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Soil properties at the Vancouver EPiCC experimental sites Christen, Andreas; Crawford, Ben; Liss, Kate; Siemens, Chad Feb 28, 2013

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Environmental Prediction in Canadian Cities - EPiCC EPiCC Technical Report No. 2 Andreas Christen, Ben Crawford, Kate Liss, Chad SiemensSoil Propertiesat the Vancouver EPiCC Experimental SitesThe research network ?EPiCC? was supported by the Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences (CFCAS)Cite this report as: Christen A., Crawford B., Liss K., Siemens C. (2013): ?Soil Properties at the Vancouver EPiCC experimental sites'. EPiCC Technical Report No. 2, Technical Report of the Department of Geography, University of Britisch Columbia. http://circle.ubc.ca/, 28pp, Version 1.4Cover Photo: Installation of Sensors at site OR2 on August 16, 2007. Photo by C. Siemens? 2013 The University of British Columbia	 ?	 ?	 ?Environmental	 ?Prediction	 ?in	 ?Canadian	 ?Cities	 ?CFCAS	 ?Network	 ?2006-??2010	 ?	 ?	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?	 ?No.	 ?2	 ?	 ?	 ?Soil	 ?properties	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?Andreas	 ?Christen,	 ?Ben	 ?Crawford,	 ?Kate	 ?Liss	 ?and	 ?Chad	 ?Siemens	 ?Department	 ?of	 ?Geography,	 ?University	 ?of	 ?British	 ?Columbia	 ?	 ?	 ?Version	 ?1.4	 ?February	 ?2013	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?2	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?properties	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ? Page	 ?2	 ?/	 ?28 	 ?Introduction	 ?This	 ?report	 ?summarizes	 ?field	 ?and	 ?lab	 ?measurements	 ?of	 ?the	 ?soil	 ?properties	 ?during	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experiment	 ?at	 ?suburban	 ?and	 ?rural	 ?sites	 ?to	 ?characterize	 ?soils	 ?and	 ?to	 ?calibrate	 ?the	 ?automatic	 ?sensors	 ?operated.	 ?The	 ?report	 ?further	 ?describes	 ?sampling	 ?and	 ?lab	 ?analysis	 ?procedures	 ?for	 ?soil	 ?samples	 ?in	 ?the	 ?Appendix.	 ?As	 ?part	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Environmental	 ?Prediction	 ?in	 ?Canadian	 ?Cities	 ?Network	 ?(EPiCC),	 ?the	 ?University	 ?of	 ?British	 ?Columbia	 ?/	 ?Department	 ?of	 ?Geography,	 ?monitored	 ?energy,	 ?water	 ?and	 ?carbon	 ?balances	 ?in	 ?two	 ?suburban	 ?neighborhoods	 ?in	 ?Vancouver,	 ?BC,	 ?Canada	 ?in	 ?2008-??2009.	 ?Two	 ?flux	 ?towers,	 ??Vancouver-??Sunset?	 ?in	 ?South-??East	 ?-??Vancouver,	 ?and	 ??Vancouver-??Oakridge?	 ?in	 ?South	 ?Vancouver,	 ?were	 ?operated	 ?in	 ?extensive	 ?residential	 ?areas	 ?composed	 ?of	 ?single-??family	 ?homes.	 ?A	 ?rural	 ?reference	 ?flux	 ?tower	 ??Westham	 ?Island?	 ?was	 ?located	 ?on	 ?flat,	 ?unmanaged	 ?and	 ?non-??irrigated	 ?grassland,	 ?16	 ?km	 ?to	 ?the	 ?south	 ?of	 ?the	 ?two	 ?urban	 ?neighborhoods	 ?in	 ?an	 ?area	 ?that	 ?is	 ?dominated	 ?by	 ?intensive	 ?farming.	 ?A	 ?test	 ?plot	 ?on	 ??UBC	 ?Farm?	 ?was	 ?used	 ?for	 ?additional	 ?reference	 ?measurements	 ?of	 ?the	 ?carbon	 ?balance.	 ?In	 ?the	 ?immediate	 ?neighborhood	 ?of	 ?the	 ?two	 ?suburban	 ?flux	 ?towers,	 ?a	 ?total	 ?of	 ?eight	 ?lawns	 ?(OR1-??4,	 ?SS1-??4)	 ?have	 ?been	 ?intensively	 ?monitored	 ?for	 ?water	 ?use,	 ?soil	 ?physics,	 ?and	 ?soil	 ?hydrology	 ?(Fig.	 ?1,	 ?Tab.	 ?1).	 ?The	 ?lots	 ?have	 ?been	 ?chosen	 ?to	 ?represent	 ?a	 ?variety	 ?of	 ?lawn	 ?irrigation	 ?regimes	 ?and	 ?different	 ?building	 ?volumes,	 ?materials	 ?and	 ?ages.	 ?A	 ?similar	 ?set	 ?of	 ?measurements	 ?was	 ?installed	 ?at	 ?the	 ?rural	 ?site	 ??Westham	 ?Island?.	 ?No	 ?automatic	 ?measurements	 ?were	 ?installed	 ?at	 ??UBC	 ?Farm?.	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?1	 ?-??	 ?Instrumentation	 ?of	 ?the	 ?eight	 ?suburban	 ?instrumented	 ?lawns:	 ?(a)	 ?Time	 ?domain	 ?reflectometry	 ?(TDR,	 ?CS616	 ?at	 ?5cm	 ?depth),	 ?(b)	 ?Soil	 ?temperature	 ?sensor	 ?(thermocouple	 ?at	 ?5	 ?cm	 ?depth),	 ?(c)	 ?Soil	 ?heat	 ?flux	 ?plate	 ?(Middleton,	 ?at	 ?5cm	 ?depth),	 ?(d)	 ?Surface	 ?wetness	 ?sensors,	 ?(e)	 ?water	 ?meter	 ?that	 ?measures	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?water	 ?use	 ?of	 ?each	 ?building.	 ?At	 ?one	 ?location	 ?per	 ?neighborhood	 ?there	 ?was	 ?also	 ?a	 ?(f)	 ?screen	 ?level	 ?temperature	 ?/	 ?humidity	 ?sensor	 ?and	 ?(g)	 ?rain	 ?gauge	 ?installed.	 ?Part	 ?1	 ?of	 ?this	 ?report	 ?lists	 ?soil	 ?bulk	 ?densities	 ?and	 ?porosity	 ?at	 ?the	 ?various	 ?sites,	 ?Part	 ?2	 ?details	 ?the	 ?organic	 ?material	 ?fraction,	 ?Part	 ?3	 ?summarizes	 ?automatic	 ?soil	 ?moisture	 ?measurements	 ?using	 ?the	 ?TDR	 ?systems	 ?and	 ?Part	 ?4	 ?describes	 ?the	 ?correction	 ?procedures	 ?applied	 ?the	 ?soil	 ?heat	 ?flux	 ?plates,	 ?Part	 ?5	 ?is	 ?documenting	 ?salinity	 ?changes	 ?in	 ?the	 ?soil	 ?at	 ?Westham	 ?Island.	 ?Appendix	 ?1	 ?documents	 ?the	 ?measurement	 ?procedures	 ?for	 ?soil	 ?organic	 ?content,	 ?Appendix	 ?2	 ?outlines	 ?the	 ?lab	 ?measurements	 ?of	 ?volumetric	 ?water	 ?content,	 ?Appendix	 ?3	 ?describes	 ?the	 ?electrical	 ?conductivity	 ?measurements.	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?2	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?properties	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ? Page	 ?3	 ?/	 ?28 	 ?Sites	 ?The	 ?study-??neighborhood	 ?of	 ??Vancouver-??Oakridge?	 ?is	 ?located	 ?in	 ?the	 ?block	 ?between	 ?Granville	 ?Street	 ?and	 ?Oak	 ?Street,	 ?and	 ?between	 ?49th	 ?Avenue	 ?and	 ?54th	 ?Avenue	 ?in	 ?South	 ?Vancouver,	 ?BC,	 ?Canada.	 ?The	 ?approximate	 ?age	 ?of	 ?the	 ?neighborhood	 ?houses	 ?and	 ?the	 ?development	 ?of	 ?the	 ?individual	 ?landscapes	 ?ranges	 ?from	 ?20-??50	 ?years.	 ?The	 ?neighborhood	 ??Vancouver-??Sunset?	 ?is	 ?located	 ?in	 ?the	 ?block	 ?between	 ?Knight	 ?Street	 ?and	 ?Fraser	 ?Street,	 ?and	 ?between	 ?49th	 ?Avenue	 ?and	 ?54th	 ?Avenue,	 ?in	 ?South-??East	 ?Vancouver,	 ?BC,	 ?Canada.	 ?	 ?Most	 ?initial	 ?development	 ?in	 ?the	 ?area	 ?took	 ?place	 ?between	 ?1910	 ?and	 ?1950,	 ?with	 ?some	 ?minor	 ?subsequent	 ?renovation	 ?in	 ?the	 ?1970s	 ?and	 ?1980s.	 ?Table	 ?1	 ??	 ?Sites	 ?described	 ?in	 ?this	 ?report.	 ?Site	 ? Location1	 ? Land	 ?use	 ?	 ? Location	 ?relative	 ?to	 ?building	 ?Irrigation	 ?infrastructure	 ?(frequencyA)	 ?Proximity	 ?to	 ?large	 ?trees	 ?Oakridge	 ?1	 ?(OR1)	 ? 49.2306?	 ?-??123.133?	 ? lawn	 ? East-??side,	 ?backyard	 ? Manual	 ?(sporadic)	 ? tall	 ?tree	 ?cover	 ?Oakridge	 ?2	 ?(OR2)	 ? 	 ? lawn	 ? North-??side,	 ?	 ?frontyard	 ? None	 ?	 ? no	 ?tall	 ?trees	 ?Oakridge	 ?3	 ?(OR3)	 ? 	 ? lawn	 ? North-??side,	 ?	 ?frontyard	 ? Automatic	 ?(regular)	 ? dispersed	 ?tall	 ?trees	 ?Oakridge	 ?4	 ?(OR4)	 ? 	 ? lawn	 ? East-??side,	 ?	 ?frontyard	 ? Automatic	 ?(2	 ?x	 ?/	 ?week)	 ? tall	 ?tree	 ?cover	 ?Sunset	 ?1	 ?(SS1)	 ? 49.2261?	 ?-??123.078?	 ? lawn	 ? South-??side	 ?frontyard	 ? Manual	 ?(regular)	 ? tall	 ?tree	 ?cover	 ?Sunset	 ?2	 ?(SS2)	 ? 	 ? lawn	 ? North-??side	 ?frontyard	 ? Manual	 ?(sporadic)	 ? dispersed	 ?tall	 ?trees	 ?Sunset	 ?3	 ?(SS3)	 ? 	 ? lawn	 ? West-??side	 ?frontyard	 ? None	 ?	 ? no	 ?tall	 ?trees	 ?Sunset	 ?4	 ?(SS4)	 ? 	 ? lawn	 ? East-??side	 ?frontyard	 ? Manual	 ?(sporadic)	 ? dispersed	 ?tall	 ?trees	 ?UBC	 ?Farm	 ?(UF)	 ? 49.2493?	 ?-??123.236?	 ? Managed	 ?grassland	 ? n/a	 ? None	 ? no	 ?trees	 ?Westham	 ?Island	 ?(WI)	 ? 49.0863?	 ?-??123.177?	 ? Non-??managed	 ?grassland	 ? n/a	 ? None	 ? no	 ?trees	 ?A	 ?Summer	 ?2008.                                                1	 ?At	 ?all	 ?suburban	 ?sites,	 ?UBC	 ?has	 ?adopted	 ?a	 ?policy	 ?of	 ?privacy	 ?with	 ?regards	 ?to	 ?exact	 ?individual	 ?locations	 ?due	 ?to	 ?the	 ?ongoing	 ?water	 ?monitoring	 ?and	 ?energy	 ?use	 ?data	 ?collected.	 ?For	 ?project	 ?internal	 ?purposes,	 ?further	 ?detail	 ?can	 ?be	 ?obtained	 ?by	 ?contacting	 ?UBC. EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?2	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?properties	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ? Page	 ?4	 ?/	 ?28 	 ?Part	 ?1	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?bulk	 ?density	 ?and	 ?porosity	 ?	 ?The	 ?bulk	 ?densities	 ?and	 ?porosities	 ?shown	 ?are	 ?averages	 ?between	 ?2	 ?and	 ?12	 ?lab	 ?samples	 ?at	 ?each	 ?site.	 ?	 ?The	 ?samples	 ?were	 ?extracted	 ?centered	 ?at	 ?5	 ?cm	 ?depth	 ?at	 ?different	 ?times	 ?of	 ?the	 ?year	 ?in	 ?2008	 ?and	 ?2009,	 ?with	 ?varying	 ?levels	 ?of	 ?soil	 ?volumetric	 ?water	 ?content.	 ?The	 ?samples	 ?of	 ?a	 ?particular	 ?soil	 ?should	 ?return	 ?same	 ?values	 ?for	 ?bulk	 ?density	 ?and	 ?porosity	 ?p,	 ?but	 ?the	 ?accuracy	 ?of	 ?the	 ?sampling	 ?method	 ?is	 ?affected	 ?by	 ?different	 ?moisture	 ?levels	 ?and	 ?resulting	 ?possible	 ?compaction	 ?of	 ?samples,	 ?sampling	 ?location	 ?and	 ?lab	 ?procedures.	 ?Variability	 ?between	 ?samples	 ?is	 ?indicated	 ?by	 ?standard	 ?deviations.	 ?A	 ?detailed	 ?description	 ?of	 ?the	 ?sampling	 ?and	 ?analysis	 ?procedures	 ?is	 ?summarized	 ?in	 ?Appendix	 ?2.	 ?Table	 ?2	 ?-??	 ?Bulk	 ?densities	 ?and	 ?porosity	 ?of	 ?soil	 ?samples	 ?at	 ?all	 ?locations	 ?at	 ?5cm	 ?depth.	 ?Site	 ? No	 ?of	 ?laboratory	 ?samples	 ?Average	 ?bulk	 ?density	 ?of	 ?dry	 ?soil	 ?samples	 ?(Mg/m3)	 ?Standard	 ?deviation	 ?of	 ?bulk	 ?density	 ?(Mg/m3)	 ?Average	 ?porosity	 ?p	 ?of	 ?samples	 ?	 ?Standard	 ?deviation	 ?of	 ?porosity	 ?	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ?Oakridge	 ?1	 ?(OR1)	 ? 4	 ? 0.86	 ? 0.03	 ? 0.67	 ? 0.01	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ?Oakridge	 ?2	 ?(OR2)	 ? 4	 ? 0.97	 ? 0.04	 ? 0.64	 ? 0.03	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ?Oakridge	 ?3	 ?(OR3)	 ? 4	 ? 1.08	 ? 0.08	 ? 0.60	 ? 0.03	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ?Oakridge	 ?4	 ?(OR4)	 ? 7	 ? 0.87	 ? 0.21	 ? 0.67	 ? 0.08	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ?Oakridge	 ?(all)*	 ? 	 ? 0.95	 ? 	 ? 0.64	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ?Sunset	 ?1	 ?(SS1)	 ? 5	 ? 0.86	 ? 0.14	 ? 0.65	 ? 0.06	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ?Sunset	 ?2	 ?(SS2)	 ? 6	 ? 1.00	 ? 0.10	 ? 0.60	 ? 0.04	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ?Sunset	 ?3	 ?(SS3)	 ? 6	 ? 0.93	 ? 0.03	 ? 0.63	 ? 0.01	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ?Sunset	 ?4	 ?(SS4)	 ? 5	 ? 0.96	 ? 0.07	 ? 0.63	 ? 0.03	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ?Sunset	 ?(all)*	 ? 	 ? 0.94	 ? 	 ? 0.63	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ?Westham	 ?Island	 ?(WI)	 ? 12	 ? 1.13	 ? 0.10	 ? 0.57	 ? 0.04	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ?UBC	 ?Farm	 ? 2	 ? 0.89	 ? 0.12	 ? 0.63	 ? 0.05	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ?*	 ?Calculated	 ?as	 ?the	 ?arithmetic	 ?average	 ?of	 ?all	 ?4	 ?sites	 ?in	 ?each	 ?neighborhood.	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?2	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?properties	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ? Page	 ?5	 ?/	 ?28 	 ?Part	 ?2	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?organic	 ?content	 ?Soil	 ?organic	 ?content	 ?was	 ?measured	 ?once	 ?in	 ?summer	 ?2008	 ?using	 ?cores	 ?at	 ?5	 ?sub-??locations	 ?at	 ?each	 ?lawn	 ?/	 ?site	 ?that	 ?corresponded	 ?to	 ?the	 ?CO2	 ?chamber	 ?measurement	 ?locations.	 ?All	 ?5	 ?cores	 ?were	 ?divided	 ?into	 ?different	 ?depth-??layers.	 ?Samples	 ?from	 ?each	 ?layer	 ?were	 ?physically	 ?mixed	 ?and	 ?the	 ?mixture	 ?of	 ?the	 ?five	 ?samples	 ?was	 ?analyzed	 ?in	 ?the	 ?lab.	 ?Details	 ?of	 ?the	 ?sampling	 ?and	 ?analysis	 ?procedure	 ?are	 ?described	 ?in	 ?Appendix	 ?1	 ?of	 ?this	 ?document.	 ?The	 ?sampled	 ?soils	 ?in	 ??Vancouver-??Oakridge?	 ?exhibit	 ?a	 ?relatively	 ?low	 ?organic	 ?content	 ?when	 ?compared	 ?with	 ?the	 ?other	 ?measurement	 ?sites.	 ?The	 ?measurements	 ?were	 ?made	 ?to	 ?a	 ?maximum	 ?depth	 ?of	 ?18cm	 ?and	 ?the	 ?layers	 ?were	 ?divided	 ?accordingly	 ?to	 ?match	 ?up	 ?with	 ?the	 ?data	 ?from	 ?the	 ?other	 ?measurement	 ?sites.	 ?Table	 ?3	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?organic	 ?content	 ?(%	 ?of	 ?total	 ?dry	 ?soil	 ?mass)	 ?by	 ?layer	 ?and	 ?percentage	 ?for	 ?suburban	 ?lawns	 ?in	 ??Vancouver-??Oakridge?.	 ?Depth	 ?(cm)	 ? Oakridge	 ?1	 ?(OR1)	 ? Oakridge	 ?2	 ?	 ?(OR2)	 ? Oakridge	 ?3	 ?(OR3)	 ? Oakridge	 ?4	 ?(OR4)	 ? All	 ?sites*	 ?0	 ?-??	 ?3	 ? 4.89%	 ? 5.03%	 ? 4.48%	 ? 5.85%	 ? 5.06%	 ?3	 ?-??	 ?6	 ? 5.04%	 ? 4.41%	 ? 4.10%	 ? 5.49%	 ? 4.76%	 ?6	 ?-??	 ?10	 ? 4.23%	 ? 4.41%	 ? 3.64%	 ? 4.80%	 ? 4.27%	 ?10	 ?-??	 ?15	 ? 3.87%	 ? 3.13%	 ? 3.19%	 ? 2.53%	 ? 3.18%	 ?15	 ?-??	 ?18	 ? n/a	 ? n/a	 ? n/a	 ? 2.01%	 ? 2.01%	 ?*	 ?Calculated	 ?as	 ?the	 ?arithmetic	 ?average	 ?of	 ?all	 ?4	 ?sites	 ?in	 ?each	 ?neighborhood.	 ?The	 ?Sunset	 ?sites	 ?in	 ?general	 ?exhibit	 ?a	 ?higher	 ?organic	 ?content	 ?in	 ?the	 ?soil	 ?than	 ?in	 ?the	 ?Oakridge	 ?neighborhood.	 ?	 ?The	 ?measurements	 ?were	 ?made	 ?to	 ?a	 ?maximum	 ?depth	 ?of	 ?25cm	 ?and	 ?the	 ?layers	 ?were	 ?divided	 ?accordingly	 ?to	 ?match	 ?up	 ?with	 ?the	 ?data	 ?from	 ?the	 ?other	 ?measurement	 ?sites.	 ?	 ? 	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?2	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?properties	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ? Page	 ?6	 ?/	 ?28 	 ?Table	 ?4	 ?-??	 ?Soil	 ?organic	 ?content	 ?(%	 ?of	 ?total	 ?dry	 ?soil	 ?mass)	 ?by	 ?layer	 ?and	 ?percentage	 ?for	 ?suburban	 ?lawns	 ?in	 ??Vancouver-??Sunset?.	 ?Depth	 ?(cm)	 ? Sunset	 ?1	 ?(SS1)	 ? Sunset	 ?2	 ?(SS2)	 ? Sunset	 ?3	 ?(SS3)	 ? Sunset	 ?4	 ?(SS4)	 ? All	 ?sites*	 ?0	 ?-??	 ?3	 ? 17.98%	 ? 10.75%	 ? 14.13%	 ? 7.26%	 ? 12.53%	 ?3	 ?-??	 ?6	 ? 16.45%	 ? 8.85%	 ? 8.36%	 ? 6.14%	 ? 9.95%	 ?6	 ?-??	 ?10	 ? 9.20%	 ? 8.40%	 ? 6.20%	 ? 3.71%	 ? 6.88%	 ?10	 ?-??	 ?15	 ? 5.73%	 ? 5.96%	 ? 5.56%	 ? 5.36%	 ? 5.65%	 ?15	 ?-??	 ?25	 ? n/a	 ? 7.10%	 ? 5.25%	 ? n/a	 ? 3.09%	 ?*	 ?Calculated	 ?as	 ?the	 ?arithmetic	 ?average	 ?of	 ?all	 ?4	 ?sites	 ?in	 ?each	 ?neighborhood.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Table	 ?5	 ?-??	 ?Soil	 ?organic	 ?content	 ?(%	 ?of	 ?total	 ?dry	 ?soil	 ?mass)	 ?by	 ?layer	 ?and	 ?percentage	 ?for	 ?the	 ?rural	 ?soil	 ?at	 ??Westham	 ?Island?	 ?and	 ?on	 ??UBC	 ?Farm?.	 ?Depth	 ?(cm)	 ? Westham	 ?Island	 ?(WI)	 ?UBC	 ?Farm	 ?(UF)	 ?0	 ?-??	 ?3	 ? 4.84%	 ? 16.65%	 ?3	 ?-??	 ?6	 ? 3.49%	 ? 17.38%	 ?6	 ?-??	 ?10	 ? 3.42%	 ? 10.41%	 ?10	 ?-??	 ?15	 ? 3.14%	 ? 8.52%	 ?15	 ?-??	 ?25	 ? 3.88%	 ? n/a	 ?25	 ?-??	 ?35	 ? 3.86%	 ? n/a	 ?	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?2	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?properties	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ? Page	 ?7	 ?/	 ?28 	 ?Part	 ?3	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?volumetric	 ?water	 ?content	 ?	 ?Calibration	 ?of	 ?CS616	 ?TDR	 ?systems	 ?Soil	 ?volumetric	 ?water	 ?content	 ??w	 ?was	 ?estimated	 ?using	 ?continuously	 ?operated	 ?CS616	 ?water	 ?content	 ?reflectometers	 ?at	 ?each	 ?site	 ?(5cm	 ?depth).	 ?AT	 ?SS2	 ?a	 ?profile	 ?of	 ?4	 ?CS616	 ?sensors	 ?at	 ?2	 ?cm,	 ?5	 ?cm,	 ?10	 ?cm	 ?and	 ?20	 ?cm	 ?was	 ?operated.	 ?At	 ??Westham	 ?Island?	 ?two	 ?CS616	 ?systems	 ?were	 ?installed	 ?at	 ?5cm	 ?and	 ?50	 ?cm	 ?depth.	 ?A	 ?total	 ?of	 ?55	 ?soil	 ?cores	 ?have	 ?been	 ?taken	 ?at	 ?different	 ?times	 ?of	 ?the	 ?year	 ?in	 ?2008	 ?and	 ?2009	 ?to	 ?calibrate	 ?the	 ?CS616	 ?sensors.	 ?All	 ?samples	 ?were	 ?extracted	 ?centered	 ?at	 ?5	 ?cm	 ?depth,	 ?where	 ?the	 ?CS616	 ?were	 ?operated.	 ?The	 ?cores	 ?were	 ?analyzed	 ?in	 ?the	 ?lab	 ?for	 ?soil	 ?water	 ?content	 ?(gravimetric	 ?method)	 ?to	 ?correct	 ?soil	 ?volumetric	 ?water	 ?content	 ?measurements.	 ?A	 ?detailed	 ?description	 ?of	 ?the	 ?sampling	 ?and	 ?analysis	 ?procedures	 ?of	 ?the	 ?cores	 ?is	 ?summarized	 ?in	 ?Appendix	 ?1.	 ?	 ?The	 ?uncorrected	 ?measured	 ?period	 ??uncorr	 ?of	 ?the	 ?CS616	 ?were	 ?corrected	 ?for	 ?soil	 ?temperature	 ?Ts	 ?dependence	 ?according	 ?to	 ?[1],	 ?with	 ?Ts	 ?was	 ?the	 ?collocated	 ?soil	 ?temperature	 ?reading.	 ?Situations	 ?with	 ?Ts	 ?on	 ?average	 ?below	 ?1.0?C	 ?over	 ?a	 ?4-??hr	 ?period	 ?were	 ?masked	 ?out,	 ?because	 ?likely	 ?ice	 ?formation	 ?was	 ?causing	 ?errors	 ?in	 ?the	 ?TDR	 ?measurements.	 ?	 ?	 ? (Eq.	 ?1)	 ?The	 ?corrected	 ??corr	 ?period	 ?of	 ?the	 ?CS616,	 ?is	 ?then	 ?converted	 ?to	 ?the	 ?volumetric	 ?water	 ?content	 ??w	 ?using	 ?a	 ?linear	 ?calibration	 ?based	 ?on	 ?the	 ?result	 ?of	 ?the	 ?lab	 ?analysis,	 ?using	 ?the	 ?coefficients	 ?listed	 ?in	 ?Tab.	 ?6:	 ?	 ? 	 ? (Eq.	 ?2)	 ?Times	 ?resulting	 ?in	 ?values	 ?above	 ?the	 ?porosity	 ?were	 ?set	 ?to	 ?the	 ?porosity,	 ?which	 ?is	 ?considered	 ?the	 ?physical	 ?limit	 ?(Table	 ?2).	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?2	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?properties	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ? Page	 ?8	 ?/	 ?28 	 ?Table	 ?6	 ??	 ?Calibration	 ?coefficients	 ?for	 ?long-??term	 ?CS616	 ?instruments	 ?derived	 ?from	 ?lab	 ?analysis	 ?Site	 ? No	 ?of	 ?laboratory	 ?samples	 ?a	 ?	 ?(m3	 ?m-??3	 ??S-??1)	 ? b	 ?	 ?(m3	 ?m-??3)	 ? ?2	 ? Comments	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ?Oakridge	 ?1	 ?(OR1)	 ? 4	 ? 0.039	 ? -??0.623	 ? 0.0060	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ?Oakridge	 ?2	 ?(OR2)	 ? 4	 ? 0.025	 ? -??0.377	 ? 0.0030	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ?Oakridge	 ?3	 ?(OR3)	 ? 3	 ? 0.033	 ? -??0.494	 ? 0.0000	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ?Oakridge	 ?4	 ?(OR4)*	 ? 7	 ? 0.025	 ? -??0.337	 ? 0.0849	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ?Sunset	 ?1	 ?(SS1)	 ? 5	 ? 0.028	 ? -??0.448	 ? 0.0136	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ?Sunset	 ?2	 ?(SS2)	 ? 6	 ? 0.023	 ? -??0.366	 ? 0.0174	 ? All	 ?sensors	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ?Sunset	 ?3	 ?(SS3)	 ? 6	 ? 0.023	 ? -??0.333	 ? 0.0104	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ?Sunset	 ?4	 ?(SS4)	 ? 5	 ? 0.044	 ? -??0.712	 ? 0.0002	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ?Westham	 ?Island	 ?(WI)	 ? 12	 ? 0.015	 ? -??0.208	 ? 0.0282	 ? Both	 ?sensors	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ?*	 ?fit	 ?was	 ?unsuccessful,	 ?uses	 ?fit	 ?through	 ?all	 ?the	 ?soils	 ?in	 ?the	 ?neighborhood	 ??Vancouver	 ?Oakridge?.	 ?	 ?  EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?2	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?properties	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ? Page	 ?9	 ?/	 ?28 	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?2	 ??	 ?Measured	 ?(temperature	 ?corrected)	 ?CS616	 ?period	 ?in	 ??sec	 ?vs.	 ?volumetric	 ?water	 ?content	 ?measured	 ?in	 ?the	 ?lab	 ?using	 ?the	 ?gravimetric	 ?method	 ?for	 ?all	 ?sites	 ?in	 ?the	 ??Vancouver-??Oakridge?	 ?area.	 ?The	 ?dotted	 ?line	 ?is	 ?the	 ?generic	 ?polynomial	 ?function	 ?for	 ?mineral	 ?soil	 ?provided	 ?by	 ?the	 ?manufacturer	 ?[1],	 ?the	 ?black	 ?line	 ?is	 ?the	 ?best	 ?linear	 ?fit	 ?used	 ?in	 ?the	 ?correction	 ?of	 ?the	 ?CS616	 ?readings.	 ?CS616_vs_lab_OR10 10 20 30 40 50CS 616 period (micro s)0.00.20.40.60.81.0Volumetric water content (Lab analysis, %)Linear: WVC (Lab) =  0.039 * P +  -0.62P is the temperature-corrected period of the CS616 (in micro Seconds)07/28/0808/21/0810/20/0811/17/08CS616_vs_lab_OR20 10 20 30 40 50CS 616 period (micro s)0.00.20.40.60.81.0Volumetric water content (Lab analysis, %)Linear: WVC (Lab) =  0.025 * P +  -0.38P is the temperature-corrected period of the CS616 (in micro Seconds)07/28/0808/21/0811/17/0807/05/09CS616_vs_lab_OR30 10 20 30 40 50CS 616 period (micro s)0.00.20.40.60.81.0Volumetric water content (Lab analysis, %)Linear: WVC (Lab) =  0.033 * P +  -0.49P is the temperature-corrected period of the CS616 (in micro Seconds)07/28/0808/21/0810/20/08CS616_vs_lab_OR40 10 20 30 40 50CS 616 period (micro s)0.00.20.40.60.81.0Volumetric water content (Lab analysis, %)Linear: WVC (Lab) =  0.028 * P +  -0.39P is the temperature-corrected period of the CS616 (in micro Seconds)07/22/0808/21/0810/20/0811/17/0806/08/0907/05/09 08/17/09EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?2	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?properties	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ? Page	 ?10	 ?/	 ?28 	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?3	 ??	 ?Measured	 ?(temperature	 ?corrected)	 ?CS616	 ?period	 ?in	 ??sec	 ?vs.	 ?volumetric	 ?water	 ?content	 ?measured	 ?in	 ?the	 ?lab	 ?using	 ?the	 ?gravimetric	 ?method	 ?for	 ?all	 ?sites	 ?in	 ?the	 ??Vancouver-??Sunset	 ?area.	 ?The	 ?dotted	 ?line	 ?is	 ?the	 ?generic	 ?polynomial	 ?function	 ?for	 ?mineral	 ?soil	 ?provided	 ?by	 ?the	 ?manufacturer	 ?[1],	 ?the	 ?black	 ?line	 ?is	 ?the	 ?best	 ?linear	 ?fit	 ?used	 ?in	 ?the	 ?correction	 ?of	 ?the	 ?CS616	 ?readings.	 ?CS616_vs_lab_SS10 10 20 30 40 50CS 616 period (micro s)0.00.20.40.60.81.0Volumetric water content (Lab analysis, %)Linear: WVC (Lab) =  0.028 * P +  -0.45P is the temperature-corrected period of the CS616 (in micro Seconds)08/01/0808/21/0811/05/0807/05/0908/17/09CS616_vs_lab_SS20 10 20 30 40 50CS 616 period (micro s)0.00.20.40.60.81.0Volumetric water content (Lab analysis, %)Linear: WVC (Lab) =  0.023 * P +  -0.37P is the temperature-corrected period of the CS616 (in micro Seconds)07/22/0808/21/0806/08/0907/05/0908/17/09CS616_vs_lab_SS30 10 20 30 40 50CS 616 period (micro s)0.00.20.40.60.81.0Volumetric water content (Lab analysis, %)Linear: WVC (Lab) =  0.023 * P +  -0.33P is the temperature-corrected period of the CS616 (in micro Seconds)08/01/0808/21/0811/05/0806/08/0907/05/0908/17/09CS616_vs_lab_SS40 10 20 30 40 50CS 616 period (micro s)0.00.20.40.60.81.0Volumetric water content (Lab analysis, %)Linear: WVC (Lab) =  0.044 * P +  -0.71P is the temperature-corrected period of the CS616 (in micro Seconds)07/28/0808/21/0811/05/0806/08/0907/05/09EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?2	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?properties	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ? Page	 ?11	 ?/	 ?28 	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?4	 ??	 ?Measured	 ?(temperature	 ?corrected)	 ?CS616	 ?period	 ?in	 ??sec	 ?vs.	 ?volumetric	 ?water	 ?content	 ?measured	 ?in	 ?the	 ?lab	 ?using	 ?the	 ?gravimetric	 ?method	 ?for	 ?the	 ?site	 ??Westham	 ?Island?.	 ?The	 ?dotted	 ?line	 ?is	 ?the	 ?generic	 ?polynomial	 ?function	 ?for	 ?mineral	 ?soil	 ?provided	 ?by	 ?the	 ?manufacturer	 ?[1],	 ?the	 ?black	 ?line	 ?is	 ?the	 ?best	 ?linear	 ?fit	 ?used	 ?in	 ?the	 ?correction	 ?of	 ?the	 ?CS616	 ?readings.	 ?See	 ?also	 ?Part	 ?5	 ?of	 ?this	 ?report	 ?discussing	 ?influences	 ?of	 ?salinity.	 ?CS616_vs_lab_WI0 10 20 30 40 50CS 616 period (micro s)0.00.20.40.60.81.0Volumetric water content (Lab analysis, %)Linear: WVC (Lab) =  0.015 * P +  -0.21P is the temperature-corrected period of the CS616 (in micro Seconds)07/24/0808/21/0809/09/0810/15/0810/27/0811/07/0806/23/0907/06/0907/06/0907/14/0907/27/09EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?2	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?properties	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ? Page	 ?12	 ?/	 ?28 	 ?Correction	 ?of	 ?hand-??held	 ?TDR	 ?(CS620)	 ?	 ?Additional	 ?spatial	 ?sampling	 ?of	 ?water	 ?content	 ?was	 ?achieved	 ?using	 ?manual	 ?measurements	 ?using	 ?a	 ?handheld	 ?TDR	 ?(?Hydrosense?	 ?CS620,	 ?CD620	 ?with	 ?12	 ?cm	 ?probe,	 ?Campbell	 ?Scientific,	 ?Logan,	 ?USA),	 ?and	 ?measured	 ?at	 ?5	 ?pre-??defined	 ?sampling	 ?locations	 ?at	 ?each	 ?lawn	 ?/	 ?site	 ?(10	 ?sampling	 ?locations	 ?at	 ?Westham	 ?Island)	 ?during	 ?CO2	 ?chamber	 ?measurements	 ?in	 ?2008	 ?and	 ?2009.	 ?The	 ?CS620	 ?probe	 ?was	 ?inserted	 ?vertically	 ?and	 ?provided	 ?average	 ?soil	 ?volumetric	 ?water	 ?content	 ?from	 ?0	 ?to	 ?12	 ?cm.	 ?The	 ?CS620	 ?was	 ?corrected	 ?using	 ?a	 ?linear,	 ?site-??individual	 ?fit	 ?between	 ?the	 ?corrected	 ?CS616	 ?(long-??term	 ?system,	 ?see	 ?previous	 ?section)	 ?and	 ?the	 ?CS620	 ?readings	 ?at	 ?sampling	 ?location	 ?#1	 ?(see	 ?Table	 ?7,	 ?Figures	 ?5):	 ? ?CS620	 ?(corrected)	 ?=	 ?a ?CS620	 ?(uncorrected)	 ?+	 ?b	 ? (Eq.	 ?4)	 ?	 ?Sampling	 ?location	 ?#1,	 ?where	 ?the	 ?fit	 ?was	 ?applied,	 ?was	 ?co-??located	 ?with	 ?the	 ?CS616	 ?at	 ?all	 ?sites.	 ?	 ?Table	 ?7	 ??	 ?Site	 ?individual	 ?correction	 ?factors	 ?for	 ?the	 ?CS620	 ?handheld	 ?probe	 ?used	 ?during	 ?EPiCC	 ?expressed	 ?as	 ?a	 ?linear	 ?regression	 ?between	 ?CS620	 ?reading	 ?at	 ?sample	 ?location	 ?#1	 ?(where	 ?long-??term	 ?CS616	 ?was	 ?located)	 ?and	 ?corrected	 ?CS616	 ?reading	 ?(Eq.	 ?4).	 ?Site	 ? Samples	 ?	 ? a	 ?	 ? b	 ?(m-??3	 ?m-??3)	 ? ?2	 ?	 ?Oakridge	 ?1	 ?(OR1)	 ? 7	 ? 1.332	 ? 0.045	 ? 0.0063	 ?Oakridge	 ?2	 ?(OR2)	 ? 11	 ? 0.898	 ? 0.054	 ? 0.0040	 ?Oakridge	 ?3	 ?(OR3)	 ? 10	 ? 1.006(a)	 ? 0.070(a)	 ? 	 ?Oakridge	 ?4	 ?(OR4)	 ? 10	 ? 1.144	 ? 0.064	 ? 0.0160	 ?Sunset	 ?1	 ?(SS1)	 ? 9	 ? 1.146	 ? 0.038	 ? 0.0119	 ?Sunset	 ?2	 ?(SS1)	 ? 9	 ? 1.080	 ? 0.053	 ? 0.0033	 ?Sunset	 ?3	 ?(SS1)	 ? 8	 ? 0.785	 ? 0.046	 ? 0.0015	 ?Sunset	 ?4	 ?(SS1)	 ? 9	 ? 1.332	 ? 0.010	 ? 0.0115	 ?Westham	 ?Island	 ?(WI)	 ? 8(b)	 ? 0.407(b)	 ? 0.090(b)	 ?  	 ?(a)	 ?Regression	 ?analysis	 ?failed	 ?(not	 ?a	 ?significant	 ?correlation).	 ?Therefore	 ?the	 ?average	 ?fit	 ?between	 ?CS620	 ?probe	 ?reading	 ?and	 ?soil	 ?gravimetric	 ?analysis	 ?for	 ?all	 ?Oakridge	 ?soils	 ?is	 ?used.	 ?(b)	 ?Regression	 ?analysis	 ?between	 ?CS620	 ?probe	 ?and	 ?CS616	 ?failed	 ?due	 ?to	 ?salinity	 ?influence	 ?on	 ?TDRs.	 ?The	 ?fit	 ?between	 ?CS620	 ?probe	 ?and	 ?gravimetric	 ?samples	 ?is	 ?used	 ?instead	 ?(based	 ?on	 ?8	 ?gravimetric	 ?samples).	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?2	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?properties	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ? Page	 ?13	 ?/	 ?28 	 ? Figure	 ?7	 ??	 ?Measured	 ?CS620	 ?(?Hydrosense?)	 ?volumetric	 ?water	 ?content	 ?vs.	 ?corrected	 ?volumetric	 ?water	 ?content	 ?from	 ?CS616	 ?system.	 ?The	 ?dashed	 ?line	 ?is	 ?the	 ?linear	 ?fit	 ?according	 ?to	 ?Eq.	 ?4,	 ?the	 ?full	 ?line	 ?is	 ?a	 ?1:1	 ?line	 ?for	 ?comparison.	 ?The	 ?fit	 ?failed	 ?for	 ?OR3	 ?and	 ?WI.	 ?OR10 20 40 60 80VWC Hydrosense uncorrected (%)020406080VWC CS616 corrected (%)VWCCS616 = 1.332 WVCHy +  0.045OR20 20 40 60 80VWC Hydrosense uncorrected (%)020406080VWC CS616 corrected (%)VWCCS616 = 0.898 WVCHy +  0.054OR30 20 40 60 80VWC Hydrosense uncorrected (%)020406080VWC CS616 corrected (%)OR40 20 40 60 80VWC Hydrosense uncorrected (%)020406080VWC CS616 corrected (%)VWCCS616 = 1.144 WVCHy +  0.064SS10 20 40 60 80VWC Hydrosense uncorrected (%)020406080VWC CS616 corrected (%)VWCCS616 = 1.146 WVCHy +  0.038SS30 20 40 60 80VWC Hydrosense uncorrected (%Sampling location #1 (co-located with CS616)Sampling locations #2-5 (#2-10 for WI) (different location than CS616 on same lawn))020406080VWC CS616 corrected (%)VWCCS616 = 0.785 WVCHy +  0.046SS20 20 40 60 80VWC Hydrosense uncorrected (%)020406080VWC CS616 corrected (%)VWCCS616 = 1.080 WVCHy +  0.053SS40 20 40 60 80VWC Hydrosense uncorrected (%)020406080VWC CS616 corrected (%)VWCCS616 = 1.332 WVCHy +  0.010WI0 50 100 150VWC Hydrosense uncorrected (%)020406080VWC CS616 corrected (%)EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?2	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?properties	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ? Page	 ?14	 ?/	 ?28 	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?8	 ??	 ?Comparison	 ?of	 ?corrected	 ?CS620	 ?(?Hydrosense?)	 ?values	 ?(x-??axis)	 ?measured	 ?at	 ?sampling	 ?locations	 ?1-??5	 ?on	 ?each	 ?of	 ?the	 ?sites	 ?(OR1-??4,	 ?SS1-??4	 ?and	 ?WI)	 ?vs.	 ?readings	 ?of	 ?the	 ?long-??term	 ?CS616	 ?system	 ?at	 ?sampling	 ?location	 ?1.	 ?Note	 ?that	 ?sampling	 ?locations	 ?2	 ?-??5	 ?were	 ?not	 ?co-??located	 ?with	 ?the	 ?CS616	 ?but	 ?chosen	 ?to	 ?represent	 ?different	 ?temperature	 ?and	 ?water	 ?regimes	 ?than	 ?the	 ?long-??term	 ?system,	 ?so	 ?part	 ?of	 ?the	 ?variability	 ?shown	 ?is	 ?due	 ?to	 ?microscale	 ?soil	 ?moisture	 ?differences	 ?on	 ?the	 ?lawns.	 ?	 ?0 20 40 60 80w Hydrosense corrected (%)020406080w CS616 corrected (%)OR1OR2OR3OR4SS1SS2SS3SS4WIEPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?2	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?properties	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ? Page	 ?15	 ?/	 ?28 	 ?Part	 ?4	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?heat	 ?flux	 ?density	 ?Soil	 ?heat	 ?flux	 ?densities	 ?(QG)	 ?was	 ?measured	 ?at	 ?four	 ?location	 ?each	 ?in	 ?the	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ?neighborhood	 ?(SS1	 ??	 ?4)	 ?and	 ?the	 ?Vancouver-??Oakridge	 ?neighborhood	 ?(OR1	 ??	 ?4),	 ?and	 ?at	 ?3	 ?locations	 ?at	 ?the	 ?site	 ??Westham	 ?Island?	 ?(Tables	 ?1	 ?and	 ?8).	 ?QG	 ?sensors	 ?were	 ?placed	 ?below	 ?ground	 ?at	 ?approximately	 ?5	 ?cm	 ?depth	 ?(Figure	 ?1,	 ?Table	 ?8).	 ?	 ?QG	 ?measurements	 ?were	 ?then	 ?adjusted	 ?based	 ?on	 ?co-??located	 ?soil	 ?thermocouples	 ?that	 ?measured	 ?the	 ?rate	 ?of	 ?change	 ?in	 ?soil	 ?temperatures	 ?Ts,	 ?and	 ?taking	 ?into	 ?account	 ?corrected	 ?soil	 ?moisture	 ?(see	 ?part	 ?3	 ?of	 ?this	 ?report),	 ?to	 ?correct	 ?for	 ?heat	 ?storage	 ?in	 ?the	 ?soil	 ?layer	 ?above	 ?the	 ?sensor	 ?(i.e.	 ?form	 ?0	 ?to	 ?5	 ?cm).	 ?Following	 ?[2],	 ?the	 ?corrected	 ?QG,surface	 ?term	 ?was	 ?calculated	 ?as:	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?(Eq.	 ?3)	 ?where	 ?CS	 ?is	 ?the	 ?heat	 ?capacity	 ?of	 ?the	 ?soil	 ?calculated	 ?as:	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?(Eq.	 ?4)	 ?	 ?and	 ??p	 ?is	 ?the	 ?particle	 ?density	 ?determined	 ?as:	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?(Eq.	 ?5)	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ?? QG,surface= QG,5cm+dTsdtCSzEPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?2	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?properties	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ? Page	 ?16	 ?/	 ?28 	 ?Table	 ?8.	 ?	 ?Sensor	 ?details,	 ?installation	 ?depth	 ?and	 ?calibrations	 ?for	 ?all	 ?EPiCC	 ?soil	 ?heat	 ?flux	 ?plates.	 ?	 ?Site	 ? Model	 ? Serial	 ?number	 ? Calibrations	 ?positive,	 ?negative	 ?(W	 ?m-??2	 ?mV-??1)	 ?Depth	 ?	 ?(m)	 ?OR1	 ? Middleton	 ? F182	 ? 31.9650,	 ?34.9650	 ? 0.07	 ?OR2	 ? Middleton	 ? F579	 ? 45.8716,	 ?47.3934	 ? 0.06	 ?OR3	 ? Middleton	 ? F614	 ? 46.5116,	 ?46.7290	 ? 0.07	 ?OR4	 ?2	 ? Middleton	 ? F239	 ? 37.4532,	 ?39.0625	 ? 0.04	 ?SS1	 ? Middleton	 ? F246	 ? 40.9836,	 ?42.3729	 ? 0.05	 ?SS2	 ? Middleton	 ? F658-??38	 ? 41.8410,	 ?41.8410	 ? 0.05	 ?SS3	 ? Middleton	 ? F241	 ? 42.9185,	 ?41.8410	 ? 0.05	 ?SS4	 ?3	 ? Middleton	 ? G0173	 ? 43.6308,	 ?44.5450	 ? 0.05	 ?WI	 ?4	 ? Middleton	 ? F695	 ? 49.7512,	 ?50.2513	 ? 0.05	 ?WI	 ? Middleton	 ? F710	 ? 49.2611,	 ?50.0000	 ? 0.05	 ?WI	 ? Middleton	 ? F716	 ? 49.7512,	 ?51.0204	 ? 0.05	 ?	 ?	 ?Because	 ?TS	 ?is	 ?has	 ?a	 ?relatively	 ?slow	 ?response	 ?time,	 ?and	 ?to	 ?reduce	 ?effects	 ?of	 ?sensor	 ?noise,	 ?a	 ?2-??hour	 ?running	 ?average	 ?of	 ?5-??minute	 ?values	 ?of	 ?TS	 ?was	 ?used	 ?to	 ?determine	 ?the	 ?5-??minute	 ?  term	 ?in	 ?Eq.	 ?3.	 ?	 ?Symbol	 ?definitions	 ?and	 ?values	 ?are	 ?listed	 ?in	 ?Table	 ?9.	 ?	 ?                                                2	 ?Incorrect	 ?instrument	 ?calibrations	 ?were	 ?used	 ?in	 ?the	 ?OR4	 ?logger	 ?program	 ?(F695	 ?instead	 ?of	 ?F246).	 ?	 ?To	 ?correct,	 ?1)	 ?the	 ?raw	 ?voltage	 ?signal	 ?was	 ?calculated	 ?using	 ?the	 ?incorrect	 ?coefficients	 ?(F695)	 ?and	 ?2)	 ?this	 ?voltage	 ?was	 ?multiplied	 ?by	 ?the	 ?correct	 ?coefficients	 ?(F246).	 ?	 ?3	 ?There	 ?are	 ?no	 ?calibration	 ?coefficients	 ?given	 ?for	 ?G0173	 ?and	 ?coefficients	 ?for	 ?F658-??38	 ?are	 ?used	 ?in	 ?the	 ?logger	 ?program.	 ?	 ?Values	 ?were	 ?then	 ?adjusted	 ?as	 ?in	 ?footnote	 ?2	 ?using	 ?the	 ?average	 ?coefficients	 ?of	 ?all	 ?other	 ?soil	 ?heat	 ?flux	 ?plates.	 ?4	 ?The	 ?three	 ?WI	 ?QG	 ?measurements	 ?are	 ?averaged	 ?to	 ?give	 ?one	 ?WI	 ?QG	 ?value	 ?in	 ?the	 ?final	 ?product	 ?(database).	 ?? dTsdtEPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?2	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?properties	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ? Page	 ?17	 ?/	 ?28 	 ?Part	 ?5	 ??	 ?Salinity	 ?at	 ?Westham	 ?Island	 ? Due	 ?to	 ?its	 ?proximity	 ?to	 ?the	 ?coast,	 ?the	 ?rural	 ?site	 ??Westham	 ?Island?	 ?was	 ?subject	 ?to	 ?seawater	 ?intrusion	 ?causing	 ?elevated	 ?salinity	 ?in	 ?the	 ?site?s	 ?soil.	 ?	 ?If	 ?was	 ?found	 ?that	 ?the	 ?increased	 ?electrical	 ?conductivity	 ?of	 ?this	 ?sea-??salt-??affected	 ?soil	 ?water	 ?influenced	 ?TDR	 ?measurements	 ?(both,	 ?CS616	 ?and	 ?CS620	 ??Hydrosense?)	 ?of	 ?volumetric	 ?water	 ?content	 ?at	 ?the	 ?site?s	 ?permanent	 ?monitoring	 ?station	 ?(not	 ?the	 ?gravimetric	 ?samples).	 ?	 ?Seasonality	 ?in	 ?freshwater	 ?(precipitation)	 ?inputs,	 ?and	 ?drying	 ?cycles	 ?results	 ?in	 ?variable	 ?electrical	 ?conductivity	 ?and	 ?variable	 ?influence	 ?of	 ?soil	 ?salinity	 ?on	 ?volumetric	 ?water	 ?content	 ?measurements,	 ?with	 ?increasing	 ?electrical	 ?conductivity	 ?towards	 ?the	 ?end	 ?of	 ?the	 ?summer.	 ?	 ?	 ?Details	 ?of	 ?the	 ?measurement	 ?procedure	 ?are	 ?documented	 ?in	 ?Appendix	 ?3.	 ?	 ?Table	 ?9	 ??	 ?Electrical	 ?conductivity	 ?of	 ?soil	 ?water	 ?extracted	 ?from	 ?saturated	 ?paste,	 ?and	 ?calculated	 ?equivalent	 ?electrical	 ?conductivity	 ?of	 ?a	 ?1:1	 ?soil:water	 ?extract	 ?	 ?Date	 ?of	 ?Extraction	 ? Time	 ?of	 ?Extraction	 ?	 ?(PST)	 ? ECSP	 ?	 ?(dS/m)	 ? EC1:1	 ?(dS/m)	 ?May	 ?29,	 ?2009	 ? 14:45	 ? 0.00036	 ? 0.00017	 ?June	 ?9,	 ?2009	 ? 9:50	 ? 0.00040	 ? 0.00019	 ?June	 ?23,	 ?2009	 ? 10:20	 ? 1.80	 ? 0.85	 ?July	 ?6,	 ?2009	 ? 9:25	 ? 3.80	 ? 1.80	 ?July	 ?14,	 ?2009	 ? 12:15	 ? 2.61	 ? 1.24	 ?July	 ?27,	 ?2009	 ? 10:15	 ? 6.33	 ? 2.99	 ?August	 ?17,	 ?2009	 ? 13:20	 ? 6.25	 ? 2.96	 ?Sept	 ?2,	 ?2009	 ? 13:40	 ? 3.35	 ? 1.59	 ? 	 ?	 ? 	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?2	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?properties	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ? Page	 ?18	 ?/	 ?28 	 ?Table	 ?10.	 ?	 ?Symbols,	 ?constants	 ?and	 ?units	 ?used	 ?in	 ?this	 ?report.	 ?Symbol	 ? Definition	 ? Units	 ? Value	 ?a	 ? Slope	 ?coefficient	 ?for	 ?CS616	 ?TDR	 ? m3	 ?m-??3	 ??S-??1	 ? 	 ?b	 ? Offset	 ?coefficient	 ?for	 ?CS616	 ?TDR	 ? m3	 ?m-??3	 ? 	 ?cM	 ? Specific	 ?heat	 ?of	 ?soil	 ?mineral	 ?content	 ? J	 ?kg-??1	 ?K-??1	 ? 800	 ?cO	 ? Specific	 ?heat	 ?of	 ?soil	 ?organic	 ?content	 ? J	 ?kg-??1	 ?K-??1	 ? 1,900	 ?CS	 ? Heat	 ?capacity	 ?of	 ?soil	 ? J	 ?m-??3	 ?K-??1	 ? 	 ?CW	 ? Heat	 ?capacity	 ?of	 ?water	 ? J	 ?m-??3	 ?K-??1	 ? 4,180,000	 ?MO	 ? Mass	 ?fraction	 ?of	 ?soil	 ?organic	 ?material	 ?(of	 ?dry	 ?soil)	 ? kg	 ?kg-??1	 ? Refer	 ?to	 ?Part	 ?2	 ?MM	 ? Mass	 ?fraction	 ?of	 ?soil	 ?mineral	 ?material	 ?(of	 ?dry	 ?soil)	 ? kg	 ?kg-??1	 ? 1	 ?-??	 ?Mo	 ?p	 ? Soil	 ?porosity	 ? m3	 ?m-??3	 ? Refer	 ?to	 ?Part	 ?1	 ?QG	 ? Soil	 ?heat	 ?flux	 ?density	 ? W	 ?m-??2	 ? 	 ?TS	 ? Soil	 ?temperature	 ? K	 ? 	 ?t	 ? Time	 ? s	 ? 	 ?z	 ? Depth	 ?of	 ?soil	 ?heat	 ?flux	 ?plate	 ? m	 ? Refer	 ?Table	 ?7	 ??S	 ? Soil	 ?volumetric	 ?water	 ?content	 ? m3	 ?m-??3	 ? Refer	 ?to	 ?Part	 ?3	 ??O	 ? Generic	 ?density	 ?of	 ?soil	 ?organic	 ?content	 ? kg	 ?m-??3	 ? 1,300	 ??M	 ? Generic	 ?density	 ?of	 ?soil	 ?mineral	 ?content	 ? kg	 ?m-??3	 ? 2,650	 ??p	 ? Particle	 ?density	 ?of	 ?soil	 ? kg	 ?m-??3	 ? See	 ?Eq.	 ?5	 ??	 ? Measurement	 ?period	 ?of	 ?the	 ?TDR	 ?(CS616)	 ? ?s	 ? 	 ?	 ?	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?2	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?properties	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ? Page	 ?19	 ?/	 ?28 	 ?Appendix	 ?1	 ??	 ?Measurement	 ?procedures	 ?for	 ?soil	 ?organic	 ?content	 ?Purpose:	 ?to	 ?measure	 ?organic	 ?content	 ?of	 ?given	 ?soil	 ?Part	 ?A:	 ?Field	 ?sampling	 ?Tools:	 ?Auger-??type	 ?corer,	 ?measuring	 ?tape,	 ?Ziploc	 ?bags	 ?or	 ?suitable	 ?soil	 ?sample	 ?cans,	 ?sample	 ?removal	 ?tool.	 ?1. Select	 ?location	 ?at	 ?site	 ??	 ?ensure	 ?that	 ?the	 ?location	 ?is	 ?close	 ?enough	 ?to	 ?the	 ?CO2	 ?chamber	 ?measurement	 ?area	 ?without	 ?interfering	 ?with	 ?soil	 ?properties.	 ?2. Clear	 ?away	 ?grass/vegetation	 ?at	 ?surface	 ??	 ?take	 ?care	 ?to	 ?remove	 ?grass	 ?and	 ?roots	 ?without	 ?cutting	 ?into	 ?the	 ?surface	 ?layer	 ?in	 ?order	 ?to	 ?preserve	 ?the	 ?0-??3cm	 ?layer	 ?as	 ?much	 ?as	 ?possible.	 ?3. Insert	 ?corer,	 ?taking	 ?care	 ?to	 ?break	 ?the	 ?surface	 ?layer	 ?(i.e.	 ?organic	 ?material	 ?in	 ?layer)	 ?before	 ?exerting	 ?too	 ?much	 ?pressure.	 ?	 ?Push	 ?straight	 ?down	 ?to	 ?desired	 ?measurement	 ?depth	 ?and	 ?twist	 ?when	 ?necessary	 ?to	 ?push	 ?through	 ?any	 ?roots.	 ?	 ?If	 ?the	 ?corer	 ?encounters	 ?a	 ?large	 ?rock,	 ?remove	 ?and	 ?begin	 ?again	 ?at	 ?another	 ?location.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?4. When	 ?desired	 ?depth	 ?is	 ?reached,	 ?remove	 ?corer	 ?slowly	 ?straight	 ?upward,	 ?ensuring	 ?that	 ?the	 ?core	 ?remains	 ?intact.	 ?	 ?If	 ?the	 ?soil	 ?type	 ?is	 ?sandy	 ?and	 ?loose,	 ?gently	 ?lean	 ?the	 ?sample	 ?back	 ?a	 ?few	 ?degrees	 ?in	 ?order	 ?to	 ?keep	 ?the	 ?sample	 ?sitting	 ?in	 ?the	 ?corer.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?2	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?properties	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ? Page	 ?20	 ?/	 ?28 	 ?5. Measure	 ?sample	 ?depth/length	 ?starting	 ?from	 ?the	 ??top?	 ?of	 ?the	 ?sample	 ?and	 ?designate	 ?each	 ?layer	 ?to	 ?be	 ?removed	 ?separately	 ?(ie.	 ?0-??3cm,	 ?3-??6cm).	 ?	 ?Use	 ?separation	 ?tool	 ?to	 ?separate	 ?each	 ?layer	 ?and	 ?scoop	 ?the	 ?sample	 ?into	 ?a	 ?Ziploc	 ?bag	 ?or	 ?can.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?6. Label	 ?each	 ?bag/can	 ?with	 ?date	 ?and	 ?time	 ?of	 ?removal,	 ?as	 ?well	 ?as	 ?sample	 ?location	 ?and	 ?depth.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?7. Refill	 ?hole	 ?with	 ?available	 ?soil	 ?and	 ?re-??seed	 ?areas	 ?of	 ?disturbed	 ?grass	 ?if	 ?necessary.	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?2	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?properties	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ? Page	 ?21	 ?/	 ?28 	 ?Part	 ?B:	 ?Lab	 ?analysis	 ?	 ?Equipment:	 ?Drying	 ?oven,	 ?Muffler	 ?oven,	 ?Drying	 ?cans,	 ?crucibles,	 ?weigh	 ?scale,	 ?oven	 ?mitts,	 ?high-??temperature	 ?gloves,	 ?crucible-??tongs.	 ?8. At	 ?this	 ?point	 ?there	 ?is	 ?one	 ?sample	 ?for	 ?each	 ?layer	 ?at	 ?chosen	 ?locations	 ?within	 ?each	 ?site.	 ?In	 ?one	 ?bag,	 ?combine	 ?samples	 ?of	 ?specific	 ?layers	 ?(ie.	 ?3-??6cm)	 ?from	 ?all	 ?locations	 ?at	 ?each	 ?site.	 ?	 ?	 ?9. Weigh	 ?cans	 ?to	 ?be	 ?used	 ?for	 ?drying,	 ?record	 ?weights	 ?and	 ?assign	 ?cans	 ?to	 ?individual	 ?samples.	 ?10. Place	 ?each	 ?combined/mixed	 ?sample	 ?in	 ?separate	 ?can,	 ?weigh	 ?and	 ?record	 ?information.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?11. Pre-??heat	 ?drying	 ?oven	 ?to	 ?105?C.	 ?Place	 ?combined	 ?samples	 ?from	 ?all	 ?layers	 ?in	 ?oven	 ?for	 ?a	 ?24-??hour	 ?period.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?2	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?properties	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ? Page	 ?22	 ?/	 ?28 	 ?12. Remove	 ?cans	 ?from	 ?oven	 ?using	 ?oven	 ?mitts	 ?or	 ?appropriate	 ?hand	 ?protection.	 ?	 ?Weigh	 ?samples	 ?and	 ?record	 ?information.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?13. Weigh	 ?crucibles	 ?and	 ?assign	 ?crucibles	 ?to	 ?oven-??dried	 ?samples.	 ?	 ?Place	 ?samples	 ?in	 ?crucibles,	 ?weigh	 ?and	 ?record	 ?information.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?2	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?properties	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ? Page	 ?23	 ?/	 ?28 	 ?14. Pre-??heat	 ?muffler	 ?oven	 ?to	 ?300?C	 ?and	 ?place	 ?crucibles	 ?in	 ?oven	 ?for	 ?60	 ?minutes.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?15. Open	 ?oven	 ?door	 ?slightly	 ?and	 ?raise	 ?temperature	 ?of	 ?muffler	 ?oven	 ?to	 ?500?C.	 ?	 ?Leave	 ?samples	 ?in	 ?oven	 ?for	 ?an	 ?additional	 ?60	 ?minutes.	 ?16. Remove	 ?crucibles	 ?from	 ?oven	 ?using	 ?tongs	 ?and	 ?protective	 ?gloves,	 ?weigh	 ?and	 ?record	 ?information.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?17. For	 ?each	 ?mixed	 ?layer	 ?sample,	 ?by	 ?subtracting	 ?the	 ?final	 ??burned	 ?soil	 ?sample?	 ?weight	 ?from	 ?the	 ?initial	 ??dry	 ?soil	 ?sample?	 ?weight,	 ?the	 ?organic	 ?content	 ?of	 ?the	 ?sample	 ?is	 ?determined.	 ?	 ?This	 ?can	 ?be	 ?expressed	 ?as	 ?a	 ?percentage	 ?of	 ?the	 ?initial	 ?sample.	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?2	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?properties	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ? Page	 ?24	 ?/	 ?28 	 ?Appendix	 ?2	 ?-??	 ?Measurement	 ?procedures	 ?for	 ?gravimetric	 ?soil	 ?water	 ?content	 ?	 ?Purpose:	 ?to	 ?measure	 ?volumetric	 ?water	 ?content	 ?at	 ?different	 ?times	 ?of	 ?the	 ?year	 ?and	 ?extract	 ?bulk	 ?density	 ?and	 ?porosity	 ?of	 ?the	 ?given	 ?soil.	 ?Part	 ?A:	 ?Field	 ?sampling	 ?Tools:	 ?short	 ?core	 ?(5.4	 ?cm	 ?diameter),	 ?short	 ?core	 ?spacer	 ?(5.4	 ?cm	 ?diameter),	 ?piece	 ?of	 ?wood	 ?(i.e.	 ?2	 ?x	 ?4),	 ?hammer,	 ?scissors,	 ?utility	 ?knife,	 ?trowel	 ?or	 ?longer	 ?garden	 ?edger,	 ?measuring	 ?tape,	 ?Ziploc	 ?bags	 ?or	 ?suitable	 ?soil	 ?sample	 ?cans,	 ?grass	 ?seed,	 ?grass	 ?fertilizer.	 ?4. Find	 ?a	 ?suitable	 ?location	 ?close	 ?to	 ?the	 ?location	 ?of	 ?the	 ?installed	 ?CS	 ?616	 ?soil	 ?moisture	 ?instruments,	 ?with	 ?special	 ?care	 ?not	 ?to	 ?dig	 ?DIRECTLY	 ?over	 ?the	 ?instrument	 ?location.	 ?	 ?	 ?5. Use	 ?scissors	 ?to	 ?cut	 ?away	 ?any	 ?long	 ?grass,	 ?vegetation	 ?growing	 ?on	 ?the	 ?chosen	 ?surface.	 ?	 ?Clear	 ?an	 ?area	 ?of	 ?approximately	 ?10	 ?cm	 ?x	 ?10	 ?cm.	 ?	 ?Use	 ?the	 ?utility	 ?knife	 ?to	 ?cut	 ?around	 ?the	 ?edges	 ?of	 ?the	 ?area	 ?to	 ?a	 ?depth	 ?of	 ?5-??7cm.	 ?	 ?Use	 ?trowel	 ?or	 ?garden	 ?edger	 ?to	 ?remove	 ?the	 ?top	 ?2.5-??3cm	 ?layer.	 ?	 ?Clear	 ?away	 ?soil	 ?carefully	 ?to	 ?a	 ?depth	 ?of	 ?3.5cm.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?2	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?properties	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ? Page	 ?25	 ?/	 ?28 	 ?6. Place	 ?metal	 ?core	 ?in	 ?cleared	 ?area.	 ?	 ?Place	 ?core	 ?spacer	 ?directly	 ?on	 ?top	 ?of	 ?core.	 ?	 ?Place	 ?wood	 ?directly	 ?on	 ?top	 ?of	 ?spacer.	 ?	 ?Hammer	 ?wood	 ?evenly	 ?on	 ?top	 ?of	 ?core	 ?and	 ?core	 ?spacer	 ?in	 ?order	 ?to	 ?drive	 ?the	 ?core	 ?into	 ?the	 ?earth.	 ?	 ?Drive	 ?core	 ?carefully	 ?into	 ?earth	 ?until	 ?it	 ?disappears	 ?from	 ?view,	 ?leaving	 ?only	 ?spacer	 ?visible.	 ?Take	 ?care	 ?not	 ?to	 ?compact	 ?soil.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?7. Remove	 ?wood	 ?and	 ?spacer	 ?from	 ?measurement	 ?area.	 ?	 ?Gently	 ?brush	 ?the	 ?top	 ?of	 ?the	 ?core,	 ?which	 ?is	 ?now	 ?embedded	 ?slightly	 ?below	 ?the	 ?surface,	 ?until	 ?the	 ?soil	 ?within	 ?the	 ?core	 ?is	 ?flush	 ?with	 ?the	 ?surrounding	 ?surface.	 ?	 ?	 ?8. Using	 ?longer	 ?garden	 ?edger	 ?or	 ?trowel,	 ?dig	 ?under	 ?the	 ?10	 ?cm	 ?x	 ?10	 ?cm	 ?area	 ?which	 ?contains	 ?the	 ?core,	 ?careful	 ?to	 ?dig	 ?on	 ?an	 ?angle	 ?and	 ?deep	 ?enough	 ?to	 ?remove	 ?a	 ?small	 ?layer	 ?of	 ?earth	 ?beneath	 ?the	 ?core.	 ?	 ?Place	 ?the	 ?piece	 ?of	 ?wood	 ?flat	 ?on	 ?top	 ?of	 ?the	 ?core	 ?to	 ?seal	 ?the	 ?contents	 ?of	 ?the	 ?core	 ?and	 ?gently	 ?pry	 ?up	 ?on	 ?tool	 ?to	 ?remove	 ?the	 ?entire	 ?soil	 ?volume	 ?containing	 ?the	 ?core.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?2	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?properties	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ? Page	 ?26	 ?/	 ?28 	 ?9. Flip	 ?the	 ?core	 ?upside	 ?down	 ?so	 ?it	 ?rests	 ?on	 ?the	 ?flat	 ?surface	 ?of	 ?the	 ?wood	 ?and	 ?CAREFULLY	 ?clear	 ?the	 ?other	 ?end	 ?of	 ?the	 ?core	 ?so	 ?that	 ?the	 ?soil	 ?within	 ?the	 ?core	 ?is	 ?flush	 ?with	 ?the	 ?metal	 ?edges	 ?of	 ?the	 ?core.	 ?	 ?At	 ?this	 ?point	 ?we	 ?have	 ?a	 ?volume	 ?of	 ?soil	 ?that	 ?should	 ?match	 ?that	 ?of	 ?the	 ?core	 ?exactly.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?10. Carefully	 ?place	 ?the	 ?full	 ?core	 ?inside	 ?a	 ?bag	 ?and	 ?dislodge	 ?the	 ?soil	 ?sample	 ?from	 ?the	 ?metal	 ?core.	 ?	 ?Remove	 ?the	 ?metal	 ?core	 ?from	 ?the	 ?bag.	 ?Completely	 ?seal	 ?and	 ?label	 ?the	 ?bag.	 ?11. Replace	 ?soil	 ?and	 ?initial	 ?0-??3	 ?cm	 ?grass	 ?layer.	 ?	 ?Seed,	 ?fertilize,	 ?and	 ?water	 ?the	 ?area.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Part	 ?B:	 ?Lab	 ?analysis	 ?	 ?	 ?Similar	 ?to	 ?Appendix	 ?1,	 ?Part	 ?B,	 ?Steps	 ?9-??12.	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?2	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?properties	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ? Page	 ?27	 ?/	 ?28 	 ?Appendix	 ?3	 ??	 ?Measurement	 ?procedures	 ?of	 ?electrical	 ?conductivity	 ?	 ? Soil	 ?cores	 ?at	 ?the	 ?2.5-??7.5	 ?cm	 ?depth	 ?were	 ?extracted	 ?at	 ?Westham	 ?Island	 ?using	 ?the	 ?method	 ?described	 ?for	 ?gravimetric	 ?analysis	 ?of	 ?soil	 ?moisture	 ?(Appendix	 ?2)	 ?at	 ?regular	 ?intervals	 ?from	 ?May	 ?to	 ?September	 ?of	 ?2009	 ?to	 ?determine	 ?salinity	 ?changes.	 ?A	 ?total	 ?of	 ?8	 ?soil	 ?cores	 ?were	 ?assessed	 ?for	 ?salinity	 ?according	 ?to	 ?the	 ?procedure	 ?described	 ?in	 ?[3],	 ?analyzing	 ?the	 ?extract	 ?of	 ?a	 ?saturated	 ?soil	 ?paste	 ?(see	 ?Table	 ?A1).	 ?Soil	 ?cores	 ?were	 ?air	 ?dried	 ?for	 ?at	 ?least	 ?24	 ?hours	 ?and	 ?sieved	 ?to	 ?<	 ?2	 ?mm.	 ?	 ?For	 ?each	 ?sample,	 ?a	 ?saturated	 ?soil	 ?paste	 ?was	 ?made	 ?by	 ?adding	 ?distilled	 ?water	 ?to	 ?the	 ?weighed	 ?dry	 ?soil	 ?until	 ?the	 ?stirred	 ?mixture	 ?glistened	 ?and	 ?flowed	 ?slightly	 ?when	 ?tipped.	 ?	 ?Pastes	 ?were	 ?allowed	 ?to	 ?equilibrate	 ?for	 ?about	 ?2	 ?hours,	 ?and	 ?then	 ?the	 ?soil	 ?water	 ?extract	 ?was	 ?obtained	 ?by	 ?suction	 ?through	 ?a	 ?Buchner	 ?Funnel	 ?with	 ?Whatman	 ?No.	 ?42	 ?filter	 ?paper.	 ?	 ?The	 ?electrical	 ?conductivity	 ?of	 ?the	 ?extract	 ?(ECSP)	 ?was	 ?measured	 ?using	 ?a	 ?Radiometer	 ?Type	 ?CDM2e	 ?conductivity	 ?meter	 ?(S/N	 ?121323)	 ?and	 ?CDC	 ?104	 ?conductivity	 ?cell.	 ?The	 ?electrical	 ?conductivity	 ?is	 ?also	 ?expressed	 ?as	 ?an	 ?extract	 ?of	 ?a	 ?1	 ?:	 ?1	 ?soil	 ?:	 ?water	 ?ratio	 ?mixture	 ?(EC1:1).	 ?ECSP	 ?was	 ?converted	 ?to	 ?EC1:1	 ?using	 ?the	 ?general	 ?conversion	 ?for	 ?all	 ?soil	 ?types	 ?according	 ?to	 ?[4]:	 ?ECSP	 ?	 ?=	 ?2.11	 ?EC1:1	 ?	 ?Table	 ?A1	 ??	 ?details	 ?of	 ?the	 ?electrical	 ?conductivity	 ?measurements	 ?for	 ?soil	 ?cores	 ?collected	 ?at	 ??Westham	 ?Island?	 ?(Summer	 ?2009)	 ?            Date Beaker (g) Beaker + dry soil (g) Beaker + sat. soil (g) Mass of soil (g) Volume of water (ml) EC 1 (dS/m) EC 2(a) (dS/m) EC 3(a) (dS/m) ECSP EC (1:1) 29-May-2009 170.15 262.50 310.48 92.35 47.98 0.000363   0.000 0.001 09-Jun-2009 170.17 229.57 260.57 59.40 31.00 0.000395   0.000 0.000 23-Jun-2009 214.64 292.00 338.09 77.36 46.09 1.75 0.19  1.800 0.853 06-Jul-2009 170.17 237.62 276.38 67.45 38.76 3.65 3.95  3.800 1.801 14-Jul-2009 214.64 279.15 314.21 64.51 35.06 2.61   2.610 1.237 27-Jul-2009 214.63 305.76 352.90 91.13 47.14 6.25 6.40  6.325 2.998 17-Aug-2009 214.63 310.40 358.41 95.77 48.01 6.20 6.25 6.30 6.250 2.962 09-Sep-2009 214.75 296.41 338.18 81.66 41.77 3.30 3.40  3.350 1.588            (a)	 ?Where	 ?a	 ?sufficient	 ?volume	 ?of	 ?extracted	 ?soil	 ?water	 ?was	 ?available,	 ?up	 ?to	 ?three	 ?salinity	 ?measurements	 ?where	 ?made.	 ?	 ?All	 ?measurements	 ?for	 ?a	 ?single	 ?sample	 ?represent	 ?a	 ?single	 ?saturated	 ?paste,	 ?and	 ?a	 ?single	 ?suction	 ?extraction	 ?procedure	 ?	 ? 	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?2	 ??	 ?Soil	 ?properties	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ? Page	 ?28	 ?/	 ?28 	 ?References	 ? [1]	 ?Campbell	 ?Scientific	 ?(2006):	 ??CS616	 ?and	 ?CS625	 ?Water	 ?Content	 ?Reflectometers?,	 ?Operating	 ?Manual.	 ?	 ?[2]	 ?Oke,	 ?T.R.	 ?(1987)	 ?Boundary	 ?Layer	 ?Climates,	 ?2nd	 ?ed.	 ?Routledge,	 ?London.	 ?	 ?[3]	 ?Rhoades,	 ?J.D.,	 ?Chanduvi,	 ?F,	 ?Lesch,	 ?S.	 ?(1999)	 ?	 ?Soil	 ?salinity	 ?assessment:	 ?Methods	 ?and	 ?interpretation	 ?of	 ?electrical	 ?conductivity	 ?measurements.	 ?	 ?Food	 ?and	 ?Agriculture	 ?Organization	 ?of	 ?the	 ?United	 ?Nations	 ?Irrigation	 ?and	 ?Drainage	 ?Paper	 ?52.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?[4]	 ?Sonmez,	 ?S.,	 ?Buyuktas,	 ?D.,	 ?Okturen,	 ?F.,	 ?Citak,	 ?S.	 ?	 ?Assessment	 ?of	 ?different	 ?soil	 ?to	 ?water	 ?ratios	 ?(1:1,	 ?1:2.5,	 ?1:5)	 ?in	 ?soil	 ?salinity	 ?studies.	 ?	 ?	 ?Geoderma,	 ?144:	 ?361-??369.	 ?	 ?

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