UBC Faculty Research and Publications

The distribution and synopsis of ecological and silvical characteristics of tree species of British Columbia's… Klinka, Karel; Worrall, John; Skoda, L.; Varga, Pal; Chourmouzis, Christine 1999

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Home  Scientia Silvica  Extension Series, Number 10, 1999  The Distribution and Synopsis of Ecological and Silvical Characteristics of Tree Species of British Columbia’s Forests by K. Klinka, J. Worrall, L. Skoda, and P. Varga  An updated silvics text for British Columbia The need for an effective learning tool for silvics - one of the basic required courses in forestry - has been recognized by intructors as well as students across the province. The text prepared 18 years ago by Krajina et al. (1982) specifically for western Canada has become outdated. The silvics text by Burns and Honkala (1990) represents an up-to-date compendium but it is not an effective learning tool, particularly lacking in the linkage of silvics to ecological classification. Consequently, we revised and expanded “Distribution and Ecological Characteristics of Trees and Shrubs of British Columbia” (Krajina et al. 1982) using the available information on silvics, with some modification for BC and the results of recent silvics research done in BC. This material has been consolidated into a format that will help students understand the silvical attributes of tree species as well as the relationships between trees and their environments. To enhance learning, we have selected a series of slides illustrating the salient characteristics for each species and present this visual component on a CD-ROM included with the text. Also included is a large biogeoclimatic zone map of BC. The text, together with the CD-ROM, is intended to facilitate learning of silvics emphasizing its application to silviculture.  The Distribution and Synopsis of Ecological and Silvical Characteristics of  Tree Species of British Columbia's Forests  Special features The text consists of explanatory notes, information on the ecological and silvical characteristics for 36 tree species, species comparisons, and species diversity maps.  K.Klinka, J.Worrall, L.Skoda, and P.Varga  Table of contents ABSTRACT DISTRIBUTION AND SYNOPSIS OF ECOLOGICAL Pseudotsuga menziesii Taxus brevifolia AND SILVICAL CHARACTERISTICS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Softwoods Thuja plicata INTRODUCTION Abies amabilis Tsuga heterophylla EXPLANATORY NOTES Nomenclature Tsuga mertensiana Abies grandis Abies lasiocarpa Hardwoods Geographic Range Acer macrophyllum Climatic Amplitudes Chamaecyparis nootkatensis Orographic Amplitude Juniperus scopulorum Alnus rubra Alnus tenuifolia Edaphic Amplitudes Larix laricina Soil Moisture Regime Larix lyallii Arbutus menziesii Soil Nutrient Regime Betula neoalaskana Larix occidentalis Root System Characteristics Picea engelmannii Betula papyrifera Cornus nuttallii Tolerances Picea glauca Picea mariana Populus balsamifera Damaging Agents Populus tremuloides Associated Species and Successional Role Picea sitchensis Silvical Characteristics Pinus albicaulis Populus trichocarpa Special Adaptations and Indicator Values Pinus banksiana Prunus emarginata Genetics Pinus contorta Quercus garryana Notes Rhamnus purshiana Pinus flexilis Pinus monticola CD-ROM SPECIES DIVERSITY Pinus ponderosa SPECIES COMPARISONS LITERATURE CITED  Home  Some highlights from the text  Explanatory notes  Edatopic grid showing the generalized edaphic amplitude for black spruce according to actual soil moisture and nutrient regimes VP  Soil nutrient regime P M R VR  VD Actual soil moisture regime  Explanatory notes describe the concepts and terms used in the synopses, such as geographic, climatic, and orographic amplitudes, and the soil moisture and soil nutrient regimes. The notes also explain how the values given for tolerances, resistances or risks to damaging agents, associated tree species, and silvical characteristics were inferred from the available information, and how to use the visual CD-ROM module.  The synopses For each species we provide: (1) geographic distribution related to its occurrence in biogeoclimatic zones, (2) ecological (climatic, orographic, and edaphic) amplitudes, (3) root characteristics, (4) tolerances, (5) damaging agents, (6) associated tree species and successional role, (7) silvical characteristics, (8) genetics, and (9) notes, containing additional sources of more detailed information.  MD SD F M VM W  Range maps We have improved the maps showing the native range of each tree species by integrating the old range maps with the provincial biogeoclimatic zone map (in some cases subzone maps) and information on the occurrence of the species in the zones or subzones. These maps, although updated in this edition, will require revision in the future as additional information becomes available. The maps indicate where the tree species grow naturally; they do not define productivity in those areas.  Map showing the native range of black spruce in BC  Distribution frequency infrequent frequent very frequent isolated stand  Species comparisons Understanding of forest ecosystems requires knowledge of how tree species establish and grow with other tree species in different environments. To enhance learning, we have included summary tables comparing the ecological amplitudes, tolerances, damaging agents, associated tree species, and life history of the separate species.  Information Sources The information included in the revised text was compiled primarily from Ecology of forest trees of British Columbia (Krajina 1969), Comparative Autecological Characteristics of Northwestern Tree Species (Minore 1979), Silvics of North America (Burns and Honkala 1990).  Financial support Support for this publication was received from The Teaching and Learning Enhancement Fund, University of British Columbia.  Purchasing information This publication can be purchased for $90.00, plus $9 for shipping and gst: Canadian Cartographics Ltd. 57B Clipper Rd, Coquitlam, BC, V3K 6X2 phone: 604-524-3337 or toll free: 877-524-3337 e-mail: canmap@canmap.ca, internet: www.canmap.com  Scientia Silvica is published by the Forest Sciences Department, The University of British Columbia, ISSN 1209-952X Editor: Karel Klinka (klinka@interchange.ubc.ca) Production and design: Christine Chourmouzis(chourmou@interchg.ubc.ca) Copies of the extension series are available from: www. forestry.ubc.ca/klinka  Silvical characteristics of black spruce characteristic  interpretive class  comments  reproduction capacity  H  seed dissemination capacity potential for natural regeneration in low light potential for natural regeneration in the open potential initial growth rate (£ 5 years) response of advance regeneration to release self-pruning capacity in dense stands crown spatial requirements light conditions beneath closed-canopy, mature stands potential productivity  L  seed production may be as early as 10 years; seed years are less frequent in the north; cones persist on trees for 20 to 30 years and their seeds are not shed unless they are opened by fire; may reproduce by layering dispersion up to 100 m from the parent tree  H  regenerates well on organic substrates  H  especially after fire  L  slow in the establishment period (usually <5 cm/yr) low for regeneration developed by layering, high when originating from seed but dense stands are infrequent  longevity  H M L L M  M  very narrow but long crowns associated with poorly developed understory vegetation site index (50 yr @ bh) approaching 20 m on the most productive sites  ages >280 years were reported in the Ontario Clay Belt  


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