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Project blue sky : a case study Carter, Erin; Lundy, Alison; Lu, Zhiyong; Pugh, Steven Jun 30, 2010

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Project Blue Sky: A Case Study  Prepared by: Erin Carter, Alison Lundy, Zhiyong Lu & Steven Pugh ISIS,  ISIS, Sauder School of Business, UBC  
THE UNIVERSITY OF  BRIT ISH COLUMBIA 

 
 
1
 




One
of
the
Inspirations
for
Project
Blue
Sky…



“When
I
arrived
at
the
race
course
in
Beijing
and
couldn’t
see
further
than
250
 M
 down
 the
 2000
 M
 course,
 I
 was
 concerned
 about
 the
 long
 term
impacts
that
the
pollution
could
have
on
my
health.
How
would
this
venue
impact
me
4
years
down
the
road
at
my
next
Olympic
games?
Then
I
started
thinking
about
how
the
pollution
would
impact
my
5
year
old
for
the
rest
of
her
life.
My
children’s
generation
has
a
shorter
life
expectancy
than
my
own.
This
is
the
first
time
a
subsequent
generation
has
been
in
this
situation;
I
think
of
obesity,
 I
 think
 of
 TV
 and
 video
 games,
 I
 think
 of
 the
 internet
 as
contributing
 factors.
 But
what
 about
 the
 health
 impacts
 on
 kids
 by
 their
physical
environment?
So
I
wanted
to
do
something
about
it.
The
Canadian
Olympic
Committee’s
Athletes’
Council,
on
which
I
sit,
along
with
Paralympic
and
other
high
performance
athletes
have
teamed
up
with
the
 Masters
 of
 Digital
 Media
 (MDM)
 students
 at
 Great
 Northern
Way
 to
create
Project
Blue
Sky.

David
Calder,
Canadian
Olympic
Rower
and
Silver
Medallist



 
 
2
 




ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Many
individuals
and
groups
supported
Project
Blue
Sky
over
the
course
of
its
design,
development
and
implementation.
We
are
grateful
to
all
that
believed
in
the
vision
and
helped
make
it
a
reality
including:

Project
Leads
Susan
Archibald,
Suda
Solutions
Ltd
David
Calder,
Olympic
Silver
Medallist
&
Province
of
BC
Chris
Kantowicz,
ISIS,
Sauder
School
of
Business,
UBC
Bradley
Shende,
Media2o

Graduate
Student
Project
Team
Erin
Carter,
MA
‐
Royal
Roads
University
Brian
Ford,
Masters
of
Digital
Media
‐
Centre
for
Digital
Media
Luke
Johnson,
Masters
of
Digital
Media
‐
Centre
for
Digital
Media
Zhiyong
Lu,
PhD
Candidate
‐
Computing
Science,
Simon
Fraser
University
Alison
Lundy,
MBA
‐
Sauder
School
of
Business,
UBC
Steven
Pugh,
Masters
of
Digital
Media
‐
Centre
for
Digital
Media
(The
Graduate
Research
team
was
funded
by
Offsetters
and
a
grant
from
MITACS)

Advisors,
Contributors
&
Supporters
Gerri
Sinclair,
Centre
for
Digital
Media
Jeannette
Kopak,
Centre
for
Digital
Media
Grace
Battiston,
Centre
for
Digital
Media
Patrick
Pennefather,
Centre
for
Digital
Media
Carlos
Alejandro,
original
MDM
student
project
team
Nadia
Aly,
original
MDM
student
project
team
Conrad
Chan,
original
MDM
student
project
team
Samer
El‐Nashar,
original
MDM
student
project
team
Ryan
Leech,
Featured
Athlete
&
Presenter
Stephanie
Dixon,
Featured
Athlete
&
Presenter

James
Tansey,
Offsetters
Donovan
Woollard,
Offsetters
Kari
Grist,
Offsetters
Linda
Coady,
VANOC
Ann
Duffy,
VANOC
Fiona
Kilburn,
VANOC
Brenda
Metropolit,
VANOC
Holly
Stehr,
VANOC

Lawrence
Alexander,
Province
of
BC
Rumon
Carter,
Province
of
BC
Deirdre
Laframboise,
Clean
Air
Champions
Kari
Ferlatte,
Clean
Air
Champions

 
 
3
 




Joanna
Robinson,
Social
Media
Consultant
Kris
Krug,
Social
Media
Consultant


Partners
Offsetters
VANOC
Province
of
BC
BC
Hydro
The
Nature
Trust
of
BC
Clean
Air
Champions
2010
Legacies
Now










 
 
4
 



Table
of
Contents
I.
EXECUTIVE
SUMMARY
 6
II.
BACKGROUND
INFO
 7
HISTORY
OF
PROJECT
BLUE
SKY
 7
WHAT
WAS
THE
GOAL
OF
PROJECT
BLUE
SKY?
 8
STAKEHOLDERS
 10
WAS
PROJECT
BLUE
SKY
SUCCESSFUL?
 11
HOW
OFTEN
DID
USERS
INTERACT
WITH
THE
WEBSITE?
 13
III.
THE
WIDGET
 14
WIDGET
FEATURES
 14
USER
ADOPTION
 15
AVERAGE
ACTIVE
WIDGET
USER
 16
IV.
OUTREACH
 17
COMMUNITY
OUTREACH
(ATHLETES/PARTNERS)
 17
WHO
WAS
ENGAGED
IN
PROJECT
BLUE
SKY?
 17
ATHLETE
ENGAGEMENT
 18
PARTNER
ENGAGEMENT
 19
YOUTH
ENGAGEMENT
 21
COMMUNITY
OUTREACH
–
MEMBERS
 22
WHAT
BROUGHT
PEOPLE
TO
THE
WEBSITE?
 23
WHY
DID
PEOPLE
JOIN
PROJECT
BLUE
SKY?
 24
WHAT
WORKED?
 25
WHAT
DIDN’T
WORK?
 25
SUSTAINABILITY
‐
BARRIERS
TO
ENGAGEMENT
 26
OUTREACH
CHANNEL
­
SOCIAL
MEDIA
 27
WHAT
TWEETS
WORKED?
 28
SOCIAL
MEDIA
MEASUREMENT
 29
BLOG
 31
ATHLETE
CONTEST
 32
TORCH
RELAY
 32
ADDITIONAL
PROMOTIONS:
 35
V.
STARTING
A
NEW
WEBSITE
 37
ONLINE
TRENDS
 39
VI.
TECHNICAL
(WEBSITE
&
PLATFORM)
 41
PLATFORMS
 41
DRUPAL
 41
WEB‐MINING
TECHNIQUES
AND
PRIVACY
POLICIES
 41
VII.
FUTURE
PLANS
 44

 
 
5
 



APPENDIX
1
–
SUMMARY
OF
RECOMMENDATIONS
 45
APPENDIX
2:
BECKY
SCOTT’S
PROFILE
ON
ATHLETE
SCROLLER
 51
APPENDIX
3:
PROJECT
BLUE
SKY
SCREENSHOTS
 52
APPENDIX
4:
PROJECT
BLUE
SKY
SPLASH
PAGE
 53
APPENDIX
5:
SUCCESS
METRICS
 56
APPENDIX
6:
VANCOUVER
2010
LESSON
PLAN
 58
APPENDIX
7:
WIDGET
INSTRUCTIONS
(AND
INITIAL
WIDGET
DESIGN
BELOW)
 59
APPENDIX
8:
WHAT
TWEETS
WORKED?
 60
APPENDIX
9
­
SURVEY
QUESTIONS
&
DEMOGRAPHICS
 61
APPENDIX
10:
WHAT
USERS
TYPICALLY
DO
ON
A
SOCIAL
NETWORK
 62







 
 
6
 



I.
Executive
Summary


The
objective
of
Project
Blue
Sky
was
to
mobilize
Olympic
and
Paralympic
athletes
to
take
a
leadership
role
and
to
use
the
Vancouver
2010
Olympic
and
Paralympic
Winter
Games
to
shine
 a
 spotlight
 on
 climate
 change.
 To
 achieve
 this
 goal,
 spokespeople
 were
 identified,
partnerships
 were
 formed,
 social
 media
 was
 activated,
 blog
 seeding
 was
 planned,
 and
different
media
outlets
were
approached.


The
website
attracted
environmentally,
socially,
and
health
conscious
individuals
because
of
its
innovative
and
original
concept.
A
website
needs
to
be
flexible
and
go
through
many
iterations
before
it’s
complete.
Unfortunately,
many
of
the
changes
that
were
applied
to
the
Project
 Blue
 Sky
 website
 were
 not
 done
 early
 enough
 in
 order
 to
 make
 a
 substantial
difference
towards
its
1
billion
kilometre
goal.

This
report
will
discuss
the
methods
that
Project
Blue
Sky
used
to
attract
members
to
the
website
and
will
also
discuss
what
the
barriers
to
engagement
were.
In
addition,
this
report
will
discuss
how
the
website
started,
who
was
involved
in
the
project
and
what
the
Project
Blue
 Sky
 team
 learned
 throughout
 the
 project.
 The
 team
 at
 Project
 Blue
 Sky
 hopes
 this
report
will
serve
as
a
tool
for
future
community
engagement
projects.
According
to
a
report
from
 the
 David
 Suzuki
 Foundation,
 “(public
 engagement)
 is
 the
 category
 where
 VANOC
(has)
had
the
least
success”i.
As
such,
this
report
aims
to
understand
how
engagement,
or
lack
 there
 of,
 contributed
 to
 the
 limited
 success
 of
 this
 project
 and
 will
 offer
recommendations
for
future
projects.
The
recommendations
found
throughout
this
report
are
summarized
in
Appendix
1.










 
 
7
 



II.
Background
Info

History
of
Project
Blue
Sky

While
 the
 2010
 Olympic
 and
 Paralympic
 Winter
 Games
brought
great
exposure
to
Vancouver,
carbon
emissions
were
an
unfortunate
externality.
The
total
carbon
emissions,
which
were
predicted
for
the
2010
Games,
were
estimated
at
close
to
 300,000
 tonnes;
 the
majority
 coming
 from
 airline
 travel.
Offsetters
was
 chosen
 as
 the
Official
 Carbon
Offset
 Supplier
by
 the
 Vancouver
 2010
 Organizing
 Committee
 (VANOC)
 to
offset
 the
110,000
 tonnes
of
direct
CO2
emissions
 related
 to
the
 games
 and
 also
 developed
 the
 2010
 Carbon
 Partners
Program
 to
 work
 with
 Games
 partners,
 sponsors
 and
participants
to
offset
the
190,000
tonnes
of
indirect
carbon
emissions.
In
addition
to
these
efforts,
VANOC
believed
that
an
opportunity
existed
for
a
public
engagement
campaign
to
further
 reduce
 the
 impact
 of
 its
 indirect
 carbon
 emissions.
 The
David
 Suzuki
 Foundation
was
calling
on
VANOC
to
seize
the
opportunity
as
well,
stating
that
the
“Environment
is
one
of
the
three
pillars
of
the
Olympic
Movement,
and
the
Olympic
Games
are
an
unparalleled
opportunity
 to
 reach
 out
 to
 billions
 of
 people
 around
 the
 world
 and
 inspire
 them
 with
solutions
 to
climate
change”i.
 
Project
Blue
Sky
 (PBS)
became
one
such
effort
 to
 leverage
the
Games
to
engage
the
public
around
these
issues.

With
 seed
 funding
 from
 the
 Province
 of
 BC,
 Project
 Blue
 Sky
 was
 designed
 and
implemented
by
Masters
of
Digital
Media
students
at
Great
Northern
Way
campus,
and
was
officially
launched
in
July
2009
with
the
support
of
Offsetters
and
VANOC.


The
 Project
 Blue
 Sky
 website
 was
 designed
 as
 a
 social
networking
 hub
 where
 like‐minded
 users
 could
 chat
 in
forums
 about
 climate
 change;
 upload
 inspirational
 videos;
use
the
custom‐designed
widget
to
enter
their
kilometres
of
walking,
biking
and
transit
use;
and
challenge
one
another
to
reach
 carbon‐reducing
 goals.
 Users
 could
 also
 interact
with
high
performance
athletes
on
 the
site
who
were
 inspired
 to
help
reduce
the
carbon
impact
of
the
Winter
Games
(see
how
we
incorporated
athlete
bios
on
the
website
in
Appendix
2).
Recommendations:

 When
designing
a
new
website,
be
sure
that
the
proper
domain
names
are
available
(i.e.
‐
.ca
and
.com
etc)
and
that
the
name
resonates
with
the
project
but
is
not
generic.
In
the
case
 of
 PBS,
 there
 were
 different
 versions
 of
 the
 name
 in
 active
 use
 by
 other
organizations,
including
“Blue
Sky
Project.”
This
made
search
engine
optimization
more
difficult
and
made
it
harder
for
people
to
find
the
site.

According
to
the
David
Suzuki
report
Meeting
the
Challenge,
“global
warming
(is)
seen
as
a
serious
threat
by
73
percent
of
Canadians”i.



Although
the
intention
was
interaction
with
the
athletes,
that
really
wasn’t
the
case.
It
was
more
a
showcase
of
who
believed
and
endorsed
the
project.

 
 
8
 



 Be
sure
not
to
launch
in
a
public
fashion
too
early
before
your
online
components
have
been
 properly
 tested.
 In
 this
 case,
 many
 key
 leaders
 in
 the
 sustainability
 field
 who
attended
the
launch
were
disappointed
when
some
of
the
program
components
didn’t
work
 properly
 causing
 confusion
 and
 disappointment.
 It
was
 hard
 to
win
 them
 back
once
version
2.0
was
deployed.

What
was
the
goal
of
Project
Blue
Sky?

The
goal
of
the
PBS
website
was
threefold:


1. To
engage
and
encourage
people
to
make
sustainable
transportation
choices
and
then
log
 the
 kilometres
 that
 they
 biked,
 walked
 or
 took
 transit
 on
 the
 PBS
 widget.
 This
widget
sat
on
the
homepage
of
the
PBS
website
and
aggregated
all
of
the
users’
entries
while
keeping
track
of
users’
personal
stats.
This
gave
users
the
ability
to
see
how
far
they
had
travelled
and
what
their
CO2
savings
were
as
a
result.
The
widget
and
the
top
widget
contributors
are
shown
below
on
the
most
recent
version
of
the
homepage
(an
earlier
version
can
be
viewed
in
Appendix
3).

2. To
create
a
fun
online
environment
where
like‐minded
users
could
meet
and
compete
against
other
individuals
and
groups
for
the
number
of
kilometres
logged
on
the
widget.

3. To
use
athletes
to
inspire
people
to
join
the
site
and
make
changes
in
their
lives.


The
 over‐arching
 goal
 of
 the
 project
 was
 to
 collectively
 log
 1
 billion
 kilometres
 of
sustainable
travel
before
the
end
of
the
Paralympics
in
March
2010.
If
PBS
could
encourage
individuals
to
avoid
driving
a
total
of
1
billion
kilometres,
this
carbon
reduction
would
be
roughly
 equivalent
 to
 the
 190,000
 tonnes
 of
 indirect
 carbon
 emissions
 produced
 by
 the
2010
Winter
Games.


Recommendations:

 Choose
your
metric
wisely.

PBS
used
kilometres
as
a
proxy
for
CO2.
It
was
believed
that
kilometres
would
be
an
easier
metric
 for
people
to
relate
to,
however,
 the
connection
between
 kilometres
 and
 CO2
 wasn’t
 always
 clear
 to
 members.
 Using
 kilometres
 also
limited
the
project’s
ability
to
include
non‐travel
related
actions
into
the
widget
and
its
database.
For
example,
cutting
emissions
by
bringing
your
own
bag
rather
than
getting
a
 plastic
 bag
 at
 a
 store
 is
 not
 an
 activity
 that
 lends
 itself
 to
 being
 measured
 in
kilometres.
 Break‐up
 large
goals
 into
smaller
chunks
so
members
 feel
as
 though
they
can
make
a
difference
 (versus
 having
 such
 an
 overwhelmingly
 ambitious
 goal).
 Success
 engages
people
so
small
wins
are
better
than
no
wins.
 Choose
an
achievable
 target
with
some
solid
 thinking
behind
how
you
will
be
able
 to
reach
 it.
 
 PBS
 was
 hampered
 by
 the
 expectation
 that
 it
 would
 reach
 the
 1
 billion
kilometre
 mark
 and
 many
 pre‐judged
 its
 success
 based
 on
 this
 when
 many
 other
successes
and
learnings
were
accomplished
and
should
be
celebrated.

 
 
9
 





 
 
10
 





Stakeholders

In
the
beginning,
relationships
were
formed
as
a
way
to
generate
funding
for
the
website.
The
partnership
with
 the
Canadian
Olympic
Committee
also
provided
access
 to
Canadian
athletes
and
gave
the
project
credibility.
The
partnerships
PBS
developed
will
be
discussed
in
more
detail
later
in
the
report.

Overall,
money,
time
and
manpower
were
all
in
short
supply.
Despite
the
project
being
an
official
supplier
activation
of
Offsetters
and
being
officially
sanctioned
by
VANOC,
resources
were
very
limited.
This
made
it
challenging
and
forced
the
team
to
stick
with
promotions
that
could
be
obtained
for
free.
In
addition,
there
was
a
conflict
in
terms
of
image
in
that
the
project
had
a
grassroots
feel
but
its
clear
association
with
VANOC
and
other
partners
belied
that.

While
 partners
 lend
 credibility
 to
 the
 initiative,
 they
 increased
 the
 time
 it
 took
 to
make
decisions
and
added
a
 layer
of
bureaucracy
as
certain
 initiatives
required
many
different
sign‐offs.
The
PBS
team
found
this
to
be
extremely
challenging
as
the
lengthy
approval
time
meant
the
website
could
not
change
as
quickly
as
the
need
arose.
Lastly,
VANOC
had
some
concerns
regarding
sponsorship
conflicts
so
there
was
some
functionality
that
PBS
was
not
able
to
implement.


Another
big
challenge
was
 time
constraints.
There
was
simply
not
enough
time
to
gather
enough
users
to
make
a
big
enough
dent
in
the
1
billion
kilometre
goal
before
the
Winter
Games
in
2010.


Given
the
resources
available
to
this
project,
as
well
as
the
timeline
and
the
fact
that
only
15%
of
viral
marketing
projects
are
passed
onii,
it
is
no
surprise
that
Project
Blue
Sky
faced
challenges.


Recommendation:

 Choose
your
partners
carefully.
 In
some
cases,
PBS
had
 to
make
many
changes
 to
 the
website
to
satisfy
its
partners
but
this
often
proved
a
distraction
to
focusing
on
the
end
user.
PBS
would
recommend
that
when
a
partnership
is
formed
that
frank
discussions
delve
into
what
priorities
each
group
have,
what
they
hope
to
achieve
and
also
how
the
decision‐making
will
be
carried
out
(preferably
before
work
begins).







 
 
11
 




Was
Project
Blue
Sky
successful?

According
 to
 a
 user
 survey
 PBS
 conducted
 in
 March
 2010,
 43%
 of
 users
 indicated
 that
Project
Blue
Sky
helped
them
to
change
their
daily
routine
to
include
more
carbon
reducing
activities.
 Specifically,
 34%
of
 users
 said
 they
were
 inspired
 to
 learn
more
 about
 carbon
reducing
activities,
28%
said
they
were
inspired
to
help
others
make
changes
to
their
lives
with
 regards
 to
 carbon
reducing
 activities
 and
26%
 said
 that
 it
 inspired
them
to
think
more
about
the
 role
 of
 athletes
 in
society.


On
 the
widget,
 there
was
a
 button
 that
 asked,
 “Do
you
 normally
 drive
 this
route?”
This
was
included
to
 measure
 if
 PBS
 was
actually
 changing
behaviour
 (i.e.
 –
 the
kilometres
 were
incremental)
 or
 if
 the
kilometres
entered
would
have
 happened
 anyway.
This
stat
revealed
that
out
of
 the
 active
 entries,
41.91%
usually
drove
this
route.
 This
 means
 that
11,185
kilometres
(out
of
26,689)
were
incremental.



Since
the
project
didn’t
launch
until
mid‐2009
(8
months
before
the
Olympics),
there
really
wasn’t
 time
 to
 engage
 enough
users
 to
 accumulate
 1
 billion
 kilometres.
Over
 2.5
million
kilometres
 a
 week
 would
 have
 been
 required
 to
 achieve
 this
 goal
 and
 with
 the
 limited
“43%
of
users
indicated
that
Project
Blue
Sky
helped
them
to
change
their
daily
routine”


 
 
12
 



resources
of
the
project
this
was
indeed
ambitious.
In
addition,
consideration
needs
to
be
given
to
the
fact
that
it
takes
a
long
time
for
people
to
change
their
habits.
Below
is
a
figure
that
shows
a
typical
life
cycle
of
an
online
communityiii.
Project
Blue
Sky
would
have
been
in
 the
mid‐adolescence
phase.
Higher
member
activity
would
have
brought
us
“closer”
 to
our
goal.







Recommendation:

 Remember
 that
 social
 networks
 don’t
 grow
 overnight.
 If
 there
 is
 a
 specific
 goal
 that
needs
 to
 be
 reached,
make
 sure
 there
 is
 enough
 time
 allocated
 to
 properly
 devise
 a
strategy,
do
research
and
launch
the
website.
Also
consider
whether
your
goal
matches
your
resources
in
terms
of
financial
and
human
capital.




 
 
13
 



How
often
did
users
interact
with
the
website?

According
to
the
above‐mentioned
survey,
49%
of
the
users
visited
the
website
2‐4
times,
12%
of
the
users
visited
the
website
30+
times
and
8%
said
they
only
visited
the
website
once.






Recommendation:

 Be
clear
in
communicating
what
you
want
from
users
and
send
out
emails
to
remind
them
to
visit
your
website.
In
the
survey,
users
mentioned
that
they
would
have
liked
reminders
to
enter
their
kilometres
into
the
widget.




 
 
14
 



III.
The
Widget


Widget
Features

According
 to
 Forrester
 research,
 64%
 of
 young
 social
networking
 site
 users
 currently
 use
 widgets,
 while
 59%
 of
adult
social
networking
site
users
use
widgets.
According
to
the
 same
 article,
 widgets
 need
 to
 be
 simple,
 focused,
 and
relevant
 in
 order
 to
 provide
 incentive
 for
 people
 to
 share
them
 and
 engage
 with
 them.
 In
 some
 cases,
 users
 can
 be
motivated
to
share
the
widget
if
it
shows
they
are
connected
to
a
certain
causexii.


The
goal
was
to
make
the
widget
as
easy
to
use
as
possible
in
order
 to
 provide
 a
 simple
 action
 that
 users
 could
 do
regularly.
 The
 theory
 was
 that
 by
 encouraging
 logging
 of
km’s
and
encouraging
sustainable
transportation
choices
on
a
 daily
 basis,
 users
 would
 over
 time
 adjust
 their
 activity
towards
 these
 more
 sustainable
 choices.
 The
 widget
(featured
 right)
 provided
 a
 way
 for
 users
 to
 see
 how
everyone's
combined
efforts
made
a
difference.



To
use
the
widget,
users
would
simply:

◊ Enter
the
distance
travelled
◊ Choose
which
mode
of
travel
it
was
(walking,
biking,
or
public
transit)

◊ Choose
whether
it
was
a
route
they
would
normally
take
by
car
instead

◊ Enter
their
e‐mail
(this
would
be
filled
in
automatically
after
the
first
time)

◊ Click
Submit!


Because
the
widget
tracks
users
based
on
their
e‐mail
address,
the
widget
could
be
used
without
signing
up
for
the
PBS
website.
If
users
signed
up
at
a
later
date,
the
information
would
be
referenced
and
users
would
have
the
ability
to
look
up
their
overall
progress
(including
cumulative
CO2
savings
and
total
kilometres).



Recommendations:
 Keep
in
mind
that
the
viral
nature
of
widgets
means
they
could
end
up
anywhere
(blogs,
Facebook,
etc).
This
means
 it’s
 crucial
 that
 the
widget
can
stand
alone
on
 these
other
websites
and
communicate
its
purpose
in
an
intriguing
way
to
get
people
to
use
it
and
pass
it
on.


 
 
15
 



 Complete
 user
 testing
 (with
 those
 in
 your
 target
market)
 to
 see
 if
 your
website
 and
widget
are
intuitive
and
easy
to
navigate.
In
addition,
these
users
can
help
in
the
design
and
implementation
phases
of
the
website.
The
PBS
team
was
working
so
closely
with
the
widget
that
they
considered
it
easy
to
use
and
very
intuitive.
However,
the
feedback
from
the
survey
suggests
that
people
found
the
widget
to
be
complex
and
confusing.


User
Adoption


The
widget
was
seen
as
a
‘risk‐free’
way
to
participate
in
Project
Blue
Sky.
Throughout
the
course
of
the
project,
member
entries
into
the
widget
increased
(as
shown
above).
In
fact,
the
 statistics
 show
 that
 most
 people
 preferred
 engaging
 with
 the
 widget
 as
 an
 initial
involvement
before
signing
up
for
an
account.
 The
 figure
 on
 the
 right
shows
 that
 66%
 of
 widget
 users
either
 waited
 at
 least
 a
 day
 before
signing
up
 for
 the
site,
never
signed
up
 at
 all
 or
 used
 the
 widget
exclusively
 to
 interact
 with
 Project
Blue
Sky.


Of
 the
 30%
 that
 never
 signed
 up,
10%
were
very
active
widget
users1.
Secondly,
 of
 the
 36%
 of
 users
 that
used
the
widget
only,
many
of
 them
























































1
A
user
was
considered
active
when
they
entered
at
least
3
entries
into
the
widget

 
 
16
 



were
using
the
widget
for
months
before
they
signed
up
for
an
account.
This
highlights
that
the
widget
drew
 in
a
 selection
of
users
 that
were
 interested
 in
 the
message,
but
weren't
willing
to
sign
up
for
the
social
networking
aspect
of
the
site.
Once
users
had
invested
more
time
thinking
about
Project
Blue
Sky
and
their
travel
habits,
they
were
more
willing
to
get
involved
and
sign
up
for
the
site.

Average
Active
Widget
User


The
widget
was
effective
at
initially
engaging
users,
however,
PBS
was
interested
to
know
how
effective
it
was
at
engaging
users
long
term.
The
average
active
user
was
split
into
two
groups:
those
that
did
about
five
to
eight
entries
(about
two
weeks
of
activity)
or
those
who
did
greater
than
twenty
entries
(a
month
or
more
of
activity).
The
few
who
made
twenty
or
more
total
entries
were
consistent
with
two
patterns
of
use.
Either
a
user
would
create
lots
of
entries
in
a
short
period
of
time
or
they
would
enter
a
few
consistent
entries
over
a
long
period
of
time.
Generally,
users
were
active
during
the
week
and
inactive
on
the
weekend.



Recommendations:
 Start
with
fewer
features
and
add
them
as
necessary.
The
widget
worked
to
provide
users
the
interactivity
that
gave
them
ownership
and
was
the
catalyst
to
get
them
involved
in
the
project.


 Give
 something
 back
 to
 users.
 PBS
 reinforced
 people’s
 desire
 to
 add
 entries
 to
 the
widget
 by
 telling
 them
 how
 their
 CO2
 savings
 affects
 them
 personally,
 such
 as
 the
amount
of
money
saved
by
not
driving
their
car.


 Don't
hide
the
main
features
behind
another
web
page
(i.e.
–
splash
page
or
landing
page)
unless
it
is
required
for
privacy
or
security
reasons.

In
our
case,
stakeholders
mandated
a
landing
page
(see
Appendix
4)
as
a
way
to
secure
the
site,
however,
when
this
was
changed
to
a
descriptive
splash
page,
it
was
unsuccessful
since
it
removed
access
to
the
widget.
As
shown
above,
many
users
were
not
willing
to
sign
up
for
the
website.
As
such,
removing
access
to
the
widget
cut
out
a
large
group
of
users.
If
you
have
stakeholders
that
want
input
on
your
design,
such
as
requiring
a
tightly
controlled
landing
page
for
non‐users,
find
some
way
to
provide
interactivity
to
the
user
on
that
page
as
well.



 Provide
"something
more"
for
users
once
they
decide
to
sign
in.

Information,
activities,
and
content
are
all
important
to
keeping
users
once
they
join
the
website.

Many
teams
assume
that
because
you
have
a
forum
it
will
be
used.

However,
forums
are
everywhere
and
users
need
something
to
talk
about
before
they
will
participate.

 
 
17
 



IV.
Outreach

Community
Outreach
(Athletes/Partners)

Engagement
 is
defined
as
 the
“meaningful
participation
and
sustained
participation
of
an
activityiv”.
Unlike
“involvement”,
“participation”,
and
“volunteering”,
the
term
engagement
suggests
more
depth
and
connection
to
the
activity.
For
example,
a
person
can
participate
but
 not
 be
 engaged.
 In
 2009,
 The
 Center
 of
 Excellence
 for
 Youth
 Engagement
 put
 out
 a
report
 titled,
 “What
 is
 Youth
 Engagement?”
 The
 report
 highlights
 numerous
 ways
engagement
can
be
identified
among
youth,
but
arguably
this
list
can
apply
to
most
groups
of
peopleiv.


• Performs
the
activity
or
spends
time
with
the
organization
frequently
• Talks
to
others
about
the
activity/organization
• Initiates
the
activity
him/herself
(rather
than
at
the
urging
of
others)
• Participates
actively
and
regularly,
with
a
specific
purpose
in
mind
• Brings
other
people
 to
 the
activity/organization
and
seeks
out
others
with
similar
interests
• Leads
and
organizes
others
who
are
involved
in
the
activity/organization
• Advocates
energetically
on
behalf
of
the
activity/organization
• Seeks
 adult
 support
 and
 structure
 when
 needed,
 acts
 independently
 when
appropriate

This
list
can
help
serve
as
a
reminder
of
what
it
means
to
have
engaged
participants
in
the
project.
 Additionally,
 for
 those
 looking
 to
 start
 a
 community
 engagement
 website,
 the
above
list
can
help
identify
success
metrics.
See
Appendix
5
for
additional
metrics.


Who
was
engaged
in
Project
Blue
Sky?


For
 the
purpose
of
 this
report,
engagement
 is
broken
up
into
 three
 sections:
 athletes,
 partners,
 and
 youth.
 This
section
 will
 discuss
 how
 PBS
 engaged
 these
 different
groups
and
suggest
areas
for
improvement.


As
evidenced
by
social
 change
 research,
 this
project
had
all
of
the
right
ingredients.
It
had
leaders
(athletes),
it
had
a
 cause
 (climate
 change),
 and
 it
 had
 a
 platform
 (the
Olympics).
 Another
 article
 suggests
 that
 a
 “shared
 purpose”
 (i.e.–
 common
 interest),
“networked
 interactions”
 (relationships
 among
 community
 members),
 hosts
 as
contributors
 (active
 in
 the
 conversations
 and
 genuinely
 engaged
 in
 the
 project)
 and
 a
“continuous
 and
 evolving
 approach”
 (based
on
 the
needs
 of
 the
members)
 are
 all
 key
 to
building
a
strong
online
communityv.
In
fact,
according
to
the
same
report
“activity
among
“Activity
among
and
throughout
the
network
is
one
of
the
characteristics
that
can
distinguish
a
successful
community
from
a
stagnant
one”v

 
 
18
 



and
throughout
the
network
is
one
of
the
characteristics
that
can
distinguish
a
successful
community
from
a
stagnant
one”v.


In
2007,
Junxion
created
a
report
titled
Sustainability
Awareness
+
Action:
Best
Practices
and
Key
 Lessons
 for
 the
 Vancouver
 Organizing
 Committee
 and
 Environment
 Canadavi.
 In
 this
report,
 it
 states
 that
 sustainability,
 specifically,
 is
 better
 promoted
 through
 groups.
 The
report
 goes
 on
 to
 explain
 that
 groups
 help
 to
 overcome
 “low
 agency”
 and
 that
 this
 is
 a
common
problem
individuals
face
with
sustainability
issues.
Low
agency
refers
to
the
idea
that
 people
 feel
 as
 though
 they
 cannot
 affect
 change
 on
 their
 ownvi.
 PBS
 aimed
 to
communicate
the
fact
that
one
person
can
make
a
difference
but
a
large
group
of
people
can
make
an
even
bigger
difference.


Research
has
argued
 that
having
key
 influencers
 (leaders)
 is
 the
best
way
 to
exert
 social
normsvi.
 Thus,
 PBS
 seemed
 like
 an
 ideal
 opportunity
 where
 athletes
 would
 have
 the
spotlight
and
they
could
use
this
platform
to
promote
climate
change
action.


Recommendations:

 “Change
is
most
likely
to
occur
where
levels
of
collective
action
can
be
engaged”vi.
This
is
 especially
 true
 when
 it
 comes
 to
 sustainability.
 People
 often
 feel
 as
 though
 they
cannot
make
a
difference
by
 themselves.
Therefore,
 if
you
get
people
 into
groups
and
give
 them
 a
 strong
 leader,
 they
 are
 more
 likely
 to
 feel
 as
 though
 they
 can
 make
 a
difference.

 Common
 interests,
 relationships
 among
 community
 members
 and
 actively
 engaged
hosts
are
key
to
building
a
successful
community.


Athlete
Engagement

It
 is
 imperative
when
 trying
 to
promote
a
new
company
or
 a
 new
 sustainability
 project
 like
 PBS
 that
 influencers
(in
 this
 case
 Olympic
 athletes)
 help
 spread
 the
 word.
According
 to
 one
 report,
 “influencers
 (typically)
 restrict
themselves
to
talking
about
only
those
product
categories
that
 were
 personally
 important
 to
 themvii”.
 This
 is
 why
PBS
 asked
 specific
 athletes,
 especially
 those
 already
involved
 with
 “Play
 It
 Cool”
 (an
 initiative
 of
 the
 David
Suzuki
Foundation)
and
Clean
Air
Champions
 to
become
ambassadors
for
the
site.

Another
 challenge
was
 trying
 to
 leverage
 the
 “star‐power”
 of
 the
Winter
Games
 athletes
without
 asking
 for
 a
 lot
 of
 effort
 from
 them.
The
athletes
were
established
as
one
of
 the
original
 focal
 points
 for
 users
 of
 the
website
 but
 it
 became
 increasingly
 clear
 that
 their
ongoing
interaction
with
the
website
was
going
to
be
low
to
non‐existent,
especially
in
the
lead
up
to
the
Olympic
&
Paralympic
Games
in
2010.



“Celebrities
can
bring
valuable
profile
and
credibility
so
long
as
they
are
authentic
and
actively
model
the
behaviours
they
are
promoting”vi

 
 
19
 




According
 to
 the
 Junxion
 report,
 “celebrities
 can
bring
 valuable
profile
 and
 credibility
 so
long
as
they
are
authentic
and
actively
model
the
behaviours
they
are
promoting”vi.
This
is
key
as
some
of
the
athletes
PBS
brought
on
board
could
not
even
get
their
profile
up
and
running,
let
alone
use
the
widget
or
try
to
encourage
others
to
do
so.

Despite
a
great
deal
of
effort
and
a
partnership
with
the
Canadian
Olympic
Committee,
not
as
many
athletes
engaged
with
the
project
as
initially
expected.
There
were
a
few
athletes
in
the
beginning
who
were
engaged
–
they
performed,
talked,
participated,
lead,
advocated,
and
 sought
 support.
 This
 support
 faded
 over
 time
 as
 these
 activities
 did
 not
 noticeably
impact
website
 traffic.
During
 the
 final
user
 survey
and
 interviews,
one
of
 the
comments
made
was
that
there
seemed
to
be
no
strategy
around
engaging
athletes.
People
wanted
the
athletes
to
be
more
active.
According
to
one
respondent,
they
would
have
liked
to
see
more
engagement
on
behalf
of
the
athletes
versus
just
“lending
their
name”
to
the
project.


Recommendations:

 When
 considering
 Olympic
 athletes
 as
 Influencers,
 keep
 in
mind
 that
 they
 are
more
likely
to
commit
to
your
cause
if
 it
 is
something
they
are
truly
passionate
about.
Even
then,
 they
 are
 busy
 individuals
 so
 it’s
 advisable
 to
 be
 realistic
 if
 forming
 an
 entire
program
around
them.

 If
it’s
an
online
project,
it’s
best
to
involve
athletes
that
are
already
actively
engaged
in
social
media.
This
will
ensure
more
exposure
for
your
project,
avoid
the
learning
curve
of
getting
athletes
up
to
speed
with
the
technology
and
engage
those
athletes
that
are
already
comfortable
with
an
active
public
profile.


 Ensure
engagement
by
your
 leaders.
Although
PBS
had
athletes
voluntarily
 lend
 their
name
and
profile
to
the
cause,
most
were
not
active
on
the
site
which
made
it
difficult
to
tap
 into
 their
networks
and
provide
a
 forum
 for
other
participants
 to
engage
directly
with
the
athletes,
a
promise
that
was
made
in
the
promotion
of
the
program.

Partner
Engagement

Early
on
in
the
creation
of
Project
Blue
Sky,
partnerships
were
identified
as
a
key
vehicle
to
engage
broad
audiences
given
the
project’s
limited
resources.
It
was
believed
that
through
these
 partnerships,
 specific
 audiences
 could
 be
 targeted.
 This
 was
 further
 supported
 by
research
 done
 by
 Junxion
 Strategy
 (as
mentioned
 above).
 This
 report
 highlights
 the
 fact
that
 a
 partnership
 model
 is
 highly
 effective
 and
 can
 “draw
 on
 the
 competencies,
 reach,
credibility”
of
partners
from
a
variety
of
sectors
(government,
business,
and
non‐profit)vi.

The
project
gained
a
few
early
partners,
such
as
Clean
Air
Champions,
the
Province
of
BC
and
VANOC,
who
generated
some
traffic
to
the
website.
The
diagram
below
shows
some
of
the
organizations
and/or
people
that
were
contacted
during
the
second
half
of
the
project,

 
 
20
 



including:
 government
 agencies,
 non‐profit
 agencies,
 corporations,
media
 and
 influential
individuals.


While
this
list
was
substantial
very
few
partners
came
on
board
in
a
truly
integrated
way.
Later
 in
 the
project,
 PBS
developed
 strong
 relationships
with
Coca‐Cola,
BC
Hydro,
 2010
Legacies
 Now
 and
 the
Nature
 Trust,
 some
 of
whom
 had
 relevant
existing
 programs
 that
PBS
could
connect
with.

Another
 strategy
 was
 to
contact
all
Environmental
Non‐Governmental
Organization’s
 (ENGO’s)
that
 had
 supported
 the
Copenhagen
 Climate
Conference.
 PBS
 felt
 that
these
 like‐minded
organizations
 would
 be
willing
 to
 support
another
 great
 cause.
However,
 PBS
 found
quite
 the
 opposite
 to
 be
true.
 Organizations
 were
hesitant
 to
 participate
because
 of
 the
environmental
 and
 social
controversies
 that
accompany
mega‐events
such
as
the
Olympics.
While
some
organizations
lent
support,
like
Clean
Air
Champions,
 the
hesitation
 in
being
associated
with
 the
Olympic
movement
was
disappointing.

While
 partnering
 with
 official
 Olympic
 suppliers
 and
 sponsors
 allowed
 the
 project
 to
associate
with
and
use
 the
Olympic
brand,
 it
was
also
very
 limiting
with
regards
 to
what
PBS
could
and
couldn’t
do.
There
were
many
rules
to
follow
and
some
of
them
proved
to
be
obstacles
to
true
user
engagement.
When
entering
into
a
partnership
as
PBS
did,
it
is
very
important
to
know
what
you
can
and
can’t
do
so
as
not
to
develop
unrealistic
expectations.


Recommendations:

 Be
strategic
 in
who
you
approach
 to
be
your
partner
and
have
clear
goals
 in
mind
of
what
you
want
to
get
out
of
the
partnership.
Be
as
open
and
honest
up
front
as
to
what
you
 need
 from
 the
 partner
 as
 well
 as
 what
 your
 limitations
 are
 in
 terms
 of

 
 
21
 



reciprocating.
A
written
“letter
of
understanding”
(LOU)
is
a
definite
asset
from
a
clarity
perspective.

 One
of
the
key
partnerships
missing
from
this
project
was
industry.
While
PBS
focused
on
 environmental
 and
 sport
 orientated
 organizations,
 it
 failed
 to
 recognize
 that
industry,
 specifically
 technology
 experts
 with
 experience
 in
 building
 social
 media
software,
could
have
been
key
partners
for
this
project.


 Time
 was
 another
 factor
 in
 preventing
 partnerships
 with
 the
 corporate
 sector
 and
VANOC
sponsors
in
particular.

Although
many
were
contacted,
their
Games
time
plans
were
already
well
established
with
no
additional
resources
of
time,
money
and
human
capital
to
adopt
another
program
like
PBS.

Youth
Engagement

Youth,
between
the
ages
of
13‐29,
are
some
of
the
most
engaged
citizens
in
the
countryiv.
This
 population
 is
 unique
 from
 other
 populations
 because
 they
 have
 grown
 up
 in
 the
technology
era.
Often
referred
to
as
Generation
Y,
this
population
is
highly
proficient
with
advanced
 communications
 technology
 and
 fast
 paced
 decision‐making.
 Due
 to
 their
proficiency,
they
have
access
to
information
on
all
levels
of
scale,
from
local
to
global,
and
have
become
more
involved,
more
informed,
and
more
engaged
than
previous
generations.

In
 addition,
 it
 appears
 that
 the
 younger
 generation
 has
more
 of
 an
 environmental
 focus.
According
 to
 an
 interview
 conducted
 by
 eMarketer,
 US
 Internet
 users
 aged
 18‐24
 had
 a
greater
 tendency
 to
 fully
 integrate
 green
 behaviour
 into
 their
 daily
 lives
 than
 did
 their
older
 counterpartsviii.
 Specifically,
 ten
 percent
 claimed
 to
 “completely
 incorporate
environmentalism
into
their
lives”,
compared
with
3‐5
%
of
other
groupsviii.

Furthermore,
as
shown
in
the
chart
below
from
a
recent
US
study,
the
18‐29
demographic
spends
more
“personal”
time
online
than
any
other
demographic
groupix.




 
 
22
 




In
a
study
by
The
Framework
Foundation
(2006)
it
was
shown
that
the
three
main
barriers
to
youth
engagement
is:
nobody
asks,
they
feel
as
though
they
don’t
have
time,
they
don’t
know
where
to
find
meaningful
volunteer
opportunitiesx.
This
is
particularly
pertinent
with
regards
 to
 environmental
 information.
 With
 the
 focus
 on
 climate
 change
 and
 global
warming,
youth
are
bombarded
and
can
easily
become
disengaged
as
a
result.

While
 social
 networks
 like
 PBS
 are
 restricted
 to
 members
 over
 the
 age
 of
 13,
 youth
engagement
was
a
target
audience
that
was
for
the
most
part
largely
missed.
While
there
was
 an
 effort
 late
 in
 the
 project
 to
 engage
 school‐aged
 youth,
 it
 was
 unsuccessful.
 It
 is
important
 to
note
 that
 this
 target
audience
needs
 the
most
 lead‐time
to
reach
effectively.
Schools
should
be
contacted
months
or
years
before
launching
a
project.
Presentations
to
school
boards,
writing
to
principals
and
contacting
teacher
networks
are
all
ways
to
get
a
project
 like
 this
 into
 schools.
 The
 project
 should
 be
 presented
 as
 an
 easy
 and
 relevant
addition
 to
 the
 curriculum.
 For
 example,
 the
 2010
 Olympic
 Education
 Program
 offers
comprehensive
lesson
plans
and
describes
its
program
in
relation
to
the
different
school‐age
groups
it
targets
(see
Appendix
6
for
details).
This
program
was
developed
over
many
years
in
advance
of
the
2010
Winter
Games.

Recommendations:

 For
this
type
of
project,
it
is
recommended
to
consider
youth
as
a
target
because
of
their
high
 levels
 of
 engagement,
 influence
 in
 families
 and
 because
 they
 are
 tech
 savvy.
However,
if
trying
to
reach
youth
through
school
programs,
it
is
important
to
allow
for
considerable
 lead‐time.
 In
 addition,
 the
 closer
 you
 can
 tie
 the
 program
 to
 the
 course
curriculum,
the
better
it
will
be
received.

 It
 is
 imperative
to
have
a
clear
communication
strategy
with
clear
messaging
on
what
the
project
is
about.


 In
some
cases,
 it
 is
easy
to
assume
that
your
website
appeals
to
everyone.
However,
a
website
that
tries
to
appeal
to
everyone
ends
up
appealing
to
no
one!
Take
the
time
to
determine
 the
 correct
 target
 market
 for
 your
 program.
 The
 dollars
 you
 spend
 on
marketing
and
promotions
will
go
much
further.

Community
Outreach
–
Members

There
were
many
ways
that
PBS
tried
to
reach
out
to
community
members
and
get
them
excited
 about
 the
 project.
 However,
 the
 member
 community
 was
 not
 as
 active
 as
 PBS
would
have
liked.
In
retrospect,
PBS
should
have
encouraged
more
dialogue
on
the
website
by
 specifically
 targeting
 individuals
 to
 blog,
 comment
 or
write
 something
 in
 the
 forum
 ‐
anything
to
get
the
conversation
started.
A
community
doesn’t
really
begin
until
members
feel
comfortable
about
participating
on
the
site.




 
 
23
 



Recommendation:

 It
is
important
to
have
new
content
and
conversations
on
a
social
network.
This
makes
it
 more
 interesting
 for
members
 and
 they
 are
more
 likely
 to
 come
 back.
 One
 article
recommends
 seeking
 out
 bloggers
 and
 other
well‐networked
 individuals
 and
 inviting
them
 to
 become
 a
 “charter
 member”
 of
 the
 communityiii.
 This
 makes
 them
 feel
privileged
 to
 be
 invited
 and
 their
 network
 plus
 their
 experience
 can
 help
 launch
 the
site.

What
brought
people
to
the
website?

According
to
our
survey
(and
as
illustrated
below),
over
60%
of
the
users
joined
because
friends
and/or
co‐workers
 told
 them
about
 the
project,
13%
 joined
because
of
corporate
partner
websites
and
9%
joined
through
twitter
and/or
facebook.






The
written
responses
from
the
survey
indicate
that
many
people
joined
“as
a
favour
to
a
friend”,
or
because
“it
sounded
interesting”.



Recommendation:

 While
friends,
family
and
co‐workers
have
broad
networks,
it’s
important
to
attract
the
right
target
market
to
the
site
–
not
 just
those
who
are
doing
a
favour
for
a
friend.
As
will
 be
 discussed
 later,
 it
 is
 not
 the
 number
 of
 eyeballs
 but
 the
 right
 eyeballs
 that
matter!




 
 
24
 



Why
did
people
join
Project
Blue
Sky?

 Great
concept
–
people
loved
the
concept
 Newness
–
the
idea
was
innovative
and
unique
 Merging
values
–
many
people
liked
the
environmental
and
sport
twist
 Community

–
people
wanted
to
be
part
of
something
bigger
than
themselves
 Key
Influencers
‐
engaged
and
social
network
savvy
athletes
 Contests
and
challenges
–
adds
competitive
spirit
 Partnerships
‐
Partnering
with
existing
networks

When
users
were
asked
to
explain
why
they
had
 joined
Project
Blue
Sky,
 their
responses
fell
into
four
major
categories:




While
 the
 motivation
 for
 most
 users
 fell
 into
 one
 of
 the
 above
 categories,
 many
 also
indicated
that
the
concept
(Olympic
athletes
inspiring
environmental
action
through
social
networking)
 had
 intrigued
 them
 and
 they
 joined
 in
 order
 to
 learn
 more
 about
 it.
 
 For
example,
 users
 indicated
 they
 joined
 because
 they
 were
 “Curious
 about
 the
 approach
 to
engaging
 public
 on
 climate
 change”
 and
wanted
 “To
 see
 how
 it
 functioned
 as
 a
 behaviour
change
tool”.
Also,
because
it
was
a
“Great
initiative
to
support
sport
and
sustainability.”

 
 
25
 




Recommendation:

 It’s
important
to
survey
users
early
on
in
the
process
as
to
what
they
hope
to
get
out
of
your
website
as
this
can
help
direct
the
content.

What
worked?


According
to
the
survey
as
well
as
website
data
collected
throughout
the
project,
the
three
main
reasons
users
stayed
engaged
were
as
follows:


1. Connectivity
The
more
users
felt
connected
to
the
initiative,
the
purpose,
other
users,
and
the
athletes,
the
 more
 likely
 they
 were
 to
 stick
 around.
 In
 fact,
 a
 number
 of
 people
 indicated
 they
remained
 involved
 in
 PBS
 because
 of
 Ryan
 Leech,
 one
 of
 our
 most
 active
 athlete
ambassadors.

2. Communication

The
email
blasts
sent
to
users
correlated
with
significant
jumps
in
gross
website
visits.
In
addition,
activity
on
the
website
as
well
as
blogging
and
tweeting
generated
interest.


3. Contests
Project
Blue
Sky
ran
a
contest
where
members
were
encouraged
to
donate
their
kilometres
to
 one
 of
 two
 lead
 athletes
 who
 were
 competing
 against
 one
 another
 for
 the
 most
kilometres.
This
contest
generated
the
most
traffic
of
any
other
engagement
strategy
(122
unique
visitors
in
one
day).


What
didn’t
work?

According
 to
 our
 survey,
 users
 identified
 reasons
why
 they
 felt
 disengaged
 and
 perhaps
frustrated
by
the
project:

 Password
 protection:
 This
 extra
 step,
 which
 was
 required
 by
 project
 stakeholders,
deterred
some
users
from
fully
engaging
in
the
project.

 The
widget:
Users
were
frustrated
by
the
widget
for
numerous
reasons
(too
complex,
not
working,
 it
didn’t
account
 for
decimals,
and
because
 it
was
 limited
 to
only
biking,
walking,
or
taking
transit).
A
detailed
image
of
the
widget
is
featured
in
Appendix
7.

 Counting
 kilometres:
 Since
 users
 were
 responsible
 for
 entering
 the
 number
 of
kilometres
 that
 they
 travelled,
 they
 usually
 had
 to
 guess
 as
 there
was
 no
 tool
 (aside
from
a
link
to
Google
Maps)
to
help
them
reliably
count
km’s.
This
lack
of
accuracy
may
have
taken
away
from
the
credibility
of
the
site.



 
 
26
 



 Lack
of
 engagement:
 There
was
 a
 lack
 of
 engagement
 on
 the
 part
 of
 athletes
which
unfortunately
set
a
bad
example
for
others.
According
to
the
Junxion
report,
“if
(people)
believe
that
others
do
not
care,
they
are
50%
less
likely
to
care
themselves”vi.

 Lack
 of
 web
 activity:
 There
 was
 very
 little
 change
 from
 day
 to
 day
 on
 the
 website
which
 didn’t
 incent
 people
 to
 re‐visit.
 This
 includes
 content,
 overall
 news
 and
 the
number
 of
 members.
 Users
 mentioned
 in
 the
 survey
 that
 they
 wanted
 to
 see
 more
content
on
carbon
reducing
activities.


 Goal
too
big:
The
1
billion‐kilometer
goal
was
so
large
(and
increasingly
unobtainable)
that
it
left
users
feeling
as
though
they
were
up
against
an
impossible
task.


 Lack
 of
 incentives:
 Users
 felt
 that
 they
 needed
 more
 encouragement
 to
 continue
engaging
with
the
website.
Users
specifically
mentioned
this
in
the
survey.

 Oversaturation:
Many
users
felt
that
there
are
too
many
social
networks
out
there
and
they
 were
 feeling
 overwhelmed
 trying
 to
 keep
 up
 with
 numerous
 online
 profiles.
Ultimately,
PBS
was
competing
for
people’s
limited
time
and
attention.

Sustainability
‐
Barriers
to
Engagement


The
Junxion
report
stipulates
that
there
are
specific
barriers
to
 adopting
 sustainable
 behaviours.
 Not
 surprisingly,
 they
recommend
 that
 these
 barriers
 need
 to
 be
 removed
 before
individual
change
can
be
expected.
They
even
go
as
far
as
to
say
that
“a
community
social
marketing
program
that
ignores
external
barriers
is
a
recipe
for
failure”vi.



The
 PBS
 team
 realized
 very
 early
 on
 in
 the
 project
 that
changing
behaviour
(i.e.
–
biking
instead
of
driving
etc)
was
going
to
be
a
challenging
task.
Some
 of
 the
 barriers
mentioned
 that
 could
 be
 related
 to
 PBS
were
 “lack
 of
 awareness”,
“feeling
unable
to
make
a
difference”,
“perception
of
difficulty”
and
“lack
of
incentives”.
In
addition
 to
 this,
 another
 study
 cited
 “laziness”
 as
 a
 potential
 barriervi.
 The
 fact
 that
 the
project
idea
is
intangible
(i.e.
–
the
results
are
not
easily
seen
by
those
participating)
made
it
 more
 difficult
 to
 encourage
 people
 to
 participate.
 This
 is
 partly
 due
 to
 the
 fact
 that
individuals
understand
the
effort
it
takes
for
them
to
change
their
routine
and
participate
in
PBS
by
logging
their
kilometres
but
they
don’t
necessarily
see
the
environmental
benefit.


Not
only
is
biking
a
change
to
your
daily
routine
if
you
drive
to
work
everyday
but
it
is
also
a
 large
 physical
 change
 if
 you
 are
 not
 used
 to
 exercising
 that
 much.
 The
 change
 could
involve
purchasing
a
bicycle
and
all
of
 the
gear
and
 then
beginning
an
exercise
routine
–
not
always
an
easy
sell!




“A
community
social
marketing
program
that
ignores
external
barriers
is
a
recipe
for
failure”vi

 
 
27
 




Recommendations:

 Show
 members
 the
 positive
 side
 of
 their
 transition
 and
 use
 the
 Influencers
 to
 help
model
this
behaviour
change.


 Ask
 yourself
 if
what
 you
 are
 requesting
 of
 people
 (i.e.
 –
 biking
 instead
 of
 driving)
 is
realistic
and
set
the
goal
accordingly.


 Whenever
possible,
try
to
show
members
the
tangible
benefits
of
their
efforts.

According
 to
 the
 Junxion
 report,
 the
 key
 barriers
 people
 face
 in
 trying
 to
 adopt
 a
sustainable
lifestyle
are
as
followsvi:



Outreach
Channel
‐
Social
Media
Twitter
On
January
18th,
2010
PBS
added
the
ability
for
users
to
 tweet
 their
 kilometres
 as
 an
 option
 other
 than
using
 the
 widget.

 While
 not
 adopted
 in
 large
numbers,
 this
 approach
 caught
 on
 quickly
 as
 it
 was
easy
 for
 users
 to
 do.

 Generally
 it
 engaged
 the
 PBS
Twitter
 users
 more
 as
 they
 didn't
 have
 to
 switch
 to
another
 site
 to
 continue
 participating
 from
 their
previous
 tweeting
 (figure
 right).

 There
 was
 not
 a
clear
 preference
 for
 tweeting
 over
 widget
 entry
 as
only
 small
 numbers
 of
 users
 switched
 from
 widget

 
 
28
 



entry
to
twitter
entry2.



Twitter,
as
a
communication
tool,
worked
well
for
delivering
constant
content
and
getting
users
 to
 interact.
 It
was
effective
because
 it
essentially
extended
the
website's
concept
of
generating
 a
 conversation
 about
 the
 environment
 and
 allowed
 PBS
 to
 recognize
 users
effort.

 The
 technology
 also
 served
 as
 an
 advertisement
 for
 PBS
 as
widget
 entries
 (along
with
 the
 project
 name)
 would
 continuously
 show
 up
 on
 followers'
 feeds
 and
 their
followers’
feeds.
Recommendation:

 Make
it
as
easy
as
possible
for
members
to
participate.
In
this
case,
members
were
able
to
tweet
in
their
entries
which
was
easier
than
logging
into
the
PBS
website.

What
Tweets
Worked?

PBS
 tried
 to
 engage
users
with
 relevant
 information
 that
 could
be
 “re‐tweeted”
 and
give
PBS
 some
 exposure.
 The
 subject
 matters
 of
 the
 tweets
 (see
 Appendix
 8)
 fell
 into
 three
categories:
 information
 and
 tools
 supporting
 the
 cause,
 recognition
 of
 efforts,
 and
information
on
where
PBS
had
been
featured.



One
 program
 that
 is
 helpful
 is
 called
 TweetDeck
 which
 allows
 community
 managers
 to
keep
 track
 of
 pre‐set
 searches,
 such
 as
 “sustainable
 transportation”
 as
 well
 as
 allowing
them
to
track
any
“mentions”.
For
example,
if
someone
“re‐tweeted”
something
PBS
wrote,
it
would
show
up
in
the
mention
category.
By
keeping
track
of
what
mentions
come
up,
one
can
see
what
sort
of
topics
people
are
interested
in
as
they
are
being
“re‐tweeted”.


In
order
to
manage
all
of
these
events
PBS
had
a
pair
of
social
media
experts
who
worked
together
 using
 tools
 that
 helped
 to
 mass
 aggregate
 and
 mass
 deliver
 content.

 Using
Hootsuitexi,
PBS
was
able
to
track
the
tweets
that
were
made
and
those
that
were
received.
Hootsuite
also
allows
a
user
to
delay
the
tweet
delivery
so
that
a
queue
of
tweets
could
be
released
 throughout
 the
day
without
a
 team
member
micromanaging
 the
 release
of
 each
individual
tweet.

Furthermore,
using
the
Ow.ly
link
shortener
PBS
had
more
space
in
each
individual
tweet
and
had
a
tracking
system
to
keep
track
of
our
popular
tweets3.



























































2
Other
users
did
not
make
it
clear
if
they
were
the
same
user
or
someone
entirely
different,
so
PBS
treated
them
as
unique
individuals
in
the
data.
3
A
link
shortener
such
as
Ow.ly
takes
a
long
URL
and
gives
you
a
short
URL
that
links
to
the
same
location.


 
 
29
 



Recommendations:

 Use
 a
 link
 shortener,
 such
 as
 Ow.ly
 or
 bit.ly
 when
 tweeting.
 Even
 if
 your
 message
including
the
 full
 link
 is
 less
than
140
characters,
 it
will
be
easier
to
re‐tweet
 if
 it
 is
a
shorter
link.

 Use
Twitter
to
engage
 individuals
 in
a
conversation
and
use
tools,
such
as
TweetDeck
and
Hootsuite
to
make
it
easier
to
track
conversations
and
schedule
your
“tweets”.


Facebook

Facebook
can
be
a
great
engagement
tool,
however,
recent
changes
to
their
platform
have
made
it
very
difficult
to
share
widgets
as
they
hide
in
the
left
hand
corner
of
the
page.
This
is
unfortunate
because
according
to
one
article,
more
people
use
Facebook
to
share
online
content,
such
as
widgets,
than
any
other
sitexii.


PBS
 generated
 a
 community
 of
 230
 Facebook
 fans
 ranging
 in
 age
 from
 25
 –
 44.
 These
demographics
 matched
 the
 website
 and
 survey
 respondent
 demographics
 with
 an
 even
gender
divide.
See
Appendix
9
for
demographic
data
from
our
survey.

Social
Media
Measurement

According
 to
 the
 Radian6
 article,
 Practical
 Social
 Media
Measurement
 and
 Analysis,
 “just
gathering
lots
of
eyeballs
isn’t
what
actually
matters,
but
rather
gathering
the
right
eyeballs
and
 then
 driving
 them
 to
 some
 sort
 of
 action”xiii.
 This
 is
 true
 as
 the
 easiest
 things
 to
measure
aren’t
always
the
best
things
to
measure,
in
terms
of
their
actual
business
impact.

Companies
will
get
better
at
this;
however,
social
media
is
so
new
to
the
marketing
mix
that
it
will
take
time
for
companies
to
learn
the
best
ways
to
measure
their
efforts.
According
to
Forrester
Research,
41%
of
marketers
interviewed
do
not
measure
ROI
from
social
media
investmentxiv.
 For
 those
 that
 do
 measure,
 and
 as
 mentioned
 above,
 marketers
 have
 a
tendency
to
 judge
their
success
based
on
“easy”
but
not
necessarily
relevant
metrics
(see
chart
 below).
 The
 lower
 items
 on
 the
 priority
 list
 (conversions
 etc)
 are
 actually
 better
indicators.



 
 
30
 





YouTube


Video
 is
 a
 powerful
 way
 to
 engage
 users
 and
 get
 your
message
 out
 to
 many
 people
 simultaneously.
 YouTube
 is
 a
great
 platform
 to
 post
 and
 release
 viral
 videos
 that
 can
 be
easily
shared
among
peers.


PBS
hosted
videos
on
the
homepage
to
introduce
the
project
to
new
users.
It
supplied
a
convenient
resource
to
give
more
compelling
 directions
 on
 using
 the
 site
 as
 well
 as
 a

 
 
31
 



passionate
 introduction
 by
 David
 Calder
 (the
 project’s
 main
 athlete
 sponsor).

 In
retrospect,
PBS
could
have
used
videos
earlier
 in
 the
project;
however,
 limited
resources
prevented
this.



Recommendation:

 When
possible,
use
short
videos
as
a
way
to
communicate
what
your
project
 is
about.
The
 best
 people
 to
 present
 are
 the
 Influencers
 (such
 as
 athletes)
 that
 are
 passionate
about
the
cause
and
have
the
ability
to
motivate
others
towards
action.
Videos
also
help
members
trust
who
is
behind
the
project.


Blog


A
blog
is
a
great
way
to
keep
users
up
to
date
with
what's
happening
on
the
site
and
was
used
successfully
at
PBS
to
both
inform
and
engage
users.

Users
are
able
to
comment
back
and
get
clarification
and
even
spark
conversations
around
topics
 introduced
on
the
blog.

Blogs
work
well
at
delivering
complex
pieces
of
 information
as
 they
can
 include
pictures
and
aren’t
 typically
 limited
to
a
certain
numbers
of
characters.
PBS
posted
energy‐saving
tips,
 links
 to
 energy‐saving
 calculators,
 and
 news
 about
 the
 athletes
 and
 Olympics.
 The
figure
below
shows
the
peak
levels
of
activity
from
blog
postings.


Recommendation:

 Use
blogs
as
a
way
to
communicate
what
is
going
on
with
the
project,
or
other
items
of
relevance.
When
starting
a
new
website,
it’s
a
great
way
to
show
activity.



Blog
posts
that
coincided
with
the
peaks
in
blog
traffic
were:

















 
 
32
 



What
Worked
/
What
Did
Not
Work

Promotions

PBS
 ran
 various
 events
 to
 attract
 users
 and
 keep
 them
 engaged.

 Over
 the
 long
 run,
 the
figure
below
highlights
the
three
main
peaks
of
activity
on
the
site:
October,
 January,
and
February.


  Figure:
Visits
to
the
Site
Source:
Google
AdWordsxv   Athlete
Contest

The
figure
on
the
next
page
shows
that
the
majority
of
site
activity
in
October
was
due
to
a
contest
between
 two
of
 the
 featured
athletes
on
 the
site
 ‐
David
Calder
and
Ryan
Leech.

Users
were
encouraged
to
credit
their
widget
entries
to
one
of
two
groups,
each
supporting
one
of
 the
 two
 athletes.

Users
 still
 received
 their
 individual
 credit
 for
 each
 trip
 entry
 in
addition
 to
 the
group
getting
 credit.

While
no
prizes
were
offered,
users
 clearly
 enjoyed
the
competition.


Recommendation:

 Contests
 like
 this
are
a
great
way
 to
get
 the
athletes
 to
engage
more
 in
 the
project.
 It
also
makes
it
more
fun
and
competitive
for
members.



Torch
Relay

Coca‐Cola
 provided
 the
 opportunity
 for
 project
 team
 leads
 Chris
 Kantowicz
 and
 David
Calder
to
carry
the
torch
on
the
first
day
of
its
arrival
in
Canada
providing
huge
profile
and
media
interviews
for
the
project.

David
Calder
in
particular
did
live
hits
with
CTV
Canada
A.M.,
Global
TV
and
a
number
of
radio
and
newspaper
 interviews.
As
shown
in
the
figure
below,
the
media
coverage
had
very
little
impact
on
PBS
traffic.

 ghghg

 
 
33
 




Figure:
Site
Upgrades
and
Activity
October
7
‐
November
7,
2009
Source:
Google
AdWordsxvi  

Figure:
Site
Upgrades
and
Viewing
Activity
January
1
‐
January
31,
2010
Source:
Google
AdWordsxvi





 
 
34
 




Media

The
above
figure
highlights
two
traffic
spikes
in
January
2010.
The
first
spike
is
the
result
of
an
advertisement
that
ran
in
BlackPress
Media
(a
conglomerate
of
small
newspapers4).
The
data
highlights
that
over
the
course
of
the
advertising
term
(January
24th
to
26th),
72%
of
the
PBS
website
users
were
new
users,
so
the
advertisement
worked
well
at
bringing
in
new
users5.




Prize
Contests

The
second
traffic
spike
in
January
2010
(as
shown
above)
was
the
result
of
a
contest
for
four
 tickets
 to
 the
 2010
 Olympic
Men's
 Ski
 Cross
 Final.

 Every
 widget
 entry
 per
 person
(max
1
per
day)
 equaled
an
entry
 into
 the
draw.

When
 the
 contest
 ended,
 an
entry
was
drawn
at
random
and
a
winner
was
declared6.

In
the
survey,
members
had
suggested
that
an
 email
 reminder
would
have
 encouraged
 them
 to
use
 the
 site
more.
As
 such,
 an
 email
reminder
may
have
increased
the
number
of
contest
entries
throughout
the
contest
versus
a
spike
at
the
beginning
and
end
of
the
contest.


There
were
49%
new
users
at
the
beginning
of
the
contest.
This
turned
into
39%
new
users
at
 the
end
as
 initial
new
users
 stayed
on.
The
October
 contest
between
athletes
engaged
more
current
users
with
only
38%
of
participants
being
new
users
at
that
time.



Additional
Promotions

Mayor’s
Challenge:
Originally
pitched
as
a
 challenge
between
each
of
 the
2010
Olympic
venue
 cities,
 and
 spearheaded
 by
 Mayor
 Pam
 Goldsmith‐Jones
 of
 West
 Vancouver,
 the
Mayor’s
Challenge
later
became
a
more
simplistic
endorsement
of
PBS
by
each
of
the
venue
cities.
Each
community
activated
to
varying
degrees
with
West
Vancouver
and
the
City
of
Vancouver
going
as
far
as
featuring
PBS
on
their
websites.
The
City
of
Vancouver
with
PBS
on
its
home
page
became
the
second
most
important
traffic
generator
to
the
PBS
site
after
Google.



Athlete
 Village
 Activation:
 Coca‐Cola
 through
 its
 Games
 time
 activation
 rights
 enabled
PBS
and
Clean
Air
Champions
(CAC)
to
promote
themselves
to
the
Olympic
athletes
in
both
the
Vancouver
and
Whistler
athlete
villages.
A
kiosk
terminal
was
set
up
 in
each
 location
manned
by
retired
and/or
summer
Olympic
and
Paralympic
athletes
who
collected
pledges
to
the
environment
from
interested
athletes
at
the
Games.
Coca‐Cola
provided
the
funding
for
development
and
production
of
the
kiosk,
while
PBS
and
CAC
manned
the
locations.
PBS
























































4
BlackPress
media
serves
small
communities
in
Vancouver
and
Vancouver
Island
5
Despite
an
initial
hiccup
with
our
sponsor
which
caused
us
to
remove
the
announcement
temporarily
6
Multiple
entries
a
day
would
have
no
impact
beyond
the
first
entry

 
 
35
 



owes
a
debt
of
thanks
to
CAC
who
did
all
the
heavy
lifting
to
get
the
kiosk
program
up
and
running
and
manage
the
team
that
manned
the
locations.



Figure
(below):
Site
Upgrades
and
Viewing
Activity
Feb.
1
­
Feb.
28,
2010



Recommendations:

 It’s
good
to
try
different
events
to
see
what
works
and
what
doesn’t
work.
The
events
that
were
easily
shared
online
among
members
(i.e.
–
by
email)
were
more
successful
than
 the
 live
 events.
 This
 may
 be
 attributed
 to
 the
 fact
 that
 the
 live
 events
 weren’t
reaching
people
while
they
were
at
their
computers
where
they
could
easily
log
on
and
contribute
to
the
widget.


 Give
 the
user
 something
whenever
you
 can.
Unfortunately,
 not
 everyone
 is
 convinced
that
your
website
or
cause
is
worth
their
time.
Giving
the
user
something
(information,
prizes,
 recognition,
 or
 video‐game
 type
 rewards)
 can
 give
 users
 incentive
 to
 keep
engaging
 with
 your
 website.
 PBS’s
 goal
 was
 to
 change
 behaviour
 but
 the
 website
attracted
a
lot
of
users
who
were
already
“believers”.


 Email
Blasts
work
well.

Being
direct
and
communicating
what
you
want
from
users
will
help
 people
 understand
what
 you
 are
 trying
 to
 accomplish.
While
 PBS
 found
 this
 to
work
well,
caution
must
be
used
when
emailing
people
through
a
social
media
site.
Try

 
 
36
 



to
give
users
 the
option
 to
 “opt‐in”
 to
receive
emails.
According
 to
 the
article
entitled
“Understanding
Consumer
Preferences”,
members
of
Facebook
were
only
30%
likely
to
give
brands
(that
they
were
a
fan
of)
permission
to
contact
themv.






 
 
37
 



V.
Starting
a
New
Website

One
 article,
 entitled
 “Online
 Community
 Best
 Practices”
 suggests
 the
 acronym
 “POST”
should
be
used
by
any
marketer
looking
to
start
a
website.


POST
=
People,
Objectives,
Strategy,
and
Technologyiii



Before
developing
a
website,
you
need
to
figure
out
your
target
market
as
this
will
set
the
stage
 for
 the
website
 design
 and
 content
 and
will
 help
 guide
 your
marketing
 strategies.
Secondly,
you
need
to
determine
your
objectives.
After
you
know
your
target
market
and
objectives,
you
need
to
devise
a
strategy
that
is
appropriate
to
both
of
these
and
then
figure
out
 which
 technology
 is
 best
 suited
 to
 your
 purpose.
 The
 chart
 above
 highlights
 five
objectives
 companies
 can
have:
 listening,
 talking,
 energizing,
 supporting
or
 embracingxvii.
PBS
was
trying
to
“talk”
and
“energize”
so
widgets,
key
influencers,
social
networking,
and
blogs
were
all
used.


 
 
38
 





Recommendations:

 In
order
to
find
early
adopters
to
help
launch
your
website,
start
by
finding
“creators”
–
those
who
are
already
writing
blogs
on
the
topic
or
are
uploading
relevant
pictures
and
videos.
You
can
 invite
 these
people
 to
 the
website
 to
help
get
 the
conversation
going.
According
 to
one
article,
 “communities
will
only
succeed
 if
 they
serve
 the
 interests
of
their
members”iii.


 Use
the
“POST”
acronym
(People,
Objectives,
Strategy,
Technology)
to
help
guide
your
website
launch


To
 help
 outline
 your
 website
 strategy,
 Radian6
 suggests
 the
 following
 questions
should
be
askedv:
1. Why
do
you
want
to
build
an
online
community?
2. Does
the
community
have
to
be
built
and
hosted
by
us,
or
can/should
PBS
participate


in
existing
communities
across
the
web?

3. What
are
you
hoping
to
achieve
by
building
this
online
community?

4. Do
you
have
specific
goals
in
mind
that
you
can
measure
against?
5. What
will
make
your
online
community
unique?

6. What
internal
resources
do
you
have
to
support
an
online
community?
Do
you
have
a
staff
and
budget
to
allocate
toward
this
initiative?

7. Why
will
people
join
your
online
community?

8. What
other
areas
of
your
business
can
a
community
strategy
support,
 like
customer
service
or
product
and
service
development?

9. How
 will
 you
 measure
 success,
 and
 are
 you
 committed
 to
 adapting
 your
 strategy
based
on
what
you
learn?

10. What
tools,
technology,
and
infrastructure
might
you
need
to
support
and
deploy
all
of
the
above?

 
Recommendations
 Find
 out
 who
 your
 competitors
 are.
 For
 example,
 PBS
 was
 competing
 for
 time
 with
other
social
networks;
however,
many
websites
were
catering
to
a
similar
market.
With
more
time,
better
planning
could
have
been
achieved
and
PBS
would
have
been
better
able
to
differentiate
itself
more
effectively.

 Use
an
alert
system,
such
as
Google
Alerts
that
can
tell
you
if
people
are
talking
about
items
related
to
your
project
and
also
where
these
conversations
are
taking
place.



 
 
39
 



Online
Trends

The
article
entitled
“Context
Matters
for
Canadians”
suggests
that
marketers
need
to
work
even
 harder
 nowadays
 to
 get
 people
 to
 pay
 attention
 to
 them
because
 there
 is
 so
much
“noise”
(other
websites
etc)
competing
for
users’
attention.
One
way
to
get
attention
is
to
communicate,
inform,
or
entertain
users,
as
these
are
the
top
reasons
Canadians
go
online,
as
shown
belowxviii.




According
 to
 the
 article
 The
 Rising
 Potential
 of
 Social
 Networks,
 those
 who
 visit
 social
networking
sites
monthly
are
referred
to
as
“Joiners”xix.
This
article
also
includes
the
figure
below
that
highlights
the
demographic
breakdown
of
the
different
social
networking
sites,
such
as
Facebook
and
compares
them
to
“Joiners”
in
general.



“Joiners”
typically
interacted
with
PBS
in
the
following
ways:

 Updated
their
“latest
activity”
section
 Added
friends
to
their
profile
page
 Added
a
comment
to
a
friend’s
page
 Updated
their
profile
pictures



Conversely,
“Joiners”
on
PBS
less
frequently:
 Blogged
or
used
the
forum
feature
on
the
website
 Tweeted
or
clicked
 Project
Blue
Sky’s
tweet

 Added
photos
to
flickr
or
added
videos


 
 
40
 









These
finding
were
in
line
with
what
people
typically
do
(and
less
frequently
do)
on
a
social
network.
See
Appendix
10
to
see
what
features
people
typically
use
on
a
social
network.



Recommendation:

 Break
through
the
noise!
Give
users
a
reason
to
come
back
to
your
website.
By
targeting
the
right
demographic,
you
will
be
in
a
better
position
to
figure
out
how
to
get
people
excited
about
your
site.


 
 
41
 



VI.
Technical
(Website
&
Platform)

When
building
a
website,
 there
are
many
approaches
people
 can
 take.
Depending
on
 the
use
and
the
functionality
of
the
websites,
people
can
start
with
setting
up
their
own
servers
and
building
up
their
own
applications.
In
addition,
one
must
also
consider
factors
such
as:
security,
 data
 collection
 and
 integrity,
 cost
 of
 operation
 and
 maintenance,
 scalability,
reliability,
and
development
life
cycle.

Platforms

The
PBS
website
was
hosted
on
Ning
which
is
a
proprietary
platform.
In
general,
Ning
platforms
are
great
for
those
who
want
to
build
a
social
network
quickly
as
it
provides
the
most
common
 social
 network
 functionalities
 (such
 as
 photo‐sharing,
blogs
etc).
 In
addition,
 it
 is
 free
 to
create
and
run
a
social
network
on
Ning
as
they
receive
income
by
selling
ads
on
their
sites7.


Drupal

Another
 social
 networking
 platform
 called
 “Drupal”
 is
 open
 source
 and
 can
 run
 on
 just
about
any
LAMP
server.
Drupal
is
a
content
management
system
(Framework).
Most
of
its
modules
 are
 based
 on
 the
 existing
 modules
 of
 other
 open
 source
 software.
 The
 Drupal
platform
 is
 more
 portable
 and
 is
 composed
 of
 different
 modules
 that
 programmers
 or
administrators
 can
 add
 or
 remove
 depending
 on
 their
 functionality
 needs.
 Drupal
 has
 a
higher
learning
curve
for
new
programmers
and
administrators,
as
it
requires
some
basic
computer
science
knowledge
to
customize
it.
In
some
cases
it
requires
even
sophisticated
knowledge
to
customize
it
to
its
full
extent.


Recommendation:

 When
deciding
on
a
social
network
platform,
keep
in
mind
that
the
easier
to
configure
platforms,
 such
as
Ning,
 often
have
 trade‐offs
 in
 the
 flexibility,
 scalability
 and
 control
that
they
offer
to
administrators.
It
is
extremely
important
to
figure
this
out
early
on
as
switching
platforms
after
one
is
configured
is
not
easy.


Web‐mining
techniques
and
privacy
policies

Web
 mining
 techniques
 mainly
 work
 on
 web
 logs.
 Web
 logs
 provided
 by
 a
 web
 server
usually
 include
a
 rich
 collection
of
various
 server
activities
and
client
 (user)
 interactions
























































7
For
a
small
monthly
fee,
Ning
will
not
run
ads
on
your
website.
PBS
followed
this
approach
and
did
not
run
ads.
“Ning
currently
has
nearly
500,000
social
networks,
with
one
being
created
every
30
seconds
–
80,000
each
month”i


 
 
42
 



with
 the
 server.
Besides
 the
 routine
 responding
 activities
 of
 a
web
 server,
web
 logs
 also
record
 unexpected
 events
 or
 accidents,
 (i.e.
 ‐
 system
 overloading
 or
 crashes).
 Many
unexpected
 intrusions
 and
 attacks
will
 also
 leave
 records
 in
 the
web
 logs.
By
 systematic
analysis
of
the
web
logs
using
web‐mining
techniques,
typical
patterns
of
use
or
attacks
can
be
identified.



PBS
 had
 little
 control
 over
 the
 security
 or
 data
 integrity
 of
 the
 website
 since
 security
depended
 completely
 on
 Ning's
 security
 structure.
 Users
 of
 Ning
 have
 no
 means
 to
determine
 the
 format
 of
 the
 data
 and
 how
 data
 is
 stored
 in
 the
 network.
 As
 such,
 it
 is
almost
 impossible
 for
 Ning
 users
 to
 check
 the
 website
 security
 and
 data
 integrity
fundamentally
but
some
improvements
can
be
made
by
running
scripts,
such
as
JavaScript.



What
worked:
 Optimized
database
schema:
Data
were
stored
in
a
smaller
size
which
made
retrieval
and
updating
of
data
much
more
efficient.
This
greatly
improved
the
response
time
of
user
queries.

 Improved
security
of
back­end:
Back‐end
scripts
were
constructed
so
that
all
inputs
were
 filtered
 and
 validated
 before
 they
 were
 stored
 in
 the
 database.
 Any
 malicious
inputs
would
be
handled
at
a
much
higher
level,
which
in
turn
improved
the
stability
of
the
system
in
general.

 Having
a
rich
collection
of
user
data:
Data
was
collected
through
various
means,
such
as
Google
analytics,
the
host
website,
intermediate
proxies
etc.
This
data
when
analyzed
by
data
mining
techniques
can
provide
comprehensive
views
of
user
profiles
and
usage
patterns.
User
data
was
also
available
through
Ning
as
downloadable
CSV
files.



What
did
not
work:
 Lack
of
accessibility:
Attempts
to
try
and
get
access
to
the
website
users'
data
and
combine
it
with
the
web
administrators'
data
failed.
Ning
does
not
provide
the
interface
to
allow
the
administrators
to
access
their
users'
data
in
real
time.
In
addition,
because
of
the
privacy
policies
of
the
Ning
platform
and
its
inherent
structure,
the
web
logs
are
not
provided
to
the
site
administrators.






 Lack
of
web­mining
capabilities:
It
is
impossible
to
apply
any
web
mining
techniques
to
any
social
networks
built
on
Ning.
For
the
users
of
the
Ning
platform,
the
underlying
operations
of
the
website
are
completely
blocked.
The
only
way
to
get
any
operational
statistics
from
the
website
is
through
third
party
websites
or
software,
such
as
Google
Analytics
and
ClearSpring.




 Ning's
platform
is
more
usage­oriented:
Ning
provides
limited
back‐end
logs
of
the
social
network
activities
and
no
debug
or
error
traces
at
all.
Ning
is
very
strict
on
how

 
 
43
 



data
is
used,
especially
programmable
data.
It
is
also
very
limited
in
Opensocial
API
implementations
and
uses
an
object‐oriented
database.
As
such,
there
is
no
way
to
get
access
to
its
database,
either
through
a
web
service
interface
or
through
back‐end
scripts.



 
 
44
 



VII.
Future
Plans

Future
options
for
the
Project
Blue
Sky
website
are
currently
being
evaluated
as
the
project
has
come
 to
an
end.
 Ideally,
 the
Project
Blue
Sky
URL
and
 learnings
will
be
passed
on
 to
future
Olympic
and
Paralympic
Games,
 such
as
London
2012
 to
be
used
as
a
 community
engagement
tool
around
sustainability
issues.

 
 
45
 



Appendix
1
–
Summary
of
Recommendations
Below
is
a
list
of
recommendations
that
were
pulled
directly
from
the
report.


 When
designing
a
new
website,
be
sure
that
the
proper
domain
names
are
available
(i.e.
‐
.ca
and
.com
etc)
and
that
the
name
resonates
with
the
project
but
is
not
generic.
In
the
case
 of
 PBS,
 there
 were
 different
 versions
 of
 the
 name
 in
 active
 use
 by
 other
organizations,
including
“Blue
Sky
Project.”
This
made
search
engine
optimization
more
difficult
and
made
it
harder
for
people
to
find
the
site.

 Be
sure
not
to
launch
in
a
public
fashion
too
early
before
your
online
components
have
been
 properly
 tested.
 In
 this
 case,
 many
 key
 leaders
 in
 the
 sustainability
 field
 who
attended
the
launch
were
disappointed
when
some
of
the
program
components
didn’t
work
 properly
 causing
 confusion
 and
 disappointment.
 It
was
 hard
 to
win
 them
 back
once
version
2.0
was
deployed.

 Choose
your
metric
wisely.

PBS
used
kilometres
as
a
proxy
for
CO2.
It
was
believed
that
kilometres
would
be
an
easier
metric
 for
people
to
relate
to,
however,
 the
connection
between
 kilometres
 and
 CO2
 wasn’t
 always
 clear
 to
 members.
 Using
 kilometres
 also
limited
the
project’s
ability
to
include
non‐travel
related
actions
into
the
widget
and
its
database.
For
example
cutting
emissions
by
bringing
your
own
bag
rather
than
getting
a
plastic
bag
at
a
store
is
not
an
activity
that
lends
itself
to
being
measured
in
kilometres.

 Break‐up
 large
goals
 into
smaller
chunks
so
members
 feel
as
 though
they
can
make
a
difference
 (versus
 having
 such
 an
 overwhelmingly
 ambitious
 goal).
 Success
 engages
people
so
small
wins
are
better
than
no
wins.

 Choose
an
achievable
 target
with
some
solid
 thinking
behind
how
you
will
be
able
 to
reach
 it.
 
 PBS
 was
 hampered
 by
 the
 expectation
 that
 it
 would
 reach
 the
 1
 billion
kilometre
 mark
 and
 many
 pre‐judged
 its
 success
 based
 on
 this
 when
 many
 other
successes
and
learnings
were
accomplished
and
should
be
celebrated.

 Choose
your
partners
carefully.
 In
some
cases,
PBS
had
 to
make
many
changes
 to
 the
website
to
satisfy
its
partners
but
this
often
proved
a
distraction
to
focusing
on
the
end
user.
PBS
would
recommend
that
when
a
partnership
is
formed
that
frank
discussions
delve
into
what
priorities
each
group
have,
what
they
hope
to
achieve
and
also
how
the
decision‐making
will
be
carried
out
(preferably
before
work
begins).

 Remember
 that
 social
 networks
 don’t
 grow
 overnight.
 If
 there
 is
 a
 specific
 goal
 that
needs
 to
 be
 reached,
make
 sure
 there
 is
 enough
 time
 allocated
 to
 properly
 devise
 a
strategy,
do
research
and
launch
the
website.
Also
consider
whether
your
goal
matches
your
resources
in
terms
of
financial
and
human
capital.


 
 
46
 



 Be
clear
in
communicating
what
you
want
from
users
and
send
out
emails
to
remind
them
to
visit
your
website.
In
the
survey,
users
mentioned
that
they
would
have
liked
reminders
to
enter
their
kilometres
into
the
widget.


 Keep
in
mind
that
the
viral
nature
of
widgets
means
they
could
end
up
anywhere
(blogs,
Facebook,
etc).
This
means
 it’s
 crucial
 that
 the
widget
can
stand
alone
on
 these
other
websites
and
communicate
its
purpose
in
an
intriguing
way
to
get
people
to
use
it
and
pass
it
on.


 Complete
 user
 testing
 (with
 those
 in
 your
 target
market)
 to
 see
 if
 your
website
 and
widget
are
intuitive
and
easy
to
navigate.
In
addition,
these
users
can
help
in
the
design
and
implementation
phases
of
the
website.
The
PBS
team
was
working
so
closely
with
the
widget
that
they
considered
it
easy
to
use
and
very
intuitive.
However,
the
feedback
from
the
survey
suggests
that
people
found
the
widget
to
be
complex
and
confusing.


 Start
with
fewer
features
and
add
them
as
necessary.
The
widget
worked
to
provide
users
the
interactivity
that
gave
them
ownership
and
was
the
catalyst
to
get
them
involved
in
the
project.


 Give
 something
 back
 to
 users.
 PBS
 reinforced
 people’s
 desire
 to
 add
 entries
 to
 the
widget
 by
 telling
 them
 how
 their
 CO2
 savings
 affects
 them
 personally,
 such
 as
 the
amount
of
money
saved
by
not
driving
their
car.


 Don't
hide
the
main
features
behind
another
web
page
(i.e.
–
splash
page
or
landing
page)
unless
it
is
required
for
privacy
or
security
reasons.

In
our
case,
stakeholders
mandated
a
landing
page
(see
Appendix
3)
as
a
way
to
secure
the
site,
however,
when
this
was
changed
to
a
descriptive
splash
page,
it
was
unsuccessful
since
it
removed
access
to
the
widget.
As
shown
above,
many
users
were
not
willing
to
sign
up
for
the
website.
As
such,
removing
access
to
the
widget
cut
out
a
large
group
of
users.
If
you
have
stakeholders
that
want
input
on
your
design,
such
as
requiring
a
tightly
controlled
landing
page
for
non‐users,
find
some
way
to
provide
interactivity
to
the
user
on
that
page
as
well.



 Provide
"something
more"
for
users
once
they
decide
to
sign
in.

Information,
activities,
and
content
are
all
important
to
keeping
users
once
they
join
the
website.

Many
teams
assume
that
because
you
have
a
forum
it
will
be
used.

However,
forums
are
everywhere
and
users
need
something
to
talk
about
before
they
will
participate.

 “Change
is
most
likely
to
occur
where
levels
of
collective
action
can
be
engaged”vi.

This
is
 especially
 true
 when
 it
 comes
 to
 sustainability.
 People
 often
 feel
 as
 though
 they
cannot
make
a
difference
by
 themselves.
Therefore,
 if
you
get
people
 into
groups
and
give
 them
 a
 strong
 leader,
 they
 are
 more
 likely
 to
 feel
 as
 though
 they
 can
 make
 a
difference.


 
 
47
 



 Common
 interests,
 relationships
 among
 community
 members
 and
 actively
 engaged
hosts
are
key
to
building
a
successful
community.


 When
 considering
 Olympic
 athletes
 as
 Influencers,
 keep
 in
mind
 that
 they
 are
more
likely
to
commit
to
your
cause
if
 it
 is
something
they
are
truly
passionate
about.
Even
then,
 they
 are
 busy
 individuals
 so
 it’s
 advisable
 to
 be
 realistic
 if
 forming
 an
 entire
program
around
them.

 If
it’s
an
online
project,
it’s
best
to
involve
athletes
that
are
already
actively
engaged
in
social
media.
This
will
ensure
more
exposure
for
your
project,
avoid
the
learning
curve
of
getting
athletes
up
to
speed
with
the
technology
and
engage
those
athletes
that
are
already
comfortable
with
an
active
public
profile.


 Ensure
engagement
by
your
 leaders.
Although
PBS
had
athletes
voluntarily
 lend
 their
name
and
profile
to
the
cause,
most
were
not
active
on
the
site
which
made
it
difficult
to
tap
 into
 their
networks
and
provide
a
 forum
 for
other
participants
 to
engage
directly
with
the
athletes,
a
promise
that
was
made
in
the
promotion
of
the
program.

 Be
strategic
 in
who
you
approach
 to
be
your
partner
and
have
clear
goals
 in
mind
of
what
you
want
to
get
out
of
the
partnership.
Be
as
open
and
honest
up
front
as
to
what
you
 need
 from
 the
 partner
 as
 well
 as
 what
 your
 limitations
 are
 in
 terms
 of
reciprocating.
A
written
“letter
of
understanding”
(LOU)
is
a
definite
asset
from
a
clarity
perspective.

 One
of
the
key
partnerships
missing
from
this
project
was
industry.
While
PBS
focused
on
 environmental
 and
 sport
 orientated
 organizations,
 it
 failed
 to
 recognize
 that
industry,
 specifically
 technology
 experts
 with
 experience
 in
 building
 social
 media
software,
could
have
been
key
partners
for
this
project.


 Time
 was
 another
 factor
 in
 preventing
 partnerships
 with
 the
 corporate
 sector
 and
VANOC
sponsors
in
particular.

Although
many
were
contacted,
their
Games
time
plans
were
already
well
established
with
no
additional
resources
of
time,
money
and
human
capital
to
adopt
another
program
like
PBS.

 For
this
type
of
project,
it
is
recommended
to
consider
youth
as
a
target
because
of
their
high
 levels
 of
 engagement,
 influence
 in
 families
 and
 because
 they
 are
 tech
 savvy.
However,
if
trying
to
reach
youth
through
school
programs,
it
is
important
to
allow
for
considerable
 lead‐time.
 In
 addition,
 the
 closer
 you
 can
 tie
 the
 program
 to
 the
 course
curriculum,
the
better
it
will
be
received.

 It
 is
 imperative
to
have
a
clear
communication
strategy
with
clear
messaging
on
what
the
project
is
about.


 In
some
cases,
 it
 is
easy
to
assume
that
your
website
appeals
to
everyone.
However,
a
website
that
tries
to
appeal
to
everyone
ends
up
appealing
to
no
one!
Take
the
time
to

 
 
48
 



determine
 the
 correct
 target
 market
 for
 your
 program.
 The
 dollars
 you
 spend
 on
marketing
and
promotions
will
go
much
further.

 It
is
important
to
have
new
content
and
conversations
on
a
social
network.
This
makes
it
 more
 interesting
 for
members
 and
 they
 are
more
 likely
 to
 come
 back.
 One
 article
recommends
 seeking
 out
 bloggers
 and
 other
well‐networked
 individuals
 and
 inviting
them
 to
 become
 a
 “charter
 member”
 of
 the
 communityiii.
 This
 makes
 them
 feel
privileged
 to
 be
 invited
 and
 their
 network
 plus
 their
 experience
 can
 help
 launch
 the
site.

 While
friends,
family
and
co‐workers
have
broad
networks,
it’s
important
to
attract
the
right
target
market
to
the
site
–
not
 just
those
who
are
doing
a
favour
for
a
friend.
As
will
 be
 discussed
 later,
 it
 is
 not
 the
 number
 of
 eyeballs
 but
 the
 right
 eyeballs
 that
matter!

 It’s
important
to
survey
users
early
on
in
the
process
as
to
what
they
hope
to
get
out
of
your
website
as
this
can
help
direct
the
content.

 Show
 members
 the
 positive
 side
 of
 their
 transition
 and
 use
 the
 Influencers
 to
 help
model
this
behaviour
change.


 Ask
 yourself
 if
what
 you
 are
 requesting
 of
 people
 (i.e.
 –
 biking
 instead
 of
 driving)
 is
realistic
and
set
the
goal
accordingly.


 Whenever
possible,
try
to
show
members
the
tangible
benefits
of
their
efforts.

 Make
it
as
easy
as
possible
for
members
to
participate.
In
this
case,
members
were
able
to
tweet
in
their
entries
which
was
easier
than
logging
into
the
PBS
website.
 Use
 a
 link
 shortener,
 such
 as
 Ow.ly
 or
 bit.ly
 when
 tweeting.
 Even
 if
 your
 message
including
the
 full
 link
 is
 less
than
140
characters,
 it
will
be
easier
to
re‐tweet
 if
 it
 is
a
shorter
link.

 Use
Twitter
to
engage
 individuals
 in
a
conversation
and
use
tools,
such
as
TweetDeck
and
Hootsuite
to
make
it
easier
to
track
conversations
and
schedule
your
“tweets”.

 When
possible,
use
short
videos
as
a
way
to
communicate
what
your
project
 is
about.
The
 best
 people
 to
 present
 are
 the
 Influencers
 (such
 as
 athletes)
 that
 are
 passionate
about
the
cause
and
have
the
ability
to
motivate
others
towards
action.
Videos
also
help
members
trust
who
is
behind
the
project.


 Use
blogs
as
a
way
to
communicate
what
is
going
on
with
the
project,
or
other
items
of
relevance.
When
starting
a
new
website,
it’s
a
great
way
to
show
activity.



 
 
49
 



 Contests
 like
 this
are
a
great
way
 to
get
 the
athletes
 to
engage
more
 in
 the
project.
 It
also
makes
it
more
fun
and
competitive
for
members.



 It’s
good
to
try
different
events
to
see
what
works
and
what
doesn’t
work.
The
events
that
were
easily
shared
online
among
members
(i.e.
–
by
email)
were
more
successful
than
 the
 live
 events.
 This
 may
 be
 attributed
 to
 the
 fact
 that
 the
 live
 events
 weren’t
reaching
people
while
they
were
at
their
computers
where
they
could
easily
log
on
and
contribute
to
the
widget.


 Give
 the
user
 something
whenever
you
 can.
Unfortunately,
 not
 everyone
 is
 convinced
that
your
website
or
cause
is
worth
their
time.
Giving
the
user
something
(information,
prizes,
 recognition,
 or
 video‐game
 type
 rewards)
 can
 give
 users
 incentive
 to
 keep
engaging
 with
 your
 website.
 PBS’s
 goal
 was
 to
 change
 behaviour
 but
 the
 website
attracted
a
lot
of
users
who
were
already
“believers”.


 Email
Blasts
work
well.

Being
direct
and
communicating
what
you
want
from
users
will
help
 people
 understand
what
 you
 are
 trying
 to
 accomplish.
While
 PBS
 found
 this
 to
work
well,
caution
must
be
used
when
emailing
people
through
a
social
media
site.
Try
to
give
users
 the
option
 to
 “opt‐in”
 to
receive
emails.
According
 to
 the
article
entitled
“Understanding
Consumer
Preferences”,
members
of
Facebook
were
only
30%
likely
to
give
brands
(that
they
were
a
fan
of)
permission
to
contact
themv.


 In
order
to
find
early
adopters
to
help
launch
your
website,
start
by
finding
“creators”
–
those
who
are
already
writing
blogs
on
the
topic
or
are
uploading
relevant
pictures
and
videos.
You
can
 invite
 these
people
 to
 the
website
 to
help
get
 the
conversation
going.
According
 to
one
article,
 “communities
will
only
succeed
 if
 they
serve
 the
 interests
of
their
members”iii.


 Use
the
“POST”
acronym
(People,
Objectives,
Strategy,
Technology)
to
help
guide
your
website
launch

 Find
 out
 who
 your
 competitors
 are.
 For
 example,
 PBS
 was
 competing
 for
 time
 with
other
social
networks;
however,
many
websites
were
catering
to
a
similar
market.
With
more
time,
better
planning
could
have
been
achieved
and
PBS
would
have
been
better
able
to
differentiate
itself
more
effectively.

 Use
an
alert
system,
such
as
Google
Alerts
that
can
tell
you
if
people
are
talking
about
items
related
to
your
project
and
also
where
these
conversations
are
taking
place.


 Break
through
the
noise!
Give
users
a
reason
to
come
back
to
your
website.
By
targeting
the
right
demographic,
you
will
be
in
a
better
position
to
figure
out
how
to
get
people
excited
about
your
site.

 When
deciding
on
a
social
network
platform,
keep
in
mind
that
the
easier
to
configure
platforms,
 such
as
Ning,
 often
have
 trade‐offs
 in
 the
 flexibility,
 scalability
 and
 control

 
 
50
 



that
they
offer
to
administrators.
It
is
extremely
important
to
figure
this
out
early
on
as
switching
platforms
after
one
is
configured
is
not
easy.



 
 
51
 




Appendix
2:
Becky
Scott’s
Profile
on
Athlete
Scroller

The
Olympics
is
the
largest
sporting
event
in
the
world,
and
due
to
the
variety
of
sports
that
are
showcased,
both
genders
have
something
to
appreciate.
With
that
said,
there
is
a
gender
divide
in
terms
of
what
people
look
for
in
the
Olympic
experience.
While
men
are
mainly
concerned
with
the
sports
themselves,
women
are
more
attracted
to
the
drama
of
the
Olympics;
including
stories
about
comebacks
and
defeatsxx.
Women
are
also
interested
in
hearing
about
the
athletes
background
and
they
want
to
hear
about
the
other
“roles”
that
women
play;
for
example,
“Mother”,
“Foodie”,
World
Traveler”
etc.
Below
is
an
image
showing
how
the
above
research
was
included
in
the
PBS
website
as
part
of
a
dynamic
tool
for
scrolling
through
the
site’s
featured
athletes.























 
 
52
 






Appendix
3:
Project
Blue
Sky
Screenshot

Early
Website
Mock­up
–
July
2009












 
 
53
 



Appendix
4:
Project
Blue
Sky
Splash
Page







 
 
54
 









 
 
55
 

















 
 
56
 



Appendix
5:
Success
Metrics
Source:
Radian6.,
Practical
Social
Media
Measurement
and
Analysis,
March
2010




 
 
57
 












 
 
58
 



Appendix
6:
Vancouver
2010
Lesson
Plan


“With
free
downloadable
lesson
plans,
interactive
components,
contests
at
various
levels
and
Olympian
stories,
this
initiative
by
the
Canadian
Olympic
Committee
engages
students
from
grades
2‐12.
At
the
elementary
school
level,
students
will
learn
about
the
values
of
fairness,
excellence,
leadership,
respect,
goal
setting,
dealing
with
pressure
and
personal
growth
through
the
stories
of
Olympians
such
as
Beckie
Scott,
Silken
Laumann,
Daniel
Igali,
Lawrence
Lemieux,
Jennifer
Botterill,
Gary
Reed
and
Alexandre
Despatie.
Each
story
is
available
at
three
different
reading
levels:
bronze
(grades
2‐3),
silver
(grades
4‐5)
and
gold
(grades
6‐7).
The
lesson
plans
link
to
language
arts
learning
outcomes
and
will
help
students
explore
and
internalize
these
universal
values.
At
the
secondary
level,
students
are
able
to
link
to
applied
learning
projects
requiring
them
to
use
acquired
skills
and
theory
to
solve
real‐life
Olympic
problems.”(www.vancouver2010.com)



 
 
59
 



Appendix
7:
Widget
instructions
(and
initial
Widget
design
below)





 
 
60
 



Appendix
8:
What
Tweets
Worked?





Hootsuite
Interface
showing
the
traffic
spikes
from
above
Tweets






 
 
61
 



Appendix
9
‐
Survey
Questions
&
Demographics


Number
of
members
who
received
the
survey:
722
Number
of
complete
surveys
received:
89
(12.3%
of
members)

Gender
Demographics
47%
female
36%
male

Age
Demographics
47%
27‐45
year
olds
28%
over
46
17%
under
26














 
 
62
 



Appendix
10:
What
Users
Typically
Do
on
a
Social
Network
Source:
Bernoff,
J
and
Riley,
E.,
The
Rising
Potential
of
Social
Networking
Sites,
February
2010





 
 
63
 





Endnotes
























































i
David
Suzuki
Foundation.,
“Climate
Scorecard
for
the
2010
Winter
Games”,
January
2010
ii

E‐Marketer.,
“Poor
Content
Makes
Viral
Marketing
Fizzle”,
September
2007
iii
Owyang,
Jeremiah.,
“Online
Community
Best
Practices”,
February
2008
iv
The
Center
of
Excellence
for
Youth
Engagement
(2009),
“What
is
Youth
Engagement”,
Retrieved
April
15th,
2010
from
(www.engagementcenter.ca)

v
Radian6.,
“Building
and
Sustaining
Brand
Communities”,
February
2010
vi
Junxion
Strategy.,
“Sustainability
Awareness
and
Action”,
June
2007
(prepared
for
VANOC,
Environment
Canada)
vii
eMarketer.,
“Social
Influencers
Get
Talking”,
March
2010
viii
Bemporad,
Raphael.,
“How
Green
Marketers
Can
Lure
Consumers”,
Interview
with
E‐Marketer,
May
2009
ix
Anderson,
Jackie.,
“Consumer
Behaviour
Online:
A
2009
Deep
Dive”,
July
2009
x
Framework
Foundation.
(2006).
Retrieved
April
15th,
2010
(http://www.frameworkfoundation.ca/)
xi
Hootsuite:
http://hootsuite.com//
xii
eMarketer.,
“Social
Widgets
Drive
Sharing
on
Facebook”,
July
2009
xiii
Radian6.,
“Practical
Social
Media
Measurement
and
Analysis”,
March
2010

xiv
Bernoff,
Josh.,
“Metrics
For
Social
Applications
In
A
Downturn”,
October
2008
xv
"Visits
for
all
Visitors."
Google
Analytics.
Retrieved
March
18
(http://adwords.google.com)
xvi
"Dashboard."
Google
Analytics.
Retrieved
March
18
(http://adwords.google.com)
xvii
Bernoff,
Josh.,
“How
To
Choose
The
Right
Social
Technologies”,
March
2008
xviii
Von
Abrams,
Karin.,
“Context
Matter
More
Than
Ever
for
Canadians”,
November
2009
xix
Bernoff,
J
and
Riley,
E.,
“The
Rising
Potential
of
Social
Networking
Sites”,
February
2010
xx
Rothenbuhler,
Eric.,
“The
living
Room
Celebration
of
the
Olympic
Games”,
Journal
of
Communication,
Fall
1988


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