UBC Faculty Research and Publications

Evidence Based Practice. How do I know the research is any good? Step 2: How to appraise the literature… Hall, Wendy A. Feb 13, 2007

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Qualitative research: Purpose and central elements Presented by: Dr. Wendy Hall for BCRNRnet  The Presenter ¾ ¾ ¾  ¾ ¾  Associate Professor School of Nursing Researcher for 20 years - qualitative and quantitative Course leader in qualitative research Involved in IP education  The Purpose ¾  ¾  To provide you with knowledge about qualitative research to support your evidence-based practice Assist in framing clinical problem questions from a qualitative perspective  Qualitative Research: Naturalistic Interpretative Inquiry ¾  ¾ ¾  Describing the fundamental patterns of human thought and behaviour Taking context into consideration Considering social experience: how it is created and how it gives meaning  Contributes to the Empirical Way of Knowing  Simplistic Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods ¾  Quantitative z z z  z z z z z z z  Objective One reality Reduction, control, prediction Measurable Mechanistic Parts equal the whole Statistical analyses Researcher separate Subjects Context free  ¾  Qualitative z z  z  z z z  z z z z  Subjectivity valued Multiple perceptions of reality Discovery, description, understanding Interpretative Organismic Whole is greater than the parts Inductive analyses Researcher part of process Participants Context dependent  Addressing the Gaps ¾ Gap between RCTs and clinical decision-  making ¾ Gaps in understanding about effects of social systems, social relations, or social interactions ¾ Gaps in care in terms of equity ¾ Gaps in theories, e.g. resilience  Contributions ¾ Clinical improvisation ¾ Cultures of health care ¾ Meanings and actions ¾ Extending theories of phenomena ¾ Changing meanings of phenomena  The Relationship of Qualitative Research to Theory ¾ Can start from a theoretical perspective,  e.g., feminism, critical theory, symbolic interactionism ¾ Can contribute to theoretical development through providing concepts or mid-range theories ¾ Meta-analysis can contribute to grand theories  Differences in Qualitative Approaches ¾  Nature of Knowledge z  z  Meanings attached to behaviours and experiences Processes associated with managing problems  ¾  Products of Methods z  z  Meaning or essences of experience (Phenomenology & Content Analysis) Linked theoretical concepts with an overriding concept (Grounded Theory)  Differences in Qualitative Approaches ¾  Nature of Knowledge z Maximizing understanding of context (cultural) z  z  Explaining effects of structures and history Addressing experiential, propositional, and practical knowing  ¾  Products of Methods z Structural and historical insights (Ethnographic & Historical) z Understanding of texts or discourses (Narrative & Critical Research) z Practical and living knowledge (Participatory Action Research [PAR])  Sampling ¾ Purposive ¾ Snowball ¾ Theoretical (Grounded Theory)  Sampling  ¾ Sample Size ¾ Description of  Samples  Methods of Data Collection ¾ ¾ ¾  ¾  Interviewing Participant Observation Obtaining artifacts, documents, and records Using visual representations  Methods of Analysis ¾ Analytic Field Notes (Ethnography) ¾ Constant Comparative Analysis (Grounded  Theory and Content Analysis) ¾ Hermeneutic Circles (Phenomenology) ¾ Research Cycling (PAR) ¾ Textual analysis (Narrative or Historical)  Criteria for Rigor ¾  Are participants’ perspectives incorporated? (credibility and fit)  ¾  Is social context incorporated?  ¾  Are aspects of the study logically linked with a decision trail (auditability)?  ¾  Is the role of the researcher in data collection and analysis included? (reflexivity)  Criteria for Rigor ¾ Can the findings ‘fit’  into or are they applicable in contexts outside of the actual study situation? (fittingness/applicability)  ¾ Have deviant cases been included or is  there elite bias? ¾ Are the categories, elements, or concepts  saturated?  Criteria for Rigor ¾ Do the findings fit with the method? ¾ Have reciprocity, and relationality been  incorporated? ¾ What are the claims of the authors?  Summary ¾ What would you  say capture the main elements of qualitative research?  


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