the software. EPCprepared the initial draft of the manuscript. JL participated inthe software and database design. SL, MS and AT tested thesystem, developed documentation, and compiled the Pleiadesdata collection. AT produced the Cytoscape figure and con-tributed to the importation of OregAnno data. JS co-super-vised the project and participated in the creation of the vision.WWW co-supervised the project, participated in the design ofthe system, and revised the manuscript. All authors read andprovided feedback on the manuscript.Table 1PAZAR database content on 13 July 2007*Project Regulated genes Regulatory sequence (genomic)Regulatory sequence (artificial)Transcription factorsTranscription factor profilesAnnotated publicationsABS 205 611 - 152 - 110ARE project 14 14 - 2 - 15JASPAR core - - 3,229 84 123 94Liver set 14 62 - - - -MUC5AC 2 23 - 13 - 9Muscle set 15 49 - - - -ORegAnno 256 690 - 115 - 305ORegAnno Erythroid 8 33 - 1 - 1ORegAnno STAT1 lit 28 37 - 1 - 29Pleiades genes 206 810 95 177 - 409TOTAL 748 2,329 3,324 545 123 972*This table includes only the experimentally validated annotations available in PAZAR and, therefore, excludes the Kellis predictions.Visual representation of the human gene annotations of the 'Pleiades genes' project in PAZARF gure 6 (se  followi g pag )Visual representation of the human gene annotations of the 'Pleiades genes' project in PAZAR. (a) Cytoscape visualization. Human genes are represented as orange squares and transcription factors regulating them as circles (blue for human, purple for mouse and green for rat). The different species of transcription factors reflects the fact that assays on the regulation of human genes are often carried out in cell lines or with recombinant transcription factors from different organisms. The orange edges represent the annotated interactions between transcription factors and genes. The red edge visualizes an interaction between two transcription factors. The red box highlights the human transcription factor SPI1 (also called PU.1) and all the genes recorded as containing a transcription factor binding site for it. (b) PAZAR TF View detail for PU.1 annotations from the 'Pleiades genes' project. Only the first 6 binding sites (out of 60) are displayed, as well as the binding profile for the combined set dynamically generated by the MEME software [31].Genome Biology 2007, 8:R20707.11http://genomebiology.com/2007/8/10/R207 Genome Biology 2007,     Volume 8, Issue 10, Article R207       Portales-Casamar et al. R2(a)(b)Genome Biology 2007, 8:R207Figure 6 (see legend on previous page)07.12http://genomebiology.com/2007/8/10/R207 Genome Biology 2007,     Volume 8, Issue 10, Article R207       Portales-Casamar et al. R2AcknowledgementsWe acknowledge Dimas Yusuf for the drawing of the PAZAR mall map andJerome Bacconnier for the PAZAR logo and Web interface design. Thisproject is supported by funding from the GenomeCanada Pleiades Pro-moter Project, the Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR), CanadaFoundation for Innovation, Merck and IBM. WWW is a CIHR New Inves-tigator and a Scholar of the Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research.References1. 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