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Overview Report - Think Tank 2: Sport Mega-Event Impacts, Leveraging, and Legacies Centre for Sport and Sustainability Nov 12, 2011

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?THINK TANK 2?SPORT MEGA-EVENT IMPACTS, LEVERAGING, AND LEGACIES???November 11-12, 2011??Liu Institute for Global Issues?University of British Columbia???????????OVERVIEW REPORT?? On November 11-12, 2011 the UBC Centre for Sport and Sustainability held its second think tank on the topic of Sport Mega-Event Impacts, Leveraging, and Legacies. This invitational event brought together twenty leading researchers from across the globe for an intensive two-day session. The event was also preceded by a one-day graduate student symposium. ?Sport mega-events have taken on an increasingly visible and prominent role in cities and countries around the world. Commanding a massive expenditure of valuable resources, these events have been linked and debated in regards to their positive and negative economic, social, and environmental benefits. Today a burgeoning consensus exists; one that argues for conceptions of planned legacies as the outgrowth of ongoing impact evaluation, strategic leveraging, and broad-based consultation. This Think Tank has been designed to advance the field of planned legacies by providing the kinds of detail and conceptual analysis to reconcile gaps in impact evaluation, legacy definition, and leveraging strategies while remaining mindful of locally meaningful contexts.?The first Think Tank was held during the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Games, also at UBC. This event, themed on Sports Mega-events, Sustainability, and Impact Assessment, brought together academic experts and practitioners in the fields of event management, sustainability, and indicator analysis. THINK TANK SERIES1?Dr. Rob VanWynsberghe and UBC graduate student Caitlin Pentifallo were recipients of the Aid to Research Workshops and Conferences in Canada Grant sponsored by the Social Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. ??In addition, Think Tank 2 received generous support from:??The UBC Centre for Sport and Sustainability was established as a global resource to capture and transfer knowledge on how sport can create sustainable benefits locally, regionally, and internationally. The Centre is focused on improving understanding of how sport can help advance economic and social development, urban renewal, cultural identity and ecological well-being. Researchers and students from a variety of academic fields at UBC are engaging the increasing global demand for information, analysis and evaluation on these and related issues. !e UBC Centre has also formed alliances with other major educational institutions and organizations that are investigating the roles of sport in sustainable development.?Given the increased popularity, size, and competition for major sport events around the world, part of the Centre?s mandate is to ensure that new knowledge is made available to local, national and international event organizers and host cities so they might optimize their planning and provide an enduring legacy. With its comprehensive approach, the UBC Centre for Sport and Sustainability is an important international hub for knowledge on the interplay of sport and sustainability. Ultimately, the Centre?s contribution to the information, analysis, and evaluation of sport mega-events and sustainability is intended to help hosts and organizers realize targeted event-related benefits and deliver sustainable legacies.SUPPORTERS?2?GRAD STUDENT SYMPOSIUM3In September 2011, graduate students from UBC, the University of Western Ontario, and the University of Toronto began an online, student-led course initiated by Caitlin Pentifallo. For twelve weeks, grad students corresponded in a blog-based student forum, sharing readings, commentary, and feedback online. The students met in person for the first time November 7, 2011 on the UBC campus. For the next three days students engaged in an intensive workshop reviewing papers submitted by Think Tank attendees. On November 10, students kicked off the Think Tank with a symposium of their own. Participants and the research area presented are listed below.?GRAD STUDENT SYMPOSIUM?THE ART OF LOSING?Katarina Bobanovic, MA Student ? School of Kinesiology ? Sport Management, University of Western Ontario?Mega-Event bids have been both criticized and supported for the many benefits or problems related to the risks involved in bidding. Hosting a mega-event often has high costs and few tangible outcomes, making it difficult to understand economic development through the bidding process. What seems to go unnoticed is how the losing bids have shown evidence of being positive legacies within themselves. Bidding has become a vehicle to stimulate interest for investment and kick start development in a city/country. The Olympic effect for progress in a country is not associated with hosting the games, but rather with bidding for them. The decision to bid often requires a financial shift ? in many cases, using community funds for mega-event bids. It is important to thus analyze the media framework, the public influence of beliefs and understanding related to what is actually occurring. Benefits may exist if a city is in the race to host an event, but if lost, does the city and community understand the positive outcome? A Case study will be done on the Hamilton 2010 Commonwealth games bid, the media framework, and the outcomes of the lost bid.?RED TAPE DIARIES: A ROUNDTABLE DISCUSSION ON THE BARRIERS OF MEGA-EVENT RESEARCH?Shawna Lawson, MA Student ? School of Kinesiology, UBC?During this open dialogue, my hope is to provide a platform through which both students and professors can share their experiences conducting mega-event research. The bureaucratic guarding of these events pose unique challenges to researchers, and this discussion will facilitate reflection and collaboration in an open forum. We will discuss the multidimensionality of mega-event red tape and the impact of such? GRAD STUDENT SYMPOSIUM4barriers on conducting critical research. The forum will move beyond simply narrating the challenges of mega-event studies in an effort to provide a practical framework for navigating these systematic barriers. The Sport Mega-Event Impacts, Leveraging, and Legacies Student Symposium offers a unique platform for students and experts to reflect on the challenges of conducting mega-event research and collaborate on strategies for future work.?LEVERAGING 2ND TIER STATUS: LONDON?S BID FOR 2013 WORLD SKATING CHAMPIONSHIPS?Richelle Clark, MA Student ? School of Kinesiology ? Sport Management, University of Western Ontario?It is common practice for cities to acknowledge and draw upon previously hosted events in order to acquire the rights to future events. The concept of leveraging was seen in the case of London Ontario?s bid for the 2013 International Skating Union (ISU) World Figure Skating Championships. The 2009 bid recognized previous skating events as well as other national and world class events hosted in London from 2001-2011. The purpose of this study is to examine the past successes within the city of London and demonstrate how they have ultimately driven the awarding of the 2013 ISU World Figure Skating Championships. The study will also address key relationships that have impacted the bid process and will display the creative alternatives that the city had to present in order to remain competitive. Information and facts will be collected through interviews with a professional from Tourism London and if needed, a representative from Skate Canada.?LEVERAGING SPORT MEGA-EVENTS: PHYSICAL ACTIVITY FOR ALL??Inge Derom, PhD Student ? School of Kinesiology, UBC?Governments are seeking mechanisms for health promotion given the rising costs of health care. The Coalition for Active Living (2005) argued that ?increasing the physical activity levels of all Canadians is a critical piece of the chronic disease prevention puzzle, and one of the best investments governments can make in health promotion? (p. 1). Recently, we have witnessed local and global examples of how governments have connected health promotion to other investments, namely the hosting of sport mega-events. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between health promotion and physical activity by describing the policy of Active Communities Vancouver. This policy was developed by the City of Vancouver to increase physical activity levels among its citizens as a means to socially leverage the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games.??GRAD STUDENT SYMPOSIUM5POLITICS AND FINANCING OF THE 2011 WORLD SLEDGE HOCKEY CHALLENGE?Melinda Maika, MA Student ? School of Kinesiology ? Sport Management, University of Western Ontario?Many cities are beginning to adopt development strategies couched in the hosting of events. While mega-events including the Olympic Games and World Championships present most drastic examples, many smaller-scale events may also play into this strategy. The purpose of this study is to examine the politics and financing of the 2011 World Sledge Hockey Challenge held in London, ON. The aim is to determine the political actors and motives at play in bidding for this particular event, and to discern how political power, the power of sport, and support of para-sport specifically affected the financing achieved through grants and sponsorship to run this event. Information will be gathered through interviews with the local Director of Sport Tourism and with key members of the Host Organizing Committee involved in preparing grant applications and securing sponsorship. A case-study will be developed and related to research on event leveraging and legacies.?IOC SERVING PEACE AND DEVELOPMENT? QUESTIONING THEIR ROLE IN ACHIEVING UNITED NATIONS MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS?Nicolien van Luijk, PhD Student ? School of Kinesiology, UBC?When we talk about leveraging legacies of the Olympic Movement we often focus on the actual mega event of the Olympic Games and what benefits this could potentially bring to host communities. But what is becoming more frequent is the role of the Olympic Movement in Sport for Peace and Development initiatives in geographical places where a mega event host is nowhere to be seen. This presentation will focus on the International Olympic Committee?s burgeoning partnership with the United Nations as a possible legacy of the broader Olympic Movement. The history behind this partnership will be examined, and the Olympic Movement?s potential role as ?expert? on peace and development initiatives will be critiqued. As a first year PhD student, this presentation will provide an exciting opportunity for me to share and development my research topic with others and it is my hope to encourage questions and input from attendees.?? GRAD STUDENT SYMPOSIUM6BIDDING FOR A SUSTAINABLE LEGACY? THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY IN OLYMPIC GAMES BIDS?Caitlin Pentifallo, PhD Student ? School of Kinesiology, UBC?The Vancouver Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games (VANOC), declared its own definition of sustainability:?  ?For VANOC, Sustainability means managing the social, economic and environmental impacts and opportunities of our Games to produce lasting benefits, locally and globally? (VANOC 2010).?  In promising to stage the first sustainable Winter Olympic Games, VANOC created a six-point plan on sustainability featuring Accountability, Environmental Stewardship and Impact Reduction, Social Inclusion and Responsibility, Aboriginal Participation and Collaboration, Economic Benefits, and Sport for Sustainable Living.?  Despite claims of a broad-sweeping and all-encompassing vision of sustainability that aimed to capture benefits spanning the triple bottom line at both local and global levels, VANOC?s most visible sustainability mission re-centered itself around a more specific variant? environmental sustainability.? This paper will argue that VANOC?s attention to the environment in the bidding, staging, and hosting phases of the 2010 Winter Games was deliberately motivated by a desire to distinguish Vancouver?s bid (and later its Games) from its predecessors.?  In designing the first ever sustainable Olympic Games and promoting it as such, the Vancouver edition of the Winter Games distinguished itself as an environmental success.? However, these themes of ambition and environmental innovation can not only be linked to Vancouver?s experience in 2010, but also projected to London 2012, Sochi 2014, and Rio 2016.?  This paper will show how the underlying currents of entrepreneurial urban governance, political regime theory, and neoliberal agendas operating in Olympic bid cities have persisted to drive the environmental sustainability element of Olympic bids forward.?  In showing how threads of entrepreneurialism and neoliberalism have informed prospective Olympic hosts cities, this paper will demonstrate how and why environmental sustainability has become one of the pre-eminent topics dominating the Olympic bid discourse today.??GRAD STUDENT? SYMPOSIUM7NAVIGATING BY NIGHT: USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT TOOLS TO HELP SPORT EVENTS CHART A COURSE TOWARDS ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY?Matt Dolf, PhD Student ? School of Kinesiology, UBC?Sport events increasingly attempt to manage their environmental impacts, but few integrate quantified assessment into their planning process. There is a need for tailored tools to more easily provide accurate assessments; without this events cannot credibly manage or communicate on their environmental performance. This study measures the environmental impacts of multiple small to medium events at the University of British Columbia (UBC) and in Switzerland using the Impact 2002+ life cycle assessment (LCA) method. This approach is used to determine damage potential to ecosystem quality, human health, global warming potential, water, and resource use. Preliminary results will be presented along with the trade-offs of various assessment approaches in the context of event management.?RE-GENERATION/GENTRIFICATION: URBANIZATION AND THE 2015 PAN/PARAPAN AMERICAN GAMES?Amanda De Lisio, PhD Student ? Faculty of Physical Education & Health, University of Toronto?For over a decade, political figures, business elites, and sports advocates in Toronto have chased an internationally recognized sport mega-event to stimulate urban renewal. After years of failed bids, the Toronto 2015 Organizing Committee secured the 2015 Pan/Parapan American Games. This event-led, catalytic intervention will create new opportunities to bolster local economic growth, including the revitalization of the once barren and toxic wasteland of Toronto?s waterfront. As such, I would like to examine the revitalization of one key area in Toronto, the West Don Lands, home of the 2015 Pan-Am Games Athletes? Village. Specifically, I want to know (i) What legacies are associated to the revitalization of the West Don Lands? (ii) What imaginaries both for the space and bodies inside are privileged in the construction of these legacies? And, (iii) how might this vision influence the greater metropolis? In order to trace the effects of power in the production of space and its people, a text-based document analysis of relevant policies, websites, and media communications is proposed here, along with participant observations of community consultations and public meetings as well as key informant interviews with architects, sports leaders, and Waterfront Toronto planners.? PROGRAM8Think Tank 2: Program?Twenty-two academics from around the world were invited to UBC. Participants prepared a manuscript on the subject of sport mega-event impacts, leveraging, and legacies in advance, which was circulated to all in attendance prior to the meeting. Several key discussants took the lead engaging participants in active debate and consultation on the manuscripts. The program for November 11 - 12, is arranged thematically below.?SESSION 1: CROSS-LEVERAGING PERSPECTIVES?Dr. Milena Parent, University of Ottawa?Sport Mega-event Impacts, Leveraging, and Legacies: The Organizing Committee?s PerspectiveDr. Andrew Smith, University of Westminster?Leverage: A New Model or Merely a New Justification for Mega-event Projects?Dr. Vassilios Ziakas, European University?Planning, Leveraging, and Designing Event Portfolios: Towards a Holistic TheoryDiscussant: Dr. Laurence Chalip, University of Texas?SESSION 2: URBAN REGENERATION AND THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT?Dr. Kim Schimmel, Kent State University?The Political Economy of Place: Sport and Urban Development?Dr. Guy Masterman, Sheffield Hallam?Physical Legacies and the Need for Early Planning?Dr. Mark Rosentraub, University of Michigan?Do Sport Events Really Matter? Another Look for the Emperor?s Clothes Before all Policy Analysts are Banished to the Tower for Good?Discussant: Dr. Chris Green, University of Texas PROGRAM9SESSION 3: ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT?Dr. Matt Robinson, University of Delaware?Balancing Sport and Tourism: A Third Party Mediator to Ensure Effective Leveraging of Mega Events?Dr. Graham Brown, University of South Australia?Event Leveraging and Tourism: Realising the Potential?Discussant: Dr. Marijke Taks, University of Windsor?SESSION 4: PLANNING (FOR) DEVELOPMENT?Dr. Chris Gaffney, Universidade Federal Fluminense?The Mega-Event City as Neo-liberal Laboratory?Dr. David Black, Dalhousie University?Mega-events and ?Bottom-up? Development: Beyond Window Dressing??SESSION 5: SUSTAINABLE LEGACIES IN DESIGN AND PRACTICE?Dr. Carl Death, Aberstwyth University??Greening? the 2010 FIFA World Cup: Environmental Sustainability and the Mega-event in South Africa?Dr. Andrea Collins, University of Cardiff?Assessing the Environmental Impact of Sport Mega-events: The Contribution of the Ecological Footprint?Caitlin Pentifallo and Dr. Rob VanWynsberghe, University of British Columbia?The Evolution of Environmental Sustainability in the Olympic Movement?SESSION 6: ANTICIPATING, PLANNING, AND ACCOMMODATING SOCIAL OUTCOMES?Dr. Heather Gibson, University of Florida?Psychic Income, Social Legacy, and Social Capital: Mega-event Legacies??Dr. Lynn Minnaert, University of Surrey?Inclusive Community Legacies and the Olympic Games: The Role and Responsibility of the International Olympic Committee?Discussant: Dr. Laura Misener, University of Western Ontario

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