UBC Faculty Research and Publications

UBC School of Nursing research & teaching scholarship report : 10 years in review 2000-2010 Oliffe, John L.; Hughes, Merrilee A. 2011-12-31

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  UBC School of Nursing  Research & Teaching Scholarship Report  10 YEARS IN REVIEW 2000-2010 December 2011  Written by  John L. Oliffe Merrilee A. Hughes 2 Table 1 – Total Grants Submitted From UBC School of Nursing Faculty and Students , 2000 - 2010 (N = 856) Sources: UBC Office of Research Services (ORS) , Office of Nursing Research and Teaching Scholarship (ONRTS) Note: Slight discrepancies in subtotals may exist due to rounding percentages Internal   UBC School of Nursing 87 10% UBC Funds (Hampton, Humanities & Social Sciences, M.Piper)  40 5% UBC Operating Budget 14 2% UBC Faculty of Applied Science 14 2% UBC VP Research Office  6 1%  Internal (n=161) 19% of total grants Provincial   Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research (MSFHR)  112 13% BC Medical Services Foundation (BCMSF) 36 4% BC Health Authorities – VCHA, FHA, NHA, PHSA 18 2% BC Government Ministries 13 2% BC Health Research Foundation 7 1% Alzheimer Society 6 1% BC Children’s Hospital 5 1%  Provincial (n=197) 23% of total grants National & International  Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR) 281 33% National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC) 34 4% Social Sciences & Humanities Research Council (SSHRC)  33 4% Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (CHSRF)  10 1% Canadian Tobacco Control Research Initiative (CTCRI)  10 1% US National Institutes of Health (NIH)  9 1% Health Canada 6 1% Heart & Stroke Foundation 6 1%  National/Intl. (n=389) 45% of total grants Other Agencies 109 13% TOTAL 856 100% Over the last decade, UBC School of Nursing faculty and students submitted 856 grant applications to various funding agencies. Included in Table 1 are research, career, and team grant submissions to internal (i.e., UBC), provincial (e.g., MSFHR, Vancouver Foundation), national (e.g., CIHR, SSHRC, NCIC) and international (NIH) competitions. The Canadi- an Institutes for Health Research (CIHR) attracted the largest number of UBC School of Nursing grant proposals.  3 Figure 1 – Grant Application and Administration Processes Source: ORS website The number of grants submitted annually, since 2000, ranged from 59 to 112 and, on average, 86 grant proposals were submitted each year. Significant faculty output and staff workload for those who assist with the preparation and administration of research grants accompanies this high level of productivity. In addition to developing and submitting proposals, funded grants require at least seven additional steps as they move toward completion (see Figure 1). To sustain and build research capacity, and maximize the productivity of faculty and staff who contribute to this work in the school, we also need to respond to changes in the research funding models. 4 Table 2, Grant Submissions by Faculty (UBC Nursing Nominated Principal Investigators only), shows that the number of faculty who have submitted grant proposals (internal, national and international competitions included) in a given year has ranged from 19 to 33. Typically, the average number of grants submitted by individual researchers each year over the last decade has ranged between 2.3 and 3.8.  Writing a grant proposal can take anywhere between 2 weeks and 3 months, and the return on this work is variable.   Table 2 – Grant Submissions by Faculty Note: *790 rather than 856 because student internal research grants are excluded from Table 2. Year Number of Faculty Who Submitted Number of  Faculty Funded Number of Faculty Submitted Grants (N=790)* Average number of grants submitted per Faculty 2000/2001 19 10 59 3.1 2001/2002 27 15 80 3.0 2002/2003 30 19 76 2.5 2003/2004 22 13 84 3.8 2004/2005 33 16 112 3.4 2005/2006 29 21 79 2.7 2006/2007 25 11 61 2.4 2007/2008 31 17 96 3.1 2008/2009 27 12 63 2.3 2009/2010 24 11 79 3.3 5 Figure 2 – Funding Application Successes (2000-2010) (N=856)  Source: UBC ORS & ONRTS  Internal Research Grants UBC Nursing Funding Application Success Key to evaluating our grant writing efforts is the funding success rate and total dollars awarded. Figure 2 shows that our annual success rate ranges between 32% and 60% (Mean = 45%). In monetary terms, the 395 funded grants yielded $26,427,589 (only grants held by UBC Nursing faculty as the nominated principal investigator or NPI are included) for the School of Nursing’s research activities in the past decade, including salary/trainee awards and administrative secondments (i.e., CIHR institute directorship/operating, BREB chair, etc.).  Su cc e ss R ate  N u m b er  o f Gra n ts  Dr. Martha Mackay is currently a clinician-scientist, dividing her time between the roles of Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS) in Cardiology at St. Paul’s Hospital Heart Centre (Vancouver, BC) and Clinical Assistant Professor at the UBC School of Nursing. She earned her BSN, MSN and PhD degrees at the UBC School of Nursing.  Dr. Martha Mackay has been awarded a CIHR clinical research fellowship, the Cardiac Services BC Fellowship in Cardiovascular Outcomes, and recently, the Heart & Stroke Foundation of Canada Research Scholarship. Her research focuses on sex and gender differences in symptoms of acute coronary syndrome, treatment-seeking delay amongst acute coronary syndrome patients, and also evaluation of interventions to improve patients’ cardiac risks behaviours. 6 Of the 395 successful applications, 268 were research grants, which totalled $17,157,501 in research operating funds. The vast majority of our research grant funding ($8,264,213 = 48.4%) has been provided by CIHR (see Table 3 - Primary Sources of Funded Research Grants, 2000-2010).    Table 3 – Primary Sources of Funded Research Grants, 2000-2010 (N = 268)   Source: UBC ORS & ONRTS Internal Research Grants   Funded Grants  % Funded  Applications   Funding Amount % of Total Funding Amount Internal  School of Nursing 59 22% $160,283 1% UBC HSS & Hampton 17 6%  $39,453  0% Provincial  MSFHR 12 4%  $1,211,381 7% BCMSF 18 7%  $768,248  5% BC Gov't 10 4%  $294,406  2% National  CIHR 61 23%  $8,264,212  48% NCIC 16 6%  $1,357,096  8% SSHRC 12 4%  $1,049,587  6% CHRSF 5 2%  $412,822  2% Health Canada 6 2%  $1,051,528  6% International  NIH 3 1%  $300,535  2% Other  Other grants 49 18% $2,247,950 13% TOTAL  Total Operating  Research Grants 268 100% $17,157,501 100% 7 Figure 3 – UBC Nursing - CIHR Success Rates   Source: UBC ORS  Figure 3, UBC Nursing - CIHR Success Rates, shows that our annual success rate for CIHR ranges between 15% and 56% (Mean = 39%). The UBC School of Nursing’s CIHR success rate has, for the most part, been above the average success rate at CIHR in the last decade. In addition to the 61 CIHR funded operating grants, we have attracted CIHR trainee research allowances and awards, salary awards and administrative allotments which in total have yielded $13,240,347 for the School’s research activities. 8 Figure 4 – Research Funding Annualized Across Grant Funding Period   Annual sum of research-related funding (i.e. funds held in ORS R-accounts) distributed across funding periods Source: UBC Nursing - Research Project Budgets (RPBs) monitored by Joanna Ho, Financial Processing Specialist - Research Research Grant Funding There are two main types of research grant funding, operating grants and salary awards. Operating grants cover the costs of running projects including employing research staff, purchasing equipment (computers, software, etc.), meeting costs, conference travel, and open access publishing. While the operating research grant funding total for the last decade was $17,157,501, the growth levelled off in 2007/8, and has remained relatively stable since. In Figure 4, Research Funding Annualized Across Grant Funding Period, the funding is spread across the term of the grant. For example, a 3-year grant funded in 2004/05 would also contribute funds toward the 2005/06 and 2006/07 totals depicted in Figure 4. This representation can make it difficult to make predictions about future totals because new grants and money are not explicit.  9 Figure 5, Annual Operating Research Grant Funding - By Initial Year Received, tallies the total research grant dollars in the first year awarded. This is useful for assessing outcomes in any given year and projecting future trends in regards to monies likely to be held in subsequent years. Evident here is a decline in the amount of new research grant money coming into the School of Nursing in 2008/09 and 2009/10. These declines might reflect the economic recession whereby key initiatives including the BCMSF and MSFHR were negatively impacted, and the reduced availability of funds amid high levels of competition. During this time, SSHRC’s mandate was also revised to exclude all health-related research, which negatively impacted UBC Nursing faculty funding. Figure 5 – Annual Operating Research Grant Funding - By Initial Year Received   Source: UBC ORS  10 Figure 6 – Faculty Career Awards   Source: UBC Nursing RPBs  Faculty Salary Awards Closely related to research grant funding are career/salary awards. These monies are provided most often by CIHR and MSFHR, and the conditions of these prestigious awards are that they afford early and senior career scholars the opportunity to focus on research. Over the last decade, 14 UBC Nursing faculty members attracted 30 career awards amounting to $4,432,802. The majority of this money (between $50,000 and $100,000 per award holder per year) is used by the School of Nursing to hire teachers to replace some of the award holders’ teaching responsibilities.  Figure 6, Faculty Career Awards depicts the total monies first awarded by year. For example, Dr. Lynda Balneaves received a 5-year CIHR new investigator career award in 2007/08 (the entire award of $300,000 ($60,000 per year for 5 years) is included in the 2007/08 column). These monies are important because they help to build capacity in research, and the funds afforded to the School through these career awards also make available soft funds to augment undergraduate and graduate teaching while buffering any unforeseen operating costs. With this in mind, the 2008- 2010 absence of new award holders has implications for research capacity building and soft-funded activities. The CIHR New Investigator Award has helped propel    Dr. Lynda Balneaves’ research program in supporting people living with cancer in making safe and informed decisions about complementary therapies. She is developing and evaluating education and decision support tools for patients, families, and health professionals considering complementary therapies in conventional care settings. 11 Figure 7 – Teaching and Learning Enhancement Fund (TLEF) Awards Source: UBC Nursing RPBs UBC Teaching and Learning Enhancement Fund The UBC Teaching and Learning Enhancement Fund (TLEF) was created in 1991 to enrich student learning by support- ing innovative and effective educational enhancements. The TLEF has provided funding for teaching scholarship pro- jects in the UBC School of Nursing. Figure 7, Teaching and Learning Enhancement Fund  (TLEF) Awards reveals that, in the past 10 years, 13 projects have been funded. Finding additional sources of funding for teaching scholarship has been a challenge, and the School is also impacted by fewer numbers of faculty applying for these funds.  Ms. Cathryn Jackson has been the primary investigator on three funded UBC Teaching and Learning Enhancement Fund (TLEF) grants totaling $99,761. These include projects on computerized professional practice portfolios for nursing students, metadata infrastructure for learning object repositories, and internet based videoconferencing in distance nursing education. She applies her expertise as a nurse educator in developing and implementing initiatives focused on the integration of computers and technology. 12 Figure 8 – UBC School of Nursing - Internal Research Grants  Source: ONRTS Internal Research Grants    UBC School of Nursing - Internal Research Grants Figure 8 - UBC School of Nursing - Internal Research Grants. The tri-annual internal research grant competition is a popular source of small operating funds for graduate students and faculty. The maximum amount per grant is $3,000, and these funds are extremely helpful for supporting pilot studies and thesis projects. This competition is solely supported by funds donated to the School of Nursing. The continuing availability and ideally, growth of these funds are dependent on alumni’s generosity and the School’s fund-raising. The potential to increase targeted funding for areas including teaching scholarship may depend on additional fund-raising efforts. In total, the UBC School of Nursing has awarded $126,283 in internal awards in the past 10 years. 13 Figure 9 – UBC Nursing Graduate Student Funding   Note: Multi-year student awards are included as lump sums in the year received  External Awards: CIHR, SSHRC, MSFHR; UBC Awards: UGF, Killam, FYF; Internal Awards: Memorial Fellowships Source: Faculty of Graduate Studies (FoGS) stipends & ORS (research/travel allowance) & UBC Nursing Student Tracking System Graduate Student Research Key also to developing the School’s research capacity is graduate supervision. UBC Nursing graduate students are eligible for funding support through a variety of scholarship and trainee awards, and given that many of our graduates are experts and highly paid clinicians, these monies are key to attracting, and ensuring timely and successful completion of their graduate studies.  Figure 9, UBC Nursing Graduate Student Funding shows some fluctuations, and a couple of factors likely influenced the 2009/2010 increase.  First, the new tri-agency Canadian Graduate Students Award Program increased graduate student funding by $35 million in 2009. The number of 2009/2010 UBC Nursing applicants was also relatively high at 13 (previous and subsequent years, we had 7 and 5 respectively), and 7 of the 13 were funded. Considerable emphasis was placed on aiding the N601 doctoral students in developing their proposals.  Looking forward, we know that success with MSFHR and CIHR is driven by the applicant’s publication record, and with this in mind, a key goal is to foster student-faculty writing teams to advance those key performance indicators.  Another strategic goal will be to implement an internal UBC Nursing faculty review process to assist graduate students and supervisors to further strengthen their applications.  Internal Awards 14  Table 4 – Graduate Student Awards by Agency (2000-2010) N=89  Source: FoGS Payroll Awards Note: Percentage total may not equal 100% due to rounding   Internal n = % total UBC  Four Year Fellowships (FYF)  18 20% Killam  Doctoral Fellowships  1 1% Provincial  n = % total Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research (MSFHR)  16 18% Intersections of Mental Health Perspectives in Addictions Research Training (IMPART)  4 4% Workers’ Compensation Board (WCB)  1 1% National  n = % total Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR)  29 33% Social Sciences & Humanities Research Council (SSHRC)   5 6% Heart & Stroke Foundation (HSF) 4 4% Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (CHSRF)   1 1% Kidney Foundation 2 2% National Health Research & Development Program (NHRDP)  2 2% National Canadian Research Training Program in Hepatitis C (NCRTP-HepC) 1 1% Psychosocial Oncology Research Training  (PORT)  4 4% Transdisciplinary Understanding and Training on Research (TUTOR) – Primary Health Care   1 1% Table 4, Graduate Student Awards by Agency (2000-2010), shows that 89 UBC Nursing graduate students received monetary support for their studies in the past decade, for the most part from CIHR and MSFHR. CIHR continues to be the predominant funder of doctoral awards in our PhD program. 15 Publications Publishing in peer-reviewed journals continues to be a benchmark indicator for chronicling the outcomes, and gauging the usefulness of specific studies, as well as the researchers’ ability to deliver end or interim products from their work. Empirical, methods, theory and review articles can be developed from most studies, and ideally, in publishing this assortment of writings, the awareness, interest and efforts of students, researchers, clinicians and policy makers are mobilized.  Figure 10, Faculty Publications – Refereed Journals (2000-2010), indicates that UBC Nursing faculty have produced 627 refereed journal articles in a span of 10 years. Aside from the total number of faculty articles published in refereed journals, the patterns around co-authored and multi-authored articles suggest that Nursing faculty collaboration is increasing within the school. Overall, there also appears to be strong momentum, and the increased number of publications seen in 2009 and 2010, in part, reflects the UBC School of Nursing’s maturity in research as well as the generous research funding and career awards attracted to the school in 2005/2006 and 2006/2007.               Figure 10 – Faculty Publications – Refereed Journals (2000-2010)  Publication trend estimate (NB. Articles authored by multiple School of Nursing faculty members were only counted once). Source: 2010 UBC Nursing faculty CVs (refereed journal articles only) 16  Figure 11 – Faculty Refereed Articles by Academic Journal’s Impact Factor (IF)  Source of Median Nursing Journal Impact Factor: JCR – Journal Citation Reports (Discipline category) List of journals faculty publish in compiled from: UBC Nursing Faculty 2010 CVs IF of individual journals: 2009 Thomson Reuter’s Journal Citation Reports NB. Value of zero in graph reflects multiple missing data – common for less established academic journals Bibliometrics relating to published articles can provide important context and insight to our scholarly research and impact. While scholars continue to debate the validity of bibliometric measures, the journal impact factor (IF) is one method to signal the relative importance of a journal within its field, and journals with higher impact factors are deemed more influential than those with lower ratings. The impact factor of nursing and social sciences publications typically ranges between 0 and 5, which is much lower than some bioscience based medical journals (e.g., Nature 2009 IF was 27.13).  Using IF we have plotted our 2009 and 2010 articles in Figure 11, Faculty Refereed Articles by Academic Journal’s Impact Factor (IF). While acknowledging that this is a crude bibliometric analysis, an argument can be made that a majority of the UBC Nursing publications have been published in journals that have a better than average (0.909) nursing journal IF.      17 Table 5 – Publications Benchmarking for Five Canadian Schools of Nursing Source :  Citations—Web of Science  Professoriate—University websites Another key indicator of the impact of a published article is external citations, which are an important marker of research impact and influence. Aggregate data from comparison institutions can afford benchmarking opportunities. To consider how the UBC School of Nursing is performing relative to other Canadian schools, we searched the Web of Science database for all publications between 2000 and 2010 with one or more of the authors listing their home institution as one of the following Schools of Nursing: University of Toronto, University of Alberta, University of British Columbia, McGill University, and University of Victoria.   Table 5, Publications Benchmarking for Five Canadian Schools of Nursing shows UBC Nursing currently ranked third for citations among the five nursing schools considered. These kinds of metrics are becoming increasingly important to gauge research output both within and across universities.  SCHOOLS OF NURSING Articles Found for 2000-2010 Sum of Times Cited Sum of Times Cited w/out Self-Citations Citing Articles Average Citations per Item h-index Professoriate FTE (2011) University of Toronto 673 8386 7827 6896 12.46 41 57 University of Alberta 578 4939 4537 4188 8.53 31 50 University of British Columbia 470 3369 3058 2878 7.17 29 35 McGill  University 226 2937 2795 2326 13 27 20 University of Victoria 114 524 501 486 4.6 12 37 18  Table 6 - Top 10 Cited Research Articles (first authors only)  Table 7 - Top 10 Cited Research Articles (one article per first author)    Citations Pub-Yr 1st Author Title 1 261 1997 S. Thorne Interpretive description: A noncategorical qualitative alternative for developing nurs- ing knowledge 2 193 2000 S. Thorne Data analysis in qualitative research 3 175 2001 W. Hall Enhancing the rigor of grounded theory: incorporating reflexivity and relationality 4 157 2008 S. Thorne The analytic challenge in interpretive description 5 148 1994 S. Thorne Secondary analysis in qualitative research: Issues and implications 6 135 1998 S. Thorne Shifting images of chronic illness 7 116 1989 S. Thorne Guarded alliance: Health care relationships in chronic illness 8 114 2001 A. Browne First Nations women's encounters with mainstream health care services 9 112 2004 S. Thorne Qualitative metasynthesis: reflections on methodological orientation and ideological agenda 10 108 1998 F. Warnock Pain progression, intensity and outcomes following tonsillectomy   Citations Pub-Yr 1st Author Title 1 261 1997 S. Thorne Interpretive description: A noncategorical qualitative alternative for developing nursing knowledge 2 175 2001 W. Hall Enhancing the rigor of grounded theory: incorporating reflexivity and relationality 3 114 2001 A. Browne First Nations women's encounters with mainstream health care services 4 108 1998 F. Warnock Pain progression, intensity and outcomes following tonsillectomy 5 87 2004 C. Varcoe Ethical practice in nursing: working the in‐betweens 6 83 1999 E. Saewyc Sexual intercourse, abuse and pregnancy among adolescent women: does sexual orientation make a difference? 7 79 2005 J. Oliffe Constructions of masculinity following prostatectomy-induced impotence 8 65 2000 P. Ratner Twelve-month follow-up of a smoking relapse prevention intervention for postpar- tum women 9 65 1999 L. Balneaves Beyond convention: describing complementary therapy use by women living with breast cancer 10 57 2003 L. Currie Clinical information needs in context: an observational study of clinicians while using a clinical information system A search with Google Scholar Citation Gadget was used to distil the most cited articles (by first author) among the current UBC Nursing faculty, with the results in Table 6 – Top 10 Cited Research Articles (first authors only). When limiting the search to one article per first author, in Table 7 – Top 10 Cited Research Articles (one article per first author) diverse research topics and empirical, methodological, and theory-based articles emerge to reflect the wide range of UBC Nursing publication topics.  19 ISBN 978-0-88865-248-5 Acknowledgements: Many thanks to Pamela Ratner, Sabrina Wong, Clare Kiernan,  and Joanna Ho for their assistance with data retrieval and analyses, and support with edits and graphics. 


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