UBC Faculty Research and Publications

Towards a taxonomic classification of humus forms : third approximation Klinka, Karel; Krestov, Pavel; Fons, Jaume; Chourmouzis, Christine 1997

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
52383-SSES009.pdf [ 153.07kB ]
Metadata
JSON: 52383-1.0107268.json
JSON-LD: 52383-1.0107268-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 52383-1.0107268-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 52383-1.0107268-rdf.json
Turtle: 52383-1.0107268-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 52383-1.0107268-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 52383-1.0107268-source.json
Full Text
52383-1.0107268-fulltext.txt
Citation
52383-1.0107268.ris

Full Text

Home  Scientia Silvica  Extension Series, Number 9, 1997  Towards a Taxonomic Classification of Humus Forms: Third Approximation The importance of humus form or forest floor as a principal component of terrestrial forest ecosystems has led to the development of a taxonomic classification of humus forms for BC (first approximation: Klinka et al. 1981; second approximation: Green et al. 1993). This classification, as all others, is based on the field-observable (morphological) features because we expect that they reflect differences in the nature and development of humus forms. However, there is a continuing need to test (1) whether humus forms that appear different are in fact different in their physical, chemical, and biotic properties, and (2) the portability of the classification outside the area in which it was developed. As a result of recent studies of the biotic component of humus forms and recent testing of the classification outside British Columbia (Scandinavia, southeastern Russia, and northeastern China), we have recognized several new diagnostic horizons, and hence new taxa. In this pamphlet, we present synopsis of the third approximation of the classification for review and testing. For more detailed information on the background, methodology, and classification of humus forms, the readers should consult Green et al. (1993). Each humus form is represented by the sequence of organic and mineral horizons that constitute the humus form profile. Identification of a humus form, i.e., giving it a name, requires description of the humus form profile – the identification of master and subordinate horizons. For this reason we have included a description of the horizon designations as well as a synopsis of the classification and a key to the identification of humus forms.  Horizon designations and definitions Master horizon  Subordinate horizon Freely-drained upland horizons L (litter); a surface horizon that consists of relatively fresh plant residues readily identifiable as to their origin. Ln (new); an L horizon that consists of newly accreted and essentially fresh, non-fragmented plant residues. Lv (variative); an L horizon that consists of the plant residues showing initial decay and strong discolouration.  S (bryophytes); a surface horizon that consists of tissues of living bryophytes (commonly Sphagnum spp.) intermixed to a minor extent with litter. G (graminoid); a thin surface horizon that consists of tissues of living graminoids intermixed to various extents with their residues. F (fermented); an organic horizon in which partly decomposed plant residues predominate; the partial structures of plant residues are macroscopically discernible. Fm (mycogeneous); an F horizon in which more or less disintegrated plant residues are aggregated in a compact-matted, banded fabric interwoven by fungal hyphae (mycelia), with a tenacious consistence. If present, faunal droppings are very infrequent and localized. Fr (root residues); an F horizon in which fine root residues constitute nearly all fabric; fungal mycelia are infrequent and localized. Frm (root residue, mycogeneous); an Fm horizon in which fine root residues constitute nearly all fabric; fungal mycelia are common and frequently abundant. Fs (bryophytes); an F horizon that consists of partly disintegrated tissues of Sphagnum spp.; residues are weakly aggregated, fungal mycelia absent or very infrequent and localized. Fsm (bryophytes, mycogeneous); an Fs horizon with fungal mycelia but rarely as common and frequent as in the Fm horizon. Fz (zoogenous); an F horizon in which residues are weakly aggregated with a loose or friable consistency as result fragmentation and comminution by soil fauna; faunal droppings and dropping residues are numerous, fungal mycelia are infrequent and localized. Fsz (bryophytes, zoogeneous); an Fs horizon with faunal droppings but rarely as common and frequent as in the Fz horizon. Fa (amphi); an F horizon that has the characteristics of both Fm and Fz horizons; plant residues are aggregated into a weak to moderate, non-compact-matted fabric. Fsa (bryophytes, amphi); an Fs horizon with both fungal mycelia and faunal droppings but rarely as common and frequent as in the Fa horizon.  Home  Freely-drained upland horizons continued H (humic); an organic horizon in which well decomposed plant residues (fine substances) predominate; the original plant structures are not macroscopically discernible. Hf (fine); an H horizon that has a very fine granular structure; very small faunal droppings predominate in the fabric. Hg (granular); an H horizon that has a fine (to medium) granular structure; small faunal droppings predominate in the fabric. Hh (humic); an H horizon that has a massive (ancient) or weak, coarse, blocky structure; the colour is typically dark gray (black), the material is greasy and stains fingers when rubbed. Hc (recalcitrant); an H horizon that contains macroscopically recognizable plant residues (roots, bark, and/or wood) imposing yellow, brown, or particularly red colours; fine substances predominate and the material is slightly greasy but does stain fingers when rubbed. Poorly-drained, waterlogged, wetland horizons O (organic); a wetland organic horizon Of (fibric); a surface O horizon that consists of poorly decomposed plant residues readily identifiable as to their origin. Om (mesic); an O horizon that consists of partly decomposed plant residues at a stage of decomposition intermediate between Of and Oh horizons. Oh (humic); an O horizon that consists of well decomposed plant residues which for the most part have been transformed into humic materials. Mineral horizons A the uppermost mineral horizon that contains < 17% organic C (about 30% organic matter) by weight. Ah (humic); an Ah horizon enriched with organic matter. Other designations w (wood); any organic horizon containing >35% of the volume of solids) of coarse woody debris in various stages of decomposition.  Third Approximation: Synopsis of humus form taxa Order Group Mor Lignomor Hemimor Rhizomor Sphagnomor Humimor Resimor Modermor Lamimor Fibrimor Mesimor Moder Lignomoder Mormoder Sphagnomoder Lamimoder Leptomoder Mullmoder Saprimoder Mull Vermimull Rhizomull Paramull 1  Characteristic humus form profiles 1  Variation from the Orthic or true form  L, Fmw or Fsw, Hw L, Fm, (H) L, Frm, (H) S, Fs and/or Fsm, H L, Fm, Hh L, Fm, Hc L, Fm and/or Frm, Hf and/or Hg L, Fm and/or Frm, Hf and/or Hg and Hh and/or Hc S, (F, H), Of, Om, Oh S, (F, H), Of, Om, Oh  Tenuic, Pachic,Hemic, Humic Tenuic, Pachic Tenuic, Pachic Tenuic, Pachic Pachic, Hemic, Perhumic Pachic, Hemic Hemic, Humic Hemic, Humic Hemic, Sapric Fibric, Sapric  L, Faw and/or Fzw, Hw L or G, Fa, H S, Fs and/or Fsa and/or Fsz, H L, Fm, Frm, Fs and/or Fsm, Fa, Fsa, Fz and/or Fsz, H L, Fa, Fsa, Fz, and/or Fsz, Fm, Frm, and/or Fsm, H L or G, Fz, H L or G, Fa and/or Fz, H, Ah S or G, (Of, Om), Oh  Tenuic, Pachic, Hemic, Humic Tenuic, Pachic, Hemic, Humic Hemic, Humic Hemic, Humic, Sphagno  (L, F), Ahz  Tenuic, Pachic, Ochric, Pellic, Micro, Meso, Micro Tenuic, Pachic, Ochric, Pellic Tenuic, Pachic, Ochric, Pellic  G, (F), Ahg (L, F), Ah  Tenuic, Pachic, Hemic, Humic Hemic, Humic Fibric, Mesic  Diagnostic horizons are printed in bold fonts; less commonly occuring, non-diagnostic horizons are given in parentheses.  Home  Explanation of adjectives used to designate variations from the Orthic (true) variation that is thought to typify a humus form group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≤  0XOOV WKDW KDYH JUDQXODU DJJUHJDWHV ! PP 0XOOV WKDW KDYH JUDQXODU DJJUHJDWHV ! PP EXW ≤ PP 0XOOV WKDW KDYH JUDQXODU DJJUHJDWHV ≤ PP  Key to humus form groups D E  *URZLQJVHDVRQ ZDWHU WDEOH LV DEVHQW RU LI SUHVHQW LV ! FP GHHS VRLO LV PLQHUDO EXW QRW JOH\VROLF RU XSODQG RUJDQLF )ROLVRO  *URZLQJVHDVRQ ZDWHU WDEOH LV SUHVHQW DQG ≤  FP GHHS VRLO LV RUJDQLF LI ZDWHU WDEOH LV DEVHQW VRLO LV JOH\VROLF   D E  $K KRUL]RQ ≥ FP WKLFN LV DEVHQW LI SUHVHQW WKLFNQHVV RI ) DQG + KRUL]RQV LV !$K KRUL]RQ  $K KRUL]RQ ≥ FP WKLFN LV SUHVHQW DQG WKLFNQHVV RI ) DQG + KRUL]RQV LV $K KRUL]RQ  D  ) KRUL]RQ LQFOXGHV P\FRJHQHRXV )P DQGRU )UP KRUL]RQV RWKHU ) KRUL]RQV LI SUHVHQW DUH HLWKHU ≤ FP WKLFN RU ≤ RI WKLFNQHVV RI ) KRUL]RQ  ) KRUL]RQ LQFOXGHV VSKDJQLF P\FRJHQHRXV )V DQGRU )VP KRUL]RQV RWKHU ) KRUL]RQV LI SUHVHQW DUH HLWKHU ≤ FP WKLFN RU ≤ RI WKLFNQHVV RI ) KRUL]RQ  ) KRUL]RQ LQFOXGHV DPSKLPRUSKLF DQGRU ]RRJHQHRXV )D DQGRU )] KRUL]RQV RWKHU ) KRUL]RQV LI SUHVHQW DUH HLWKHU ≤ FP WKLFN RU ≤ RI WKLFNQHVV RI ) KRUL]RQ  ) KRUL]RQ LQFOXGHV VSKDJQLF DPSKLPRUSKLF DQGRU ]RRJHQHRXV )VD DQGRU )V] KRUL]RQV RWKHU ) KRUL]RQV LI SUHVHQW DUH HLWKHU ≤ FP WKLFN RU ≤ RI WKLFNQHVV RI ) KRUL]RQ ) KRUL]RQ LQFOXGHV ERWK P\FRJHQHRXV DQG DPSKLPRUSKLF RU ]RRJHQHRXV KRUL]RQV ZLWK HDFK VHW RI KRUL]RQV !FP WKLFN RU ! RI WKLFNQHVV RI ) KRUL]RQ   E F G H  D E  'HFD\LQJ ZRRG FRPSULVHV ! 'HFD\LQJ ZRRG FRPSULVHV ≤  D E  + KRUL]RQ LV DEVHQW RU LI SUHVHQW LV HLWKHU ≤ FP WKLFN RU ≤ RI WKLFNQHVV RI ) DQG + KRUL]RQV + KRUL]RQ ! FP WKLFN LV SUHVHQW DQG ! RI WKLFNQHVV RI ) DQG + KRUL]RQV  D E  7KLFNQHVV RI )P KRUL]RQ LV !)UP KRUL]RQ +HPLPRU 7KLFNQHVV RI )P KRUL]RQ LV ≤)UP KRUL]RQ  5HVLPRU  D  +I DQGRU +J KRUL]RQV DUH SUHVHQW RWKHU + KRUL]RQV LI SUHVHQW DUH HLWKHU ≤ FP WKLFN RU ≤ RI WKLFNQHVV RI + KRUL]RQ 0RGHUPRU +K DQGRU +U KRUL]RQV DUH SUHVHQW RWKHU + KRUL]RQV LI SUHVHQW DUH HLWKHU ≤ FP WKLFN RU ≤ RI WKLFNQHVV RI + KRUL]RQ  + KRUL]RQ LV FRPSULVHG E\ ERWK VHWV RI KRUL]RQV +I DQGRU +J DQG +K DQGRU +U ZLWK HDFK VHW RI KRUL]RQV !FP WKLFN RU ! RI WKLFNQHVV RI + KRUL]RQ  /DPLPRU  E F  D E  YROXPH LQ KXPXV IRUP SURILOH /LJQRPRU YROXPH LQ KXPXV IRUP SURILOH  7KLFNQHVV RI +K KRUL]RQ LV !+F KRUL]RQ +XPLPRU 7KLFNQHVV RI +K KRUL]RQ LV ≤+F KRUL]RQ5KRGRPRU  Home  D E  'HFD\LQJ ZRRG FRPSULVHV ! 'HFD\LQJ ZRRG FRPSULVHV ≤  D E  'HFD\LQJ ZRRG KDV ! 'HFD\LQJ ZRRG KDV ≤  D E  $K KRUL]RQ ≥ FP WKLFN LV SUHVHQW WKLFNQHVV RI ) DQG + KRUL]RQV LV !$K KRUL]RQ  0XOOPRGHU $K KRUL]RQ LV DEVHQW RU LI SUHVHQW LV FP WKLFN    D F  7KLFNQHVV RI )D KRUL]RQ LV !)] KRUL]RQ  0RUPRGHU 7KLFNQHVV RI )D KRUL]RQ LV ≤)] KRUL]RQ /HSWRPRGHU  D E  'HFD\LQJ ZRRG KDV ! 'HFD\LQJ ZRRG KDV ≤  YROXPH LQ KXPXV IRUP SURILOH /LJQRPRGHU YROXPH LQ KXPXV IRUP SURILOH 6SKDJQRPRGHU  D E  'HFD\LQJ ZRRG KDV ! 'HFD\LQJ ZRRG KDV ≤  YROXPH LQ KXPXV IRUP SURILOH /LJQRPRGHU YROXPH LQ KXPXV IRUP SURILOH /DPLPRGHU  D E F  *UDQXODU HDUWKZRUP FDVWV ]RRJHQHRXV $K KRUL]RQ LV SUHVHQW  9HUPLPXOO 6ZDUG RU WXUI UKL]RJHQRXV $K KRUL]RQ LV SUHVHQW  5KL]RPXOO $K KRUL]RQ IRUPHG E\ LQILOWUDWLRQ RU DFFXPXODWLRQ RI RUJDQLF PDWHULDOV E\ PHFKDQLFDO LQWHUPL[LQJ FROOXYLDO HROLDQ FU\RWXUEDWLRQ RU VLOYRWXUEDWLRQ  3DUDPXOO  D  6RLO KDV DQ RUJDQLF OD\HU ! FP WKLFN RU ≤  FP WKLFN LI D OLWKLF SDUOLWKLF SHUPDIURVW RU IUDJPHQWDO OD\HU LV SUHVHQW UHFRJQL]H ZHWODQG RUJDQLF KRUL]RQV   6RLO LV PLQHUDO RUJDQLF OD\HU LV ≤ FP WKLFN UHFRJQL]H XSODQG RUJDQLF /)+ KRUL]RQV 5HWXUQ WR FRXSOHW QXPEHU  DQG DGG WKH SUHIL[ +\GUR WR WKH LGHQWLILHG JURXS    D D  YROXPH LQ KXPXV IRUP SURILOH /LJQRPRU YROXPH LQ KXPXV IRUP SURILOH6SKDJQRPRU  YROXPH LQ KXPXV IRUP SURILOH /LJQRPRGHU YROXPH LQ KXPXV IRUP SURILOH   E  7KLFNQHVV RI XSODQG RUJDQLF / ) + KRUL]RQV LV !2 KRUL]RQ 5HWXUQ WR FRXSOHW QXPEHU  DQG DGG WKH SUHIL[ +\GUR WR WKH LGHQWLILHG JURXS   7KLFNQHVV RI XSODQG RUJDQLF / ) + KRUL]RQV LV ≤2 KRUL]RQ    D E  2K KRUL]RQ LV DEVHQW RU LI SUHVHQW WKLFNQHVV RI RWKHU 2 KRUL]RQV LV !2K KRUL]RQ   2K KRUL]RQ LV SUHVHQW DQG WKLFNQHVV RI RWKHU 2 KRUL]RQV LI SUHVHQW LV ≤2K KRUL]RQ  6DSULPRGHU  D E  7KLFNQHVV RI 2I KRUL]RQ LV ≤2P KRUL]RQ )LEULPRU 7KLFNQHVV RI 2P KRUL]RQ LV ≤2I KRUL]RQ  0HVLPRU  Reference Green, R.N., R.L. Trowbridge, and K. Klinka. 1993. Towards a taxonomic classification of humus forms. Forest Science Monograph. 29: 1-48.  Scientia Silvica is published by the Forest Sciences Department, The University of British Columbia, ISSN 1209-952X Editor: Karel Klinka (klinka@interchange.ubc.ca) Research: K. Klinka, Jaume Fons (jfons@filnet.es), and Pavel Krestov (farrex@vtc.ru) Production and design: Christine Chourmouzis (chourmou@interchange.ubc.ca) Financial support: Forest Renewal British Columbia and the Spanish Government (Ministerio de Education y Ciencia) For more information contact: K. Klinka Copies available from: www.forestry.ubc.ca/klinka or K.Klinka, Forest Sciences Department, UBC, 3036-2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.52383.1-0107268/manifest

Comment

Related Items