UBC Faculty Research and Publications

The distribution and synopsis of ecological and silvical characteristics of tree species of British Columbia's.. Klinka, Karel; Worrall, John; Skoda, L.; Varga, Pal; Chourmouzis, Christine 1999-12-31

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The Distribution and Synopsis of Ecological and SilvicalCharacteristics of Tree Species of British Columbia?s Forestsby K. Klinka, J. Worrall, L. Skoda, and P. VargaAn updated silvics text for British ColumbiaThe need for an effective learning tool for silvics - one of the basicrequired courses in forestry - has been recognized by intructors as wellas students across the  province. The text  prepared  18 years agoby Krajina et al. (1982) specifically for western Canada has becomeoutdated. The silvics text by Burns and Honkala (1990) represents anup-to-date compendium but it is not an effective learning tool, particularlylacking in the linkage of silvics to ecological classification. Consequently,we revised  and  expanded  ?Distribution and  EcologicalCharacteristics of Trees and Shrubs of British Columbia? (Krajinaet al. 1982) using the available information on silvics, with somemodification for BC and the results of recent silvics research done inBC. This material has been consolidated into a format that will helpstudents understand the silvical attributes of tree species as well as therelationships  between trees  and their  environments. To  enhancelearning, we have selected a series of slides illustrating the salientcharacteristics  for  each  species  and  present  this  visualcomponent on a CD-ROM included with the text. Also includedis a large biogeoclimatic zone map of BC. The  text, together withthe  CD-ROM, is  intended  to  facilitate  learning  of silvicsemphasizing its  application to  silviculture.Special featuresThe text  consists of explanatory notes, information  on theecological and silvical characteristics for 36 tree species, speciescomparisons, and species  diversity  maps.Scientia Silvica Extension Series, Number 10, 1999 Table of contentsThe Distribution and Synopsis of Ecological and Silvical Characteristics ofTree Speciesof British Columbia's ForestsK.Klinka, J.Worrall, L.Skoda, and P.VargaABSTRACT DISTRIBUTION AND SYNOPSIS OF ECOLOGICAL Pseudotsuga menziesiiAND SILVICAL CHARACTERISTICS Taxus brevifoliaSoftwoods Thuja plicataAbies amabilis Tsuga heterophyllaTsuga mertensianaEXPLANATORY NOTESAbies grandisHardwoods NomenclatureAbies lasiocarpaAcer macrophyllum  Geographic RangeChamaecyparis nootkatensisAlnus rubra  Climatic AmplitudesJuniperus scopulorumAlnus tenuifolia  Orographic AmplitudeLarix laricinaArbutus menziesii  Edaphic AmplitudesLarix lyalliiBetula neoalaskana  Soil Moisture RegimeLarix occidentalisBetula papyrifera  Soil Nutrient RegimePicea engelmanniiCornus nuttallii  Root System CharacteristicsPicea glaucaPopulus balsamifera  TolerancesPicea marianaPopulus tremuloides  Damaging AgentsPicea sitchensisPopulus trichocarpa  Associated Species and Successional Role  Pinus albicaulisPrunus emarginata  Silvical CharacteristicsPinus banksianaQuercus garryana  Special Adaptations and Indicator Values  Pinus contortaRhamnus purshiana  GeneticsPinus flexilisSPECIES DIVERSITY  Notes  Pinus monticolaSPECIES COMPARISONS  CD-ROM Pinus ponderosaLITERATURE CITEDExplanatory notesExplanatfory notfes describe tfhe  conceptfs and tferms  used in  tfhesynopses,  such  as  geographic,  climatfic,  and  orographicamplitfudes, and tfhe  soil moistfure and soil nutfrientf regimes. Thenotfes also explain how tfhe  values given for  tfolerances,resistfances  or  risks  tfo  damaging agentfs, associatfed tfree  species,and silvical  charactferistfics were inferred  from  tfhe  availableinformatfion,  and how tfo  use tfhe  visual CD-ROM module.The synopsesFor each species we provide: (1) geographic distfributfion relatfed tfo itfsoccurrence in biogeoclimatfic zones, (2) ecological (climatfic, orographic,and edaphic) amplitfudes, (3) rootf charactferistfics, (4) tfolerances, (5)damaging agentfs, (6) associatfed tfree species and successional role, (7)silvical charactferistfics, (8) genetfics, and (9) notfes, contfaining additfionalsources of more detfailed  informatfion.Range mapsWe  have improved  tfhe  maps showing  tfhe  natfive range  of eachtfree species by intfegratfing tfhe old range maps witfh tfhe provincialbiogeoclimatfic zone map (in some cases subzone maps) and informatfionon tfhe occurrence of tfhe species in tfhe zones or subzones. These maps,altfhough updatfed in tfhis editfion, will require revision in tfhe futfure asadditfional informatfion becomes available. The maps indicatfe where tfhetfree species grow natfurally; tfhey do notf define productfivitfy in tfhoseareas.Species comparisonsUnderstfanding of forestf ecosystfems requires knowledge of how tfreespecies  estfablish  and grow witfh otfher  tfree  species  in differentfenvironmentfs. To enhance learning, we have included summary tfablescomparing tfhe ecological amplitfudes, tfolerances, damaging agentfs,associatfed tfree species, and life histfory of tfhe separatfe species.Information SourcesThe informatfion included in tfhe revised tfextf was compiled primarilyfrom Ecoflofgy off fofrest trees off British Coflumbia (Krajina 1969),Cofmparative Autecoflofgical Characteristics off Nofrthwestern TreeSpecies (Minore 1979), Silvics off Nofrth America (Burns and Honkala1990).Financial supportSupportf for tfhis publicatfion was received from The Teaching andLearning Enhancementf Fund,  Universitfy of Britfish Columbia.Purchasing informationThis publicatfion can be purchased for $90.00, plus $9 for shippingand gstf:Canadian Cartfographics Ltfd.57B Clipper Rd, Coquitflam, BC, V3K 6X2phone: 604-524-3337 or tfoll free: 877-524-3337e-mail: canmap@canmap.ca, intfernetf: www.canmap.comDistribution frequencyinfrequentfrequentvery frequentisolated standMap showing the native range of black spruce in BCVPVDMDSDFMVMWPMRVRSoil nutrient regimeActual soil moisture regimeEdatopic grid showing the generalized edaphic amplitude for blackspruce according to actual soil moisture and nutrient regimes Scientia Silvica  is published by tfhe Forestf Sciences Departfmentf, The Universitfy of Britfish Columbia, ISSN 1209-952XEditor: Karel Klinka (klinka@intferchange.ubc.ca)Productionf anfd designf: Christfine Chourmouzis(chourmou@intferchg.ubc.ca)Copies of the extenfsionf series are available from: www. forestfry.ubc.ca/klinkaSome highlights from the text       characteristic       interpretive                      comments                                                 classreproduction capacity H seed production may be as early as 10 years; seed years are less frequent in the north; cones persist on trees for 20 to 30 years and their seeds are not shed unless they are opened by fire; may reproduce by layeringseed dissemination  L dispersion up to 100 m from the parent treecapacitypotential for natural  H regenerates well on organic substratesregeneration in low lightpotential for natural  H especially after fireregeneration in the openpotential initial growth rate  L slow in the establishment period (usually (?  5 years) <5 cm/yr)response of advance  H low for regeneration developed by layering,regeneration to release high when originating from seedself-pruning capacity M but dense stands are infrequentin dense standscrown spatial requirements L very narrow but long crownslight conditions beneath  L associated with poorly developed understory closed-canopy, mature stands vegetationpotential productivity M site index (50 yr @ bh) approaching 20 m on the most productive siteslongevity M ages >280 years were reported in the Ontario Clay BeltSilvical characteristics of black spruce


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