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Statistics on the built infrastructure at the Vancouver EPiCC experimental sites van der Laan, Michael Tije; Tooke, Thoreau Rory; Christen, Andreas; Coops, Nicholas C.; Heyman, Eli; Olchovski, Inna Mar 31, 2012

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Environmental Prediction in Canadian Cities - EPiCC EPiCC Technical Report No. 4 Michael van der Laan, Rory Tooke, Andreas Christen, Nicholas Coops, Eli Heyman, Inna OlchovskiStatistics on the Built Infrastructure at the Vancouver EPiCC Experimental SitesThe research network ?EPiCC? was supported by the Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences (CFCAS)Cite this report as: van der Laan, M., Tooke, R., Christen, A., Coops, N., Heyman, E., Olchovski, I. (2012): ?Statistics on the built infrastructure at the Vancouver EPiCC experimental sites'. EPiCC Technical Report No. 4, Technical Report of the Department of Geography, University of Britisch Columbia. http://circle.ubc.ca/, 30pp, Version 1.2Cover Photo: Aerial view of the ?Sunset? neighborhood in Vancouver with Downtown in the background. Photo by A. Christen? 2012 The University of British Columbia	 ?	 ?	 ?Environmental	 ?Prediction	 ?in	 ?Canadian	 ?Cities	 ?CFCAS	 ?Network	 ?2006-??2010	 ?	 ?	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?No.	 ?4	 ?	 ?	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Michael	 ?van	 ?der	 ?Laan,	 ?Rory	 ?Tooke,	 ?Andreas	 ?Christen,	 ?Nicolas	 ?Coops,	 ?Eli	 ?Heyman,	 ?Inna	 ?Olchovski	 ?University	 ?of	 ?British	 ?Columbia	 ?	 ?	 ?Version	 ?1.2	 ?March	 ?2012	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?4	 ??	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Page	 ?2	 ?/	 ?30	 ? Introduction	 ?This	 ?report	 ?includes	 ?summary	 ?statistics	 ?and	 ?descriptions	 ?of	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?and	 ?population	 ?in	 ?two	 ?study	 ?neighbourhoods	 ?that	 ?were	 ?part	 ?of	 ?the	 ?EPiCC	 ?network,	 ?namely	 ?the	 ?residential	 ?neighbourhoods	 ?of	 ??Vancouver-??Oakridge?	 ?and	 ??Vancouver-??Sunset?.	 ?As	 ?part	 ?of	 ?the	 ?CFCAS	 ?network	 ??Environmental	 ?Prediction	 ?in	 ?Canadian	 ?Cities?	 ?(EPiCC,	 ?2006-??2010),	 ?the	 ?University	 ?of	 ?British	 ?Columbia	 ?/	 ?Department	 ?of	 ?Geography	 ?monitored	 ?energy,	 ?water	 ?and	 ?carbon	 ?balances	 ?in	 ?two	 ?suburban	 ?neighbourhoods	 ?in	 ?Vancouver,	 ?BC,	 ?Canada	 ?in	 ?2008-??2010.	 ?Two	 ?flux	 ?towers,	 ??Vancouver-??Sunset?	 ?in	 ?South-??East	 ?Vancouver,	 ?and	 ??Vancouver-??Oakridge?	 ?in	 ?South	 ?Vancouver,	 ?were	 ?operated	 ?in	 ?extensive	 ?residential	 ?areas	 ?composed	 ?predominately	 ?of	 ?single	 ?detached	 ?homes.	 ?	 ?Part	 ?1	 ?of	 ?this	 ?report	 ?lists	 ?the	 ?built	 ?cover	 ?(plan	 ?area	 ?ratios)	 ?and	 ?3D-??structure	 ?(height,	 ?sky	 ?view	 ?factor)	 ?of	 ?the	 ?urban	 ?surface	 ?in	 ?the	 ?neighborhoods	 ?as	 ?required	 ?for	 ?mesoscale	 ?urban	 ?parameterizations	 ?and	 ?ecosystem	 ?modeling.	 ?Part	 ?2	 ?details	 ?a	 ?building	 ?typology	 ?approach	 ?and	 ?describes	 ?building	 ?characteristics	 ?(building	 ?and	 ?roof	 ?materials,	 ?heights,	 ?footprint,	 ?floor	 ?area,	 ?etc.).	 ?Part	 ?3	 ?describes	 ?the	 ?population	 ?density	 ?and	 ?distribution.	 ?Note	 ?-??	 ?Details	 ?on	 ?soil	 ?and	 ?vegetation	 ?characteristics	 ?of	 ?the	 ?residential	 ?neighborhoods	 ?are	 ?given	 ?in	 ?separate	 ?EPiCC	 ?technical	 ?reports	 ?(Chirsten	 ?et	 ?al.,	 ?2010;	 ?Liss	 ?et	 ?al.	 ?2010).	 ? 	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?4	 ??	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Page	 ?3	 ?/	 ?30	 ? Part	 ?1	 ??	 ?Built	 ?cover	 ?and	 ?three-??dimensional	 ?structure	 ?	 ?Urban	 ?surface	 ?cover	 ?	 ?The	 ?building	 ?plan	 ?area	 ?fraction	 ??b	 ?and	 ?the	 ?plan	 ?area	 ?fractions	 ?of	 ?impervious	 ?ground	 ?surfaces	 ?? I	 ?are	 ?shown	 ?in	 ?Table	 ?1	 ?and	 ?2	 ?respectively	 ?and	 ?visualized	 ?for	 ?Vancouver	 ?Sunset	 ?as	 ?maps	 ?in	 ?Figure	 ?1.	 ??b	 ?for	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ?was	 ?extracted	 ?through	 ?LiDAR	 ?data	 ?from	 ?which	 ?building	 ?footprints	 ?were	 ?estimated	 ?(Goodwin	 ?et	 ?al.	 ?2009).	 ?The	 ?statistics	 ?for	 ?Vancouver-??Oakridge	 ?are	 ?based	 ?on	 ?manually	 ?digitized	 ?plan	 ?areas	 ?traced	 ?from	 ?2008	 ?orthophotos	 ?provided	 ?through	 ?Vanmap?s	 ?open-??data	 ?catalogue1.	 ?	 ?	 ?Table	 ?1	 ??	 ?Building	 ?plan	 ?area	 ?fraction	 ??b	 ?at	 ?the	 ?EPiCC	 ?residential	 ?sites	 ?for	 ?radii	 ?of	 ?various	 ?distances	 ?from	 ?the	 ?tower	 ?base.	 ?Longitude	 ?and	 ?Latitude	 ?refer	 ?to	 ?tower	 ?base.	 ?See	 ?FigA1.1a	 ?for	 ?the	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ?area	 ?and	 ?FigA1.1d	 ?for	 ?Vancouver-??Oakridge	 ?area.	 ?	 ? Lon	 ?(WGS-??84)	 ? Lat	 ?(WGS-??84)	 ? ?b	 ?250m	 ?radius	 ? ?b	 ?500m	 ?radius	 ? ?b	 ?1000m	 ?radius	 ?Vancouver-??Oakridge	 ?(a)	 ? -??123.132894	 ? 49.230564	 ? 30%	 ? 25%	 ? 21%	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ? -??123.078436	 ? 49.226125	 ? 23%	 ? 29%	 ? 29%	 ?(a)	 ?10	 ?degree	 ?sector	 ?with	 ?median	 ?building	 ?plan	 ?area	 ?fraction	 ?(220	 ??	 ?230?	 ?from	 ?geogr.	 ?North)	 ?instead	 ?of	 ?full	 ?360?	 ?radius	 ?from	 ?tower	 ?	 ?	 ?Plan	 ?area	 ?fractions	 ?of	 ?impervious	 ?ground	 ?? I	 ?was	 ?calculated	 ?as	 ?the	 ?residual	 ?of	 ?the	 ?building	 ?plan	 ?area	 ?fraction	 ??b	 ?reported	 ?in	 ?Table	 ?1	 ?and	 ?the	 ?integral	 ?plan	 ?area	 ?fractions	 ?of	 ?vegetation	 ?(lawns	 ?and	 ?trees)	 ?reported	 ?in	 ?Technical	 ?report	 ?#3	 ?(Table	 ?1	 ?in	 ?Liss	 ?et	 ?al.,	 ?2010),	 ?i.e.	 ?? I	 ?=	 ?1	 ??	 ?(? I	 ?+	 ?? v):	 ?Table	 ?2	 ??	 ?Plan	 ?area	 ?fractions	 ?of	 ?impervious	 ?ground	 ?? i	 ?at	 ?the	 ?EPiCC	 ?residential	 ?sites	 ?for	 ?radii	 ?of	 ?various	 ?distances	 ?from	 ?the	 ?tower	 ?base.	 ?Longitude	 ?and	 ?Latitude	 ?refer	 ?to	 ?tower	 ?base.	 ?	 ?	 ? Lon	 ?(WGS-??84)	 ? Lat	 ?(WGS-??84)	 ? ? i	 ?250m	 ?radius	 ? ? i	 ?500m	 ?radius	 ? ? i	 ?1000m	 ?radius	 ?Vancouver-??Oakridge	 ? -??123.132894	 ? 49.230564	 ? 9%	 ? 20%	 ? 23%	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ? -??123.078436	 ? 49.226125	 ? 46%	 ? 37%	 ? 32%	 ?                                                1	 ?http://www.vancouver.ca/vanmap	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?4	 ??	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Page	 ?4	 ?/	 ?30	 ? 	 ?Figure	 ?1	 ??	 ?Maps	 ?of	 ?(a)	 ?plan	 ?area	 ?covered	 ?by	 ?buildings	 ?and	 ?(b)	 ?non-??vegetated	 ?ground	 ?surfaces	 ?(streets,	 ?driveways,	 ?gravel	 ?etc.)	 ?in	 ?the	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ?area	 ?within	 ?50	 ?x	 ?50	 ?raster	 ?elements.	 ?This	 ?dataset	 ?can	 ?be	 ?downloaded	 ?in	 ?1m	 ?and	 ?50	 ?m	 ?resolution	 ?as	 ?GEOTIFF	 ?from:	 ?http://www.geog.ubc.ca/~epicc/raster/	 ?	 ?Mean	 ?building	 ?height	 ?The	 ?building	 ?height	 ?(zH)	 ?metrics	 ?for	 ??Vancouver-??Sunset?	 ?were	 ?extracted	 ?from	 ?first-??return	 ?LiDAR	 ?data	 ?classified	 ?as	 ?building	 ?(Goodwin	 ?et	 ?al.	 ?2009).	 ?The	 ?statistics	 ?for	 ??Vancouver-??Oakridge?	 ?are	 ?based	 ?on	 ?BC-??Assessment	 ?data	 ?from	 ?which	 ??built	 ?stories?	 ?data	 ?was	 ?available	 ?(See	 ?Table	 ?5).	 ?This	 ?data	 ?was	 ?then	 ?merged	 ?with	 ?the	 ?manually	 ?digitized	 ?footprints	 ?to	 ?estimate	 ?zH	 ?for	 ??Vancouver-??Oakridge?.	 ?	 ?The	 ?heights	 ?presented	 ?in	 ?Table	 ?3	 ?for	 ?both	 ?sites	 ?are	 ?area-??weighted	 ?heights	 ?of	 ?the	 ?3D	 ?roofs,	 ?not	 ?the	 ?highest	 ?point	 ?of	 ?the	 ?roofs.	 ?Table	 ?3	 ??	 ?The	 ?mean	 ?building	 ?roof	 ?height	 ?metrics	 ?for	 ?the	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ?and	 ?Vancouver-??Oakridge	 ?sites.	 ?The	 ?standard	 ?deviation	 ?for	 ?values	 ?is	 ?provided	 ?in	 ?brackets.	 ?See	 ?FigA1.1a	 ?for	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ?area	 ?and	 ?FigA1.1d	 ?for	 ?Vancouver-??Oakridge	 ?area.	 ?	 ? Lon	 ?(WGS-??84)	 ? Lat	 ?(WGS-??84)	 ? zH	 ?(m)	 ?250m	 ?radius	 ? zH	 ?(m)	 ?500m	 ?radius	 ? zH	 ?(m)	 ?1000m	 ?radius	 ?Vancouver-??Oakridge	 ?(a)	 ? -??123.132894	 ? 49.230564	 ? 5.43	 ? 5.79	 ? 5.78	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ? -??123.078436	 ? 49.226125	 ? 5.00	 ?(1.74)	 ? 5.13	 ?(1.85)	 ? 5.10	 ?(1.85)	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?(a)	 ?10	 ?degree	 ?sector	 ?with	 ?median	 ?vegetation	 ?plan	 ?area	 ?fraction	 ?(220	 ??	 ?230?	 ?from	 ?geogr.	 ?North)	 ?instead	 ?of	 ?full	 ?360?	 ?radius	 ?from	 ?tower	 ?	 ?0 200 400m N1.00.00.20.60.80.4545260154516515453551Plan Area Fraction of Buildings Plan Area Fraction of Impervious Ground494290493340495240OP 1.00.00.20.60.80.4OI545260154516515453551494290493340495240(a) (b)TowerE 41st AveE 49th AveKnight St.Victoria Dr.Fraser St.E 54st AveMemorial S. ParkGordon ParkTecumseh ParkTowerEPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?4	 ??	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Page	 ?5	 ?/	 ?30	 ? 	 ?Table	 ?4	 ??	 ?The	 ?average	 ?of	 ?the	 ?maximum	 ?height	 ?of	 ?roof	 ?structures	 ?in	 ?50	 ?x	 ?50m	 ?grid	 ?cells	 ?for	 ?the	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ?site.	 ?The	 ?standard	 ?deviation	 ?is	 ?provided	 ?in	 ?brackets.	 ?This	 ?corresponds	 ?roughly	 ?to	 ?the	 ?average	 ?height	 ?of	 ?the	 ?highest	 ?roof	 ?elements.	 ?See	 ?FigA1.1a	 ?for	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ?area.	 ?	 ? Lon	 ?(WGS-??84)	 ? Lat	 ?(WGS-??84)	 ? ZH	 ?(m)	 ?250m	 ?radius	 ? ZH	 ?(m)	 ?500m	 ?radius	 ? ZH	 ?(m)	 ?1000m	 ?radius	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ? -??123.078436	 ? 49.226125	 ? 6.28	 ?(2.38)	 ? 6.52	 ?(2.44)	 ? 6.58	 ?(4.10)	 ?	 ?	 ?Table	 ?5	 ??	 ?Building	 ?height	 ?statistics	 ?for	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ?used	 ?to	 ?derive	 ?height	 ?estimates	 ?for	 ?Vancouver-??Oakridge.	 ?The	 ?standard	 ?deviation	 ?is	 ?provided	 ?in	 ?brackets.	 ?See	 ?FigA1.1b	 ?for	 ?area	 ?on	 ?which	 ?statistics	 ?were	 ?based.	 ?	 ?  Mean	 ?height	 ?(m)	 ?1	 ?storey	 ?buildings	 ? 5.68	 ?(0.84)	 ?1.5	 ?storey	 ?buildings	 ? 6.40	 ?(0.85)	 ?2	 ?storey	 ?buildings	 ?	 ? 7.11	 ?(0.85)	 ?Garages	 ?(a)	 ? 2.50	 ?(a)	 ?Estimated	 ?with	 ?less	 ?confidence	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?2	 ??	 ?Maps	 ?of	 ?(a)	 ?mean	 ?building	 ?heights	 ?and	 ?(b)	 ?maximum	 ?building	 ?heights	 ?in	 ?the	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ?area	 ?within	 ?50	 ?x	 ?50	 ?raster	 ?elements	 ?(corresponds	 ?to	 ?Tables	 ?2	 ?and	 ?3).	 ?This	 ?dataset	 ?can	 ?be	 ?downloaded	 ?as	 ?a	 ?GEOTIFF	 ?from:	 ?http://www.geog.ubc.ca/~epicc/raster/	 ?0 200 400m N15039126545260154516515453551Mean building heights Maximum building heights494290493340495240Z (m)H Z (m)H 2505152010545260154516515453551494290493340495240(a) (b)TowerE 41st AveE 49th AveKnight St.Victoria Dr.Fraser St.E 54st AveMemorial S. ParkGordon ParkTecumseh ParkTowerEPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?4	 ??	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Page	 ?6	 ?/	 ?30	 ? Vertical	 ?profile	 ?of	 ?building	 ?volumes	 ?The	 ?vertical	 ?distribution	 ?of	 ?built	 ?volume	 ?for	 ??Vancouver-??Sunset?	 ?was	 ?extracted	 ?from	 ?first-??return	 ?LiDAR	 ?data	 ?classified	 ?as	 ?building.	 ?Further	 ?details	 ?on	 ?building	 ?volume	 ?are	 ?presented	 ?in	 ?Part	 ?2	 ?where	 ?the	 ?statistics	 ?have	 ?been	 ?summarized	 ?according	 ?to	 ?building	 ?type.	 ?See	 ?FigA1.1b	 ?for	 ?the	 ?area	 ?on	 ?which	 ?statistics	 ?were	 ?based.	 ?Table	 ?6	 ??	 ?Vertical	 ?distribution	 ?of	 ?built	 ?form	 ?within	 ?a	 ?1900	 ?x	 ?1900	 ?m	 ?box	 ?around	 ?the	 ?tower.	 ?	 ? Height	 ?layer	 ?	 ?(m)	 ? Average	 ?building	 ?	 ?volume	 ?density	 ?	 ?(m3	 ?m-??3) Relative	 ?building	 ?volume	 ?	 ?(%)	 ?0-??1	 ? 0.2898	 ? 100.0%	 ?1-??2	 ? 0.2884	 ? 99.5%	 ?2-??3	 ? 0.2772	 ? 95.7%	 ?3-??4	 ? 0.2436	 ? 84.1%	 ?4-??5	 ? 0.1988	 ? 68.6%	 ?5-??6	 ? 0.1134	 ? 39.1%	 ?6-??7	 ? 0.0588	 ? 20.3%	 ?7-??8	 ? 0.0252	 ? 8.7%	 ?8-??9	 ? 0.0140	 ? 4.8%	 ?9-??10	 ? 0.0112	 ? 3.9%	 ?10-??11	 ? 0.0084	 ? 2.9%	 ?11-??12	 ? 0.0056	 ? 1.9%	 ?12-??13	 ? 0.0028	 ? 1.0%	 ?13-??14	 ? 0.0014	 ? 0.5%	 ?14-??15	 ? 0.0014	 ? 0.5%	 ?  Building	 ?density	 ?	 ?	 ?Table	 ?7	 ??	 ?Building	 ?density	 ?for	 ?a	 ?500	 ?m	 ?radius	 ?around	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ?and	 ?Vancouver-??Oakridge	 ?towers.	 ?Data	 ?presented	 ?does	 ?not	 ?include	 ?garages.	 ?See	 ?FigA1.1a	 ?for	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ?area	 ?extent.	 ?	 ?  Buildings/ha	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ? 12.80	 ?Vancouver-??Oakridge	 ?(a)	 ? 8.03	 ?(a)	 ?Vancouver-??Oakridge	 ?statistics	 ?are	 ?based	 ?on	 ?City	 ?of	 ?Vancouver	 ?cadastral	 ?data.	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?4	 ??	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Page	 ?7	 ?/	 ?30	 ? Sky	 ?view	 ?factor	 ?The	 ?sky	 ?view	 ?factor	 ??Sky	 ?is	 ?defined	 ?as	 ?the	 ?fraction	 ?of	 ?radiant	 ?flux	 ?leaving	 ?a	 ?certain	 ?surface	 ?(or	 ?object)	 ?that	 ?is	 ?intercepted	 ?by	 ?the	 ?sky	 ?(Watson	 ?and	 ?Johnson,	 ?1987).	 ?For	 ?instance,	 ?a	 ??sky	 ?of	 ?1	 ?describes	 ?a	 ?completely	 ?unobstructed	 ?view	 ?from	 ?a	 ?particular	 ?surface	 ?where	 ?all	 ?radiation	 ?emitted	 ?by	 ?a	 ?surface	 ?is	 ?reaching	 ?the	 ?sky.	 ?A	 ??sky	 ?of	 ?0	 ?describes	 ?a	 ?completely	 ?obstructed	 ?view,	 ?where	 ?all	 ?radiation	 ?emitted	 ?by	 ?a	 ?surface	 ?is	 ?intercepted	 ?by	 ?other	 ?facets	 ?of	 ?the	 ?urban	 ?surface	 ?(walls,	 ?trees,	 ?roofs	 ?etc.).	 ?The	 ??sky	 ?can	 ?bedetermined	 ?for	 ?any	 ?point	 ?(x,y,z)	 ?in	 ?an	 ?urban	 ?canopy	 ?but	 ?is	 ?typically	 ?reported	 ?for	 ?ground	 ?level	 ?for	 ?a	 ?horizontal	 ?receiving	 ?surface.	 ?The	 ?procedure	 ?and	 ?definitions	 ?that	 ?were	 ?used	 ?to	 ?calculate	 ??sky	 ?are	 ?described	 ?in	 ?Appendix	 ?2.	 ?Table	 ?8	 ??	 ?The	 ?average	 ?sky	 ?view	 ?factor	 ??sky	 ?at	 ?ground	 ?level	 ?and	 ?for	 ?all	 ?horizontal	 ?surfaces	 ?in	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ?for	 ?different	 ?radii	 ?around	 ?the	 ?tower.	 ?See	 ?FigA1.1a	 ?for	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ?area.	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ? Lon	 ?(WGS-??84)	 ? Lat	 ?(WGS-??84)	 ? ?Sky	 ?	 ?250	 ?m	 ?radius	 ? ?Sky	 ?500	 ?m	 ?radius	 ? ?Sky	 ?950	 ?m	 ?radius	 ?Ground	 ?level	 ?only	 ? -??123.078436	 ? 49.226125	 ? 0.31	 ? 0.27	 ? 0.28	 ?All	 ?horizontal	 ?surfaces	 ? -??123.078436	 ? 49.226125	 ? 0.60	 ? 0.60	 ? 0.60	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?3	 ??	 ?Maps	 ?of	 ?the	 ?sky	 ?view	 ?factor	 ??sky	 ?for	 ?all	 ?surfaces	 ?at	 ?ground	 ?level	 ?not	 ?including	 ??S	 ?within	 ?buildings	 ?or	 ?trees	 ?(left)	 ?and	 ?the	 ?sky	 ?view	 ?factor	 ?of	 ?all	 ?horizontal	 ?surfaces	 ?including	 ?roof	 ?and	 ?tree	 ?elements	 ?(right)	 ?for	 ?the	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ?area	 ?within	 ?50	 ?x	 ?50	 ?raster	 ?elements.	 ?This	 ?dataset	 ?can	 ?be	 ?downloaded	 ?as	 ?a	 ?GEOTIFF	 ?from:	 ?http://www.geog.ubc.ca/~epicc/raster/	 ?	 ?0 200 400m N1.00.00.20.60.80.4545260154516515453551Sky view factor (ground only) Sky view factor (all)494290493340495240V(dimensionless)S V(dimensionless)S 1.00.00.20.60.80.4545260154516515453551494290493340495240(a) (b)TowerE 41st AveE 49th AveKnight St.Victoria Dr.Fraser St.E 54st AveMemorial S. ParkGordon ParkTecumseh ParkTowerEPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?4	 ??	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Page	 ?8	 ?/	 ?30	 ? 	 ?Figure	 ?4	 ??	 ?Map	 ?of	 ?the	 ?sky	 ?view	 ?factor	 ??sky	 ?at	 ?ground	 ?level,	 ?from	 ??sky	 ?=1	 ?(white)	 ?to	 ??sky	 ?=0	 ?(black).	 ?Values	 ?within	 ?buildings	 ?or	 ?trees	 ?are	 ?included,	 ?drawn	 ?black)	 ?or	 ?for	 ?the	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ?area	 ?within	 ?1	 ?x	 ?1	 ?m	 ?raster	 ?elements.	 ?This	 ?dataset	 ?can	 ?be	 ?downloaded	 ?as	 ?a	 ?GEOTIFF	 ?from:	 ?http://www.geog.ubc.ca/~epicc/raster/	 ?493340 4942904942904952404952405453551 5453551545260154526015451651 5451651UTM Zone 10 North0 200 400 mNE 41st AveE 49th AveTecumseh ParkMemorial S. ParkGordon ParkE 54th AveFraser St.Knight St.Victoria Dr.EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?4	 ??	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Page	 ?9	 ?/	 ?30	 ? 	 ? Figure	 ?5	 ??	 ?Map	 ?of	 ?the	 ?sky	 ?view	 ?factor	 ??Sky	 ?for	 ?all	 ?horizontal	 ?surfaces	 ?including	 ?roof	 ?and	 ?tree	 ?elements	 ?for	 ?the	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ?area	 ?within	 ?1	 ?x	 ?1	 ?m	 ?raster	 ?elements.	 ?A	 ?value	 ?of	 ??sky	 ?=1	 ?is	 ?displayed	 ?in	 ?white,	 ??sky	 ?=0	 ?is	 ?black.	 ?This	 ?dataset	 ?can	 ?be	 ?downloaded	 ?as	 ?a	 ?GEOTIFF	 ?from:	 ?http://www.geog.ubc.ca/~epicc/raster/	 ?	 ?493340 4942904942904952404952405453551 5453551545260154526015451651 5451651UTM Zone 10 North0 200 400 mNE 41st AveE 49th AveTecumseh ParkMemorial S. ParkGordon ParkE 54th AveFraser St.Knight St.Victoria Dr.EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?4	 ??	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Page	 ?10	 ?/	 ?30	 ? Part	 ?2	 ??	 ?Building	 ?typology	 ?What	 ?is	 ?a	 ?building	 ?typology?	 ?A	 ?building	 ?typology	 ?is	 ?a	 ?classification	 ?of	 ?the	 ?built	 ?environment	 ?according	 ?to	 ?one	 ?or	 ?several	 ?criteria.	 ?Common	 ?typologies	 ?group	 ?buildings	 ?according	 ?to	 ?their	 ?use,	 ?vintage	 ?and	 ?morphology	 ?(e.g.	 ?detached,	 ?attached	 ?and	 ?stacked	 ?dwelling	 ?types).	 ?This	 ?type	 ?of	 ?classification	 ?is	 ?helpful	 ?when	 ?outlining	 ?potential	 ?development	 ?patterns	 ?or	 ?when	 ?characterizing	 ?the	 ?existing	 ?urban	 ?form.	 ?It	 ?is	 ?advantageous	 ?to	 ?energy	 ?mapping	 ?exercises	 ?if	 ?classifications	 ?not	 ?only	 ?capture	 ?patterns	 ?in	 ?built	 ?morphology	 ?but	 ?also	 ?anticipate	 ?other	 ?characteristics	 ?such	 ?as	 ?the	 ?energy	 ?intensity	 ?differences	 ?amongst	 ?building	 ?types.	 ?Building	 ?energy	 ?use	 ?is	 ?a	 ?product	 ?of	 ?space	 ?heating,	 ?cooling,	 ?lighting,	 ?domestic	 ?hot	 ?water	 ?use,	 ?ventilation	 ?and	 ?auxiliary	 ?equipment	 ?loads.	 ?The	 ?energy	 ?required	 ?for	 ?the	 ?above	 ?proposes	 ?can	 ?be	 ?supplied	 ?by	 ?a	 ?variety	 ?of	 ?sources	 ??	 ?including	 ?coal-??fired	 ?electricity,	 ?hydro	 ?electricity,	 ?natural	 ?gas,	 ?biomass,	 ?solar	 ?thermal,	 ?solar	 ?voltaic,	 ?sewage	 ?heat	 ?recovery,	 ?ocean,	 ?wind	 ?and	 ?nuclear	 ?power.	 ?The	 ?amount	 ?of	 ?energy	 ?consumed	 ?by	 ?a	 ?building	 ?depends	 ?on	 ?its	 ?use,	 ?local	 ?climate	 ?and	 ?context,	 ?system	 ?and	 ?equipment	 ?efficiencies,	 ?materials,	 ?construction,	 ?and	 ?occupant	 ?behavior.	 ?What	 ?is	 ?an	 ?urban	 ?archetype?	 ?An	 ?urban	 ?archetype	 ?is	 ?an	 ?extension	 ?of	 ?the	 ?building	 ?typology	 ?approach,	 ?where	 ?common	 ?characteristics	 ?of	 ?a	 ?neighbourhood	 ?are	 ?grouped	 ?together.	 ?Using	 ?this	 ?approach,	 ?it	 ?is	 ?assumed	 ?that	 ?a	 ?city	 ?is	 ?not	 ?only	 ?made	 ?up	 ?of	 ?repeated	 ?building	 ?types	 ?but	 ?also	 ?of	 ?repeated	 ?patterns	 ?of	 ?development.	 ?The	 ?characteristics	 ?of	 ?an	 ?individual	 ?neighbourhood	 ?may	 ?include	 ?land	 ?use,	 ?building	 ?type,	 ?urban	 ?morphology	 ?and	 ?other	 ?important	 ?attributes	 ?(e.g.	 ?energy	 ?consumption	 ?and	 ?travel	 ?behaviour).	 ?An	 ?archetype	 ?is	 ?typically	 ?constructed	 ?through	 ?the	 ?synthesis	 ?of	 ?several	 ?data	 ?sources	 ?-??	 ?such	 ?as	 ?census,	 ?municipal,	 ?utility	 ?and	 ?survey	 ?data.	 ?	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ?Building	 ?Archetypes	 ?A	 ?total	 ?of	 ?18	 ?building	 ?archetypes	 ?were	 ?selected	 ?for	 ?the	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ?neighbourhood.	 ?Data	 ?for	 ?the	 ?selected	 ?archetypes	 ?was	 ?compiled	 ?by	 ?first	 ?merging	 ?2009	 ?BC-??Assessment	 ?data	 ?with	 ?City	 ?of	 ?Vancouver	 ?municipal	 ?cadastral	 ?data.	 ?This	 ?was	 ?done	 ?through	 ?a	 ?unique	 ?property	 ?identifier,	 ?linking	 ?non-??geospatial	 ?data	 ?with	 ?geospatial	 ?parcel	 ?data	 ?in	 ?ARCGIS.	 ?This	 ?data	 ?was	 ?then	 ?merged	 ?with	 ?LiDAR	 ?information	 ?to	 ?provide	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?statistics	 ?presented	 ?in	 ?Table	 ?9.	 ?	 ?The	 ?statistics	 ?presented	 ?in	 ?Table	 ?9	 ?do	 ?not	 ?include	 ?garages	 ?and	 ?the	 ?mean	 ?floor	 ?area	 ?statistics	 ?are	 ?based	 ?on	 ?regression	 ?analysis	 ?of	 ?BC-??Assessment	 ?data	 ?(See	 ?FigA1.1b	 ?for	 ?area).	 ?For	 ?further	 ?reference	 ?on	 ?the	 ?building	 ?archetypes	 ?presented	 ?in	 ?Tables	 ?9-??13	 ?see	 ?Appendix	 ?2.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?4	 ??	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Page	 ?11	 ?/	 ?30	 ? Table	 ?9	 ??	 ?The	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?statistics	 ?for	 ?individual	 ?building	 ?archetypes	 ?in	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset.	 ?(a)	 ?See	 ?FigA1.1b	 ?for	 ?area	 ?on	 ?which	 ?statistics	 ?were	 ?based.	 ? No	 ?of	 ?Buildings	 ? Mean	 ?Bldg.	 ?height	 ?(m)	 ? Mean	 ?Bldg.	 ?Footprint	 ?(m2)	 ? Mean	 ?Bldg.	 ?Volume	 ?(m3)	 ? Mean	 ?Floor	 ?Area	 ?(m2)	 ?(b)	 ?Single	 ?Detached	 ?pre	 ?1965	 ?	 ? 868	 ? 5.4	 ? 109	 ? 580	 ? 149	 ?Single	 ?Detached	 ?pre	 ?1965	 ?(with	 ?suite) 649	 ? 5.5	 ? 113	 ? 612	 ? 158	 ?Single	 ?Detached	 ?1965-??90 510	 ? 5.7	 ? 154	 ? 875	 ? 226	 ?Single	 ?Detached	 ?1965-??90	 ?(with	 ?suite)	 ? 1034	 ? 5.8	 ? 162	 ? 943	 ? 243	 ?Single	 ?Detached	 ?post	 ?1990	 ? 469	 ? 7.1	 ? 122	 ? 850	 ? 219	 ?Single	 ?Detached	 ?post	 ?1990	 ?(with	 ?suite)	 ? 615	 ? 6.9	 ? 128	 ? 879	 ? 227	 ?Single	 ?Detached	 ?other	 ? 11	 ? 5.3	 ? 135	 ? 694	 ? 179	 ?Duplex	 ? 22	 ? 6.4	 ? 121	 ? 743	 ? 192	 ?Row-??house	 ? 2	 ? 6.1	 ? 846	 ? 5,194	 ? 1,338	 ?Multi-??family	 ?conversion	 ? 21	 ? 7.2	 ? 118	 ? 846	 ? 216	 ?Apartment	 ? 7	 ? 6.6	 ? 1145	 ? 1,839	 ? 2,965	 ?Mixed-??use	 ? 73	 ? 6.4	 ? 309	 ? 2,011	 ? 518	 ?Commercial	 ?retail	 ? 81	 ? 5.3	 ? 403	 ? 2,246	 ? 578	 ?Commercial	 ?office	 ? 16	 ? 5.8	 ? 470	 ? 3,163	 ? 815	 ?Commercial	 ?other	 ? 6	 ? 4.7	 ? 443	 ? 2,253	 ? 582	 ?Extended	 ?care	 ? 3	 ? 8.9	 ? 305	 ? 3,326	 ? 857	 ?Industrial	 ?/	 ?Warehouse	 ? 2	 ? 5.5	 ? 530	 ? 2,925	 ? 753	 ?Civic	 ? 26	 ? 7.2	 ? 1604	 ? 11,937	 ? 3,075	 ?Total	 ?(c)	 ? 4,421	 ? 	 ? 667,594	 ? 4,024,884	 ? 1,040,455	 ?Per	 ?urban	 ?area	 ? 12.2	 ?	 ?Build.	 ?ha-??1	 ? 	 ? 0.18	 ?m2	 ?m-??2	 ? 1.11	 ?m3	 ?m-??2	 ? 0.28	 ?m3	 ?m-??2	 ?(a)	 ?Statistics	 ?do	 ?not	 ?include	 ?garages.	 ?	 ?(b)	 ?Floor	 ?area	 ?estimate	 ?are	 ?estimated	 ?through	 ?regression	 ?analysis	 ?based	 ?on	 ?2009	 ?BC	 ?Assessment	 ?data	 ?and	 ?do	 ?not	 ?include	 ?garages.	 ?	 ?(c)	 ?Total	 ?values	 ?have	 ?been	 ?based	 ?on	 ?all	 ?buildings	 ?(partial	 ?values	 ?included	 ?for	 ?those	 ?clipped)	 ?within	 ?1900	 ?x	 ?1900	 ?m	 ?of	 ?the	 ?Sunset	 ?tower,	 ?and	 ?therefore	 ?vary	 ?from	 ?values	 ?reported	 ?in	 ?Part	 ?1	 ?(which	 ?considers	 ?various	 ?radii	 ?around	 ?tower).	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?   EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?4	 ??	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Page	 ?12	 ?/	 ?30	 ? Building	 ?surface	 ?properties	 ?Building	 ?surface	 ?properties	 ?were	 ?documented	 ?for	 ?single	 ?detached	 ?dwellings	 ?in	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ??	 ?the	 ?dominant	 ?building	 ?archetype	 ?found	 ?within	 ?the	 ?neighbourhood.	 ?Statistics	 ?in	 ?Tables	 ?10-??13	 ?are	 ?based	 ?on	 ?field	 ?survey	 ?data	 ?collected	 ?in	 ?the	 ?spring	 ?of	 ?2010.	 ?This	 ?dataset	 ?contains	 ?the	 ?visual	 ?documentation	 ?of	 ?fa?ade	 ?and	 ?roofing	 ?materials	 ?for	 ?281	 ?single	 ?detached	 ?buildings	 ?in	 ?the	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ?area	 ?(See	 ?FigA1.1c	 ?for	 ?area).	 ?For	 ?further	 ?reference	 ?on	 ?the	 ?building	 ?archetypes	 ?presented	 ?in	 ?Tables	 ?9-??13	 ?see	 ?Appendix	 ?3.	 ?Table	 ?10	 ??	 ?Percentage	 ?of	 ?built	 ?area	 ?consisting	 ?of	 ?various	 ?roofing	 ?materials	 ?for	 ?single	 ?detached	 ?dwellings	 ?in	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset.	 ?See	 ?FigA1.1c	 ?for	 ?area	 ?on	 ?which	 ?statistics	 ?are	 ?based.	 ?(a)	 ?	 ? 	 ? Asphalt	 ? Clay	 ? Slate	 ? Gravel	 ? Metal	 ?Single	 ?detached	 ?Post	 ?1990	 ? 56	 ? 43	 ? 1	 ? 0	 ? 0	 ?Single	 ?detached	 ?1965-??90	 ? 43	 ? 25	 ? 0	 ? 14	 ? 19	 ?Single	 ?detached	 ?Pre	 ?1965	 ? 96	 ? 0	 ? 0	 ? 0	 ? 4	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?(a)	 ?Statistics	 ?are	 ?based	 ?on	 ?a	 ?visual	 ?survey	 ?of	 ?281	 ?buildings	 ?was	 ?conducted	 ?in	 ?the	 ?spring	 ?of	 ?2010	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Table	 ?11	 ??	 ?Percentage	 ?of	 ?roof	 ?area	 ?(See	 ?Table2.10)	 ?consisting	 ?of	 ?various	 ?colours	 ?for	 ?single	 ?detached	 ?dwellings	 ?in	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset.	 ?See	 ?FigA1.1c	 ?for	 ?area	 ?on	 ?which	 ?statistics	 ?are	 ?based.	 ?(a)	 ?	 ? 	 ?Beige	 ? Black	 ? Blue	 ? Brown	 ?Green	 ? Grey	 ?	 ? Grey	 ? (light)	 ? Grey	 ? (dark)	 ? Red	 ?Single	 ?detached	 ?Post	 ?1990	 ? 1	 ? 11	 ? 0	 ? 29	 ? 0	 ? 19	 ? 0	 ? 14	 ? 25	 ?Single	 ?detached	 ?1965-??90	 ? 0	 ? 6	 ? 0	 ? 14	 ? 0	 ? 27	 ? 12	 ? 5	 ? 36	 ?Single	 ?detached	 ?Pre	 ?1965	 ? 2	 ? 31	 ? 5	 ? 18	 ? 4	 ? 15	 ? 13	 ? 6	 ? 4	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?(a)	 ?Statistics	 ?are	 ?based	 ?on	 ?a	 ?visual	 ?survey	 ?of	 ?281	 ?buildings	 ?was	 ?conducted	 ?in	 ?the	 ?spring	 ?of	 ?2010	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?4	 ??	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Page	 ?13	 ?/	 ?30	 ? Table	 ?12	 ??	 ?Percentage	 ?of	 ?built	 ?area	 ?consisting	 ?of	 ?various	 ?facade	 ?materials	 ?for	 ?single	 ?detached	 ?dwellings	 ?in	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset.	 ?See	 ?FigA1.1c	 ?for	 ?area	 ?on	 ?which	 ?statistics	 ?are	 ?based.	 ?(a)	 ?	 ? 	 ? Wood	 ? Brick	 ? Stucco	 ? Concrete	 ? Vinyl	 ?Single	 ?detached	 ?Post	 ?1990	 ? 2	 ? 8	 ? 79	 ? 0	 ? 11	 ?Single	 ?detached	 ?1965-??90	 ? 12	 ? 11	 ? 59	 ? 0	 ? 18	 ?Single	 ?detached	 ?Pre	 ?1965	 ? 23	 ? 3	 ? 64	 ? 0	 ? 11	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?(a)	 ?Statistics	 ?are	 ?based	 ?on	 ?a	 ?visual	 ?survey	 ?of	 ?281	 ?buildings	 ?was	 ?conducted	 ?in	 ?the	 ?spring	 ?of	 ?2010	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Table	 ?13	 ??	 ?Percentage	 ?of	 ?facade	 ?area	 ?(See	 ?Table2.10)	 ?consisting	 ?of	 ?various	 ?colours	 ?for	 ?single	 ?detached	 ?dwellings	 ?in	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset.	 ?See	 ?FigA1.1c	 ?for	 ?area	 ?on	 ?which	 ?statistics	 ?are	 ?based.	 ?(a)	 ?	 ? 	 ?Beige	 ? Blue	 ? Brown	 ?Green	 ? Grey	 ? Pink	 ? Red	 ? White	 ?Yellow	 ?Single	 ?detached	 ?Post	 ?1990	 ? 34	 ? 4	 ? 9	 ? 9	 ? 15	 ? 22	 ? 1	 ? 5	 ? 0	 ?Single	 ?detached	 ?1965-??90	 ? 19	 ? 3	 ? 2	 ? 3	 ? 10	 ? 1	 ? 1	 ? 58	 ? 4	 ?Single	 ?detached	 ?Pre	 ?1965	 ? 18	 ? 1	 ? 3	 ? 0	 ? 39	 ? 1	 ? 0	 ? 33	 ? 5	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?(a)	 ?Statistics	 ?are	 ?based	 ?on	 ?a	 ?visual	 ?survey	 ?of	 ?281	 ?buildings	 ?was	 ?conducted	 ?in	 ?the	 ?spring	 ?of	 ?2010	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?              EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?4	 ??	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Page	 ?14	 ?/	 ?30	 ? Part	 ?3	 ??	 ?Population	 ?density	 ?	 ?Accurate	 ?distribution	 ?of	 ?population2	 ?is	 ?important	 ?for	 ?a	 ?variety	 ?of	 ?applications,	 ?including	 ?the	 ?calculation	 ?the	 ?energy	 ?load	 ?and	 ?the	 ?spatial	 ?estimation	 ?of	 ?the	 ?sources	 ?of	 ?human	 ?respiration	 ?and	 ?anthropogenic	 ?heat.	 ?Statistics	 ?Canada	 ?provides	 ?population	 ?and	 ?housing	 ?data	 ?as	 ?fine	 ?as	 ?a	 ?census	 ?dissemination	 ?area	 ?(DA)	 ?(approximately	 ?150	 ?homes),	 ?which	 ?does	 ?not	 ?allow	 ?for	 ?population	 ?to	 ?be	 ?assessed	 ?at	 ?the	 ?dwelling	 ?level.	 ?Using	 ?LiDAR	 ?data,	 ?the	 ?spatial	 ?resolution	 ?of	 ?the	 ?census	 ?population	 ?densities	 ?(Statistics	 ?Canada,	 ?2006	 ?census)	 ?has	 ?been	 ?resampled	 ?to	 ?50	 ?x	 ?50m	 ?grid	 ?cell	 ?elements.	 ?Firstly,	 ?average	 ?fractional	 ?population	 ?were	 ?assigned	 ?to	 ?individual	 ?buildings,	 ?this	 ?data	 ?was	 ?then	 ?up-??scaled	 ?to	 ?create	 ?a	 ?map	 ?of	 ?50	 ?x	 ?50m	 ?grid-??cells	 ?of	 ?population	 ?density	 ?(Figure	 ?9).	 ?These	 ?uniform	 ?grid	 ?cells	 ?make	 ?it	 ?possible	 ?to	 ?assign	 ?average	 ?population	 ?densities	 ?to	 ?areas	 ?of	 ?different	 ?radii	 ?around	 ?the	 ?Tower	 ?(Table	 ?7)	 ?as	 ?well	 ?as	 ?for	 ?use	 ?in	 ?source	 ?area	 ?models.	 ?Statistics	 ?Canada	 ?census	 ?data,	 ?British	 ?Columbia	 ?Assessment	 ?data	 ?and	 ?LiDAR	 ?volume	 ?data	 ?were	 ?combined	 ?in	 ?order	 ?to	 ?complete	 ?this	 ?task.	 ?Appendix	 ?3	 ?lists	 ?a	 ?detailed	 ?description	 ?of	 ?the	 ?resampling	 ?methodology.	 ?	 ?Because	 ?LiDAR	 ?Data	 ?was	 ?not	 ?available	 ?for	 ?Oakridge,	 ?these	 ?population	 ?densities	 ?were	 ?calculated	 ?simply	 ?by	 ?dividing	 ?the	 ?total	 ?area	 ?of	 ?DAs	 ?within	 ?various	 ?distances	 ?of	 ?the	 ?tower	 ?by	 ?their	 ?population	 ?in	 ?the	 ?2006	 ?Canadian	 ?census.	 ?	 ?Table	 ?14	 ?-??	 ?Nighttime	 ?population	 ?densities	 ?of	 ?different	 ?radii	 ?around	 ?Oakridge	 ?and	 ?Sunset	 ?towers.	 ?See	 ?FigA1.1a	 ?for	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ?area.	 ?	 ? 	 ? Lon	 ?(WGS-??84)	 ? Lat	 ?(WGS-??84)	 ? Inh./ha	 ?250m	 ?radius	 ? Inh./ha	 ?500m	 ?radius	 ? Inh./ha	 ?1000m	 ?radius	 ?Vancouver-??Oakridge	 ?(a)	 ? -??123.132894	 ? 49.230564	 ? 26.9	 ? 29.3	 ? 27.6	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ? -??123.078436	 ? 49.226125	 ? 49.2	 ? 65.9	 ? 63.1	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?(a)	 ?Vancouver	 ?Oakridge	 ?data	 ?is	 ?based	 ?on	 ?Statistics	 ?Canada	 ?data	 ?(2006)	 ?and	 ?involved	 ?no	 ?LiDAR	 ?attribution	 ?steps	 ?	 ? 	 ?                                                2 It	 ?is	 ?important	 ?to	 ?note	 ?that	 ?census	 ?data	 ?provides	 ?nighttime	 ?residential	 ?population	 ?only,	 ?so	 ?in	 ?Part	 ?3	 ??population?	 ?must	 ?always	 ?be	 ?read	 ?as	 ??nighttime	 ?residential	 ?population?.	 ?	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?4	 ??	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Page	 ?15	 ?/	 ?30	 ? Table	 ?15	 ?-??	 ?Population	 ?densities	 ?for	 ?areas	 ?of	 ?different	 ?radii	 ?around	 ?Sunset	 ?Tower	 ?(Fig	 ?9a).	 ?See	 ?FigA1.1a	 ?for	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ?area.	 ? 	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?    	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?7	 ??	 ?(a)	 ?50m	 ?x	 ?50m	 ?raster	 ?of	 ?nighttime	 ?population	 ?density	 ?(inh./ha)	 ?in	 ?the	 ?Sunset	 ?area	 ?using	 ?the	 ?steps	 ?outlined	 ?above	 ?(sec	 ?3.1	 ?and	 ?sec.	 ?3.2)	 ?and	 ?(b)	 ?population	 ?densities	 ?displayed	 ?using	 ?only	 ?Statistics	 ?Canada	 ?census	 ?data.	 ?Although	 ?the	 ?DA	 ?map	 ?shown	 ?in	 ?(b)	 ?is	 ?for	 ?Vancouver-??	 ?Sunset,	 ?this	 ?is	 ?the	 ?method	 ?used	 ?for	 ?Vancouver-??Oakridge.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?0 200 400 m N545260154516515453551Population-Density (Nighttime)a) 50m x 50m Raster494290493340495240TowerE 41st AveE 49th AveKnight St.Victoria Dr.Fraser St.E 54th AveMemorial S. ParkGordon ParkTecumseh Park800 Inh. / ha040060070050030020010050545260154516515453551494290493340495240TowerE 41st AveE 49th AveKnight St.Victoria Dr.Fraser St.E 54th AveMemorial S. ParkGordon ParkTecumseh Park b) Dessemination Area (DA)Circle	 ?of	 ?radius	 ?(m)	 ?from	 ?tower	 ?base	 ?Total	 ?residential	 ?population	 ?(Inh.)	 ?within	 ?circle	 ?Residential	 ?population	 ?density	 ?(Inh.	 ?ha-??1)	 ?100	 ? 27	 ? 8.7	 ?200	 ? 421	 ? 33.5	 ?300	 ? 1637	 ? 57.9	 ?400	 ? 3026	 ? 60.2	 ?500	 ? 5176	 ? 65.9	 ?600	 ? 7555	 ? 66.8	 ?700	 ? 9975	 ? 64.8	 ?800	 ? 12305	 ? 61.2	 ?900	 ? 16032	 ? 63.0	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?4	 ??	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Page	 ?16	 ?/	 ?30	 ? Appendix	 ?1	 ??	 ?Study	 ?areas	 ?for	 ?building	 ?statistics	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?A1.1	 ??	 ?(a)	 ?radii	 ?of	 ?250	 ?m,	 ?500m	 ?and	 ?1000	 ?m	 ?around	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?Sunset	 ?tower	 ?(b)	 ?1900	 ?m	 ?x	 ?1900	 ?m	 ?LiDAR	 ?extent	 ?around	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?Sunset	 ?tower	 ?(c)	 ?field	 ?survey	 ?extent	 ?(d)	 ?220	 ??	 ?210	 ?degree	 ?sector	 ?extent	 ?extending	 ?1000	 ?m	 ?from	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?Oakridge	 ?tower	 ?	 ?493500493500 493500493500493500493500 49350049350054520005452000545200054520005452000545200054520005452000545250054525005452500545250054525005452500545250054525005453000545300054530005453000545300054530005453000545300054535005453500545350054535005453500545350054535005453500494000494000 494000494000494000494000 494000494000494500494500 494500494500494500494500 494500494500495000495000 495000495000495000495000 4950004950001000m2201000m210oo250m500mUTM Zone 10 NorthUTM Zone 10 North UTM Zone 10 North1900m1900mE 41st AveE 49th AveTecumseh ParkVan Dusen Botanical GardensMontgomery ParkTisdall ParkW 49th AveW 41st AveGranville St.Oak St.Memorial S. ParkGordon ParkE 54th AveFraser St.Knight St.Victoria Dr.(a)(c) (d)(b)2202101000mooEPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?4	 ??	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Page	 ?17	 ?/	 ?30	 ? Appendix	 ?2	 ??	 ?Calculation	 ?of	 ?sky	 ?view	 ?factor	 ?maps	 ?	 ?The	 ?sky	 ?view	 ?factor	 ??sky	 ?can	 ?be	 ?calculated	 ?a	 ?number	 ?of	 ?ways	 ?-??	 ?for	 ?example	 ?through	 ?idealized	 ?geometries,	 ?using	 ?building	 ?height	 ?to	 ?width	 ?ratios	 ?(Oke,	 ?1981),	 ?fish	 ?eye	 ?photographs	 ?(Brown	 ?et	 ?al.,	 ?2001)	 ?or	 ?3D	 ?surface	 ?data	 ?(Ratti	 ?et	 ?al.,	 ?2003).	 ?Here	 ?an	 ?approach	 ?based	 ?on	 ?a	 ?digital	 ?surface	 ?model	 ?(DSM)	 ?in	 ?raster	 ?format	 ?is	 ?used.	 ?	 ?For	 ?each	 ?raster	 ?element	 ?P?(x?,y?)	 ?of	 ?the	 ?DSM	 ?at	 ?1m	 ?resolution,	 ?the	 ?horizon	 ?obstruction	 ?around	 ?the	 ?point	 ?was	 ?calculated	 ?by	 ?determining	 ?the	 ?element	 ?P(x,y)	 ?that	 ?causes	 ?the	 ?highest	 ?obstruction	 ?angle	 ??.	 ?This	 ?was	 ?calculated	 ?for	 ?point	 ?clouds	 ?P(x,y)	 ?within	 ?narrow	 ?sectors	 ?originating	 ?at	 ?P?(x?,y?):	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Objects	 ?were	 ?all	 ?treated	 ?opaque	 ?(including	 ?trees)	 ?and	 ?no	 ?holes	 ?were	 ?expected	 ?below	 ?the	 ?highest	 ?return	 ?(the	 ?height	 ?in	 ?the	 ?DSM):	 ?This	 ?procedure	 ?was	 ?repeated	 ?to	 ?determine	 ??(k)	 ?for	 ?N	 ?different	 ?sectors	 ?around	 ?the	 ?point	 ?P?(x?,y?)	 ?in	 ?different	 ?directions	 ?(in	 ?the	 ?figure	 ?below	 ?there	 ?are	 ?8	 ?sectors,	 ?but	 ?calculations	 ?were	 ?done	 ?with	 ?16	 ?sectors):	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?With	 ?known	 ??(k),	 ?the	 ?sky	 ?view	 ?factor	 ?was	 ?then	 ?determined	 ?using	 ?the	 ?following	 ?equation,	 ?which	 ?is	 ?a	 ?sectorial	 ?approach	 ?based	 ?on	 ?Oke	 ?1987	 ?(p.353,	 ?the	 ??basin	 ?case?):	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?P? (x?,y?,z?)P(x,y,z)?z-z?(x-x?)2+(y-y?)2DSMEPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?4	 ??	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Page	 ?18	 ?/	 ?30	 ? The	 ?area	 ?average	 ?of	 ??sky	 ?(?all	 ?horizontal	 ?surfaces?)	 ?was	 ?calculated	 ?as	 ?the	 ?average ?sky	 ?(x?y?)	 ?of	 ?all	 ?pixels	 ?located	 ?within	 ?the	 ?region	 ?of	 ?interest	 ?and	 ?includes	 ?pixels	 ?on	 ?roofs	 ?and	 ?trees.	 ?	 ?The	 ?area	 ?average	 ??sky	 ?over	 ?an	 ?area	 ?at	 ?ground	 ?level	 ?(?Ground	 ?only?)	 ?was	 ?calculated	 ?as	 ?the	 ?average ?sky	 ?(x?y?)	 ?of	 ?only	 ?pixels	 ?located	 ?at	 ?the	 ?ground	 ?level	 ?(z	 ?<	 ?0.5m)	 ?within	 ?the	 ?region	 ?of	 ?interest	 ?but	 ?excluding	 ?pixels	 ?with	 ?z	 ?>	 ?0.5	 ?in	 ?the	 ?average	 ?(i.e.	 ?the	 ?interior	 ?of	 ?buildings	 ?or	 ?trees).	 ?   EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?4	 ??	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Page	 ?19	 ?/	 ?30	 ?  Appendix	 ?3	 ??	 ?Building	 ?archetype	 ?data	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?A2.1	 ??	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ?building	 ?archetypes	 ?(a)	 ?Row-??house	 ?(b)	 ?Duplex	 ?	 ?(c)	 ?&	 ?(d)	 ?Single	 ?detached	 ?post	 ?1990	 ?(e)	 ?&	 ?(f)	 ?Single	 ?detached	 ?1965-??90	 ?(g)	 ?&	 ?(h)	 ?Single	 ?detached	 ?pre	 ?1965	 ?	 ?(a)(c)(e)(g)(b)(d)(f)(h)EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?4	 ??	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Page	 ?20	 ?/	 ?30	 ? 	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?A2.2	 ??	 ?Vancouver-??Sunset	 ?building	 ?archetypes	 ?(a)	 ?Extended	 ?care	 ?(b)	 ?Industrial/Warehouse	 ?(c)	 ?Civic	 ?(d)	 ?Commercial	 ?office	 ?(e)	 ?Commercial	 ?retail	 ?(f)	 ?Commercial	 ?other	 ?(g)	 ?Apartment	 ?(h)	 ?Mixed-??use	 ?(a)(c)(e)(g)(b)(d)(f)(h)EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?4	 ??	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Page	 ?21	 ?/	 ?30	 ? 	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?A2.3	 ??	 ?Building	 ?metrics	 ?for	 ?the	 ?Single	 ?detached	 ?dwelling	 ?(pre	 ?1965).	 ?Statistics	 ?are	 ?based	 ?on	 ?a	 ?field	 ?survey	 ?conducted	 ?in	 ?February	 ?and	 ?March	 ?of	 ?2010.	 ?See	 ?appendix	 ?for	 ?survey	 ?extent.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Roof materials Facade materialsRoof colours Facade coloursRoof materials Facade materialsRoof colours Facade coloursRoof materials Facade materialsRoof colours Facade colours33.00?Archetype - Single Detached Dwelling Pre 1965Vintage: constructed prior to 1965Roof shape:  low to medium complexity typically of high slopeBuilding height: larger variation in height amongst buildingsBuilding footprint: lower building footprint to lot area ratiosBuilding volume: lower building volumes with typically no attached garagesEPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?4	 ??	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Page	 ?22	 ?/	 ?30	 ? 	 ?Figure	 ?A2.4	 ??	 ?Building	 ?metrics	 ?for	 ?the	 ?Single	 ?detached	 ?dwelling	 ?(1965-??1990).	 ?Statistics	 ?are	 ?based	 ?on	 ?a	 ?field	 ?survey	 ?conducted	 ?in	 ?February	 ?and	 ?March	 ?of	 ?2010.	 ?See	 ?appendix	 ?for	 ?survey	 ?extent.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Roof materials Facade materialsRoof colours Facade coloursRoof materials Facade materialsRoof colours Facade coloursRoof materials Facade materialsRoof colours Facade colours33.00?Vintage: constructed between 1965 and 1990Roof shape: simple low slopping gable roofBuilding height: medium height typically two stories slab on gradeBuilding footprint: maximized building footprint to lot area ratiosBuilding volume: large volume which often includes attached garage or tuck under parkingArchetype - Single Detached Dwelling 1965-90EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?4	 ??	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Page	 ?23	 ?/	 ?30	 ? 	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?A2.5	 ??	 ?Building	 ?metrics	 ?for	 ?the	 ?Single	 ?detached	 ?dwelling	 ?(post	 ?1990).	 ?Statistics	 ?are	 ?based	 ?on	 ?a	 ?field	 ?survey	 ?conducted	 ?in	 ?February	 ?and	 ?March	 ?of	 ?2010.	 ?See	 ?appendix	 ?for	 ?survey	 ?extent.	 ?	 ?	 ?Roof materials Facade materialsRoof colours Facade coloursRoof materials Facade materialsRoof colours Facade coloursRoof materials Facade materialsRoof colours Facade colours33.00?Archetype - Single Detached Dwelling Pre 1965Vintage: constructed prior to 1965Roof shape:  low to medium complexity typically of high slopeBuilding height: larger variation in height amongst buildingsBuilding footprint: lower building footprint to lot area ratiosBuilding volume: lower building volumes with typically no attached garagesEPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?4	 ??	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Page	 ?24	 ?/	 ?30	 ? Appendix	 ?4a	 ??	 ?Procedure	 ?for	 ?down-??sampling	 ?population	 ?density	 ?using	 ?LIDAR	 ?	 ?	 ?Attribution	 ?of	 ?population	 ?to	 ?individual	 ?buildings	 ?	 ?1) Census	 ?data	 ?was	 ?used	 ?to	 ?separate	 ?population	 ?based	 ?on	 ?dwelling	 ?type.	 ?Residential	 ?buildings	 ?were	 ?separated	 ?into	 ?two	 ?categories;	 ?either	 ?ground-??oriented	 ?or	 ?apartment	 ?(see	 ?Tab.	 ?A4.1).	 ?Census	 ?data	 ?gives	 ?us	 ?total	 ?population	 ?(Ptotal)	 ?for	 ?each	 ?DA,	 ?but	 ?the	 ?number	 ?of	 ?inhabitants	 ?living	 ?in	 ?apartment	 ?dwellings	 ?(Papt)	 ?vs.	 ?ground-??oriented	 ?dwellings	 ?(PGO)	 ?is	 ?not	 ?directly	 ?provided	 ?by	 ?the	 ?census	 ?data	 ?and	 ?needed	 ?to	 ?be	 ?calculated	 ?separately	 ?for	 ?each	 ?DA:	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?(1)	 ?Census	 ?data,	 ?however	 ?provides	 ?the	 ?total	 ?number	 ?of	 ?dwellings	 ?(Dtotal)	 ?and	 ?the	 ?number	 ?for	 ?different	 ?dwelling	 ?types	 ?Dappt	 ?and	 ?Dgo	 ?for	 ?each	 ?DA:	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?(2)	 ?A	 ?linear	 ?regression	 ?through	 ?Ptotal/Dtotal	 ?vs.	 ?Dapt/Dtotal	 ?with	 ?data	 ?from	 ?all	 ?61	 ?DAs	 ?in	 ?the	 ?study	 ?area	 ?(Fig.	 ?A4.1)	 ?showed	 ?that	 ?on	 ?average	 ?for	 ?the	 ?study	 ?area	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?(3)	 ?and	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?    	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?(4)	 ?Table	 ?A4.1	 ?-??	 ?Simplified	 ?residential	 ?building	 ?classification	 ?based	 ?on	 ?census	 ?data	 ?and	 ?BC	 ?land	 ?use	 ?assessment	 ?data.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ?Papt/Dapt = 2.3 Inhab. / apartmentPGO/DGO = 3.5 Inhab. /?ground? oriented? dwellingGround-??oriented	 ?dwellings	 ? Apartment	 ?dwellings	 ?	 ?Type	 ?of	 ?dwelling	 ?	 ?(census	 ?data)	 ? Land	 ?use	 ?type	 ?	 ?(BC	 ?assessment	 ?data)	 ? Type	 ?of	 ?dwelling	 ?(census	 ?data)	 ? Land	 ?use	 ?type	 ?(BC	 ?assessment	 ?data)	 ?Single-??detached	 ?house	 ? SFD	 ?no	 ?suite,	 ?SFD	 ?with	 ?suite,	 ?or	 ?Section	 ?19	 ? Apartment,	 ?building	 ?that	 ?has	 ?five	 ?or	 ?more	 ?storeys	 ?Mixed	 ?use,	 ?or	 ?Multi-??storey	 ?Semi-??detached	 ?house	 ? SFD	 ?no	 ?suite,	 ?SFD	 ?with	 ?suite,	 ?or	 ?Section	 ?19	 ? Apartment,	 ?building	 ?that	 ?has	 ?fewer	 ?than	 ?five	 ?stories	 ?Mixed	 ?use	 ?or	 ?Multi-??storey	 ?Row	 ?house	 ?	 ? Row	 ?house	 ?Apartment,	 ?duplex	 ? Duplex	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?4	 ??	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Page	 ?25	 ?/	 ?30	 ? !"#"$%&'()%*"+",&-./."01"#"(&,..)2"(&("(&."%&("%&."'&("'&.",&(",&."-&("(3" %(3" '(3" ,(3" -(3" .(3" )(3" /(3" 4(3" 2(3" %((3"!"#$%&'()*'+,)--."/'01 232'4'5 2326'5$((2''4'5232'076'	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Figure	 ?A4.1	 ?-??	 ?Regression	 ?of	 ?Ptotal	 ?/Dtotal	 ?vs.	 ?Dappt	 ?/Dtotal	 ?for	 ?all	 ?61	 ?dissemination	 ?areas	 ?(DAs)	 ?districts	 ?in	 ?the	 ?Study	 ?area	 ?of	 ?Vancouver	 ?Sunset	 ?(1900	 ?x	 ?1900m).	 ?	 ?Those	 ?relationships	 ?are	 ?only	 ?valid	 ?on	 ?average	 ?for	 ?the	 ?study	 ?area.	 ?Assignments	 ?in	 ?individual	 ?DAs	 ?might	 ?depart,	 ?but	 ?we	 ?postulate	 ?that	 ?for	 ?all	 ?DAs	 ?the	 ?ratio	 ?stays	 ?constant,	 ?i.e.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?(5)	 ?	 ?This	 ?means	 ?that,	 ?on	 ?average,	 ?it	 ?is	 ?expected	 ?that	 ?the	 ?number	 ?of	 ?inhabitants	 ?in	 ?an	 ?apartment	 ?is	 ?65.1%	 ?of	 ?the	 ?number	 ?of	 ?inhabitants	 ?in	 ?a	 ?ground-??oriented	 ?dwelling.	 ?Solving	 ?for	 ?Papt	 ?and	 ?use	 ?Eq.	 ?(1)	 ?to	 ?replace	 ?PGO	 ?=	 ?Ptotal	 ?-??	 ?Papt	 ?leads	 ?to	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?(6)	 ?rearrangement	 ?gives:	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?(7)	 ?and	 ?similarly	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?(8)	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?(9)	 ?r = Papt/DaptPGO/DGO= 2.253.46= 0.651 = PaptDGODaptPGOPapt = r ?DaptDGO(Ptotal ? Papt)Papt =rPtotal?DGODapt+ r?PGO =1r?DGODapt(Ptotal ? PGO)PGO =Ptotal?r D aptD GO+ 1?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?4	 ??	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Page	 ?26	 ?/	 ?30	 ? Eq.	 ?7	 ?and	 ?9	 ?were	 ?used	 ?to	 ?calculate	 ?Papt	 ?and	 ?PGO.	 ?	 ?2) BC	 ?Assessment	 ?data	 ?was	 ?then	 ?used	 ?to	 ?classify	 ?all	 ?buildings	 ?in	 ?the	 ?study	 ?areas	 ?as	 ?one	 ?of	 ?three	 ?building	 ?types:	 ?(a)	 ?Non-??residential	 ?(all	 ?commercial	 ?and	 ?institutional	 ?buildings),	 ?(b)	 ?residential	 ?apartment	 ?and	 ?(c)	 ?residential	 ?ground-??oriented	 ?buildings	 ?(includes	 ?single-??family	 ?detached	 ?homes,	 ?duplexes	 ?and	 ?row	 ?houses).	 ?It	 ?is	 ?assumed	 ?that	 ?the	 ?three	 ?classes	 ?go	 ?with	 ?different	 ?population	 ?densities	 ?per	 ?floor	 ?area	 ?or	 ?volume.	 ?Non-??residential	 ?buildings	 ?are	 ?assumed	 ?to	 ?have	 ?no	 ?population.	 ?Similar	 ?classes	 ?to	 ?(b)	 ?and	 ?(c)	 ?exist	 ?in	 ?the	 ?census	 ?data	 ?(unit	 ?type)	 ?for	 ?each	 ?DA	 ?(see	 ?Tab.	 ?3.1).	 ?In	 ?certain	 ?cases	 ?BC	 ?Assessment	 ?data	 ?was	 ?not	 ?available	 ?or	 ?incorrect,	 ?so	 ?information	 ?was	 ?confirmed	 ?or	 ?reassigned	 ?manually	 ?by	 ?using	 ?aerial	 ?photos.	 ?The	 ?number	 ?of	 ?each	 ?building	 ?type	 ?was	 ?then	 ?counted	 ?in	 ?each	 ?complete	 ?DA.	 ?	 ?	 ? 3) The	 ?LiDAR	 ?analysis	 ?(see	 ?Part	 ?2)	 ?assigned	 ?a	 ?volume	 ?to	 ?each	 ?building.	 ?This	 ?allowed	 ?in	 ?combination	 ?with	 ?the	 ?BC	 ?assessment	 ?data	 ?to	 ?calculate	 ?an	 ?average	 ?(or	 ?total)	 ?volume	 ?per	 ?building	 ?type	 ?in	 ?each	 ?of	 ?the	 ?DA.	 ?	 ? 4) A	 ?subset	 ?of	 ?the	 ?DAs	 ?were	 ?selected	 ?that	 ?were	 ?(i)	 ?completely	 ?within	 ?the	 ?study	 ?area	 ?(i.e.	 ?LiDAR	 ?data	 ?available)	 ?and	 ?(ii)	 ?contained	 ?at	 ?least	 ?one	 ?apartment	 ?building	 ?according	 ?to	 ?the	 ?BC	 ?Assessment	 ?data.	 ?The	 ?partial	 ?DAs	 ?on	 ?the	 ?border	 ?may	 ?contain	 ?significant	 ?changes	 ?in	 ?urban	 ?form	 ?or	 ?land	 ?use	 ?mix	 ?in	 ?an	 ?area	 ?that	 ?is	 ?not	 ?included	 ?in	 ?the	 ?LiDAR	 ?data	 ?and	 ?were	 ?therefore	 ?not	 ?used	 ?to	 ?derive	 ?the	 ?relationships.	 ?DAs	 ?without	 ?apartments	 ?were	 ?excluded	 ?because	 ?this	 ?was	 ?a	 ?requirement	 ?for	 ?the	 ?calculation	 ?of	 ?adjusted	 ?volume	 ?(step	 ?5).	 ?For	 ?complete	 ?DAs	 ?with	 ?apartments,	 ?the	 ?total	 ?number	 ?of	 ?inhabitants	 ?per	 ?dwelling	 ?type	 ?(step	 ?1)	 ?and	 ?the	 ?corresponding	 ?total	 ?volume	 ?per	 ?building	 ?type	 ?(step	 ?3)	 ?were	 ?extracted.	 ?The	 ?resulting	 ?numbers	 ?were	 ?summed	 ?for	 ?all	 ?complete	 ?DAs	 ?(see	 ?Tab.	 ?3.2).	 ?	 ?5) Using	 ?the	 ?totals	 ?for	 ?all	 ?complete	 ?DAs	 ?from	 ?step	 ?4,	 ?a	 ?series	 ?of	 ?global	 ?(study	 ?area-??wide)	 ?parameters	 ?were	 ?extracted	 ?in	 ?order	 ?to	 ?establish	 ?the	 ?average	 ?volume	 ?occupied	 ?by	 ?a	 ?person	 ?(m3	 ?Inh-??1)	 ?living	 ?in	 ?either	 ?an	 ?apartment	 ?or	 ?ground-??oriented	 ?dwelling	 ?(Tab.	 ?3.2).	 ?This	 ?was	 ?done	 ?by	 ?dividing	 ?the	 ?total	 ?volume	 ?of	 ?each	 ?building	 ?type	 ?by	 ?the	 ?total	 ?number	 ?of	 ?inhabitants	 ?in	 ?the	 ?corresponding	 ?dwelling	 ?type	 ?(both	 ?from	 ?step	 ?4).	 ?For	 ?example,	 ?for	 ?ground-??oriented	 ?dwellings:	 ?	 ?	 ?  (10)	 ?	 ? 	 ? 	 ?These	 ?values	 ?were	 ?then	 ?used	 ?to	 ?create	 ?attribution	 ?factors	 ?fa:	 ?	 ?   (11)	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ?	 ?Where	 ?fa	 ?is	 ?a	 ??volume	 ?adjustment?.	 ?It	 ?is	 ?assumed	 ?that	 ?a	 ?person	 ?in	 ?an	 ?apartment	 ?occupies	 ?less	 ?space	 ?than	 ?someone	 ?living	 ?in	 ?a	 ?ground	 ?oriented	 ?dwelling.	 ?Essentially	 ?the	 ??volume	 ?adjustment?	 ?is	 ?increasing	 ?the	 ?volume	 ?of	 ?apartments	 ?and	 ?decreasing	 ?the	 ?volume	 ?of	 ?ground-??oriented	 ?dwellings	 ?so	 ?that	 ?the	 ?number	 ?of	 ?inhabitants	 ?in	 ?a	 ?building	 ?can	 ?be	 ?assigned	 ?based	 ?on	 ?its	 ?percentage	 ?of	 ?DA	 ??adjusted	 ?volume?	 ?regardless	 ?of	 ?its	 ?type	 ?(see	 ?steps	 ?6	 ?and	 ?7).	 ? Average building vol./inhab. = Total building vol. in complete DAsTotal population in complete DAs= 1 350 270m37 990inh.= 169.0m3inh.?1fa (G.O.) =Avg. vol./apartment inhab.(Avg. vol./G.O. inhab.) + ( Avg. vol./apartment inhab.)=90 . 1290 . 12 + 169 . 0= 0. 70EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?4	 ??	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Page	 ?27	 ?/	 ?30	 ? Table	 ?2	 ??	 ?Global	 ?parameters	 ?of	 ?population	 ?statistics	 ?for	 ?all	 ?dissemination	 ?areas	 ?(DAs)	 ?that	 ?are	 ?contained	 ?completely	 ?by	 ?the	 ?LiDAR	 ?transect	 ?and	 ?have	 ?at	 ?least	 ?one	 ?apartment	 ?building.	 ?	 ? Building	 ?type	 ? Total	 ?building	 ?volume	 ?(m3)	 ? Percentage	 ?of	 ?volume	 ?(%)	 ? Total	 ?population	 ? Percentage	 ?of	 ?population	 ?in	 ?building	 ?type	 ? Average	 ?volume	 ?per	 ?inhabitant	 ?(m3	 ?Inh-??1)	 ?	 ?fa	 ?Ground-??	 ?oriented	 ? 1,350,270	 ? 70.5%	 ?	 ? 7,990	 ?	 ? 85.1%	 ? 169.0	 ?	 ? 0.70	 ?	 ?Apartment	 ? 182,533	 ? 9.5%	 ? 2,025	 ? 14.9%	 ? 90.12	 ? 1.30	 ?Non-??residential	 ? 381,241	 ? 19.9%	 ? 0	 ? 0%	 ? 0	 ? 0	 ? 6) The	 ?LiDAR	 ?volume	 ?of	 ?each	 ?individual	 ?building	 ?in	 ?the	 ?study	 ?area,	 ?including	 ?those	 ?excluded	 ?in	 ?step	 ?4,	 ?was	 ?multiplied	 ?(?adjusted?)	 ?by	 ?the	 ?attribution	 ?factor	 ?fa	 ?based	 ?on	 ?the	 ?building?s	 ?type.	 ?As	 ?a	 ?result,	 ?all	 ?non-??residential	 ?buildings	 ?were	 ?assigned	 ?a	 ?volume	 ?of	 ?zero,	 ?while	 ?the	 ?volume	 ?of	 ?apartments	 ?was	 ?increased	 ?by	 ?a	 ?factor	 ?of	 ?1.30	 ?and	 ?the	 ?volume	 ?of	 ?all	 ?GOs	 ?decreased	 ?by	 ?a	 ?factor	 ?of	 ?0.70.	 ?For	 ?example:	 ?	 ?	 ? 	 ? (11)	 ?Where 	 ?is	 ?the	 ?LiDAR	 ?extracted	 ?building	 ?volume	 ?and 	 ?is	 ?the	 ?adjusted	 ?ground-??oriented	 ?building	 ?volume.	 ?The	 ?adjusted	 ?volumes	 ?for	 ?each	 ?building	 ?type	 ?were	 ?totaled	 ?for	 ?each	 ?DA,	 ?complete	 ?or	 ?incomplete	 ?so	 ?that:	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ? (12)	 ?	 ?Where 	 ?is	 ?the	 ?total	 ?number	 ?of	 ?ground-??oriented	 ?buildings	 ?in	 ?a	 ?DA	 ?(not	 ?individual	 ?dwellings),	 ?and is	 ?the	 ?total	 ?adjusted	 ?volume	 ?of	 ?all	 ?ground-??oriented	 ?buildings	 ?in	 ?a	 ?DA.	 ?	 ?	 ?Similarly	 ?for	 ?apartment	 ?buildings	 ?(not	 ?individual	 ?dwellings):	 ?	 ? 	 ? (13)	 ?	 ?	 ?7) The	 ?adjusted	 ?volume	 ?of	 ?each	 ?residential	 ?building	 ?was	 ?divided	 ?by	 ?the	 ?total	 ?adjusted	 ?volume	 ?of	 ?all	 ?buildings	 ?in	 ?the	 ?particular	 ?DA	 ?	 ? 	 ? (14)	 ?	 ?Where 	 ?corresponds	 ?to	 ?the	 ?modeled	 ?fractional	 ?population	 ?of	 ?the	 ?ground-??oriented	 ?building	 ?in	 ?the	 ?DA.	 ?	 ?Similarly	 ?for	 ?apartment	 ?buildings	 ?     (15)	 ?	 ??v G O (n ) = v G O (n ) ? f a = v G O (n ) ? 1.30v GO ?v GOV?GO =BGO?n =1v?GO(n)B GO ?V GOV?apt =B apt?n =1v?apt(n)?p GO(n ) =?v GO(n )?V GO + ?V apt?p GO?p apt(n ) =?v apt(n )?V GO + ?V aptEPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?4	 ??	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Page	 ?28	 ?/	 ?30	 ? As	 ?a	 ?result,	 ?large	 ?apartment	 ?buildings	 ?are	 ?assigned	 ?more	 ?population	 ?than	 ?smaller	 ?ones.	 ?Also,	 ?as	 ?socio-??economic	 ?variables	 ?change,	 ?it	 ?can	 ?be	 ?expected	 ?that	 ?household	 ?size	 ?will	 ?change	 ?as	 ?well,	 ?even	 ?if	 ?the	 ?number	 ?of	 ?people	 ?in	 ?the	 ?average	 ?home	 ?does	 ?not.	 ?8) For	 ?all	 ?buildings	 ?in	 ?each	 ?complete	 ?DA,	 ?the	 ?fractional	 ?population 	 ?or 	 ?were	 ?multiplied	 ?by	 ?the	 ?census	 ?total	 ?population	 ?for	 ?the	 ?corresponding	 ?building	 ?type	 ?in	 ?the	 ?entire	 ?DA	 ?(either or )	 ?to	 ?obtain	 ?a	 ?value	 ?for	 ?the	 ?population	 ?of	 ?the	 ?building	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?(16)	 ?and	 ?	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ? 	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?(17)	 ?For	 ?buildings	 ?in	 ?incomplete	 ?DAs,	 ?the	 ?adjusted	 ?volume	 ?of	 ?the	 ?building	 ?was	 ?divided	 ?by	 ?the	 ?global	 ?volume/inhabitant	 ?value	 ?(Table	 ?3.2,	 ?second	 ?last	 ?column)	 ?to	 ?obtain	 ?an	 ?estimate.	 ?	 ?	 ?Upscaling	 ?from	 ?building	 ?population	 ?to	 ?50	 ?x	 ?50m	 ?raster	 ?	 ?Individual	 ?nighttime	 ?building	 ?populations	 ?were	 ?upscaled	 ?to	 ?50	 ?x	 ?50m	 ?raster	 ?elements	 ?in	 ?order	 ?to	 ?be	 ?represented	 ?in	 ?the	 ?same	 ?format	 ?as	 ?other	 ?surface	 ?properties	 ?in	 ?the	 ?EPiCC	 ?database	 ?(e.g.	 ?fractional	 ?vegetation	 ?cover,	 ?modeled	 ?emissions,	 ?etc.).	 ?First,	 ?the	 ?entire	 ?1900	 ?x	 ?1900	 ?m	 ?study	 ?area	 ?was	 ?split	 ?into	 ?1	 ?x	 ?1m	 ?pixels.	 ?If	 ?a	 ?portion	 ?of	 ?a	 ?populated	 ?building	 ?covered	 ?the	 ?majority	 ?of	 ?a	 ?pixel,	 ?the	 ?pixel	 ?was	 ?assigned	 ?a	 ?fraction	 ?of	 ?the	 ?building?s	 ?total	 ?population	 ?(calculated	 ?in	 ?step	 ?8,	 ?above).	 ?Pixels	 ?that	 ?lied	 ?outside	 ?of	 ?buildings	 ?were	 ?assigned	 ?a	 ?population	 ?of	 ?zero.	 ?The	 ?1	 ?x	 ?1	 ?m	 ?raster	 ?was	 ?then	 ?summed	 ?over	 ?a	 ?50	 ?x	 ?50m	 ?cell,	 ?and	 ?divided	 ?by	 ?the	 ?cell?s	 ?area	 ?to	 ?give	 ?a	 ?population	 ?density.	 ?This	 ?upscaling	 ?was	 ?done	 ?for	 ?all	 ?50	 ?x	 ?50m	 ?raster	 ?cells	 ?that	 ?covered	 ?the	 ?study	 ?area.	 ?The	 ?modeled	 ?resulting	 ?50	 ?x	 ?50m	 ?raster	 ?cells	 ?are	 ?shown	 ?in	 ?(Fig.	 ?9a),	 ?thus	 ?improving	 ?the	 ?spatial	 ?attribution	 ?of	 ?population	 ?densities.	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ??p GO ?p aptPGO Paptp apt(n) = ?p apt(n) ? P aptEPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?4	 ??	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Page	 ?29	 ?/	 ?30	 ? Appendix	 ?4b	 ??	 ?Procedure	 ?for	 ?down-??sampling	 ?population	 ?density	 ?in	 ?Vancouver-??Oakridge	 ?where	 ?LiDAR	 ?data	 ?was	 ?not	 ?available	 ?	 ? 1) All	 ?DAs	 ?that	 ?were	 ?within	 ?(either	 ?partially	 ?or	 ?fully)	 ?a	 ?selected	 ?distance	 ?(r)	 ?of	 ?the	 ?tower	 ?were	 ?selected.	 ?	 ?The	 ?area	 ?of	 ?the	 ?complete	 ?DAs	 ?was	 ?calculated.	 ?Even	 ?if	 ?a	 ?DA	 ?is	 ?only	 ?partially	 ?within	 ?the	 ?500m,	 ?the	 ?area	 ?of	 ?the	 ?entire	 ?DA	 ?is	 ?calculated	 ?first.	 ?	 ?2) DA	 ?Population	 ?density	 ?(N)	 ?is	 ?calculated	 ?by	 ?	 ? 	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?(18) ?3) The	 ?DAs	 ?within	 ?500m	 ?of	 ?the	 ?tower	 ?were	 ?clipped	 ?to	 ?the	 ?exact	 ?shape	 ?of	 ?a	 ?500m	 ?radius	 ?from	 ?the	 ?tower.	 ? 4) The	 ?result	 ?is	 ?layer	 ?with	 ?the	 ?same	 ?number	 ?of	 ?DAs,	 ?but	 ?some	 ?of	 ?them	 ?have	 ?been	 ?reduced	 ?in	 ?size.	 ?The	 ?new	 ?areas	 ?of	 ?the	 ?partial	 ?DAs	 ?are	 ?then	 ?re-??calculated	 ?giving	 ?the	 ?new	 ?fractional	 ?area	 ?( ).	 ? 5) The	 ?new	 ?area	 ?is	 ?multiplied	 ?by	 ?the	 ?original	 ?population	 ?density	 ?to	 ?give	 ?the	 ?new	 ?fractional	 ?population	 ?( )	 ?of	 ?the	 ?partial	 ?DA.	 ?                                                                 (19)	 ?	 ?6) Finally,	 ?the	 ?populations	 ?of	 ?all	 ?DAs	 ?or	 ?partial	 ?DAs	 ?is	 ?summed	 ?and	 ?divided	 ?by	 ?the	 ?total	 ?area	 ?given	 ?by	 ?a	 ?circle	 ?with	 ?the	 ?appropriate	 ?radius	 ?to	 ?give	 ?the	 ?approximated	 ?population	 ?density	 ?( )	 ?over	 ?the	 ?area	 ?of	 ?the	 ?given	 ?radius	 ?around	 ?the	 ?tower.	 ?  ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?(20)	 ? 	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?4	 ??	 ?Statistics	 ?on	 ?the	 ?built	 ?infrastructure	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?	 ?Page	 ?30	 ?/	 ?30	 ? References	 ?	 ?Brown,	 ?M.	 ?and	 ?S.	 ?Grimmond	 ?(2001)	 ?Sky	 ?View	 ?Factor	 ?Measurements	 ?in	 ?downtown	 ?Salt	 ?Lake	 ?City	 ?-??	 ?Data	 ?Report	 ?for	 ?the	 ?DOE	 ?CBNP	 ?URBAN	 ?Field	 ?Experiment,	 ?LA-??UR-??01-??1424.	 ?	 ?Christen	 ?A.,	 ?Crawford,	 ?B.,	 ?Liss	 ?K.,	 ?Siemens	 ?C.	 ?(2010)	 ?Soil	 ?properties	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites'.	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?No.	 ?2,	 ?28pp	 ?[http://www.epicc.uwo.ca/]	 ?	 ?City	 ?of	 ?Vancouver.	 ?Open	 ?data	 ?catalogue.	 ?City	 ?of	 ?Vancouver	 ?web-??based	 ?mapping	 ?system.	 ?rom	 ?http://data.vancouver.ca/datacatalogue/index.htm	 ?[Feb.	 ?2010]	 ?	 ?Goodwin	 ?et	 ?al.	 ?(2009)	 ?Characterizing	 ?urban	 ?surface	 ?cover	 ?and	 ?structure	 ?with	 ?airborne	 ?LiDAR	 ?technology.	 ?Canadian	 ?Journal	 ?of	 ?Remote	 ?Sensing,	 ?35	 ?(3),	 ?297-??309.	 ?	 ?Jonson	 ?G.T.,	 ?Watson	 ?I.D.	 ?1984.	 ?The	 ?determination	 ?of	 ?view	 ?factors	 ?in	 ?urban	 ?geometries,	 ?J.	 ?Clim.	 ?Appl.	 ?Meteorol.	 ?23,	 ?329	 ?-??	 ?335.	 ?	 ?Liss	 ?K.,	 ?Tooke	 ?R.,	 ?Coops	 ?N.,	 ?Christen,	 ?A.,	 ?(2010)	 ?Vegetation	 ?Characteristics	 ?at	 ?the	 ?Vancouver	 ?EPiCC	 ?experimental	 ?sites.	 ?EPiCC	 ?Technical	 ?Report	 ?No.	 ?3,	 ?38pp.	 ?[http://www.epicc.uwo.ca/]	 ?	 ?Oke,	 ?T.	 ?(1981)	 ?Canyon	 ?geometry	 ?and	 ?the	 ?nocturnal	 ?urban	 ?heat	 ?island:	 ?comparison	 ?of	 ?scale	 ?model	 ?and	 ?field	 ?observations,	 ?Journ.	 ?Climatology,	 ?1,	 ?237-??254.	 ?	 ?Oke,	 ?T.	 ?(1987)	 ?Boundary	 ?Layer	 ?Climates,	 ?Routledge,	 ?London.	 ?	 ?	 ?Ratti	 ?et	 ?al.	 ?(2003)	 ?Building	 ?form	 ?and	 ?environmental	 ?performance:	 ?archetypes,	 ?analysis	 ?and	 ?an	 ?arid	 ?climate.	 ?Energy	 ?and	 ?Buildings,	 ?35,	 ?49?59.	 ?	 ?Statistics	 ?Canada.	 ?CANSIM	 ?II;	 ?series	 ?V735319.	 ?Ottawa,	 ?Ont.:	 ?Statistics	 ?Canada	 ?[producer];	 ?Toronto,	 ?Ont.:	 ?University	 ?of	 ?Toronto.	 ?CHASS	 ?[distributor],	 ?http://dc1.chass.utoronto.ca/cansim2/	 ?[Feb.	 ?2010]	 ?	 ? 	 ? 

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