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E-LIS: the open archive for library and information science Morrison, Heather; Subirats Coll, Imma; Medeiros, Norm; De Robbio, Antonella Jul 31, 2007

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The Charleston 56   Advisor Advisor  Reports from /  July the2007 Field  /  The Charleston Advisor  /  July 2007  www.charlestonco.com   www.charlestonco.com 56  Advisor reports from the field  E-LIS: The Open Archive for Library and Information Science By: Heather Morrison, E-LIS Imma Subirats Coll, E-LIS Director Norm Medeiros, E-LIS Editor, U.S. Antonella De Robbio, E-LIS Founder Editor’s note: This article is an evaluation of E-LIS, the Open Archive for Library and Information Studies. Although it aims to be objective, readers should note that the authors are E-LIS Editors.  W  ith Open Access archives, there are two key facets of evaluation for librarians. One is the features of the archive for the author; this is particularly relevant for librarians with E-LIS, since ELIS is designed for our own literature, and there are several options for archives in librarianship. Another facet of evaluation is from a searching perspective. E-LIS (URL: <http://eprints.rclis.org/>) is a service for authors, journals, and conference organizers. All documents in E-LIS are fully Open Access, reflecting the purpose of the E-LIS archive, to advance the Open Access philosophy by making available papers in LIS (library and information science) and related fields.The submission policy of E-LIS (from Web site) states: E-LIS archive accepts any scientific or technical document, published or unpublished, in Librarianship, Information Science and Technology, and related application activities in any language. The criteria for acceptance are that the documents are relevant to research in LIS fields and that they have the form of a finished document that is ready to be entered into a process of communication.  Abstract E-LIS submissions include a broad array of publications and may include: preprints (prerefereed journal paper), postprints (refereed journal paper), conference papers, conference posters, presentations, books, book chapters, technical reports/departmental working papers, theses, and newspaper and magazine articles. E-LIS is designed for text-based documents. For preservation purposes, PDF or html is recommended. Microsoft Word, Powerpoint, Excel, and text are recognized, but not supported for preservation; that is, E-LIS will host the documents, but future usability is considered uncertain. More detail about plans for preservation can be found later in this article. For many authors, it may come as a surprise that formats such as Powerpoint, Word, and Excel, are not recommended. For many of us, these formats are ubiquitous. However, this is a learning curve that is worth the time and effort, not only for future preservation, but also for most effective dissemination of our work today. While the Powerpoint, Word, and Excel formats are very common, they are proprietary, and documents in these formats are not available to those who do not have a license to use the software,which is far from free. With PDF, the Adobe Acrobat reader is free, so the document can be viewed by anyone with a computer and an internet connection. For authors wishing to deposit works that are not text-based, other Open Access archives are available. For example, librarians in west-  <heatherm@eln.bc.ca> <imma.subirats@gmail.com> <nmedeiro@haverford.edu> <antonella.derobbio@unipd.it>  ern Canada are beginning to share tutorials through the COPPUL Animated Tutorials Sharing Project (ANTS)1 and the British Columbia, ALPS Shareable Online Resources 2 (in progress). Open Access archives are designed to be cross-searchable, so items deposited in different places for reasons of formatting can be brought together in search results using tools like OAIster. Documents are accepted in any language, a unique feature of E-LIS. Currently, 22 languages are supported; if a document is deposited in a language not yet supported, E-LIS will investigate support for that language. English is the primary language of the archive. The search interface is in English, and each document not in English must be accompanied by an English abstract. The registration process is simple, and takes only a few minutes. An author depositing a document for the first-time enters his or her email address, and selects a username and password. The depositing author takes responsibility for ensuring that including the work in ELIS is consistent with copyright. After an item is deposited, it is verified by an editor, who checks the metadata before completing the deposit. Verifying that metadata is correct helps ensure that like documents are gathered correctly in searches, for example, that conference proceedings are brought together under one URL for browsing and linking purposes. Once the document is in the archive, the author will have a stable URL with which to refer anyone to that document. Download statistics are available, so the author can see how many abstract and article views there have been, by time frame and/or by country. When an author has multiple works in the archive, a single, stable URL links to all of the author’s works in E-LIS. E-LIS works not only with individual authors, but also with publishers and with conference organizers, to coordinate deposit of entire journals and conference proceedings. Like individual authors, journals and conferences each receive a stable URL that links to all of their documents. The size and widespread collaboration behind E-LIS provide advantages to the author in disseminating work. Sixty-nine editors from 41 countries are actively involved in promoting E-LIS, enhancing the probability that works of E-LIS authors will be found.  E-LIS for searching (content) As of February 3, 2007, E-LIS included a total of 5,043 documents. The E-LIS Advanced Search allows global searching in each field, which greatly facilitates an analysis of E-LIS contents. Of those documents 2,842, or 56 percent, are refereed. There are a total of 2,531 journal articles (online, unpaginated or print, paginated); of these, 1,940, or 76 percent are refereed. Of the 1,178 conference  The Charleston Advisor / July 2007  www.charlestonco.com  57  FIGURE 1. E-LIS Records December 2002 to February 2007.  related items (proceedings, papers, posters), 549, or 46 percent, are refereed. Additional kinds of documents are also represented in ELIS, such as theses (133), book chapters (119), and others. About two-thirds of the documents are in Spanish (1,720 documents), or English (1,665); the remaining documents represent a wide variety of languages, predominantly European languages, e.g., Italian (639), German (113), Polish (34), Chinese(42). There are several Open Access archives in Library and Information Studies, but with over 5,000 documents, E-LIS is the largest by far and is growing rapidly. The growth of E-LIS is highlighted as particularly noteworthy in E-LIS Editor Morrison’s December, 2006, update to The Dramatic Growth of Open Access,3 with a growth in the last quarter of 2006 equivalent to a 55 percent annual growth rate (last successful harvest: 2007-02-10T16:56:12Z; total records: 5,147). See Figure 1. There are good reasons to expect the strong growth rate of E-LIS to continue. One of the roles of the E-LIS Editorial team, with close to 70 members in over 40 countries, is to promote the archive. The size of the team makes it possible for E-LIS to work with a number of conference organizers, journal publishers, and editors simultaneously. For example, 2006 E-LIS additions included the Proceedings of International Workshop on Webometrics, Informetrics and Scientometrics and 7th COLLNET Meeting, Nancy (France); the Proceedings of the 69th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science and Technology (ASIST), Austin (U.S.); and the Proceedings of the 8th International Bielefeld Conference, Bielefeld (Germany), among others. E-LIS continues to seek opportunities to work with organizers of significant conferences. For example, E-LIS U.S. Editor Norm Medeiros is currently working with organizers of the 26th Annual Charleston Conference: Issues in Book and Serials Acquisitions, to deposit conference proceedings for all authors interested in participating. These initiatives not only make the work of these conferences openly available, they also raise awareness of E-LIS services among authors, increasing the probability of future submissions to E-LIS.  The second largest archive for library and information science, including other related disciplines, is DLIST <http://dlist.sir.arizona.edu/> with 859 documents as of January 24, 2007. DLIST is very English-language focused. However, E-LIS has nearly twice as many English language documents as DLIST. Another Open Access archive for library and information science of significant size is the Archive Ouverte en Sciences de l’Information et de la Communication <hal.ccsd.cnrs.frhttp://archivesic. ccsd.cnrs.fr/> with 773 documents. The focus is on French language material, and the search interface is also in French. Contents include peer-reviewed articles, conference proceedings, and grey literature. E-LIS includes only 48 documents in French. Documents in library and information science will be found in other archives as well, including institutional repositories. There is some, but little, duplication of content in Open Access archives. In summary, E-LIS is the largest of the Open Access archives for library and information science, and growing rapidly. All documents are Open Access, and more than half are peer reviewed. In addition to size, a key strength of E-LIS is its broad, global base and multilingual support. The contents of E-LIS are unique in their diversity. E-LIS is particularly strong in English and Spanish language content. E-LIS does not match the Archive Ouverte en Sciences de l’Information et de la Communication for French-language content.  SEARCHABILITY It should not be surprising that an archive designed by and for librarians is very well designed for searching. There are Simple, Browse, and Advanced Search options, all designed for the best balance between ease of use and a high degree of specificity in searching. According to Jasco, E-LIS has an unusually rich variety of browse options. These browse options include conference, book or journal, author or editor, subject, country, and year. There are many options for Advanced Search, all easy to find and use through drop down menus. Highly visible Refine and New Search buttons make it easy to add more limiters or to begin a new search. Advanced Search limiting options include language, year, and peer-reviewed literature. There are some interesting search options from the document record, including hotlinking to subject search, author profile, and a Seek feature to automatically look for Open Access copies of references. Additional hotlink items from the document might be worthy of consideration for further development, for example, keyword search, or linking to the collection of works by one author, rather than just the author’s profile. Search options and overall usability compare favorably with other Open Access archives. E-LIS has more search options than the second largest LIS achive, DLIST (for example, the ability to search by  58   Advisor Reports from the Field  /  The Charleston Advisor  /  July 2007  language, the ability to retrieve documents by type or language from the full archive).  Some Sample Searches Compared  A few sample searches may serve to illustrate the strengths and areas for growth for E-LIS, in comparison with other search resources for LIS, primarily DLIST as well as Wilson’s Library Literature with Fulltext and Library and Information and Science Technology Abstracts (LISTA), the two primary resources for indexing of LIS literature. Metasearch tools for Open Access archives are also compared; Metalis, associated with ELIS, the DLIST DL-Harvester, and OAIster, a general Open Access archives search tool. The Directory of Open Access Journals is also compared.  www.charlestonco.com  sauri, terminological collections and ontologies, are a necessity in the ever more pervasive world of networked, knowledge-based activities. Nevertheless, the JITA classification scheme is not intended to be a comprehensive classification scheme, but to facilitate document retrieval through the archive’s browsing facility. Users in different settings, with different demands and expectations, want to fulfill their information needs wherever information is available, cutting costs and times as much as possible. JITA’s objective is to provide a simple subject schema to categorise the majority of documents in the discipline. It is divided into 12 blocks (categorised alphabetically from A–L), which have been created around the 3 following implicit (virtual) areas:  An E-LIS Simple Search for “virtual reference” yields 39 records; the relevance of the results list is somewhat limited. On the other hand, an Advanced Search for “virtual reference” as keyword yields a very relevant list of 18 documents. Of those 18 documents, 12 are refereed. Six are in English, while the results set includes documents in four other languages: French, Italian, Spanish, and German. Search results cover virtual reference services in Switzerland, the U.K., Canada, India, and Italy.  1. Theory and generalities (general level).  This is divided into theoretical and general aspects of libraries and information; information use; and the sociology of information.  E-LIS does not appear to support phrase searching. The difference between the Simple Search and the Advanced Keyword Search is the fields that are being searched, separately, for the two words.  3. Objects, pragmatic issues, and technicalities (on a specific level).  This covers information sources, supports and channels; information treatment for information services; technical services in libraries, archives and museums; housing technologies; information technology and library technology.  A DLIST Basic Search for “virtual reference” yields six results, five of which are relevant. All are English, and the majority are peer-reviewed articles. The difference between the relevance of the results of the simple search appears to be that DLIST supports phrase searching, while E-LIS does not. One item appears in both the E-LIS and DLIST search results. A Library Literature keyword phrase search for “virtual reference” yields 1,753 records, of which 737 are peer reviewed; 134 of these are full text. Out of the first 50 records for full-text documents, 49 are English (1 German), indicating a strong English-language bias. A Library and Information Science and Technology Abstracts (LISTA) keyword phrase search for “virtual reference” as keyword phrase search yields 490 results; further limiting to academic journals yields results of 109. Out of the first 50 records, 49 are English and 1 is Italian, again revealing a strong English-language bias.  Subject Searching  Subject searching is based on the JITA Classification System of Library and Information Science. JITA is an acronym derived from the first initials of the first names of the schema developers: José Manuel Barrueco Cruz, Imma Subirats Coll, Thomas Krichel, and Antonella De Robbio. JITA was developed for E-LIS from a merger of NewsAgentTopic Classification Scheme and the RIS classification scheme. Jasco says Instead of the often artificial and outdated language of classification systems and thesauri, JITA has classification terms with literary warrant from contemporary library and information science and technology papers. In addition to offering basic and advanced search features, JITA allows E-LIS users to browse its collection using a specialized classification scheme which includes 122 subject headings distributed in 2 hierarchical levels and subdivided in 12 areas or blocks. Reliable connections among knowledge representation, information retrieval and lexical tools such as classifications, lists of subject headings, the-  2. User-oriented, directional, and management functions (intermediate level).  Socioeconomic and legal issues are included here. This divides into: users, literacy and reading; libraries and information repositories; publishing and legal issues; management; industry, profession and education.  The 12 blocks are associated with letter codes: a. Theoretical and General Aspects of Libraries and Information b. Information Use and Sociology of Information C. Users, Literacy and Reading d. Libraries as Physical Collections e. Publishing and Legal Issues F. Management g. Industry, Profession and Education H. Information Sources, Supports, Channels I. Information Treatment for Information Services (Information Functions and Techniques) J. Technical Services in Libraries, Archives and Museums K. Housing Technologies, and L. Information Technology and Library Technology. The JITA Classification scheme is open. Emma McCulloch and Dennis Nicholson, E-LIS editors for the United Kingdom, are working on further developments, with a focus on issues in terminology mapping within a digital library perspective. Further information about the JITA Classification scheme and its development can be found on the E-LIS Web site at <http://eprints.rclis.org/jita.html>.  Comparison of Metadata Harvesting Tools Metalis  Metalis is a harvesting tool associated with the E-LIS service and featured on the E-LIS Web site. A Metalis search for “virtual reference” yields no records. However, Metalis is currently not supported or developed by E-LIS.  DL-Harvest  DLIST features a DL-Harvest tool, which harvests records from 14 archives relating to library and information science, including E-LIS, for searching. A DL-Harvest search for “virtual ref-  The Charleston Advisor  /  July 2007  erence” yields 45 records. Relevance seems high. There is some duplication in the search results, which may be from just one archive (University of North Carolina). For example, the document “Reference Transaction Handoffs: Factors Affecting the Transition From Chat to Email, Nora E Wikoff” with the handle <http://hdl.handle. net/1901/173> appears twice; there are several other examples. This is probably a minor glitch, which results in a slight overstatement of the number of records retrieved.  OAIster  OAIster <http://oaister.umdl.umich.edu/o/oaister/> is a union catalog of digital resources that allows cross-searching of over 10 million records from 730 contributing repositories, most of which are full-text, Open Access. An OAIster phrase search for “virtual reference” yields 120 records. There is no option to limit to scholarly, peer-reviewed, or refereed items. Results appear to be quite relevant. Of the first 10 results, almost all are full text, although one of the links did not work. E-LIS records and records for a number of institutional repositories, are included. An OAIster search for “virtual reference” and “E-LIS” yields 17 results, very similar to the results of an E-LIS Advanced Keyword Search. Interestingly, it seems that OAIster can perform a phrase search of E-LIS records, although E-LIS itself at present cannot.  Directory of Open Access Journals  A DOAJ journal search for “virtual reference” retrieves no results. An article-level search retrieves four results, all highly relevant, and all in English.  …… In summary, E-LIS has much strength for searchers, particularly browse features, robust advanced searching, and a strong subject classification system. Sample searches illustrate the E-LIS advantage in diversity of results returned. E-LIS results sets are much smaller than comparable searches in Library Literature and LISTA. This disparity will likely decrease over time, with the rapid of growth of E-LIS. The advantages of cross-searching using metadata harvesting tools such as OAIster are clear when compared with E-LIS alone. The number of records returned for an OAIster search for “virtual reference,” (120) is roughly comparable (in numbers, not necessarily the same documents) to the results retrieved for either Library Literature or LISTA, and far more than the 18 retrieved through E-LIS. E-LIS would be well advised to eliminate the link to Metalis, since this is not being supported, and replace it with a link to OAIster.  Price E-LIS is an Open Access archive, free for searchers, and free for depositing authors. When assessing the economics of Open Access initiatives, the key criterion is support rather than price. As stated on the E-LIS Web site, E-LIS is: hosted by AEPIC team on machines of the Italian Consorzio Interuniversitario Lombardo per Elaborazione Automatica (CILEA). E-LIS relies on the voluntary work of individuals from a wide range of backgrounds and is non-commercial. There is neither funding nor interest in profiting from the initiative. CILEA’s support involves use of a server and part time support from a technician, which is paid for by CILEA. The growing E-LIS will soon need its own server, for which CILEA has committed funds. The bulk of the value added to E-LIS comes from voluntary contributions—the documents provided by authors, conference organiz  www.charlestonco.com   59  ers, and journal publishers, and the voluntary contributions of time by the E-LIS Editorial Team. This is a combined volunteer/sponsorship model, and one that is working well for E-LIS.  Contract Options and Other Features The contract options of Open Access are unbeatable! E-LIS is accessible to anyone, anywhere, with an internet connection.  Authors’ Rights  For authors, E-LIS does not request any transfer of copyright. It is up to authors to decide whether they can self-archive their works in E-LIS. For authors who wish to both publish and self-archive their work in E-LIS, there are a number of options. Where possible, it is advantageous for the author to investigate authors’ rights prior to deciding where to publish. The Directory of Open Access Journals, or DOAJ <http://www.doaj.org/>, lists 71 fully Open Access, peer-reviewed journals in library and information studies. Another option is to search the Sherpa Romeo Publisher Copyright Policies and SelfArchiving Site, which lists the policies of many publishers, before deciding where to submit a paper.4 If it is not clear whether a journal allows self-archiving, ask! Many journals and publishers realize they need to change their policies in light of Open Access, but have not done so yet.If a blanket policy allowing self-archiving is not yet available, an editor might be able to confirm permission for an individual article.One way to clarify selfarchiving rights is through the use of an Author’s Addendum, such as the one made available by the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC).5  Preservation  A must for E-LIS will be the matter of preservation, in particular the implementation of preservation metadata policies. A key step in developing a preservation policy is to identify the types of material contained in a repository in terms of technical structure, or file formats (e.g., PDF, HTML). In the digital era, the outset for most new research and educational materials will be the institutional archive, or disciplinary cross-search repository. For this reason “It is important to build the concept of preservation from the outset” as suggested by JISC Circular 4/04, note 10).6 Metadata designed for managing digital content over a long period of time is commonly referred to as preservation metadata, usually those metadata necessary to store and reproduce documents. These metadata inform, describe, and record a range of activities concerned with preserving specific digital objects contained in a repository. To date no repositories (including E-LIS) have a formal preservation policy, indeed preservation policy is being preceded by de facto policies on file formats and transformations without provision for acquiring source versions. The strategy for preservation should be determined by the nature and need of the repository, and should be driven by repository policy rather than the other way around. These are the full results and analysis from the survey by Steve Hitchcock, Tim Brody, Jessie M.N. Hey, and Leslie Carr “Survey of Repository Preservation Policy and Activity.”7 For this reason Preserv was developed (Preservation Eprints Services) enabling long-term Open Access to materials in institutional repositories (IRs). Preserv is a JISC project investigating and developing infrastructural digital preservation services for institutional repositories; it offers a tool integrated into the Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR). Article continues on page 23  The Charleston Advisor  /  July 2007  www.charlestonco.com   23  Author’s Selected References  About the Author  Bulson, C. 2007. Current Issues: Reference Shelf Plus. Booklist 103 (12): 106.  Merinda McLure is the liaison to the Colorado State University College of Applied Human Sciences. She provides liaison services to the College’s schools of education and social work, and departments of occupational therapy and human development and family studies. She received her B.A. (history of art) from the University of Victoria and her M.L.I.S. from The University of British Columbia.  n  Ennen, D. 2007. Current Issues: Reference Shelf Plus. Library Media Connection 25 (6): 67. Stoffel, B. 2007. Current Issues: Reference Shelf Plus. Choice: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries 44 (7): 1148–1149.  t   E-LIS:  The Open Archive for Library and Information Science  Article continued from page 59  E-LIS participated in Steve Hitchcock’s surveys and is working to provide a Preserv profile available inside ROAR. Preserv profiles were produced by applying the PRONOM-DROID file format identification service from The National Archives to repository data from the Celestial OAI data harvester and presenting the resulting graphical view of a repository broken down by file formats through the ROAR user interface.8 The National Archives curates a database of file formats, PRONOM, with the aim of identifying repository content by using TNA’s Digital Record Object Identification (DROID) open source software; that software can be downloaded and applied by any repository. Moreover OpenDOAR, The Directory of Open Access Repositories <http://www.opendoar.org/>, has produced a useful and practical repository policies tool that helps build preservation policy on top of policies for metadata, data, content, and submission. Its preservation policy definition form is especially perceptive for including a provision for a repository to work with external partners. PRONOM-ROAR7 suggests a new perspective. On the one hand, it implements an ingest service based on the OAIS reference model for institutional archives built using EPrints software. On other hand, it adapts EPrints software to allow the collection and dissemination of preservation-oriented metadata to supplement the current bibliographic information. In such direction GNU EPrints version 3 (released in January, 2007) introduces a number of features that will help support the preservation of digital objects stored in repositories, because it interacts with preservation services by providing features for complex-object export, recording the history of changes to a document, and preservation rights declaration. The new features implemented have been jointly developed with the Preserv project, with coding on the METS and Creative Commons (CC) licensing components by Preserv. Table 1 shows the breakdown of all files contained in E-LIS, based on an automated crawler. All files (apart from the abstract ‘jump-off’ page) were downloaded and then identified using the Pronom file format identification tool.  Conclusion E-LIS is an Open Access archive for library and information studies, the largest such archive, and rapidly growing. With support for 22 languages and a volunteer editorial team from over 40 countries,   Table 1  Breakdown of File Formats Contained in E-LIS Format Total Files Portable Document Format (1.3) 1,775 Portable Document Format (1.4) 1,531 Portable Document Format - Archival (1) 562 Unknown 425 Portable Document Format (1.5) 315 Portable Document Format (1.2) 311 Hypertext Markup Language 202 [No files found] 195 Microsoft Powerpoint Presentation (97-2002) 170 RealAudio Metafile 66 Hypertext Markup Language (4.0) 63 Portable Document Format (1.6) 49 Portable Document Format (1.1) 43 JPEG File Interchange Format (1.01) 32 Microsoft Word for Windows Document (97-2002) 26 Rich Text Format (1.0) 18 Hypertext Markup Language (4.01) 17 OLE2 Compound Document Format 16 ZIP Format 14 Extensible Markup Language (1.0 9 Extensible Hypertext Markup Language (1.0) 7 Binary Interchange File Format (BIFF) Workbook (8) 6 GZIP Format 6 PostScript (2.0) 5 Hypertext Markup Language (3.2) 5 Portable Document Format (1.0) 4 Fixed Width Values Text File 3 Rich Text Format (1.5) 2 OpenDocument Presentation Format (1.0) 2 JPEG File Interchange Format (1.02) 2 Microsoft Word for Windows Document (97-2003) 2 OpenOffice Impress (1.0) 2 Exchangeable Image File Format (Compressed (2.2) 1 Microsoft Powerpoint Presentation (95) 1 OpenOffice Writer (1.0) 1 The above file format histogram gives an instant overview of the file formats contained in E-LIS. Total OAI Records: 5,077 [Preserv Profile]—PDF/MSWord: 86%.  Article continues on page 26  26   Advisor Reviews  /  The Charleston Advisor  /  July 2007  Contact Information Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) Phone: Fax: E-mail: URL:  (800) 520-4723 (203) 764-9466 <christiane.cunnar@yale.edu> <www.yale.edu/hraf>  www.charlestonco.com  cess the database (e.g., faculty, staff, students, and walk-in patrons), and restrictions on the use of materials in the database (no ILL, for example). The actual cost of duties and fees is determined by the pricing options previously mentioned, but costs are finalized only after an institution is accepted as a member.  Authentication Access, including remote access, is available via password or IP authentication.  ology (and then only when the costs are within the budget of the institution). The cost of this database is very reasonable considering its breadth and depth of coverage, but institutions of higher learning that offer few or no courses in archaeology or history will find it to be overly expensive and of little use. It is a database worth subscribing to only if it will serve the kind of users and institutions just described. For more information on this database, refer to the Web site (http:// www.yale.edu/hraf/eHRAF_Archaeology_Info.htm).  Contract Provisions To subscribe to this database, an institution must first become a member of the HRAF Consortium and complete a four-page membership application to do so. This document indicates the conditions for and length of membership; start date; terms of renewal, termination or cancellation; how membership dues and fees (e.g., price) are calculated and verified; terms of payment; means of database authentication (e.g.. passwords or IP authentication), types of users authorized to ac-  t   E-LIS:  About the Author Thomas J. Beck is the Professional Studies Bibliographer for the Auraria Library at the University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center—Downtown Denver Campus. His responsibilities within the Collection Development Department include: Business; Criminal Justice; Health Administration; Hospitality, Meeting and Travel Administration; Human Performance and Sport; Law; Leisure Studies; and Public Affairs. Aside from purchasing print and electronic materials in those areas for the Auraria Library’s collection, he also provides in-person reference to library users, develops subject research guides for assigned subject areas, and is the library’s liaison to campus faculty working in those subject areas. Before working at the Auraria Library, he was a reference librarian at the Englewood Public Library, Englewood, Colorado from 1996 to 2000. He obtained his bachelor of arts degree in history from the University of Colorado at Denver in 1985 and his M.L.S. from Emporia State University (Emporia, Kansas) in 1995.  n  The Open Archive for Library and Information Science  Article continued from page 23  E-LIS is an outstanding example of global cooperation. That cooperation is reflected in one of the strengths of E-LIS, the diversity of its content. E-LIS strengths also include a number of well-designed search features, robust yet user-friendly. Lack of phrase searching and pointing to a metaarchives search tool that is no longer supported are identified as areas for improvement. Best of all, E-LIS is completely free—for both the reader and for the depositing author.  and Computer Science), The National Archives, The British Library and Oxford University (Library Services, Systems and Electronic Resources Service). 7. Steve Hitchcock, Tim Brody, Jessie M.N. Hey and Leslie Carr. Survey of repository preservation policy and activity. (Draft). 2007. http://preserv.eprints.org/papers/survey/survey-results.html  Notes  8. Brown, Adrian. Automatic Format Identification Using PRONOM and DROID, The National Archives, Digital Preservation Technical Paper: 1, 17 September 2005.  1. COPPUL Animated Tutorials Sharing Project (ANTS) <https:// dspace.ucalgary.ca/handle/1880/43471>.  References  2. ALPS sharelibraryresources wiki <http://sharelibraryresources. pbwiki.com/>. 3. Morrison, Heather. Dramatic Growth December 2006 and Predictions for 2007 The Imaginary Journal of Poetic Economics <http:// poeticeconomics.blogspot.com/2006/12/dramatic-growth-december-2006.html>. 4. Sherpa Romeo. Publisher Copyright Policies and Self-Archiving <http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo.php>. 5. SPARC Authors’ Addendum <http://www.arl.org/sparc/author/addendum.html>. 6. The project worked from February 2005 to January 2007 by following subjects: Southampton University (School of Electronics  Arencibia Jorge, Ricardo and Santillán Aldana, Julio and Subirats Coll, Imma (2005) Iniciativas de acceso abierto en Ciencias de la Información y Documentación : evolución y perspectivas de E-LIS. Revista Española de Documentación Científica 28(2):pp. 221–232. http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00004475/ Jasco, Péter. E-prints in Library and Information Science (e-lis). Péter’s Digital Reference Shelf. May 2007. <http://www.galegroup. com/reference/peter/200705/e-lis.htm>. Subirats Coll, Imma and Barrueco Cruz, José Manuel (2004) Un archivo abierto en ciencias de la documentación e información. El Profesional de la Información 13(5):pp. 346–352. <http://eprints.rclis. org/archive/00002472/>.   The Charleston Advisor he Open Archive for Library and Information Science http://eprints.rclis.org/ By: Heather Morrison E-LIS heatherm@eln.bc.ca Imma Subirats Coll E-LIS Director imma.subirats@gmail.com Norm Medeiros E-LIS Editor, U.S. nmedeiro@haverford.edu Antonella De Robbio E-LIS Founder antonella.derobbio@unipd.it Score: n/a. Pricing: open access: free for searchers & contributing authors Critical Evaluation: E-LIS is an open access archive for library and information science. With over 5,800 documents as of June 2007 (over 5,000 in February 2007 when the archive was investigated in-depth), E-LIS is the world’s largest archive for LIS. Over half the documents in ELIS are peer-reviewed. E-LIS is particularly strong in English and Spanish language documents, but supports over 22 languages. With this multilingual support and a global team of volunteer editors, E-LIS has significant diversity in content, an advantage over traditional, english-based LIS resources. Not surprising, this tool designed by and for librarians features robust and userfriendly search options. Lack of phrase searching, and pointing to a cross-archiving searching tool no longer supported when much better options are available, are identified as areas for improvement. Contract provisions: E-LIS is open access. No contract required! E-LIS does not ask depositing authors to transfer any copyright. Authentication: n/a References Arencibia Jorge, Ricardo and Santillán Aldana, Julio and Subirats Coll, Imma (2005) Iniciativas de acceso abierto en Ciencias de la Información y Documentación : evolución y perspectivas de ELIS. Revista Española de Documentación Científica 28(2):pp. 221-232. http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00004475/ Jasco, Péter. E-prints in Library and Information Science (e-lis). Péter's Digital Reference Shelf. May 2007. http://www.galegroup.com/reference/peter/200705/e-lis.htm Subirats Coll, Imma and Barrueco Cruz, José Manuel (2004) Un archivo abierto en ciencias de la documentación e información. El Profesional de la Información 13(5):pp. 346-352. http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00002472/  This article is an evaluation of E-LIS, the Open Archive for Library and Information Studies. The authors are aiming for the objectivity one expects with a standard Charleston Advisor review, however the reader should note that the authors are E-LIS Editors. With open access archives, there are two key facets of evaluation for librarians. One is the features of the archive for the author; this is particularly relevant for librarians with E-LIS, since ELIS is designed for our own literature, and there are several options for archives in librarianship. Another facet of evaluation is from a searching perspective. Content E-LIS as a service for authors, journals, and conference organizers All documents in E-LIS are fully open access, reflecting the purpose of the E-LIS archive, to advance the open access philosophy by making available papers in LIS and related fields.The submission policy of E-LIS (from the E-LIS web site) is: E-LIS archive accepts any scientific or technical document, published or unpublished, in Librarianship, Information Science and Technology, and related application activities in any language. The criteria for acceptance are that the documents are relevant to research in LIS fields and that they have the form of a finished document that is ready to be entered into a process of communication. Publications may include: preprints (pre-refereed journal paper), postprints (refereed journal paper), conference papers, conference posters, presentations, books, book chapters, technical reports/departmental working papers, theses, and newspaper and magazine articles.E-LIS is designed for text-based documents. For preservation purposes, PDF or html is recommended. Microsoft word, powerpoint, excel, and text are recognized, but not supported for preservation purposes. That is, E-LIS will host the documents, but future usability is considered uncertain. More detail about plans for preservation can be found in the Contract Options section below For many authors, it may come as a surprise that formats such as powerpoint, word, and excel, are not recommended. For many of us, these formats are ubiquitous. However, this is a learning curve that is worth the time and effort, not only for future preservation, but also for most effective dissemination of our work, today. While the powerpoint, word, and excel formats are very common, they are proprietary, and documents in these formats are not available to those who do not have a license to use the software, which is far from free. With PDF, the Adobe Acrobat reader is free, so the document can be viewed by anyone with a computer and an internet connection. For authors wishing to deposit works that are not text-based, other open access archives are available. For example, librarians in Western Canada are beginning to share tutorials through the 1 COPPUL Animated Tutorials Sharing Project (ANTS) and the British Columbia, ALPS Shareable 2 Online Resources (in progress) . Open access archives are designed to be cross-searchable, so items deposited in different places for reasons of formatting can be brought together in search results using tools like OAIster. Documents are accepted in any language, a unique feature of E-LIS. Currently, 22 languages are supported; if a document is deposited in a language not yet supported, E-LIS will investigate support for this language. English is the primary language of the archive. The search interface is in English, and each document not in English must be accompanied by an English abstract. The registration process is simple, and only takes a few minutes. A first-time depositing author enters their e-mail address, and selects a username and password. The depositing author takes responsibility for ensuring that inclusion of the work in E-LIS is consistent with copyright. After an  item is deposited, it is verified by an editor, who will check the metadata before completing the deposit. Ensuring that metadata is correct helps to ensure that like documents are gathered correctly in searches, for example that conference proceedings are brought together under one URL for browsing and linking purposes. Once the document is in the archive, the author will have a stable URL with which to refer anyone to that document. Download statistics are available, so that the author can see how many abstract and article views there have been, by time frame and/or by country. When an author has multiple works in the archive, there is a single stable URL to link to all of the author’s works in ELIS. E-LIS works not only with individual authors, but also with publishers and with conference organizers, to coordinate deposit of entire journals and conference proceedings. Like individual authors, journals and conferences each receive a stable URL that links to all of their documents. The size and widespread collaboration behind E-LIS provide advantages to the author in disseminating work. 69 editors from 41 countries are actively involved in promoting E-LIS, enhancing the probability that works of E-LIS authors will be found. E-LIS for searching (content) As of February 3, 2007, E-LIS included a total of 5,043 documents. The E-LIS Advanced Search allows for global searching on each field, which greatly facilitates an analysis of E-LIS contents. 2,842 of the documents in E-LIS, or 56%, are refereed. There are a total of 2,531 journal articles (online / unpaginated or print / paginated); of these, 1,940, or 76% are refereed. There are 1,178 conference related items (proceedings, papers, posters); of these, 549, or 46%, are refereed. There are a number of other types of documents in E-LIS, such as theses (133), book chapters (119), and more. About two thirds of the documents are in Spanish (1,720 documents), or English (1,665), with the remaining documents scattered over a wide variety of languages, predominantly European languages, (e.g. Italian – 639, German – 113, Polish – 34, Chinese - 42). There are several open access archives in Library and Information Studies. With over 5,000 documents, E-LIS is the largest by far, and is growing rapidly. E-LIS growth is highlighted as particularly noteworthy in E-LIS Editor Morrison’s December 2006 update to The Dramatic 1 Growth of Open Access , with a growth in the last quarter of 2006 equivalent to a 55% annual growth rate. The growth rate of E-LIS is illustrated by Figure 1 below.  Last Successful Harvest: Total Records  2007-02-10T16:56:12Z 5147  Figure 1. E-LIS Records December 2002 to February 2007. There are good reasons to expect the strong rate growth of E-LIS to continue. One of the roles of the E-LIS Editorial team, with close to 70 members in over 40 countries, is promotion of the archive. The size of this team makes it possible for E-LIS to work with a number of conference organizers, journal publishers, and editors simultaneously. For example, 2006 E-LIS additions included the Proceedings of International Workshop on Webometrics, Informetrics and Scientometrics & Seventh COLLNET Meeting, Nancy (France), the Proceedings of the 69th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science and Technology (ASIST), Austin (US), and the proceedings of the 8th International Bielefeld Conference, Bielefeld (Germany), among others. E-LIS continues to seek opportunities to work with organizers of significant conferences. For example, E-LIS U.S. Editor Norm Medeiros is currently working with organizers of the XXVI Annual Charleston Conference: Issues in Book and Serials Acquisitions, to deposit conference proceedings for all authors interested in participating.These initiatives not only make the work of these conferences openly available, they also raise awareness of E-LIS services among authors, increasing the probability of future submissions to E-LIS. The second-largest archive for library and information science, including other related disciplines, is DLIST http://dlist.sir.arizona.edu/, with 859 documents as of Jan.24, 2007. DLIST is very english-language focused. However, E-LIS, has nearly twice as many English language documents as DLIST. Another open access archive for library and information science of significant size is the Archive Ouverte en Sciences de l'Information et de la Communication hal.ccsd.cnrs.frhttp://archivesic.ccsd.cnrs.fr/, with 773 documents. The focus is on French language material, and the search interface is also in French. Contents include peer-reviewed  articles, conference proceedings, and grey literature. E-LIS includes only 48 documents in French. Documents in library and information science will be found in other archives as well, including institutional repositories. There is some, but little, duplication of content in open access archives. In summary, E-LIS is the largest of the open access archives for library and information science, and growing rapidly. All documents are open access, and more than half are peer reviewed. ELIS is particularly strong in English and Spanish language content. E-LIS does not match the Archive Ouverte en Sciences de l'Information et de la Communication for French-language content. In addition to size, a key strength of E-LIS is its broad global base and multilingual support. The contents of E-LIS are unique in their diversity. Searchability It should not be surprising that an archive designed by and for librarians is very well designed for searching. There are Simple, Browse, and Advanced search options, all designed for the best balance between ease for the use and a high degree of specificity in searching. According to Jasco, E-LIS has an unusually rich variety of browse options. These browse options include conference, book or journal, author or editor, subject, country, and year. There are many options for Advanced Search, all easy to find and use through drop down menus. Highly visible “Refine” and “New Search” buttons make it easy to add more limiters, or begin a new search. Advanced search limiting options include language, year, and peer-reviewed literature. There are some interesting search options from the document record, including hotlinking to subject search, author profile, and a “seek” feature to automatically look for open access copies of references. Additional hotlink items from the document might be worthy of consideration for further development, for example keyword search, or linking to the collection of works by one author, rather than just the author’s profile. Search options and overall usability compare favorably with other open access archives. E-LIS has more search options than the second largest LIS achive, DLIST. For example, the ability to search by language, the ability to retrieve documents by type or language from the full archive. A few sample searches may serve to illustrate the strengths and areas for growth for E-LIS, in comparison with other search resources for LIS, primarily DLIST, the second-largest archive for LIS, as well as Wilson’s, Library Literature with Fulltext, Library and Information and Science Technology Abstracts, the two primary resources for indexing of LIS literature. Metasearch tools for open access archives are also compared; Metalis, associated with E-LIS, the DLIST DLHarvester, and OAIster, a general open access archives search tool. The Directory of Open Access Journals is also compared. An E-LIS simple search for “virtual reference” yields 39 records. The relevance of the results list is somewhat limited. An advanced search for “virtual reference” as keyword yields a very relevant list of 18 documents. Of the 18 documents, 12 are refereed. 6 are in English, while the results set includes documents in 4 other languages: French, Italian, Spanish, and German. Search results cover virtual reference services in Switzerland, the UK, Canada, India, and Italy. E-LIS does not appear to support phrase searching. The difference between the simple search and the advanced keyword search is the fields which are being searched, separately, for the two words.  A DLIST basic search for “virtual reference”, yields 6 results, 5 of which are relevant. All are English, and the majority are peer-reviewed articles. The difference between the relevance of the results of the simple search appears to be that DLIST supports phrase searching, while E-LIS does not. One item appears in both the E-LIS and DIST search results. A Library Literature keyword phrase search for “virtual reference” yields 1,753 records, of which 737 are peer reviewed, and 134 of these are full text. Out of the first 50 records for fulltext documents, 49 are English and 1 German, indicating a strong English-language bias. A Library and Information Science & Technology Abstracts (LISTA) keyword phrase search for “virtual reference” as keyword phrase search yields 490 results; further limiting to academic journals yields results of 109. Out of the first 50 records, 49 are English and 1 Italian, again revealing a strong language-language bias. Subject Searching: the JITA Classification System of Library and Information Science Subject searching is based on the JITA Classification System of Library and Information Science. “JITA” is an acronym derived the first initial of the first names of the schema developers: José Manuel Barrueco Cruz, Imma Subirats Coll, Thomas Krichel, and Antonella De Robbio. JITA was developed for E-LIS from a merger of NewsAgentTopic Classification Scheme and the RIS classification scheme. Jasco says: " Instead of the often artificial and outdated language of classification systems and thesauri, JITA has classification terms with literary warrant from contemporary library and information science & technology papers". In addition to offering basic and advanced search features, JITA allows E-LIS users to browse its collection using such a specialized classification scheme which includes 122 subject headings distributed in two hierarchical levels and subdivided in 12 areas or blocks. Reliable connections among knowledge representation, information retrieval and lexical tools as classifications, lists of subject headings, thesauri, terminological collections and ontologies, are a necessity in the ever more pervasive world of networked knowledge-based activities. Nevertheless the JITA classification scheme is not intended to be a comprehensive classification scheme, but to facilitate document retrieval through the archive's browsing facility. Users in different settings, with different demands and expectations want to fulfill their information needs wherever information is available, cutting costs and times as much as possible. JITA's objective is to provide a simple subject schema to categorise the majority of documents in the discipline. It is divided into twelve blocks (categorised alphabetically from A-L), which have been created around the three following implicit (virtual) areas: 1. Theory and generalities (general level) This is divided into: theoretical and general aspects of libraries and information; information use and the sociology of information. 2. User-oriented, directional, and management functions (intermediate level) - socioeconomic and legal issues are included here. This divides into: users, literacy and reading; libraries and information repositories; publishing and legal issues; management; industry, profession and education. 3. Objects, pragmatic issues and technicalities (on a specific level). This covers: information sources, supports and channels; information treatment for information services; technical  services in libraries, archives and museums; housing technologies; information technology and library technology. The twelve blocks are associated with letter codes: A. Theoretical and General Aspects of Libraries and Information B. Information Use and Sociology of Information C. Users, Literacy and Reading D. Libraries as Physical Collections E. Publishing and Legal Issues F. Management G. Industry, Profession and Education H. Information Sources, Supports, Channels I. Information Treatment for Information Services (Information Functions and Techniques) J. Technical Services in Libraries, Archives and Museums K. Housing Technologies, and L. Information Technology and Library Technology. The JITA Classification scheme is open. Emma McCulloch and Dennis Nicholson, E-LIS editors for the United Kingdom, are working on further developments, with a focus on issues in terminology mapping within a digital library perspective. Further information about the JITA Classification scheme and its development can be found on the E-LIS website at http://eprints.rclis.org/jita.html Metadata Harvesting Tools Comparison Metalis is a harvesting tool associated with the E-LIS service, and which is featured on the E-LIS website. A Metalis search for “virtual reference” yields no records. Metalis is currently not supported or developed by E-LIS. DL-Harvest DLIST features a DL-Harvest tool, which harvests records from 14 archives relating to library and information science, including E-LIS, for searching. A DL-Harvest search for “virtual reference” yields 45 records. Relevance seems high. There is some duplication in the search results, which may be from just one archive (University of North Carolina). For example, the document “Reference Transaction Handoffs: Factors Affecting the Transition From Chat to Email Nora E Wikoff” with the handle http://hdl.handle.net/1901/173, appears twice; there are several other examples. This is probably a minor glitch, which results in a slight overstatement of the number of records retrieved. OAIster OAIster http://oaister.umdl.umich.edu/o/oaister/ is a union catalog of digital resources, allowing for cross-searching of over 10 million records from 730 contributing repositories, most of which are full-text, open access. An OAIster phrase search for “virtual reference” yields 120 records. There is no option to limit to scholarly, peer-reviewed or refereed items. Results appear to be quite relevant. Out of the first 10, almost all are full-text, although one of the links is not working. E-LIS records, and records for a number of institutional repositories, are included. An OAIster search for “virtual reference” and “E-LIS” yields 17 results, very similar to the results of an E-LIS Advanced Keyword Search. Interestingly, it seems that OAIster can perform a phrase search of E-LIS records, although E-LIS itself at present cannot. Directory of Open Access Journals  A DOAJ journal search for “virtual reference” retrieves no results. An article-level search retrieves 4 results, all highly relevant, and all in English. In summary, E-LIS has much strength for searchers, particularly browse features, robust advanced searching, and a strong subject classification system. Sample searches illustrate the E-LIS advantage in diversity of results returned. E-LIS results sets are much smaller than comparable searches in Library Literature and LISTA. This disparity will likely decrease over time, with the rapid of growth of E-LIS. The advantages of cross-searching using metadata harvesting tools such as OAIster are clear when compared with E-LIS alone. The number of records returned for an OAIster search for “virtual reference”, at 120, is roughly comparable (in numbers, not necessarily the same documents) to the results retrieved for either Library Literature or LISTA, and far more than the 18 retrieved through E-LIS. E-LIS would be well advised to eliminate the link to Metalis, since this is not being supported, and replace it with a link to OAIster. Price E-LIS is an open access archive, free for searchers, and free for depositing authors. When assessing the economics of open access initiatives, the key criterion is support rather than price. As stated on the E-LIS website, E-LIS is “hosted by AEPIC team on machines of the Italian Consorzio Interuniversitario Lombardo per Elaborazione Automatica (CILEA). E-LIS relies on the voluntary work of individuals from a wide range of backgrounds and is non-commercial. There is neither funding nor interest in profiting from the initiative”. The support of CILEA involves use of a server, and part time support from a technician, which is paid for by CILEA. The growing E-LIS will soon need its own server, for which CILEA has committed funds. The bulk of the value added to E-LIS comes from voluntary contributions – the documents provided by authors, conference organizers, and journal publishers, and the voluntary contributions of time by the E-LIS Editorial Team. This is a combined volunteer / sponsorship model, and one that is working well for E-LIS. Contract Options/ Features The contract options of open access are unbeatable! E-LIS is accessible to anyone, anywhere, with an internet connection. Authors’ Rights For authors, E-LIS does not request any transfer of copyright. It is up to authors to decide whether they can self-archive their works in E-LIS. For authors who wish to both publish and self-archive their work in E-LIS, there are a number of options. Where possible, it is advantageous for the author to investigate authors’ rights prior to deciding where to publish. The Directory of Open Access Journals, or DOAJ http://www.doaj.org/, lists 71 fully open access, peer-reviewed journals in library and information studies.  4  Another option is to search the Sherpa Romeo Publisher Copyright Policies & Self-Archiving Site, which lists the policies of many publishers, before deciding where to submit your paper.  If it is not clear whether a journal allows self-archiving, ask! Many journals and publishers realize that they need to change their policies in light of open access, but have not done so yet. If a blanket policy allowing self-archiving is not yet available, an editor might be able to confirm permission for an individual article. One way to clarify self-archiving rights is through the use of an Author’s Addendum, such as the 5 one made available by the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) . Preservation A must for E-LIS will be the matter of preservation, in particular the implementation of preservation metadata policies. A key step in developing a preservation policy is to identify the types of material contained in a repository in terms of technical structure, or file formats (e.g. PDF, HTML). In the digital era, the outset for most new research and educational materials will be the institutional archive, or disciplinary cross-search repository, for this reason "It is important to 6 build the concept of preservation from the outset" as suggested by JISC Circular 4/04, note 10) . Metadata designed for managing digital content over a long period of time is commonly referred to as preservation metadata, usually those metadata necessary to carry out documents, informs, describes and records a range of activities concerned with preserving specific digital objects contained in a repository. To date no repositories (including E-LIS) have a formal preservation policy, indeed preservation policy is being preceded by de facto policies on file formats and transformations without provision for acquiring source versions. The strategy for preservation should be determined by the nature and need of the repository, and should be driven by repository policy rather than the other way around. These are the full results and analysis from the survey by Steve Hitchcock, Tim Brody, Jessie M.N. Hey and Leslie Carr “Survey of repository 7 preservation policy and activity” . For this reason Preserv was developed, Preservation Eprints Services - Enabling long-term open 8 access to materials in institutional repositories (IRs) , a JISC project investigating and developing infrastructural digital preservation services for institutional repositories which offers a tool integrated into the ROAR Registry of Open Access Repositories 1. E-LIS participated in Steve Hitchcock’s surveys and works in order to provide a Preserv profile available inside ROAR. Preserv profiles were produced by applying the PRONOM-DROID file format identification service from The National Archives 9 to repository data from the Celestial OAI data harvester and presenting the resulting graphical view of a repository broken down by file formats through the ROAR user interface. The National Archives curates a database of file formats, PRONOM, with aim to identify repository content by using TNA's Digital Record Object Identification (DROID) open source software, which can be downloaded and applied by any repository. Moreover OpenDOAR, The Directory of Open Access Repositories http://www.opendoar.org/, has produced a useful and practical repository policies tool that helps build preservation policy on top of policies for metadata, data, content and submission. Its preservation policy definition form is especially perceptive for including provision for the repository to work with external partners. PRONOM-ROAR7 suggests a new perspective. On the one hand, it implements an ingest service based on the OAIS reference model for institutional archives built using EPrints software. On other hand, it adapt EPrints software to allow the collection and dissemination of preservation-  oriented metadata to supplement the current bibliographic information. In such direction GNU EPrints version 3 released January 2007 introduces a number of features that will help support the preservation of digital objects stored in repositories, because it interacts with preservation services by providing features for complex-object export, recording the history of changes to a document, and preservation rights declaration. The new features implemented have been jointly developed with the Preserv project, with coding on the METS and Creative Commons (CC) licensing components by Preserv.  The following chart shows the breakdown of all files contained in E-LIS, based on an automated crawler. All files (apart from the abstract 'jump-off' page) were downloaded and then identified using the Pronom file format identification tool. Format Portable Document Format (1.3) Portable Document Format (1.4) Portable Document Format - Archival (1) Unknown Portable Document Format (1.5) Portable Document Format (1.2) Hypertext Markup Language [No files found] Microsoft Powerpoint Presentation (97-2002) RealAudio Metafile Hypertext Markup Language (4.0) Portable Document Format (1.6) Portable Document Format (1.1) JPEG File Interchange Format (1.01) Microsoft Word for Windows Document (97-2002) Rich Text Format (1.0) Hypertext Markup Language (4.01) OLE2 Compound Document Format ZIP Format Extensible Markup Language (1.0 Extensible Hypertext Markup Language (1.0) Binary Interchange File Format (BIFF) Workbook (8) GZIP Format PostScript (2.0) Hypertext Markup Language (3.2) Portable Document Format (1.0) Fixed Width Values Text File Rich Text Format (1.5) OpenDocument Presentation Format (1.0) JPEG File Interchange Format (1.02) Microsoft Word for Windows Document (97-2003) OpenOffice Impress (1.0) Exchangeable Image File Format (Compressed (2.2) Microsoft Powerpoint Presentation (95) OpenOffice Writer (1.0)  Total Files 1775 1531 562 425 315 311 202 195 170 66 63 49 43 32 26 18 17 16 14 9 7 6 6 5 5 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1  The above file format histogram gives an instant overview of the file formats contained in E-LIS Total OAI Records: 5077 [Preserv Profile] - PDF/MS-Word: 86%  Conclusion E-LIS is an open access archive for library and information studies, the largest such archive, and rapidly growing. With support for 22 languages and a volunteer editorial team from over 40 countries, E-LIS is an outstanding example of global cooperation, which is reflected in one of the strengths of E-LIS, the diversity of its content. E-LIS strengths also include a number of welldesigned search features, robust yet user-friendly. Lack of phrase searching and pointing to a meta-archives search tool which is no longer supported are identified as areas for improvement. Best of all, E-LIS is completely free – for the reader, and for the depositing author. Notes 1. COPPUL Animated Tutorials Sharing Project (ANTS) https://dspace.ucalgary.ca/handle/1880/43471 2. ALPS sharelibraryresources wiki http://sharelibraryresources.pbwiki.com/ 3. Morrison, Heather. Dramatic Growth December 2006 & Predictions for 2007 The Imaginary Journal of Poetic Economics http://poeticeconomics.blogspot.com/2006/12/dramatic-growth-december-2006.html 4. Sherpa Romeo Publisher copyright policies & self-archiving http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo.php 5. SPARC Authors’ Addendum http://www.arl.org/sparc/author/addendum.html 6. The project worked from February 2005 to January 2007 by following subjects: Southampton University (School of Electronics and Computer Science), The National Archives, The British Library and Oxford University (Library Services, Systems and Electronic Resources Service) 7. Brown, Adrian (2005) Automatic Format Identification Using PRONOM and DROID, The National Archives, Digital Preservation Technical Paper: 1, 17 September 2005  

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