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Carbon Governance Project Salmond, Neil; Tansey, James; Bumpus, Adam, 2011

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1British Columbia (BC) has some of the most aggressive greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets in the world. The 2007 Greenhouse Gas Reduction Targets Act (GGRTA) es-tablishes a commitment to reduce provincial emissions 33% below 2007 levels by 2020, and 80% below by 2050.The province also has a unique natural endowment of plenti-ful fossil fuel and mineral deposits (coal, natural gas, copper), combined with an abundance of renewable energy fuels, in particular biomass and hydro-electricity, which represents 88% of the energy generation capacity.  Electricity generation in British Columbia is essentially carbon free, so most of the legislated reductions must come from changes to transpor-tation, industrial processes (including fossil fuel production and cement manufacturing) and building heating.Cleantech companies in BC are developing components for innovative natural gas and electric transport technology, third-generation biofuels, biomass and biogas heating and better management of the electricity grid network, including storage solutions and demand-side management.These innovators seek capital from the provincial and fed-eral government, and from private investors inside and outside the province, and the opportunity to export their technologies markets across the globe. In order to realize these opportunities, it is essential that we understand how capital, innovation, and the structures that govern them, can come together to create the conditions that allow scale up of low carbon transformation, providing opportunities for real green growth.To examine these transformative conditions, in 2010 ISIS, Sauder School of Business at the University of British Co-lumbia, developed the Carbon Governance Project (CGP). Through empirical research in British Columbia, and a series of workshops in collaboration with the University of Oxford and the University of California, Berkeley, the CGP seeks to understand the pathways to a low carbon future by examin-ing the relationship between capital, innovation and climate policy.Each institution will host a workshop in its leading climate policy jurisdiction, bringing together groups of key strategic thinkers and executives.BRITISH COlUmBIA:  InnOvATIOn, CAPITAl  And CARBOn2The workshops will provide insight into:•	 How business and the capital markets are responding to low carbon opportunities,•	 How regions are capitalizing on expertise and importing/exporting best practice,•	 How the corporation is innovating (or not) in light of the climate change problem, and•	 What role other stakeholders can play in enabling the growth of a low carbon economy.Key questions related to the project and BC:•	 How do we create a culture of innovation to reach the low carbon economy?•	 How do we build on existing policy to enable capital to make the transformation? This document provides an overview of the BC economy and the economic conditions within which a low carbon economy is beginning to emerge. COnTExTECOnOmy Of BRITISH COlUmBIAdespite covering an area over twice the size of California, British Columbia’s population is only around 4 million, over half of whom live in the south-west corner of the mainland, in metro vancouver.  A quarter of those, or 500 000, live in the City of  vancouver itself.However, the population of the metro vancouver region is forecast to grow by 50% in the next thirty years, with most growth occuring in the municipalities of Richmond and Surrey.British Columbia is a small open economy and its provincial govern-ment has a policy of being open for business, addressing climate change and developing and adopting green technology.Key industries in British Columbia are mining, forest products (i.e. wood	 and	 paper)	 and	 fisheries.	Tourism,	 shipping	 and	 real	 estate	are also important, with the residential real estate sector remaining conspicuously buoyant in vancouver despite the turmoil south of the border.The largest companies in British Columbia by revenue (2009) are: Telus,	a	telecommunications	firm;	Teck	Resources,	a	mining	compa-ny;	Jim	Pattison	Group,	a	media-to-auto-leasing	conglomerate,	Best	Buy,	an	electronics	retailer;	and	HY	Louie,	owner-operator	of	the	marketplace IGA retail chain in BC. THE CGP SEEKS TO UndERSTAnd THE PATHWAyS TO A lOW CARBOn fUTURE By ExAmInInG THE RElATIOnSHIP BETWEEn CAPITAl, InnOvATIOn And ClImATE POlICy.Source: BC BusinessCompany Status Revenue  ($Cdn B in 2009) Telus Corp. Public $9.6 Teck Resources Public $7.6 Jim Pattison Group Private $7.1 Best Buy Canada Private $5.7 H. y. louie Co. Private $4.5 B.C. Hydro Crown $4.2 Insurance Corp of B.C. Crown $3.7 Westcoast Energy Public $3.4 Goldcorp Public $3.1 BC liquor distribution Crown $2.7   3In terms of employees, British Columbians mostly work in wholesale and re-tail trade (supplying building materials, food and automotive products), with the next most common employers being the provincial healthcare system, and the construction industry1.However, the fastest growing industries in the last two decades are very different, and point to a lower-carbon, more service-focused economy.  The number of jobs in business services has quadrupled since 1990, with the IT, movie-making,	waste	management	and	scientific	services	sectors	also	more	than doubling.1 data all from Statistics Canada Total employment in 2008: 2,314,300 Percent of BC workforce employed in goods sector, 2008 Percent of BC workforce employed in service sector, 2008  Cumulative change in employment, 1990-2008Percentage of total employment    Population Area GdP Selected key industries UK 62 million 243k km2 $2.2 tr financial services, high-tech engineering, pharmaceuticals CA 37 million 423k km2 $1.8 tr ICT, Clean Tech, Business Services, Creative Industries BC 4.5 million 945k km2 $0.19 tr Mining, forest products, fisheries, shipping, construction 4ElECTRICITyThe provincially owned crown corporation BC Hydro is the monopoly electricity supplier in British Columbia responsible for owning and operating the generation, transmission, distribu-tion, and supply of electricity. 86% of its generation comes from 30 “heritage” hydroelectric dams, with the remainder from pri-vate producers for their own use, or generated by Independent Power Producers (mostly run-of-river hydroelectric and wind generators) and sold under contract to BC Hydro.Given these generation sources, grid electricity in British Co-lumbia is essentially carbon-free (some cross-border arbitrage trade keeps it from 100%). It is also one of the cheapest juris-dictions in Canada and north America as a whole, at around 7c per kWh marginal rate for the residential sector.There are around 40 remote communities in BC not connected to the main grid, who rely on more expensive and carbon-emit-ting diesel generators.HEATInGBuilding heating is approximately 65% supplied by natural gas in British Columbia, with 25% from electricity heaters and the remainder from wood and heating oil2.  After transport, natural gas heating is the second largest source of household green-house gas emissions in the province3. 2 Statistics Canada 2007 Survey of Energy Use. Table 3.1 main heating system3 British Columbia Provincial Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report 2008.Source: manitoba Hydro, Survey of Canadian Electricity Bills Approximate Rate Carbon Restriction UK electricity rate 25c/kWh High  California rate 15c/kWh medium  BC electricity rate 7c/kWh very low monopoly Standing Offer 10c/kWh Zero 15mW, rate varies by region Remote Communities 25c/kWh High 40 communities only    BC Greenhouse Gas Emissions - 2008 Total: 68, 719 kilotonnes CO2e Per Household GHG EmissionsSource: StatscanSource: Statscan5CARBOn due to the relatively high level of clean electricity energy supplied by hydropower in British Columbia, the biggest sources of GHG emissions are in the areas related to transportation, industrial combustion, and the built environment (see previous section).Greenhouse gas emissions in British Columbia grew from 55,678 kt CO2e in 1990 to 68,719 kt CO2e in 2008, the last year for which data are available4.  Although greenhouse gas emissions from British Columbia have risen in last two decades, growth has occurred at a slower rate than the population has grown, so that emissions per capita have fallen.lARGEST POInT SOURCE EmITTERSWhile the largest collective source of greenhouse gas emissions in BC is the transportation sector, the largest single point emitters in the province are two natural gas processing plants owned and operated by Spectra En-ergy, two cement plants, and a 180mW natural electricity generator that also supplies steam to an adjacent paper mill5.CARBOn PRICInGAlmost all carbon emissions in BC are priced at $20 per tonne rising to $30 over the next two years. This makes the province unique in Canada and a rarity in north America in providing a clear incentive to invest in low carbon technologies. Public sector organizations face an additional carbon	cost	of	$25,	which	is	transferred	to	the	Pacific	Carbon	Trust	to	support the carbon neutral government policy.The three main mechanisms for carbon pricing are a carbon tax on the combustion of fossil fuels, the carbon neutral provincial and municipal government mandates, and an upcoming cap and trade system for large emitters (and emissions not covered under the carbon tax).CARBOn TAxBC’s carbon tax on combustion of fossil fuels currently stands at	$20	per	 tonne.	This	will	 increase	 to	$25	per	 tonne	 this	 July,	and	to	$30	July	1st,	2012.	This	last	price	will	add	around	7c	to	a	litre of gasoline (currently around 130c per litre total). The tax is designed to be revenue neutral, with the proceeds returned through corporate tax cuts and personal income tax cuts (to the lowest two tax brackets). Although there were some social eq-uity concerns initially, the tax was ultimately uncontroversial on introduction, with the party that introduced the measure being re-elected afterwards6. There	has	been	no	official	 report	on	the	 impact	of	 the	carbon	tax on business decision-making. However dr. nancy Olewiler, 4 BC ministry of Environment Greenhouse Gas Inventory5 Environment Canada: facility GHG Emissions by Province/Territory (2009)6 macleans.ca did Gordon Campbell win because of his carbon tax?Top Point Source GHG Emitters in British Columbia Tonnes CO2e in 2008 Pine River Gas Plant (Spectra Energy) 1249961 fort nelson Gas Plant (Spectra Energy) 1221555 delta Cement Plant (lehigh Heidelberg) 963195 Richmond Cement Plant (lafarge) 871273 Island Cogeneration no. 2 Inc 778354 Other point sources 7376049 Total Point source GHG emissions 11497192   Table of BC Carbon Tax ratesSource: Presentation by BC ministry of finance6Economics Professor of director SfU’s Public Policy Program, has suggest that7 that corporate and personal tax cuts are already over $200 million greater than the $1.8bn revenue from the carbon tax, a small discrepancy that could either lead to tax increases (to the carbon tax, or elsewhere) or public service cuts.CARBOn-nEUTRAl GOvERnmEnTIn 2007, the BC Government passed the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Targets Act, which legally required all public-sector organizations, including core government (ministry) operations, school districts, health authorities, post-secondary institutions and Crown agencies to be carbon-neutral by 20108. furthermore all local government municipalities have committed to carbon-neutrality by the end of this year9.In practical terms “carbon neutral” means that organisations must either reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, or pay $25 per tonne of	emissions	to	the	Pacific	Carbon	Trust	(PCT),	a	crown	corporation	that	invests	funds	in	carbon-reducing	projects	in	BC.	To	date,	the	PCT has directed over $1m funds to deliver 45 000 tonnes of “made-in-BC” emission reductions.As public sector organizations will also pay the carbon tax their effective carbon price will be $55 / tonne in 2012. This price signal has motivated	many	PSO’s	to	begin	to	invest	in	projects	that	will	significantly	reduce	emissions.	UBC	currently	has	up	to	$100m	of	clean	energy projects under review.CAP And TRAdEFor	 the	 past	 five	 years	 the	 BC	Climate	Action	 Secretariat,	part of the BC ministry of Environment, has been designing a carbon cap and trade system for BC, in collaboration with lo-cal industry. The system is also being designed in partnership with other north American jurisdictions, including California, so that carbon allowances can be traded between the prov-inces and states. The framework for this international part-nership is called the Western Climate Initiative (WCI). The opening price of carbon in this market is expected to be be-low $15 per tonne 10, but it will be more comprehensive than BC’s existing carbon tax (for example it will include “process” emissions from cement manufacturing) and is forecast to rise steadily from there.WCI partners have been focusing on the impact of carbon pricing on energy-intensive, trade-exposed (“EITE”) indus-tries, which may be particularly vulnerable to competition and leakage11. free distribution of allowances to EITE industries has	 been	 identified	 as	 one	 approach	 to	 promote	 competi-tiveness and minimize leakage, but no formal announcements have yet been made. 7  vancouver Observer: dr Oleweiler at lunchtime dialogue presented by Carbontalks8 Carbon neutral Government9 B.C. communities commit to carbon neutrality by 201210 Bloomberg:  Barclays, nRG make first California Cap-and-Trade deal11 linklaters: WCI market design Western Climate Initiative: participating states and provincesSource: linklaters:  WCI market design7IndUSTRy vIEWS Of BC CARBOn POlICyResearch with BC’s top emitters12, carried out in summer 2010, revealed that BC’s climate policy does pose challenges to existing emitters in the province.  Interviewees stressed that innovation for low carbon transition is possible in response to carbon pricing, but not without other supporting mechanisms.large emitters were also very concerned about competitiveness issues, in particular that BC is developing at a faster pace than trad-ing partners south of the border. It was suggested that free allowances and subsidies for technology investment could counter this.Nevertheless	the	focus	on	carbon	is	interpreted	positively	by	industry	as	a	focus	on	energy	efficiency	and	investment	in	new	technol-ogy.	Nudging	forward	the	carbon	price	has	given	executives	incentives	to	think	about	efficiency	and	the	implementation	of	shifting	the	industrial technology base.furthermore, some companies in industries such as forestry, have been able to re-brand and sell ‘climate friendly products’ into the global market place. Because BC’s low carbon policy is ahead of others, it can create a competitive advantage for some companies.Interestingly,	the	research	found	a	broad	preference	for	the	administrative	simplicity	of	a	fixed	carbon	tax	among	British	Columbian	firms,	while	larger	multinational	firms	preferred	a	floating	carbon	price	set	by	trading	allowances.Finally	several	firms	cited	Alberta’s	direct	link	between	the	carbon	tax	and	the	technology	investment	fund.	Despite	the	well-publicised	“revenue neutral” nature of BC’s carbon tax, no interviewees mentioned using the corporate capital freed-up by this reduced corpo-rate tax burden for technology investment. OTHER SUPPORTInG POlICIESThe Renewable and low Carbon fuel Requirements Act (2008) requires that all gasoline sold in British Columbia have 5% renewable content, and mandates 10% reduction in carbon intensity of fuel by 202013.Since	2011,	the	BC	Building	Code	requires	all	new	single-family	and	row	houses	to	be	at	least	EnerGuide	80	(where	‘100’	signifies	buildings that require no utility energy) which is the most stringent in Canada. (Ontario is set to mandate EnerGuide 80 from next year.)In	partnership	with	BC	Hydro	and	FortisBC,	the	province	has	offered	an	energy	efficiency	incentive	program	called	Livesmart14, with over $7,000 in rebates for household improvements and equipment.British	Columbia’s	Clean	Energy	Act	was	passed	in	June	2010,	and	requires	provincial	greenhouse	gas	emission	to	be	80%	below	1997	levels by 2020, and 66% of new provincial electricity demand to be supplied by conservation measures (i.e. new generation capacity may only be built to satisfy one third of predicted load growth). 12  Bumpus, (2011) in review13 BC ministry of Energy and mines: Renewable and low Carbon fuel Requirements14 liveSmart BC: Efficiency	Incentive	Program8InnOvATIOnBritish Columbia is a hotbed of clean technology innovation.  According to the Globe foundation, the green economy makes up over 10% of British Columbia’s GdP and spans sectors from green buildings, to alternative energy and smart grid technology.In the clean energy sector, the province is home to smaller fast-growing IP-focused companies.  The ministry for Economic development lists 89 Advanced Energy companies with a workforce of over 300015.  A 2009 study of BC’s clean energy companies found that just over one third had a product on the market, while the remainder were at demonstration stage or earlier.Another survey by deloitte carried out in 2008, indicated that while 40% of BC’s cleantech companies had revenue below $100,000, 90% forecast revenue growth to over $2m in 2010.15  BC ministry for Economic development: Advanced Energy Sector direct GdP contributions by sector to BC’s green economy in 2008 ($millions) The sectors and sub-sectors of BC’s green economySource: Globe foundation Source: Guhr & SchaefferProduct	Development	Stage	of	BC’s	Clean	Energy	Community,	June	2009Cleantech sales level and implied growth trendSource: deloitte9Cleantech companies reported to deloitte that the chief drivers of sales were government procurement and regulation. “Promotion of adoption of cleantech by government”, “trends in local or regional attitudes against pollution”, “provincial/federal regulations” were cited as the top three drivers, ranking above “corporate cleantech spending” and privatisation of utilities.THE KnOWlEdGE ECOnOmyThere are four research-intensive universities in the Canadian province of British Columbia: University of British Columbia, Simon fraser University, University of  victoria, and University of northern British Columbia.  In addition, the British Columbia Institute of Technology works closely with BC Hydro on smart grid innovation.UBC as a “living lab”The University of British Columbia has its own operational infrastruc-ture that runs the equivalent of a small city. The campuses therefore provide a powerful opportunity to explore, test and demonstrate sus-tainability solutions. They can be “living laboratories” in which students, faculty and staff work together to discover, learn and take action to guide the campus toward sustainability.According to UBC, the Campus as a living laboratory “combines cam-pus operations and administration (e.g. energy and water management, landscaping, buildings and infrastructure, planning) with the education, research and outreach mandates of the university. Campus as a living lab involves students and faculty developing and applying their sus-tainability research in collaboration with university staff and can also involve industrial or community partners working with academic and operational staff”.Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability (CIRS)The Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability (CIRS) at UBC is dedicated to research, collaboration and outreach that lead to work-able solutions for the challenges of urban sustainability. Physically, CIRS will be based in a new building, opening in spring 2011, which will be the most innovative and high performance building in north America. The building will be used to demonstrate leading-edge research in day-to-day use, and develop sustainable design practices, products, systems and policies.UBC Clean Energy Research Centre (CERC)The UBC Clean Energy Research Centre (CERC) is Canada’s only interdisciplinary facility dedicated to improving existing energy tech-nologies and developing new sustainable energy sources. members of the centre are working on everything from renewable energies to clean burning engines, fuel cell systems and advanced hydrogen production methods.UBC Sustainability Initiative (USI) The	UBC	Sustainability	Initiative	(USI)	main	office	coordinates	sustainability	efforts	across	teaching	and	learning,	research	and	campus	operations.	The	office	relies	on	partnerships	and	collaboration	within	and	outside	the	UBC	campus,	and	across	all	disciplines,	to	fulfill	its mission.SfU vancouver Greentech ExchangeThe vancouver Greentech Exchange (vGE) launched in march of 2009 by Simon fraser University as a monthly networking and learn-ing	event	featuring	presentations	from	leaders	in	the	green	technology	field,	pitches	from	cleantech	entrepreneurs	and	networking	with	CAmPUS AS A lIvInG lAB InvOlvES STUdEnTS And fACUlTy dEvElOPInG And APPlyInG THEIR SUSTAInABIlITy RESEARCH In COllABO-RATIOn WITH UnIvERSITy STAff And CAn AlSO InvOlvE IndUSTRIAl OR COmmUnITy PARTnERS WORKInG WITH ACAdEmIC And OPERATIOnAl STAff.10entrepreneurs, professionals, investors, government representatives and more. In April, Greentech Exchange partnered with Kachan & Co., deloitte and Gowling, to take seven of vancouver’s best clean technology companies to present to investors in California.ElECTRICITyBritish	Columbia’s	electricity	utility	has	a	mandate	to	use	its	transmission	and	distribution	grid	assets	more	efficiently,	 in	order	to	temper investment in new generation capacity.Smart GridThe British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT) is designing and building a scaled down version of the smart grid - the Intelligent microgrid. This will enable utility providers, technology providers, and researchers to work together to test and improve architectures, protocols,	configurations,	and	models.	As well as this academic research, BC is a relatively active cluster for demand side management. Tantalus (raised at least $14m vC capital) manufactures load control hardware, and Enbala (raised at least $8m vC capital) offers a software service to handle spot trading	for	major	electricity	users.	SmartCool	Systems	($3m	revenue)	sells	software	that	more	efficiently	controls	refrigeration	and	air conditioning compressors, typically reducing electricity use by 10-15%. legend Power Systems ($24m revenue) makes electronic hardware	for	voltage	optimisation.	In	terms	of	storage	one	successful	local	firm	is	Corvus	Energy	($4m	revenue)	who	manufactures	utility-scale lithium-ion batteries.Finally,	the	$73m	contract	to	install	smart	meters	in	1.8m	BC	residences	was	awarded	by	BC	Hydro	in	November	2010	to	local	firm	Corix.ElECTRIC vEHIClESWith the third lowest electricity rate in north America, but one of the highest gasoline prices in the continent (thanks to a combina-tion	of	geography	and	specific	regional	taxes)	Metro	Vancouver	is	an	obvious	early	adopter	for	Electric	Vehicles	(EV).municipal regulations are anticipating considerable uptake, with Ev charging equipment space mandatory in 20% of parking spaces in new apartments in the city of  vancouver16.Companies manufacturing electric-drive cars and parts in BC include:  Azure dynamics, which was founded and is still manufacturing in	Burnaby	(although	now	headquartered	in	Michigan)	and	makes	part	of	Ford’s	Electric	Transit	Van;	Mercedes-Benz	who	announced	in	March	that	they	will	build	a	$50m	fuel-cell	plant	in	Burnaby,	Metro	Vancouver;	Rapid	Electric	Vehicles	(REV)	a	Vancouver-based	company	that	retrofits	SUVs	as	electric	vehicles;	E-One	Moli	Energy	who	makes	Li-Ion	batteries;	Delta-Q,	manufacturers	of	power	management	equipment	for	EVs;	and	Cadex	Electronics	which	offers	a	high-power	battery	testing	facility.BIOEnERGyIn	January	2008,	BC	launched	its	Bioenergy	Strategy	and	the	BC	Bioenergy	Network	(BCBN).	The	network	was	funded	with	$25	mil-lion and has a mandate to encourage innovation and make BC a world leader in developing bioenergy technologies.Total Bioenergy network commitments to date are $12.5 million, invested in 21 projects with an overall value of $74.2 million17. BCBn support is levered by additional investments of $61.7 million – a ratio of nearly 6:1 on a project funded basis. Almost half of the	funds	to	date	have	supported	two	firms	-	Nexterra	and	Lignol	-	who	are	also	successfully	exporting	low-carbon	innovation	from	BC (see next section).16 City of vancouver By law 9936 17 BC Bioenergy network Portfolio11Carbon offset funds enabled the lafarge cement plant to reduce the amount of coal used in the process of creating cement. Tradition-ally substantial users of coal, the company was able to reduce the amount they burn by replacing a portion of this fossil fuel with bio-mass and other materials from construction waste. This shift in fuel reduces annual greenhouse gas emissions relative to the baseline.furthermore, owners of anaerobic digestion systems - often farmers - in BC can sell their biogas to fortis BC, one of two gas suppliers in BC. Under this program, anaerobic digestion system owners can sell either raw biogas or biomethane to fortis for injection into their distribution system. While the price paid for the raw biogas and biomethane will vary between projects, the maximum price is $15/GJ	for	biomethane,	and	less	(due	to	the	cost	of	upgrading)	for	raw	biogas18.BC Agriculture Council (BCAC) and its subsidiary BC Agriculture and Research Corporation (ARdCorp) are developing the Renew-able Agri-energy Initiative (RAI) to help strengthen the competitiveness of the BC agricultural sector. It is hoped ARdCorp-RAI will help combat rising energy prices, provide rural employment, and improve organic waste management19.nOn-ClEAnTECH SmAll And mEdIUm EnTERPRISESIn British Columbia, the small business sector is a key driver of economic growth, and a vital source of innovation.  98% of businesses in	British	Columbia	employ	fewer	than	50	people,	and	are	classified	for	tax	purposes	as	small	businesses.		According	to	BC	Stats20, they number 395,900 in the province and generate 32% of the province’s GdP,  higher than the Canadian average of 28%. Small	businesses	in	BC	currently	pay	2.5%	of	profit	as	income	tax	on	earnings	over	$500,000.	The	tax	rate	was	lowered	from	4.5%	when the carbon tax was introduced, and will be reduced to zero in 2012. The carbon tax will likely become the largest tax BC small businesses pay, providing a strong incentive to emit as few greenhouse gases as possible, and increasing the need for support mecha-nisms to assist them in a transition to low carbon processes.Climate Smart BCClimate	Smart	is	a	for-profit	subsidiary	of	non-profit	Ecotrust	Canada	which	provides	greenhouse	gas accounting and consulting services to companies with fewer than 500 employees. Climate Smart has also exported its training services to Oregon. Businesses that have completed Climate Smart programme may use the Climate Smart logo on their marketing, in a similar fashion to the UK’s Carbon Trust Standard or the CARB’s Cool California Small Business.CASE STUdIESmountain Equipment Coop (1,500 employees nationwide) targeted scope two emissions, transporting goods from distribution centres to stores by train as opposed to truck where possible. Emissions fell 30% and costs reduced, although delivery time rose.Translink operates the public transit system in the Greater vancouver area. Since 2006, 75 of their 1,300 buses have run on com-pressed natural gas, lowering local particulate emissions and potentially lowering greenhouse gas emissions by up to 20%. This was Cummins	Westport’s	first	large	commercial	order	in	British	Columbia21.ExPORTInG InnOvATIOnBusiness	in	British	Columbia	is	not	just	innovating	to	cut	its	own	carbon	emissions	at	home.	The	cleantech	sector	is	also	benefiting	from the province’s long history as an exporter bringing low-carbon technologies to the world. 18 Anaerobic digestion Initiative Advisory Committee of BC19 Renewable Agri-energy Initiative20 BC	Small	Business	Profile21 Press Release: Cummins Westport Engines to Power Up to 95 new Translink Buses in vancouver12Wood PelletsBC is the center of wood-pellet production in north America, with 90% of production exported including over 500,000 tonnes to Europe22. One large	example	is	Vancouver’s	Pacific	BioEnergy	Corp.	which	has	formed	a partnership with french energy giant Gdf SUEZ, who will support a $24-million	capacity	expansion	of	Pacific	BioEnergy’s	wood	pellet	pro-duction plant in Prince George. The two companies have formed a joint venture to own and operate the Prince George plant, the expansion of which is expected to be completed in the autumn of 2010, doubling pro-duction capacity to 350,000 tons per year. Under the terms of the joint venture, Gdf SUEZ has also agreed to purchase 2.5 million tons of wood pellets for use as feedstocks at its generating facilities in Belgium over the next 10 years, displacing two million tons of coal as a result.WestportWestport Innovations23 is a leading developer of automotive engines and fuel systems that use natural gas, biomethane, and hydrogen. As such, the company and its joint ventures have sold over 25,000 engines in 25 countries,	helping	municipal	and	commercial	fleets	of	buses	and	trucks	transition from diesel to natural gas. The 200-employee, vancouver-based company was founded in 1995 following a spin-off from a UBC research project. Strong partnerships with companies like Cummins, PACCAR, volvo, and Weichai Power have allowed Westport to develop a wide mar-ket base, with over $121 million in revenues in 2009.nexterravancouver-based, nexterra Systems Corp. is a leading developer and supplier	of	biomass	gasification	solutions	which	enable	industrial	and	in-stitutional customers to generate renewable heat and power from low cost biomass fuels. founded in 2003, and now with a staff of 55, nexterra’s sales to date include projects at the University of South Carolina, dockside Green, the US department of Energy’s Oak Ridge national lab, Kruger Products, and Tolko Industries. To expand their product deployment, nexterra has established strategic relationships	with	several	key	parties	including	GE	Energy,	Johnson	Controls	Inc.,	and	Andritz	Separation.BallardBallard Power’s innovative product development in clean energy hydrogen fuel cell products has earned the 340 employee, Burnaby-based company a reputation as a clean technology leader24. Ballard currently owns approximately 400 patents and has licenses to another 1,800. Ballard’s clean energy solutions bring compelling value propositions to end users’ in markets such as material handling, backup	and	supplemental	power,	distributed	generation,	and	heavy	duty	applications.	In	January	2010,	Ballard	signed	a	two-year	fuel	cell	stack supply agreement, valued at $1.5 million Cdn, with Wuhan Intepower Co. ltd, a Hubei-based systems integrator of cell station back-up power equipment.EnduranceEndurance Wind Power Inc. manufactures advanced induction based wind turbines for distributed wind power applications. The com-pany designs, builds and sells 5kw, 35kw and 50kw turbines in BC, with over 90% of its sales outside Canada. founded in 2007, the company has raised $4.7m in three equity rounds under the venture Capital Program and has grown from two employees to 55 in three years. The company used early angel and vC investments to attract management and technical talent, and to target the global power market.22 UBC Engineering Research Spotlights23 Westport Innovations corporate website24 Ballard Power corporate website“A KEy dRIvER In OUR dECISIOn-mAKInG IS THE KnOWlEdGE THAT THE PRICE Of CAR-BOn WIll BE InCREASInG In THE fUTURE. WE WAnT TO BE WEll-POSITIOnEd TO COmPETE In A CARBOn-COnSTRAInEd WORld” -Esther Speck, director of Sustainability, mountain Equipment Co-op 13lignolLignol	 is	currently	developing	proprietary	biorefinery	technology	to	convert	 lignocellulosic	biomass	 into	 fuel	ethanol,	 lignin-based	products and other biochemicals. In addition to receiving backing from Canadian provincial and federal agencies, the company also received $30 million from the US department of Energy to build an $88-million cellulosic ethanol plant in Colorado25. CarmanahBased in victoria, Carmanah Technologies26 is a leader in solar lEd lighting innovation and performance and in industrial solar roof-top grid-tie solutions in Canada. Established in 1996, Carmanah has thousands of clients worldwide —resulting in over US $30 million in revenues in 2009—and a global staff of more than 100. notable clients include the Canadian Coast Guard, nATO, lockheed–martin, the	US	Military,	airfields	and	waterways	around	the	world,	and	a	number	of	cities	in	California.	nRC Institute for fuel Cell InnovationThe national Research Council of Canada’s Institute for fuel Cell Innovation27 (nRC-IfCI) is located in BC, on the UBC campus. As the premier applied research organization dedicated to supporting Canada’s fuel cell and hydrogen industry, the institute supports BC’s Hydrogen fuel cell cluster, the largest concentration of expertise of its kind in the world.CAPITAlAccess to investment capital is vital for innovative, fast growing companies. deloitte’s 2007 survey of BC cleantech companies identi-fied	“raising	new	growth	capital”	as	the	most	significant	challenge	facing	respondents,	and	specifically	in	clean	energy	Guhr	&	Schaeffer	identified	“equity,	debt	and	fundraising”	as	the	most	significant	need	of	BC’s	Clean	Energy	Community.Innovative	low-carbon	technology	companies	do	not	bemoan	a	lack	of	investors	however:	only	17%	said	they	could	not	find	private	equity	firms	in	Canada	that	were	interested	in	cleantech	investing.	Instead	the	key	challenge,	reported	by	52%	of	respondents	to	the	Deloitte	survey,	was	a	lack	of	investors	at	early	stages	of	technology	development.	Private	equity	firms	appear	to	be	focused	only	on	later stage deals, with a shorter horizon until exit.KPmG’s inaugural Cleantech Report for British Columbia surveyed a representative sample of 35 of 226 pure-play clean energy companies in the province. The survey found that 25% of investment since inception had come from  within the province of BC, although in the last year that had dropped to below 20% with the United States rising to the most important source of capital. PRIvATE vEnTURE CAPITAlBritish	Columbia	is	home	to	several	private	Venture	Capital	firms	with	a	mandate	to	invest	wholly	or	in	part	in	“green”	companies.	Together these investors allocate almost $2bn in equity capital.GOvERnmEnT vEnTURE CAPITAlBC	and	Canada	as	a	whole	are	fortunate	to	have	dedicated	government	funds	that	specifically	target	stages	of	the	corporate	funding	cycle	underserved	by	private	venture	firms.	In	particular	the	so-called	“valley	of	death”	between	applied	research	and	full	commerciali-sation is the focus of SdTC and ICE funds.Sustainable development Technology Canada (SdTC)SDTC	is	a	not-for-profit	foundation	that	allocates	government	funds	to	support	the	development	and	demonstration	of	clean	tech-nologies. Beyond simply providing funding, SdTC staff work closely with stakeholders and partners to build the capacity of Canadian 25 lignol corporate website26 Carmanah corporate website27 nRC Institute for fuel Cell Innovation14clean-technology entrepreneurs, helping them form strategic relationships, formalize their business plans, and build a critical mass of sustainable development capability in Canada.The $550m Sd Tech fund is aimed at supporting the late-stage development and pre-commercial demonstration of clean technology solutions: products and processes that contribute to clean air, clean water and clean land, that address climate change and improve the productivity and the global competitiveness of the Canadian industry.ICE fundThe Innovative Clean Energy (ICE) fund was created in 2007 to support “pre-commercial” energy technology (or commercial tech-nologies not currently used in BC). The fund will also help to showcase technologies that solve problems in BC and other jurisdictions that have international market potential.Since 2008, over $60 million of spending has been approved for 41 projects in over 37 communities across BC.  These projects rep-resent a total value of over $234 million and showcase a variety of clean energy technologies including solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, ocean wave and bioenergy. Sources of CapitalSource: KPmG inaugural CleanTech Report 2010 for British Columbia in partnership with BC CleanTech CEO Alliance (not yet published) pre-sented at UK Trade and Investment Clean Technology mission, february 14, 2011-04-27 Needs	of	BC’s	Clean	Energy	Community,	June	2009Source: Schaeffer & Guhr Perceived	barriers	to	receiving	private	equity	financingSource: deloitte Challenges to cleantech developers15BC Renaissance Capital fundThe Renaissance Capital fund (BCRCf) is a government owned fund-of-funds, that invests in venture capital funds in order to attract successful ven-ture capital managers to British Columbia, and help develop the province’s innovative technology companies.To date, the BCRCf has committed capital to seven venture capital fund managers based in the United States and Canada that have approximately $2 billion in capital under management for investment.GOvERnmEnT vEnTURE CAPITAl vS.  PRIvATE vEnTURE CAPITAlA 2008 paper by three professors from Sauder School of Business found that	firms	financed	by	government-sponsored	venture	capitalists	underper-formed on a variety of criteria. The investigators assembled a near-compre-hensive data set of Canadian venture-capital backed enterprises, and found government-sponsored	firms	underperformed	on	value-creation	-	as	mea-sured by size of IPO or m&A activity - and innovation - as measured by patents.The authors note that this correlation could either arise from a selection effect (private venture capitalists have a higher quality threshold for invest-ment than government venture capitalists) or from a treatment effect (gov-ernment venture capitalists crowd out private investment and furthermore provide less effective mentoring and other value-added skills). TAx InCEnTIvESventure Capital ProgramThe venture capital program (vCP) in the province of British Columbia provides a 30% tax credit to investors making eligible invest-ments. Between 2001 to 2008, tax credits of $256m were leveraged over nine times into at least $2.3B of equity investments, accord-ing	to	a	report	prepared	for	the	Ministry	of	Small	Business,	Technology	and	Economic	Development	in	June	2010	by	Thomas	Hellmann,	Sauder School of Business, University of British Columbia and Paul Schure.Each	$1	of	BC	tax	credits	translated	into	$1.98	of	BC	taxes;	the	91	VC-backed	companies	surveyed	created	an	average	of	2.5	jobs	per	year	in	BC	(compared	with	a	control	sample	of	150,780	BC	firms	that	created	fewer	than	0.5	jobs	per	year	on	average).Revenues contain a strong export component. Our data suggest that 47.35% of all revenues are generated outside BC. In addition, the	survey	shows	that	the	percentage	of	sales	outside	BC	is	particularly	high	in	the	cleantech	sector,	reflecting	the	fact	that	energy	is	relatively cheap to produce in BC.  An interesting case in point is Endurance Wind Power Inc. which sells over 90% of its wind turbine products outside Canada.IfC BCA company registered in the International Business Activity  (IBA) program can receive up to a full refund of provincial tax on income earned on qualifying export activities, incurring only the federal corporate income tax rate of 16.5% in 2011, reducing to 15% in 2012. Since 2010 Clean Technology companies are eligible to register for the IBA program.Company name Assets ($m in 2010) Growthworks Capital $1000 Chrysalix Energy venture Capital $300 ventures West Capital $241 yaletown venture Partners $150 BC Renaissance Capital fund $90 lions Capital Corp $64 Pangaea ventures fund $32 Greenscape Capital Group $6m Green Angel Energy $2.6m  Biggest	investment	fund	management	firms	in	BCSource:	Business	in	Vancouver,	January	2011	16Corporate taxes cut with carbon taxThe British Columbia Carbon Tax Act was introduced alongside personal and corporate tax cuts, with the intention that the tax would be revenue neutral (as recommended since at least Pearce 1991). Small business corporate income tax rate reduced from 4.5% to 3.5% effective	July	1,	2008,	reduced	to	2.5%	effective	December	1,	2008	and	reduced	to	zero	by	April	1,	2012.	General	corporate	income	tax	rate	reduced	from	12%	to	11%	effective	July	1,	2008,	reduced	to	10.5%	effective	July	1,	2010	and	reduced	to	10%	effective	January	1, 2011.SOURCES Of REvEnUEThe	KPMG	Cleantech	Report	found	that	one	third	of	revenues	to	BC	cleantech	firms	came	from	sales	to	the	US,	and	a	further	third	from sales to Europe.  Only 10% of clean energy companies’ revenue came from within BC and an even smaller percentage were exporting to Asia.Utility-scale renewable electricity developers must receive power purchase agreements from BC Hydro in order to sell their electric-ity.	On	August	3,	2010,	the	final	project	was	selected	for	an	award	of	an	Electricity	Purchase	Agreement	(EPA)	bringing	the	total	number	of projects selected under the Clean Power Call to 27. In terms of installed capacity, the projects are approximately half wind power and half run-of river hydroelectric.Pacific	GatewayThe small proportion of cleantech exports to Asia stands in contrast to the overall picture of the BC economy, for which China is the number one destination. The share of BC’s exports shipped to China has increased seven-fold in the last decade, from just over 2%	in	2001	to	14%	in	2010	.	If	Hong	Kong	is	included,	China	actually	surpassed	Japan	to	become	the	second	largest	destination	for	goods produced in BC. These existing trade connections to Asia’s large growing economies clearly offer a great opportunity for BC’s low-carbon innovators.COnClUSIOnSGlobal	investment	in	clean	energy	has	continued	to	grow	at	an	unprecedented	pace	in	the	last	five	years.	This	has	been	driven	not	only	by billions of dollars of stimulus funds made available by most major developed economies in response to the recession, but by the recognition that high non-renewable energy prices make numerous renewable energy solutions competitive. Carbon pricing in Europe under its emissions trading scheme is driving demand for alternative energy which results in companies like vattenfall looking as far afield	as	British	Columbia	for	biomass	supply	to	meet	European	obligations.	China’s role as an investor, particularly in wind and solar production, is unprecedented. Targets in China include 15% renewables in primary energy generation by 2020, 35-40% reductions in energy intensity compared to 2005 by 2015 and 40-45% reduction in car-bon	intensity	compared	to	2005	by	2020.	Government	policy	in	the	form	of	a	five-year	plan	and	large-scale	investment	has	shifted	the	centre of gravity for wind and solar production away from European countries like Germany and denmark through over $50bn of investment in 2010 alone. This level of investment by a single country is hard to match and shows the role that targeted government investment in energy infrastructure can play in encouraging clean energy production. As the graph on the next page shows, private equity and venture capital investment into clean energy is relatively small by comparison, although this form of investment is more focused on early stage commercialization and innovation rather than large-scale energy technology deployment. Bloomberg new Energy finance reports that $7.8bn of venture capital was invested in 2010 with the solar sector attracting the largest proportion.In an extensive review of the clean energy spending, deutsche Bank points out that the Investor network on Climate Risk, represent-ing 80 institutional investors with over $8 trillion of assets is motivated to continue to invest in the sector. Surveys of the institutional 17investor	community	suggest	that	the	primary	motivations	are	portfolio	diversification,	increasing	ethical	investment	by	funds,	the	desire	to invest in new technologies and the opportunity to generate returns from a market that should see strong growth in the future. In evaluating the role of governments in supporting clean energy development deutsche Bank argue that investors have three over-arching expectations: •	Transparency: policies need to be easily understood and open to all,•	longevity: policy makers need to establish long term commitments to give investors assurance about the security of their invest-ments, and•	Certainty	and	consistency:	the	incentives	need	to	be	financeable.Set against this backdrop, it is clear that a small jurisdiction like British Columbia could never outspend China, Germany or the US in clean energy investment. Experience suggests that a highly targeted strategy that leverages the Province’s resource endowments is more likely to succeed. While the dominant base of low cost hydroelectric power production represents a challenge for other forms of	renewable	energy	generation	within	the	province,	alternative	resources	including	wind,	tidal	and	biomass	are	present	at	significant	scale and are accessible at competitive costs both for domestic demand and for export purposes.  A suite of aggressive and innovative carbon policies including the carbon tax, carbon neutral government and a low carbon fuel standard create a clear and transparent regulatory structure that both prices carbon and encourages innovation. federal and Provincial funding through the SREd, the ICE fund and SdTC provide a pool of risk capital to support the early stage demonstration of clean technologies and a low taxation business environment creates good conditions for startups and small cap companies.The province has a highly educated workforce and strong commitments by the higher education sector to engage in clean energy de-velopment. UBC has made the University Sustainability Initiative a core priority, with the goal of transforming the campus into a living laboratory for clean technology demonstration.The provincial government has created a policy platform that creates an opportunity structure for clean technology businesses. Simply placing a price on carbon within the province of up to $55 per ton creates a strong signal for investments that reduce emissions. But it is clear from a number of studies that there are barriers to the growth of the sector.  While there has been a great deal of interest in the role of venture capital in driving growth in the clean technology sector, a number of studies point to the mismatch between the  dollar weighted revenues, derived by location (2009 - 2012 average)  BC Hydro Clean Power Call18investment	expectations	of	VC	firms	and	the	 likely	returns	from	investments	in	clean	energy	generation,	which	by	defini-tion, generate utility rates of return. A	study	by	the	Pacific	Institute	for	Climate	Solutions	(PICS)	drew four broad conclusions about the barriers in BC based on	interviews	with	a	number	of	firms:1. The capital intensive nature of cleantech investment re-sults	 in	 illiquid	 assets	 that	 are	 not	 ideal	 for	VC	 firms,	who look for a relatively short runway to an exit from their	investment.	This	finding	is	reinforced	in	studies	by	deloitte and by an extensive survey by Guhr and Schaef-fer, who found that ‘equity, debt and fundraising’ repre-sent the biggest challenge for companies in the province, particularly during the early stages in development of a technology company.2. many clean technology companies are founded by scientists and experts who have strong technical skills but weak management skills. Since ‘clean energy’ covers a huge array of technologies, it is challenging for investors to maintain expertise in all areas, although it is clear that an investor’s ability to bring strong management teams to the table may be as important as their ability to bring capital.3. As evidence from China suggests, the state can play a key role in supporting the clean technology sector through investment and procurement policies. Surveys in BC indicate that growing companies need demonstration scale projects to support their com-mercialization efforts. BC Hydro’s clean energy procurement process is considered too slow and it is not well suited for smaller scale demonstration projects. Other utility companies in BC such as fortis BC and Corix may be better suited to support this form of investment. While the ICE fund provides an alternate source of investment, it is considered too small to drive growth in investment (although it should be noted that some ICE fund calls were undersubscribed). Public sector organizations within BC spend hundreds of millions of dollars a year on energy services.4. The domestic market in BC is relatively small, meaning that local clean technology companies must look to export markets for growth.	British	Columbia	does	not	have	a	strong	platform	for	supporting	growth	in	key	markets.	Alberta	has	a	significant	staff	in	Washington dC, while BC does not appear to have a strong presence there or in California or China to support export market development.This paper provides an overview of the BC economy, which was clearly already in a major transition away from high levels of resource dependence towards a more mixed economy. It is a transition that we have witnessed in other small jurisdictions like finland. Provincial policy has created a strong foundation for the accelerated growth of the clean energy sector and the purpose of this workshop is to identify	the	priorities	for	growth	in	all	sectors	over	the	coming	five	years.Total Global investment in clean energy in 2010 including  all asset classes $USd B)Source: Bloomberg new Energy finance, 201119© ISIS, Sauder School of Business, University of British Columbia 2011 Carbon Governance Project (CGP) BackgrounderAuthors:	Neil	Salmond,	Dr.	James	Tansey,	Dr.	Adam	BumpusCGP International Workshop Series:Initiator and International Coordinator: dr. Adam BumpusVancouver	Chair:	Dr.	James	TanseyUK Chair: dr. Chukwumerije OkerekeCalifornia Chair: dr. Blas Pérez-HenríquezPROJECT	PARTNERS: SERIES SPOnSORS:vAnCOUvER WORKSHOP SPOnSOR:


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