UBC Faculty Research and Publications

The rehabilitation workforce study : supply side analysis Kazanjian, Arminée, 1947-; Rahim-Jamal, Sherin, 1963-; MacDonald, Allyson; Chen, Alice W. 2001

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  Centre for Health Services and Policy Research      The Rehabilitation Workforce Study: Supply Side Analysis    Arminée Kazanjian Sherin Rahim-Jamal Allyson MacDonald Alice Chen   HHRU 01:8 December 2001    Health Human Resources Unit Research Reports             THE  UNIVERSITY  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA      The Rehabilitation Workforce Study: Supply Side Analysis                         HHRU 01:8  Health Human Resources Unit Arminée Kazanjian Centre for Health Services and Policy Research Sherin Rahim-Jamal The University of British Columbia Allyson MacDonald Vancouver, British Columbia  V6T 1Z3 Alice Chen  December 2001   iiNational Library of Canada Cataloguing in Publication Data  Main entry under title:  The rehabilitation workforce study      (HHRU ; 01:8)  ISBN 1-894066-80-4   1. Physical therapists--Supply and demand--British Columbia.  2. Occupational therapists--Supply and demand--British Columbia.  I. Kazanjian, Arminée, 1947-  II. University of British Columbia. Health Human Resources Unit.  III. Series: Research reports (University of British Columbia. Health Human Resources Unit) ; 01:8.  RA410.9.C2R44 2002 331.1'19161582'09711 C2002-910012-7    iiiFOREWORD   The Health Human Resources Unit (HHRU) was established as a demonstration project by the British Columbia Ministry of Health in 1973.  Since that time, the Unit has continued to be funded on an ongoing basis (subject to annual review) as part of the Centre for Health Services and Policy Research.  The Unit undertakes a series of research studies that are relevant to health human resources management and to public policy decisions.  The HHRU’s research agenda is determined through discussions of key current issues and available resources with the senior staff of the Ministry of Health.  Various health care provider groups participate indirectly, through on-going formal and informal communications with Ministry of Health officials and with HHRU researchers.  Three types of research are included in the Unit’s research agenda.  In conjunction with professional licensing bodies or associations, the HHRU maintains the Cooperative Health Human Resources Database.  The Unit uses these data to produce regular status reports that provide a basis for in-depth studies and for health human resources planning.  The Unit undertakes more detailed analyses bearing on particular health human resources policy issues and assesses the impact of specific policy measures, using secondary analyses of data from the Cooperative Database, data from the administrative databases maintained under the HIDU, or primary data collected through surveys.  The HHRU also conducts specific projects pertaining to the management of health human resources at local, regional and provincial levels.    Arminée Kazanjian  Dr Soc Principal Investigator     Copies may be obtained at no charge from: Health Human Resources Unit Centre for Health Services and Policy Research The University of British Columbia #429-2194 Health Sciences Mall Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3 Ph:  (604) 822-4810 Fax:  (604) 822-5690 email:  hhru@chspr.ubc.ca http://www.chspr.ubc.ca   ivACKNOWLEDGEMENTS    This study was commissioned by a group of organizations including the College of Physical Therapists of B.C., the College of Occupational Therapists of B.C., the Physiotherapy Association of B.C., the B.C. Society of Occupational Therapists, members of the UBC School of Rehabilitation Sciences, and the Health Sciences Association.   Special appreciation is extended to the B.C. Society of Occupational Therapists, and the College of Physical Therapists of B.C. and the former Association of Physiotherapists and Massage Practitioners of B.C. for the data provided on the supply of occupational therapists and physical therapists, respectively.   We would like to thank Kerry Kerluke who provided in-house programming support and Laura Wood who assisted with the initial coordination of the project, data analysis and editing.   We are also grateful to Sue Gubbels with the North Okanagan Health Region, Dr. John Higenbottam with the Vancouver/Richmond Health Region and Ellen Pekeles with the North Shore Health Region for their review of the final draft of this report.  Their observations and suggestions were extremely valuable in the preparation of this document.    vTABLE OF CONTENTS   Forward ......................................................................................................................  iii Acknowledgements ....................................................................................................  iv List of Tables .............................................................................................................  vi Executive Summary ..................................................................................................  xv  1. Introduction ...........................................................................................................  1 a) Data Development .....................................................................................  2 b) Methods .....................................................................................................  3  2. Supply of Physical Therapists in 1991, 1995, 1997, and 2000 .............................  5 a) All Physical Therapists .............................................................................  5 b) Physical Therapists Employed in the Field ...............................................  9 c) Sources of Change in the Supply of Physical Therapists ........................  18 (i) New Registrants ....................................................................  18 (ii) Reactivations .........................................................................  28 (iii) Attrition .................................................................................  37 d) Physical Therapists - Stability Analysis ..................................................  42  3. Supply of Occupational Therapists in 1991, 1995, 1997, and 1999 ...................  55 a) All Occupational Therapists ....................................................................  55 b) Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field .....................................  59 c) Sources of Change in the Supply of Occupational Therapists ................  68 (iv) New Registrants ....................................................................  68 (v) Reactivations .........................................................................  78 (vi) Attrition .................................................................................  88 d) Occupational Therapists - Stability Analysis ..........................................  93  Appendix  Map of British Columbia Health Authorities, and   Population Estimates for British Columbia Health Authorities...................  105    viLIST OF TABLES   Physical Therapists Table 2.1a Number of Physical Therapists by Employment Status and Study Year, 1991-2000 ................................................................................  6 Table 2.1b Percent of Physical Therapists by Employment Status and Study Year, 1991-2000 ...........................................................................................  6 Table 2.2a Number, Number per 10,000 Population, and Average Annual Rates of Change for Physical Therapists by Study Year, 1991-2000 ..............................................................................................................  7 Table 2.2b Number, Number per 10,000 Population, and Average Annual Rates of Change for Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Study Year, 1991-2000 ...........................................................................  8 Table 2.3 Physical Therapists by Registration Status and Study Year, 1991-2000 ....................................................................................................  9 Table 2.4 Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Sex and Study Year, 1991-2000 ...........................................................................................  9 Table 2.5a Number of Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Age and Study Year, 1991-2000 .........................................................................  10 Table 2.5b Percent of Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Age and Study Year, 1991-2000 .........................................................................  10 Table 2.6 Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Type of Employment and Study Year, 1991-2000 ....................................................  10 Table 2.7a Number of Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Place of Employment and Study Year, 1991-2000 ...............................................  12 Table 2.7b Percent of Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Place of Employment and Study Year, 1991-2000 ...............................................  12 Table 2.8a Number of Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Area of Service and Study Year, 1991-2000 ........................................................  13 Table 2.8b Percent of Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Area of Service and Study Year, 1991-2000 ........................................................  13 Table 2.9a Number of Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Position and Study Year, 1991-2000 ...........................................................  15 Table 2.9b Percent of Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Position and Study Year, 1991-2000 ...........................................................  15 Table 2.10 Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Place of Graduation and Study Year, 1991-2000 ......................................................  16 Table 2.11a Number of Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by B.C. Health Authority and Study Year, 1991-2000 .............................................  17   viiTable 2.11b Number per 10,000 Population of Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by B.C. Health Authority and Study Year, 1991-2000 ...........................................................................................  17 Table 2.12a Number of New Registrant Physical Therapists by Employment Status and Study Year, 1991-2000 ...............................................................  19 Table 2.12b Percent of New Registrant Physical Therapists by Employment Status and Study Year, 1991-2000 ...............................................................  19 Table 2.13 New Registrant Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Sex and Study Year, 1991-2000 ..................................................................  20 Table 2.14a Number of New Registrant Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Age and Study Year, 1991-2000 ....................................................  21 Table 2.14b Percent of New Registrant Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Age and Study Year, 1991-2000 ....................................................  21 Table 2.15 New Registrant Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Type of Employment and Study Year, 1991-2000 ......................................  21 Table 2.16a Number of New Registrant Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Place of Employment and Study Year, 1991-2000 ........................  23 Table 2.16b Percent of New Registrant Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Place of Employment and Study Year, 1991-2000 ........................  23 Table 2.17a Number of New Registrant Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Area of Service and Study Year, 1991-2000 .................................  24 Table 2.17b Percent of New Registrant Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Area of Service and Study Year, 1991-2000 .................................  24 Table 2.18a Number of New Registrant Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Position and Study Year, 1991-2000 .............................................  25 Table 2.18b Percent of New Registrant Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Position and Study Year, 1991-2000 .............................................  25 Table 2.19 New Registrant Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Place of Graduation and Study Year, 1991-2000 .........................................  26 Table 2.20a Number of New Registrant Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by B.C. Health Authority and Study Year, 1991-2000 .......................  27 Table 2.20b Number per 10,000 Population of New Registrant Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by B.C. Health Authority and Study Year, 1991-2000 ................................................................................  27 Table 2.21a Number of Returning Physical Therapists by Employment Status and Study Year, 1991-2000 ...............................................................  29 Table 2.21b Percent of Returning Physical Therapists by Employment Status and Study Year, 1991-2000 .........................................................................  29 Table 2.22 Returning Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Sex and Study Year, 1991-2000 .........................................................................  30 Table 2.23a Number of Returning Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Age and Study Year, 1991-2000 ....................................................  30   viiiTable 2.23b Percent of Returning Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Age and Study Year, 1991-2000 .............................................................  30 Table 2.24 Returning Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Type of Employment and Study Year, 1991-2000 ...............................................  31 Table 2.25a Number of Returning Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Place of Employment and Study Year, 1991-2000 ........................  32 Table 2.25b Percent of Returning Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Place of Employment and Study Year, 1991-2000 .................................  32 Table 2.26a Number of Returning Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Area of Service and Study Year, 1991-2000 .................................  33 Table 2.26b Percent of Returning Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Area of Service and Study Year, 1991-2000 ..........................................  33 Table 2.27a Number of Returning Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Position and Study Year, 1991-2000 .............................................  34 Table 2.27b Percent of Returning Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Position and Study Year, 1991-2000 ......................................................  34 Table 2.28 Returning Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Place of Graduation and Study Year, 1991-2000 ..................................................  35 Table 2.29a Number of Returning Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by B.C. Health Authority and Study Year, 1991-2000 .......................  36 Table 2.29b Number per 10,000 Population of Returning Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by B.C. Health Authority and Study Year, 1991-2000 ...........................................................................................  36 Table 2.30a Number of Exiting Physical Therapists by Employment Status and Study Period, 1991-1995 to 1997-2000 ................................................  38 Table 2.30b Percent of Exiting Physical Therapists by Employment Status and Study Period, 1991-1995 to 1997-2000 ................................................  38 Table 2.31 Exiting Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Registration Status and Study Period, 1991-1995 to 1997-2000 .................  39 Table 2.32a Number of Exiting Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Age and Study Period, 1991-1995 to 1997-2000 ....................................  40 Table 2.32b Percent of Exiting Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Age and Study Period, 1991-1995 to 1997-2000 .........................................  40 Table 2.33 Exiting Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Place of Graduation and Study Period, 1991-1995 to 1997-2000 .............................  40 Table 2.34a Number of Exiting Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Position and Study Period, 1991-1995 to 1997-2000 .............................  41 Table 2.34b Percent of Exiting Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Position and Study Period, 1991-1995 to 1997-2000 ..................................  41 Table 2.35 Physical Therapists Registered in 1991 in B.C. by Stability Status and Age Group ..................................................................................  43   ixTable 2.36 Physical Therapists Registered in 1991 in B.C. by Stability Status and Sex ..............................................................................................  43 Table 2.37 Physical Therapists Registered in 1991 in B.C. by Stability Status and Registration Status ......................................................................  44 Table 2.38 Physical Therapists Registered in 1991 in B.C. by Stability Status and Years Since First Registration in B.C. ........................................  45 Table 2.39 Physical Therapists Registered in 1991 in B.C. by Stability Status and Years Since Graduation ..............................................................  45 Table 2.40 Physical Therapists Registered in 1991 in B.C. by Stability Status and Place of Graduation ....................................................................  46 Table 2.41 Physical Therapists Registered in 1991 in B.C. by Stability Status and Employment Status .....................................................................  47 Table 2.42 Physical Therapists Registered in 1991 in B.C. by Stability Status and Type of Employment ..................................................................  47 Table 2.43 Physical Therapists Registered in 1991 in B.C. by Stability Status and Place of Employment .................................................................  48 Table 2.44 Physical Therapists Registered in 1991 in B.C. by Stability Status and Area of Service ...........................................................................  49 Table 2.45 Physical Therapists Registered in 1991 in B.C. by Stability Status and Health Region .............................................................................  49 Table 2.46 Physical Therapists Registered in B.C. in 1991 to 2000, Employment Status in 1991 by Employment Status in 2000 .......................  50 Table 2.47 Physical Therapists Registered in B.C. in 1991 to 2000, Type of Employment in 1991 by Type of Employment in 2000 ...............................  51 Table 2.48 Physical Therapists Registered in B.C. in 1991 to 2000, Place of Employment in 1991 by Place of Employment in 2000 ..............................  52 Table 2.49 Physical Therapists Registered in B.C. in 1991 to 2000, Area of Service in 1991 by Area of Service in 2000 ................................................  52 Table 2.50 Physical Therapists Registered in B.C. in 1991 to 2000, Health Region in 1991 by Health Region in 2000 ...................................................  54   Occupational Therapists Table 3.1a Number of Occupational Therapists by Employment Status and Study Year, 1991-1999 ................................................................................  56 Table 3.1b Percent of Occupational Therapists by Employment Status and Study Year, 1991-1999 ................................................................................  56 Table 3.2a Number, Number per 10,000 Population, and Average Annual Rates of Change for Occupational Therapists by Study Year, 1991-1999 ....................................................................................................  57   xTable 3.2b Number, Number per 10,000 Population, and Average Annual Rates of Change for Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Study Year, 1991-1999 ..................................................................  58 Table 3.3 Occupational Therapists by Registration Status and Study Year, 1991-1999 ....................................................................................................  59 Table 3.4 Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Sex and Study Year, 1991-1999 ................................................................................  59 Table 3.5a Number of Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Age and Study Year, 1991-1999 ..................................................................  60 Table 3.5b Percent of Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Age and Study Year, 1991-1999 ..................................................................  60 Table 3.6 Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Type of Employment and Study Year, 1991-1999 ....................................................  60 Table 3.7a Number of Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Place of Employment and Study Year, 1991-1999 ......................................  62 Table 3.7b Percent of Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Place of Employment and Study Year, 1991-1999 ......................................  62 Table 3.8a Number of Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Area of Service and Study Year, 1991-1999 ...............................................  63 Table 3.8b Percent of Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Area of Service and Study Year, 1991-1999 ...............................................  63 Table 3.9a Number of Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Position and Study Year, 1991-1999 ...........................................................  65 Table 3.9b Percent of Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Position and Study Year, 1991-1999 ...........................................................  65 Table 3.10 Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Place of Graduation and Study Year, 1991-1999 ......................................................  66 Table 3.11a Number of Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by B.C. Health Authority and Study Year, 1991-1999 .....................................  67 Table 3.11b Number per 10,000 Population of Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by B.C. Health Authority and Study Year, 1991-1999 ...........................................................................................  67 Table 3.12a Number of New Registrant Occupational Therapists by Employment Status and Study Year, 1991-1999 .........................................  69 Table 3.12b Percent of New Registrant Occupational Therapists by Employment Status and Study Year, 1991-1999 .........................................  69 Table 3.13 New Registrant Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Sex and Study Year, 1991-1999 .............................................................  70 Table 3.14a Number of New Registrant Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Age and Study Year, 1991-1999 ..........................................  71 Table 3.14b Percent of New Registrant Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Age and Study Year, 1991-1999 ..........................................  71   xiTable 3.15 New Registrant Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Type of Employment and Study Year, 1991-1999 .................................  71 Table 3.16a Number of New Registrant Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Place of Employment and Study Year, 1991-1999 ..............................................................................................................  73 Table 3.16b Percent of New Registrant Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Place of Employment and Study Year, 1991-1999 ..............................................................................................................  73 Table 3.17a Number of New Registrant Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Area of Service and Study Year, 1991-1999 .......................  74 Table 3.17b Percent of New Registrant Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Area of Service and Study Year, 1991-1999 .......................  74 Table 3.18a Number of New Registrant Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Position and Study Year, 1991-1999 ...................................  75 Table 3.18b Percent of New Registrant Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Position and Study Year, 1991-1999 ...................................  75 Table 3.19 New Registrant Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Place of Graduation and Study Year, 1991-1999 ...................................  76 Table 3.20a Number of New Registrant Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by B.C. Health Authority and Study Year, 1991-1999 ..............................................................................................................  77 Table 3.20b Number per 10,000 Population of New Registrant Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by B.C. Health Authority and Study Year, 1991-1999 ................................................................................  77 Table 3.21a Number of Returning Occupational Therapists by Employment Status and Study Year, 1991-1999 ...............................................................  79 Table 3.21b Percent of Returning Occupational Therapists by Employment Status and Study Year, 1991-1999 ...............................................................  79 Table 3.22 Returning Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Sex and Study Year, 1991-1999 ..................................................................  80 Table 3.23a Number of Returning Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Age and Study Year, 1991-1999 ....................................................  81 Table 3.23b Percent of Returning Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Age and Study Year, 1991-1999 ....................................................  81 Table 3.24 Returning Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Type of Employment and Study Year, 1991-1999 ......................................  81 Table 3.25a Number of Returning Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Place of Employment and Study Year, 1991-1999 ........................  83 Table 3.25b Percent of Returning Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Place of Employment and Study Year, 1991-1999 ........................  83 Table 3.26a Number of Returning Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Area of Service and Study Year, 1991-1999 .................................  84   xiiTable 3.26b Percent of Returning Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Area of Service and Study Year, 1991-1999 .................................  84 Table 3.27a Number of Returning Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Position and Study Year, 1991-1999 .............................................  85 Table 3.27b Percent of Returning Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Position and Study Year, 1991-1999 .............................................  85 Table 3.28 Returning Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Place of Graduation and Study Year, 1991-1999 .........................................  86 Table 3.29a Number of Returning Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by B.C. Health Authority and Study Year, 1991-1999 .......................  87 Table 3.29b Number per 10,000 Population of Returning Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by B.C. Health Authority and Study Year, 1991-1999 ................................................................................  87 Table 3.30a Number of Exiting Occupational Therapists by Employment Status and Study Period, 1991-95 to 1997-99 ..............................................  89 Table 3.30b Percent of Exiting Occupational Therapists by Employment Status and Study Period, 1991-95 to 1997-99 ..............................................  89 Table 3.31 Exiting Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Registration Status and Study Period, 1991-95 to 1997-99 .........................  90 Table 3.32a Number of Exiting Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Age and Study Period, 1991-95 to 1997-99 ..................................  91 Table 3.32b Percent of Exiting Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Age and Study Period, 1991-95 to 1997-99 ..................................  91 Table 3.33 Exiting Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Type of Employment and Study Period, 1991-95 to 1997-99 ..............................  91 Table 3.34 Exiting Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Place of Graduation and Study Period, 1991-95 to 1997-99 .................................  92 Table 3.35 Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in 1991 in B.C. by Stability Status and Age Group ....................................................................  94 Table 3.36 Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in 1991 in B.C. by Stability Status and Sex ................................................................................  94 Table 3.37 Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in 1991 in B.C. by Stability Status and Membership Category ..................................................  95 Table 3.38 Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in 1991 in B.C. by Stability Status and Years Since First Registration in B.C. .........................  95 Table 3.39 Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in 1991 in B.C. by Stability Status and Years Since Graduation ...............................................  96 Table 3.40 Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in 1991 in B.C. by Stability Status and Place of Graduation ......................................................  97 Table 3.41 Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in 1991 in B.C. by Stability Status and Employment Status ......................................................  97   xiiiTable 3.42 Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in 1991 in B.C. by Stability Status and Type of Employment ...................................................  98 Table 3.43 Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in 1991 in B.C. by Stability Status and Place of Employment ...................................................  99 Table 3.44 Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in 1991 in B.C. by Stability Status and Area of Service .............................................................  99 Table 3.45 Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in 1991 in B.C. by Stability Status and Health Region ..............................................................  100 Table 3.46 Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in B.C. in 1991 to 1999, Employment Status in 1991 by Employment Status in 1999 ..............................................................................................................  101 Table 3.47 Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in B.C. in 1991 to 1999, Type of Employment in 1991 by Type of Employment in 1999 ..............................................................................................................  101 Table 3.48 Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in B.C. in 1991 to 1999, Place of Employment in 1991 by Place of Employment in 1999 ..............................................................................................................  103 Table 3.49 Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in B.C. in 1991 to 1999, Area of Service in 1991 by Area of Service in 1999 .........................  103 Table 3.50 Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in B.C. in 1991 to 1999, Health Region in 1991 by Health Region in 1999 .............................  104   xiv   xvEXECUTIVE SUMMARY    This study examines the supply of physical therapists (PTs) and occupational therapists (OTs) in British Columbia over the last ten years, and is part of a larger research project examining the current and future supply of, and demand for, rehabilitation personnel in B.C.   Supply data were obtained from the regulatory bodies for PTs for 1991, 1995, 1997 and 2000, and from the professional association for OTs for 1991, 1995, 1997 and 1999.  The data elements collected and examined for both groups include demographic items, membership in the organization, employment characteristics, and education.   Physical Therapists  Overall Supply  The total number of physical therapists (PTs) steadily increased over the study period from 1,801 in 1991 to 2,316 in 2000.  The number of employed PTs also increased from 1,468 in 1991 to 1,924 in 2000.  Over 80% of the PTs registered in B.C. reported employment in the field, and just over 75% of the PTs employed in the field were female.  The number of employed PTs per 10,000 population has remained constant since 1995 at 4.73.  The number of new registrant PTs decreased over the study period, while the number of returning PTs increased.  Over 70% of returning PTs were employed in the field.  The number of exiting PTs decreased over the study period.  The majority of exiting PTs were employed in the field prior to exiting.  Effects of Ageing  The PT workforce is clearly ageing, with the proportion of PTs in younger age groups (<45 years of age) decreasing over the study period, while the proportion of PTs in older age groups (45+ years of age) was increasing during the study period.  Expectedly, the majority of new registrants were under 35 years of age, and female.  Large proportions of the exiting PTs were also under 35 years of age, although the proportions of exiting PTs over age 50 increased appreciably during the study period.  Most returning employed PTs were in their thirties.  Changing Place of Employment  The proportion of PTs employed in Hospital settings decreased over the study period, while the proportion employed in Private Practice increased.  The proportion of new registrant PTs employed in Hospital settings also decreased over the study period, while the proportion employed in Private Practice increased.  The increase in the proportion of new registrant PTs employed in Private Practice was much greater than the increase seen for the total PT group.   xvi As was the case with both the total PT group and the new registrant group, an increasing number of returning PTs were employed in Private Practice.  Place of Graduation  The proportion of employed PTs who graduated from B.C. increased only very slightly from 1991 to 2000.  However, B.C.’s dependence on graduates from elsewhere was reflected in the increase in the proportion from Other Canada.  Other Country graduates still accounted for a large proportion of B.C.’s employed PTs, although their numbers decreased to less than one-third of supply in 2000.  The proportion of B.C. graduates among the employed new registrants decreased overall; there was also a large decrease in the proportion of Other Country graduates.  In each of the study years, the largest proportion of returning PTs were graduates from Other Canada, while the largest proportion of exiting PTs were graduates from Other Countries.  Regional Distributions  The number of PTs per 10,000 population varied across the Health Authorities from a low of 1.66 in Peace Liard in 2000 to a high of 7.12 in Vancouver/Richmond in 2000.  Several regions with large population bases had relatively low numbers of PTs per 10,000 population, while other regions with smaller relative population bases had much higher numbers of PTs per 10,000 population.  Stability Analysis of PTs  In order to analyze the stability of the physical therapy registrants, a ‘stable’ registration cohort who was registered in all 10 years (i.e. from 1991 to 2000) was compared to an ‘unstable’ registration cohort (i.e. those PTs who were not registered in all ten years).  There was a significant difference in the age distributions of the two cohorts, with the ‘stable’ cohort of PTs more likely to be in the middle age groups and the ‘unstable’ cohort more likely to be younger than 35 years of age or over 50 years of age.  The ‘stable’ cohort was significantly more likely to be employed in the field than the ‘unstable’ group, and a higher proportion of the ‘stable’ cohort was employed in hospital settings than was the ‘unstable’ cohort.  In order to further analyze the stability of the physical therapy registrants, the ‘stable’ cohort was studied to examine the stability of employment status, employment type, place of employment, area of service and regional distribution over the 10-year period.  The large majority of PTs in the ‘stable’ cohort retained or regained employment in the field over the 10-year period.  Other significant findings regarding employment characteristics were also noted.   Occupational Therapists  Overall Supply  The total number of occupational therapists (OTs) steadily increased over the study period from 566 in 1991 to 920 in 1999.  The number of employed OTs also increased from 515 in   xvii1991 to 854 in 1999.  Over 90% of the OTs in B.C. reported employment in the field, and approximately 94% of employed OTs were female.  The  number of employed OTs per 10,000 population increased from 1.53 in 1991 to 2.12 in 1999.  The number of new registrant OTs increased over the study period, as did the number of new registrant OTs.  The number of returning OTs fluctuated over the study period, while the number of exiting OTs increased over the study period.  The vast majority of returning and exiting OTs were employed in the field.  Effects of Ageing  The OT workforce is clearly ageing, with the proportion of OTs in younger age groups (<40 years of age) decreasing over the study period, while the proportion of OTs in older age groups (50+ years of age) was increasing during the study period.  Where data were available, they indicated that the majority of new registrants were under  35 years of age, as were a large proportion of the exiting OTs.  The largest proportion of returning employed OTs were under 40 years of age.  Changing Place of Employment  Hospitals remain the primary employer for OTs, although the proportion of OTs employed in hospitals decreased over the study period.  Meanwhile, the proportion of OTs employed in Private Practice increased over the study period.  The proportion of new registrant OTs employed in Hospital settings decreased over the study period, while the proportion employed in Private Practice increased.  The increase in the proportion of new registrant OTs employed in Private Practice was much greater than the increase seen for the total OT group.  As was the case with both the total OT group and the new registrant group, an increasing proportion of returning OTs were also employed in Private Practice.  Place of Graduation  Both the number and the proportion of OTs graduating from B.C. increased over the study period.  Since 1995, B.C. graduates have accounted for the largest proportion of OTs employed in the field.  The proportion of OTs who were foreign graduates decreased over the study period.  The largest proportion of employed new registrant OTs were graduates from Other Canada in all study years.  The proportion of Other Canada graduates among the new registrants increased from 1991 to 1999, indicating an increasing reliance on graduates from Other Canada in recent years.  The proportion of foreign graduates among the new registrants decreased over the study period.  The majority of returning employed OTs were B.C. graduates.    xviiiRegional Distributions  All Health Authorities saw an increase in the number per 10,000 population of OTs over the study period, and by 1999, the number per 10,000 population varied across the regions from a low of 0.52 in Cariboo to a high of 4.38 in Vancouver/Richmond.  The number per 10,000 population of OTs in the Vancouver/Richmond, Capital and Okanagan Similkameen regions was higher than the provincial number per 10,000 population in all study years.  Stability Analysis of OTs  In order to analyze the stability of the occupational therapists, a ‘stable’ registration cohort who was registered in all 9 years (i.e. from 1991 to 1999) was compared to an ‘unstable’ registration cohort (i.e. those OTs who were not registered in all nine years).  There was a significant difference in the age distributions of the two cohorts, with the ‘stable’ cohort of OTs more likely to be in the middle age groups and the ‘unstable’ cohort more likely to be younger than 35 years of age or over 50 years of age. No significant difference in the place of graduation, employment status, place of employment, area of service, or regional distribution was found between the ‘stable’ and the ‘unstable’ cohorts.  In order to further analyze the stability of the occupational therapists, the ‘stable’ cohort was studied to examine the stability of employment status, employment type, place of employment, area of service and regional distribution over the 9-year period.  Over 90% of OTs in the ‘stable’ cohort retained or regained employment in the field over the 9-year period.  Other significant findings with respect to employment characteristics were also noted.    1The Rehabilitation Workforce Study: Supply Side Analysis   1. INTRODUCTION   Concern about the supply of both the current and the future health workforce began to be expressed by stakeholders in the late 1990’s.  This was in part a response to the downsizing of the acute care sector in the early and mid 1990’s, and in part a belated recognition of an inevitable, society-wide demographic shift, by which a sizeable proportion of the current workforce would reach retirement age within the next twenty to thirty years.  The effects of this accelerated attrition, coupled with the commonly held belief that an ageing population would by definition require more health care services, has convinced leaders in the health care workforce that it is necessary to produce increased numbers of health care providers.  Rehabilitation services providers have essential roles to play in the provision of health care services; physical therapists (PTs) and occupational therapists (OTs) represent two of the largest health care professions, after nursing and medicine, and provide services in acute and continuing care settings, as well as taking a primary role in rehabilitation, and, increasingly, a larger place in health promotion and disease prevention.  Their scopes of practice are well defined and their education is rigorous.  It is essential that concerns about the present and future adequacy of the rehabilitation workforce be addressed in a timely and comprehensive manner.     The prospect of an ageing current workforce faced with the necessity of providing increasing amounts of care to an ageing population has raised questions among representatives of the rehabilitation professions.  A group representing the regulatory bodies, professional associations, unions, and educators requested that a study be undertaken to examine the current and future supply of physical and occupational therapists, with special attention to the effects of ‘ageing’ on the available personnel, and that would look at the existing ‘demand’ for rehabilitation services, with particular attention to the problem of identifying and quantifying current and future imbalances.1  The research questions which derive from these concerns include:    • Are there recognizable effects from ‘ageing’ on the current workforce?  If so, what are they? • Do recent registrants differ in their employment behaviour relative to registrants from earlier periods?  If so, how? • Are there differences in employment behaviour by training location?  If so, in what ways? • Has the pace of recruitment to both professions changed in recent years?  If so, how?                                                  1 The organisations which commissioned this study were the College of Physical Therapists of B.C., the College of Occupational Therapists of B.C., the Physiotherapy Association of B.C., the B.C. Society of Occupational Therapists, members of the UBC School of Rehabilitation Sciences, and the Health Sciences Association.     2• Has the pace of retention for B.C. registered personnel changed in recent years?  If so, how? • What are the historical and current patterns of employment and factors associated with such patterns for rehabilitation professionals?     a) Data Development   In order to address the supply-side questions, archived data which were originally obtained for the Health Human Resources Unit’s series of Rollcall/Rollcall Update reports were used with permission from the regulatory bodies for physical therapists and the professional association for occupational therapists.  The registration data for physical therapists from the 1991, 1995, 1997, and 2000 Rollcall/Rollcall Update reports were originally supplied by the Association of Physiotherapists and Massage Practitioners of B.C. (APMPBC) for the earlier years, and the College of Physical Therapists of B.C. (CPTBC) for the later years.  Occupational therapists were not subject to mandatory registration until the College of Occupational Therapists of B.C. was established in 2000.  As a result, archived data for occupational therapists from the 1991, 1995, 1997 and 1999 Rollcall/Rollcall Update reports, which were originally supplied by the B.C. Society of Occupational Therapists (BCSOT), were used.  Since membership in the BCSOT was voluntary, the data obtained did not include all OTs working in B.C. for the years in question, but it has been asserted that at least 80% of working OTs were members of the BCSOT during the last decade, so the data are taken as representing the available OT workforce within an acceptable degree of accuracy and completeness.     For each year and profession, individual records were included if the member was resident and/or working in B.C. and was registered or held a type of membership that permitted active practice.  Geographical location was defined in terms of residence within ascending levels of aggregation as defined by the B.C. Ministry of Health (MOH); results are shown according to distribution by Health Authority, as defined by the MOH in 1998.     The data elements collected for both groups included demographic items (birth date, sex), membership in the organization (registration status, year of first registration in B.C.), location of primary employment (or residence, if employment was not available), employment status (employed in the field, on leave, not employed, etc.), type of employment (whether full-time, part-time, or casual), employment factors (type of employer, area of service, position title), and education (place and year of graduation).  Variable definitions and values were drawn from the registration form used for the year in question.  The same registration form was used for all four years by the BCSOT, whereas there was a change in the registration form for the APMPBC between 1991 and 1995 so that some of the information describing area of service is not identical across time.  In order to provide for comparability, definitions from 1991 were matched to the most reasonable equivalent for 1995.       3 b) Methods   As noted above, data were drawn from four Rollcall/Rollcall Update years: 1991, 1995, 1997, and 1999 for OTs and 1991, 1995, 1997, and 2000 for PTs.  The intent was to span the last decade so as to encompass the period in advance of extensive health system reform (pre-1995) and the period during which it was taking place (during and after 1995).  The final years were selected as 1999 for OTs and 2000 for PTs since data for those years are the most recent and complete for supply and utilization analysis.  In view of the importance of age in the supply question, it was decided to include 1997 data so that the activities of more recent registrants could be examined and compared with those of registrants from the 1980’s.     The data were examined on an annual basis for each group.  While registration is necessary for employment as a physical therapist, it is also possible to be registered and to be employed in another field or to be unemployed.  With occupational therapists, there is no requirement that registration accompany employment in the area, and membership in the BCSOT is possible for those employed outside occupational therapy or who are not employed.  The numbers of rehabilitation professionals who are not employed in their area of training is an important supply question; clearly, there may be a pool of practitioners who are not practising and who might be drawn back into active practice.  However, the proportion not employed in the field or not employed for whatever reason (e.g., maternity or other leave, job-hunting) is not large for either group.  Indeed, the largest number of the not employed for any year under examination is likely to be new or recent registrants who had not yet found employment when they completed initial registration.     There is also a small group of OTs and PTs who are eligible for registration and/or employment in either field.  The educational program offered at U.B.C. until 1984 prepared a ‘combined-trained’ therapist who was competent to practise as an OT or as a PT or in positions described as OT/PT or PT/OT.  While this educational program is no longer offered, combined-trained therapists continue to practise; as a result, they may be dually registered (members of both the CPTBC and the BCSOT), or members of one organization and working in a combined position (PT/OT or OT/PT).  In consequence, there may be some individuals who are counted twice, because they are registered in both organizations.   We have used the term ‘employed in the field’ to denote the various combinations of training and membership, for ease of expression. Absolute numbers and relative distributions were examined for physical therapists and occupational therapists separately for each year and across the time period under study; the results are available in sections 2 and 3.  As well as looking at the currently employed, the new registrant groups for each year were studied in relation to the same set of factors as the registrant population as a whole.  In addition, individuals who had been registered at some time prior to the year in question but who had left the membership in the interval (described as ‘reactivations’) were described, as they represent a proportion of the pool of trained but unemployed practitioners who, having left practising employment at some point, have made the decision to return to work in their field of education.  A final group, those practitioners who had been registered in one of the years in the study period but who were not registered at some time subsequently (the ‘attrition’) was also examined, as they represent that proportion of the educated workforce that has left membership in B.C.  Whether the ‘attrition’ group has left practice entirely, has retired, has   4moved to a location outside B.C., or, in the case of OTs, has decided not to remain a member of the BCSOT but to practise in B.C. nonetheless, cannot be determined from the registration and membership data that we possess.  However, their demographic or employment or educational characteristics may yield some insight about the decision to leave the practice of rehabilitation in B.C.     Lastly, in order to briefly analyze the stability of the PT and OT registrants, registration status data from 1991 to 1999 for OTs and from 1991 to 2000 for PTs were combined in a single, linked dataset for each group.  Using these linked datasets, two data files for each profession were created: the first containing all registrants who were registered as ‘active’ and resident in B.C. in 1991 and then remained registered as ‘active’ and resident in B.C. in each of the following years (9 years in total for OTs and 10 years in total for PTs); and the second containing the remaining registrants who were registered as ‘active’ and resident in B.C. in 1991, but who at some point in the following years were not registered as ‘active’ and resident in B.C.  The first group, those registered in all years, is identified as the ‘stable’ registration group in the stability analysis section, while the second group, those not registered in all years, is identified as the ‘unstable’ registration group.   The first part of the stability analysis section for each profession compares the 1991 registration characteristics of the ‘stable’ group to the 1991 registration characteristics of the ‘unstable’ group, and attempts to identify any differences in the registration characteristics between the groups.  The significance of any identified differences were examined with Pearson Chi-Squares.   The second part of the stability analysis section for each profession examines the ‘stable’ registration cohort at three points in time – 1991, 1995 and 1999 for OTs, and 1991, 1995 and 2000 for PTs, with respect to employment status, type of employment, place of employment, area of service and regional distribution.  However, for simplicity, information from these variables is presented at only two points in time (1991 and 1999 for OTs, and 1991 and 2000 for PTs).  The purpose of undertaking this analysis is to examine the stability of OT and PT employment status, employment type, place of employment, area of service and regional distribution over the 9- and 10-year period, respectively.   Stability can be defined in a variety of ways.  There can be stability of registration, as noted above.  In addition, stability can be measured as continuing in full-time practice across a specified period of time, as opposed to shifting to part-time or casual status.  There is stability of type of employer, in which continuing employment in the institutional sector (hospitals, long-term care facilities) is contrasted with employment in private practice or the community sector (home care, Workers’ Compensation Board, school board).  There is also stability of area of service, so that adherence to positions primarily serving populations with particular types of disorders (psychiatry, orthopaedics, paediatrics) is measured.  Any of these factors may be related to the age or sex of the practitioner, or may be interacting with one of the employment factors, so that stability of employer type might be related to stability in employment amount (full- or part-time).  The object of the stability analysis is to look for patterns in adherence that may be of importance in determining the adequacy of the existing and future supply of rehabilitation personnel.   52. PHYSICAL THERAPISTS   a) All Physical Therapists   Most of the tables in the following sections present data on both numbers and percentages.  In cases where the tables are large, there are separate tables for the numbers (part a) and percentages (part b); otherwise, both the numbers and percentages appear within a single table.   Tables 2.1a and 2.1b describe the employment status of physical therapists (PTs) in the province for each of the four study years.  Please note, as discussed in the Introduction, there is a small group of PTs and OTs who are eligible for registration and/or employment in either field.  These are individuals who completed a ‘combined-training’ program which was available at UBC until 1984.  Thus, Tables 2.1a and 2.1b show a small number of PTs working in OT positions or in joint PT/OT positions, as well as those working in PT positions.  PTs working in any of these positions are considered to be working ‘in the field’ in this report.   Comparing the data across the years in Table 2.1a, there has been a continual increase in the total number of PTs from 1991 to 2000.  The number of PTs employed ‘in the field’ has also increased over time, as has the number employed in physical therapy.  In contrast, the number of PTs employed in occupational therapy has remained at a constant low level, and the number employed in joint physical therapy/occupational therapy has decreased somewhat over the period of the study.  The number of PTs ‘employed in other’ has remained relatively constant while the number of PTs ‘on leave’, ‘not employed’ or with unknown employment status has fluctuated over the study period.   Table 2.1b shows that the proportion of PTs employed in physical and/or occupational therapy has increased from 81.51% in 1991 to 86.60% in 1997 but then decreased to 83.07% in 2000.  The proportion of PTs employed in physical therapy alone has increased from 78.12% in 1991 to 83.70% in 1995, remained constant in 1997 and decreased to 80.83% in 2000.   Tables 2.2a and 2.2b present the information on supply relative to the provincial population in each of the years under study, as well as the average annual rates of change2.  The average annual rates of change in the numbers reflect the average yearly percentage growth in the number of PTs.  The average annual rates of change in the ratios reflect the average yearly percentage growth of PTs relative to the growth in the overall population; this number tells us if the profession grew faster than the population (a positive number), at the same rate as the population (0), or more slowly than the population (a negative number).                                                  2  Average annual rates of change (in percent) are computed as follows:  [(data in the later year/data in the earlier year)12/n - 1] x 100  where n = the number of months separating the data based on the date of record.  Between 1991 and 1995,  n = 48; between 1995 and 1997, n = 29; and between 1997 and 2000, n = 36.    Table 2.1aNumber of Physical Therapists by Employment Status and Study Year, 1991-2000Employment StatusEmployed in Physical and/or Occupational TherapyYear In PT In OT In PT/OT SubtotalEmployed in Other On LeaveNot Employed Unknown Total1991 1407 3 58 1468 31 20 49 233 18011995 1730 2 56 1788 33 38 53 155 20671997 1804 3 60 1867 29 27 27 206 21562000 1872 2 50 1924 29 44 31 288 2316********************************************************************Table 2.1bPercent of Physical Therapists by Employment Status and Study Year, 1991-2000Employment Status (%)Employed in Physical and/or Occupational TherapyYear In PT In OT In PT/OT SubtotalEmployed in Other On LeaveNot Employed Unknown Total1991 78.12 0.17 3.22 81.51 1.72 1.11 2.72 12.94 100.001995 83.70 0.10 2.71 86.50 1.60 1.84 2.56 7.50 100.001997 83.67 0.14 2.78 86.60 1.35 1.25 1.25 9.55 100.002000 80.83 0.09 2.16 83.07 1.25 1.90 1.34 12.44 100.006   7 The numbers per 10,000 population for the total group of PTs (Table 2.2a) fluctuated slightly during the study period, but increased overall from 5.34 in 1991 to 5.69 in 2000.     The average annual rate of change in the number of PTs between 1991 and 1995 was larger than the average annual rates of change during the latter two study years (3.50% vs. 1.76% between 1995 and 1997, and 2.41% between 1997 and 2000).  This illustrates that the average yearly growth in the supply of PTs was much larger during the early 1990’s than in the middle part of the decade.  The growth rate picked up again during the latter part of the study period.  The average annual rates of change in the ratio show that the supply of PTs grew slower than the population during the 1995 to 1997 period (-0.13%) but regained some of the loss during the 1997 to 2000 period (1.50%).     Table 2.2b shows that the numbers per 10,000 population steadily increased from 4.35 in 1991 to 4.73 in 1995 and remained constant through 2000 for the group of PTs employed in the field (i.e. in physical therapy, occupational therapy, or joint physical/occupational therapy).  This rise indicates there were more PTs per 10,000 population at the end of the study period than at the beginning.  However, since much of the increase in number of PTs between 1995 and 2000 occurred in those with unknown employment status (see Table 2.1a), the number of PTs employed in the field per 10,000 population remained constant during this time period, notwithstanding the increase in total number of PTs per 10,000 population.   As was the case in Table 2.2a, Table 2.2b shows that the average annual rate of change in the number of PTs between 1991 and 1995 was larger than the average annual rates of change during the latter part of the study (5.05% vs. 1.81% between 1995 and 1997, and 1.01% between 1997 and 2000).  Thus the average yearly growth in the supply of PTs employed in the field was much larger during the early 1990’s versus the late 1990’s.  Table 2.2aNumber, Number per 10,000 Population, and Average Annual Rates of Change forPhysical Therapists by Study Year, 1991-2000Average AnnualNumber per Rate of Change2Year Number 10,000 Population1 Number3 Ratio41991 1801 5.34 -- --1995 2067 5.46 3.50 0.571997 2156 5.44 1.76 -0.132000 2316 5.69 2.41 1.501 Source: Population projections are from P.E.O.P.L.E. Projection Run #25, supplied by the   Population Section, BC STATS, BC Ministry of Finance and Corporate Relations. 2 The average annual rate of change is calculated as follows:      [(data in the later year/data in the earlier year)12/n - 1] x 100        where n=number of months separating the data based on the date of record.  Between 1991 and        1995, n=48; between 1995 and 1997, n=29; and between 1997 and 2000, n=36.3 Rate of change (in percent) in the number.4 Rate of change (in percent) in the number per 10,000 population.  8 The average annual rate of change in the ratio of PTs employed in the field was also larger during the early part of the study period, than during the middle or latter portions.  In fact, the supply of PTs employed in the field grew more slowly than the population during the 1995 to 1997 period (-0.09%).     Table 2.3 presents the registration status of physical therapists for each of the study years.  The table shows there has been a steady increase in the number of continuing members over the study period, with a net gain of 557 in nine years.  The continuing members make up a large majority of the PTs employed in the field, accounting for between 78.68% in 1991 and 85.23% in 2000.  In contrast, the number of new registrants decreased over the study period from 355 in 1991 to a low of 238 in 1997 before increasing to 264 in 2000.  The reactivations showed the opposite trend, namely they increased between 1991 and 1997, and then decreased slightly between 1997 and 2000.  Table 2.2bNumber, Number per 10,000 Population, and Average Annual Rates of Change for Physical Therapists Employed in the Field1by Study Year, 1991-2000Average AnnualNumber per Rate of Change3Year Number 10,000 Population2 Number4 Ratio51991 1468 4.35 -- --1995 1788 4.73 5.05 2.081997 1867 4.72 1.81 -0.092000 1924 4.73 1.01 0.111 Excludes physical therapists not working in physical therapy, occupational therapy, or joint PT/OT.2 Source: Population projections are from P.E.O.P.L.E. Projection Run #25, supplied by the   Population Section, BC STATS, BC Ministry of Finance and Corporate Relations. 3 The average annual rate of change is calculated as follows:      [(data in the later year/data in the earlier year)12/n - 1] x 100        where n=number of months separating the data based on the date of record.  Between 1991 and        1995, n=48; between 1995 and 1997, n=29; and between 1997 and 2000, n=36.4 Rate of change (in percent) in the number.5 Rate of change (in percent) in the number per 10,000 population.  9    b) Physical Therapists Employed in the Field   For the following tables, the study group becomes those physical therapists employed in physical therapy, occupational therapy, or joint physical/occupational therapy in each of the study years (the subtotal column from Table 2.1a).  Table 2.4 and Tables 2.5a and 2.5b therefore present the sex and age breakdown of the subset of physical therapists employed ‘in the field’ for each of the study years.  Table 2.4 shows that the large majority of PTs are women in all study years.  However, there has been a steady increase in the proportion of male PTs over the study period, from 14.71% in 1991 to 19.80% in 2000.     Tables 2.5a and 2.5b show that the PT group is getting older on average.  The proportions (Table 2.5b) of PTs in each of the age groups under 45 have decreased over the study period, while the proportions of PTs in the age groups over 45 have increased.  For example, the proportion of PTs under the age of 30 has decreased from 13.69% in 1991 to 7.74% in 2000, and the proportion of PTs in the 40-44 year age group has decreased from 19.89% in 1991 to 15.54% in 2000.  Conversely, the proportion of PTs in the 45-49 year age group has increased from 14.31% in 1991 to 17.62% in 2000, and the proportion of PTs in the 50-54 year age group has more than doubled between 1991 and 2000, from 7.02% to 15.07%.   Table 2.4Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Sex and Study Year, 1991-2000Female Male Unknown TotalYear No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)1991 1252 (85.29) 216 (14.71) 0 (0.00) 1468 (100.00)1995 1494 (83.56) 294 (16.44) 0 (0.00) 1788 (100.00)1997 1541 (82.54) 325 (17.41) 1 (0.05) 1867 (100.00)2000 1541 (80.09) 381 (19.80) 2 (0.10) 1924 (100.00)SexTable 2.3Physical Therapists by Registration Status and Study Year, 1991-2000Registration StatusContinuing Member New Registrant Reactivation TotalYear No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)1991 1417 (78.68) 355 (19.71) 29 (1.61) 1801 (100.00)1995 1741 (84.23) 273 (13.21) 53 (2.56) 2067 (100.00)1997 1837 (85.20) 238 (11.04) 81 (3.76) 2156 (100.00)2000 1974 (85.23) 264 (11.40) 78 (3.37) 2316 (100.00)  10   The type of employment is shown in Table 2.6.  A majority of PTs are employed on a full-time basis.  The number of full-time PTs has increased over the study period, as has the combined number of part-time and casuals.  However, if we consider the proportions of full-time, part-time and casual employment over the study period, they have all fluctuated slightly but remain in 2000 at levels similar to those in 1991 (60.14% in 2000 vs. 59.88% in 1991 for full-time; 31.81% in 2000 vs. 30.18% in 1991 for part-time; and 6.39% in 2000 vs. 8.58% in 1991 for casual).   Table 2.5aNumber of Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Age and Study Year, 1991-2000Year <30 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65+ Unknown Total1991 201 240 282 292 210 103 66 24 14 36 14681995 228 284 284 338 297 182 96 40 13 26 17881997 150 302 295 336 326 248 131 50 14 15 18672000 149 277 323 299 339 290 159 66 15 7 1924*************************************************Table 2.5bPercent of Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Age and Study Year, 1991-2000Year <30 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65+ Unknown Total1991 13.69 16.35 19.21 19.89 14.31 7.02 4.50 1.63 0.95 2.45 100.001995 12.75 15.88 15.88 18.90 16.61 10.18 5.37 2.24 0.73 1.45 100.001997 8.03 16.18 15.80 18.00 17.46 13.28 7.02 2.68 0.75 0.80 100.002000 7.74 14.40 16.79 15.54 17.62 15.07 8.26 3.43 0.78 0.36 100.00Age GroupAge Group (%)Table 2.6Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Type of Employment and Study Year, 1991-2000Full-time Part-Time Casual Unknown TotalYear No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)1991 879 (59.88) 443 (30.18) 126 (8.58) 20 (1.36) 1468 (100.00)1995 1099 (61.47) 673 (37.64) 0 (0.00) 16 (0.89) 1788 (100.00)1997 1146 (61.38) 582 (31.17) 134 (7.18) 5 (0.27) 1867 (100.00)2000 1157 (60.14) 612 (31.81) 123 (6.39) 32 (1.66) 1924 (100.00)Type of Employment  11 Tables 2.7a and 2.7b present place of employment information.  The category of ‘Other’ in these tables includes several categories of employers where the numbers of PTs reporting employment within these categories were small.  In all such cases, the footnote indicates the specific employer categories.   The only decreases seen in the numbers of PTs over the study period in Table 2.7a were for PTs employed in the categories of ‘General Hospital’ and ‘Arthritis Society’ (from 557 in 1991 to 543 in 2000, and from 37 in 1991 to 14 in 2000, respectively).  The decrease seen in PTs employed in the ‘Arthritis Society’ category may be simply due to restructuring which occurred during the study period, where the Arthritis Society merged with several hospitals in the Vancouver area.  The remaining categories saw increases in the numbers of PTs reporting them as their employer.  The increases were most noticeable for ‘Private Practice’, which almost doubled during the study period from 480 in 1991 to 856 in 2000, and for the categories of ‘Paediatric Hospital/Facility’ and ‘Long Term Care’ which increased from 63 to 88 and from 47 to 65 respectively during the study period.   The proportions of PTs by place of employment (Table 2.7b) showed similar trends to those seen for the absolute numbers.  The proportion of PTs employed in the category of ‘General Hospital’ decreased from 37.94% in 1991 to 28.22% in 2000, and the proportion of PTs employed in the category of ‘Private Practice’ increased from 32.70% in 1991 to 44.49% in 2000.  The proportions of PTs in the remaining categories varied only slightly during the study period.   Tables 2.8a and 2.8b show area of service for physical therapists employed in the field for each of the study years.  In 1991, an additional category of ‘Paediatrics’ existed which was absent in 1995, 1997 and 2000.  Rather than simply aggregating those PTs who indicated ‘Paediatrics’ into the ‘Other Patient Care’ category for 1991, the PTs were proportionately distributed among several categories: 5% in ‘Cardiology/Respirology’, 87% in ‘Orthopaedics’, and 8% in ‘Rheumatology’.  In all such cases, there is a footnote on the tables indicating the affected areas of service.  Additionally, some categories in these tables represent groupings of areas of service when the numbers of PTs reporting employment within these categories were small.  In these cases, there are also footnotes indicating the areas of service.   The numbers of PTs (Table 2.8a) who describe themselves as working in the categories of  ‘Gerontology’, ‘Orthopaedics’ or ‘Neurology’ have risen dramatically during the study period.  In 1991, there were 88 PTs working in ‘Gerontology’ and by 2000 there were 144; for ‘Orthopaedics’ the increase was from 550 in 1991 to 839 in 2000 while for ‘Neurology’ the increase was from 134 in 1991 to 183 in 2000.  Areas such as ‘Cardiology/Respirology’, ‘Rheumatology’, ‘Administration’ and ‘Consulting’ all recorded decreases in the number of PTs reporting work in these areas over the study period.   Table 2.8b shows that the largest proportions of PTs work in the areas of ‘Orthopaedics’ and ‘General’.  The proportion of PTs working in ‘Orthopaedics’ increased from 37.47% in 1991 to 43.61% in 2000, while the proportion of PTs working in ‘General’ decreased from        Table 2.7aNumber of Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Place of Employment and Study Year, 1991-2000Place of EmploymentYearGeneral HospitalRehab. Hospital/ FacilityLong Term CareWorkers' Compensation BoardCommunity Health CentreHome CareArthritis SocietyPaediatric Hospital/ FacilityPrivate PracticeSchool BoardUniversity/ College Other1 Unknown Total1991 557 82 47 30 33 59 37 63 480 12 11 47 10 14681995 538 82 56 43 41 66 27 90 731 15 14 69 16 17881997 548 83 65 36 45 76 23 95 785 15 16 69 11 18672000 543 105 65 37 49 68 14 88 856 16 13 58 12 19241 Includes PTs who indicated either "Industry", "Other Visiting Agency", "Psychiatric Hospital/Facility", "Mentally Handicapped", "Retail", "Government/Official Agency"   or "Other" as their place of employment.*******************************************************************Table 2.7bPercent of Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Place of Employment and Study Year, 1991-2000Place of Employment (%)YearGeneral HospitalRehab. Hospital/ FacilityLong Term CareWorkers' Compensation BoardCommunity Health CentreHome CareArthritis SocietyPaediatric Hospital/ FacilityPrivate PracticeSchool BoardUniversity/ College Other1 Unknown Total1991 37.94 5.59 3.20 2.04 2.25 4.02 2.52 4.29 32.70 0.82 0.75 3.20 0.68 100.001995 30.09 4.59 3.13 2.40 2.29 3.69 1.51 5.03 40.88 0.84 0.78 3.86 0.89 100.001997 29.35 4.45 3.48 1.93 2.41 4.07 1.23 5.09 42.05 0.80 0.86 3.70 0.59 100.002000 28.22 5.46 3.38 1.92 2.55 3.53 0.73 4.57 44.49 0.83 0.68 3.01 0.62 100.001 Includes PTs who indicated either "Industry", "Other Visiting Agency", "Psychiatric Hospital/Facility", "Mentally Handicapped", "Retail", "Government/Official Agency"   or "Other" as their place of employment.12     13 Table 2.8aNumber of Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Area of Service and Study Year, 1991-2000Area of ServiceYearCardiology/ Respirology1 NeurologyOrtho-paedics1Prevention/ Health PromotionRheum-atology1Sports MedicineGeron-tology GeneralAdmin-istration Teaching ConsultingOther Patient Care2Other Non-Patient Care3 Unknown Total1991 61 134 550 6 50 25 88 401 54 13 -- 15 11 60 14681995 63 192 770 14 42 39 107 392 55 15 33 30 8 28 17881997 64 191 797 11 39 27 148 444 50 14 22 33 10 17 18672000 59 183 839 6 34 35 144 451 46 19 22 28 11 47 19241 PTs who indicated "Paediatrics" as their area of service in 1991 have been proportionately distributed among "Cardiology/Respirology", "Orthopaedics", and "Rheumatology".  Please see the text for details.2 Includes PTs who indicated either "Amputees", "Burns", "Plastics", "Palliative Care", "Psychiatric/Mental Health" or "Obstetrics/Gynaecology"as their area of service.3 Includes PTs who indicated either "Sales", "Research"or  "Other Non-patient Care"as their area of service.*******************************************************************Table 2.8bPercent of Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Area of Service and Study Year, 1991-2000Area of Service (%)YearCardiology/ Respirology1 NeurologyOrtho-paedics1Prevention/ Health PromotionRheum-atology1Sports MedicineGeron-tology GeneralAdmin-istration Teaching ConsultingOther Patient Care2Other Non-Patient Care3 Unknown Total1991 4.16 9.13 37.47 0.41 3.41 1.70 5.99 27.32 3.68 0.89 -- 1.02 0.75 4.09 100.001995 3.52 10.74 43.06 0.78 2.35 2.18 5.98 21.92 3.08 0.84 1.85 1.68 0.45 1.57 100.001997 3.43 10.23 42.69 0.59 2.09 1.45 7.93 23.78 2.68 0.75 1.18 1.77 0.54 0.91 100.002000 3.07 9.51 43.61 0.31 1.77 1.82 7.48 23.44 2.39 0.99 1.14 1.46 0.57 2.44 100.001 PTs who indicated "Paediatrics" as their area of service in 1991 have been proportionately distributed among "Cardiology/Respirology", "Orthopaedics", and "Rheumatology".  Please see the text for details.2 Includes PTs who indicated either "Amputees", "Burns", "Plastics", "Palliative Care", "Psychiatric/Mental Health" or "Obstetrics/Gynaecology"as their area of service.3 Includes PTs who indicated either "Sales", "Research"or  "Other Non-patient Care"as their area of service.  147.32% in 1991 to 23.44% in 2000, although in the latter case, the absolute number had risen during the study period (from 401 in 1991 to 451 in 2000).  The proportions of PTs working in ‘Gerontology’ and ‘Neurology’ followed the same trend as seen in the absolute numbers, increasing over the study period from 5.99% in 1991 to 7.48% in 2000 and from 9.13% in 1991 to 9.51% in 2000, respectively.   Tables 2.9a and 2.9b show position as reported by physical therapists employed in the field for each of the study years.  Some categories in these tables represent groupings of positions when the numbers of PTs reporting employment within these categories were small.  In all such cases, footnotes list the positions.   There was a decrease in the number of PTs reporting the position of ‘Director/Assistant Director’ over the study period from 84 to 50 (see Table 2.9a).  The absolute number of PTs reporting work in most other positions increased between 1991 and 2000, although in some cases the 1995 and 1997 numbers were higher than the 2000 numbers, for example, PTs working in ‘Sole Charge’ positions rose from 78 in 1991, to 98 in 1995, to 104 in 1997, and then fell to 86 in 2000.  The category of ‘Associate Private Practice’ increased by almost 1.5 times over the study period: from 121 in 1991 to 298 in 2000.  ‘Consultant’ and ‘Owner/Partner Private Practice’ also saw relatively large increases in the numbers of PTs in these positions between 1991 and 2000 (from 34 to 70 and from 273 to 393, respectively).   The position ‘Staff Therapist’ accounted for the largest proportion of working PTs during each of the study years, despite a downward trend over the study period from 49.25% in 1991 to 43.76% in 2000 (see Table 2.9b).  The next largest proportions of PTs worked in either ‘Owner/Partner Private Practice’ or ‘Associate Private Practice’ positions during the study period.  As was the case with the absolute numbers, the proportions for both of these positions increased over the study period, from 18.60% in 1991 to 20.43% in 2000 for ‘Owner/Partner Private Practice’ and from 8.24% in 1991 to 15.49% in 2000 for ‘Associate Private Practice’.   Table 2.10 illustrates the place of graduation of PTs employed in the field between 1991 and 2000.  The table shows that the majority of PTs graduated within Canada, but that in each of the study years, B.C. schools contributed fewer graduates to the PT supply than did schools in the rest of Canada, or schools outside Canada.  The number of graduates from both ‘B.C.’ schools and ‘Other Canada’ schools increased by more than a third between 1991 and 2000, from 382 to 569 and from 469 to 745, respectively, while the number from schools outside Canada increased between 1991 and 1995, but then decreased through 2000.  Proportionally, B.C. graduates account for slightly more than a quarter of the PTs during each of the study years, and ‘Other Canada’ graduates around one-third.  The proportion of graduates from other countries decreased steadily during the study period, from 41.49% in 1991 to 30.87% in 2000.      15 Table 2.9aNumber of Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Position and Study Year, 1991-2000PositionYearStaff TherapistSole ChargeProgram CoordinatorSenior TherapistDirector/ Assistant Director1 ConsultantOwner/Partner Private PracticeAssociate Private Practice Other2 Unknown Total1991 723 78 11 95 84 34 273 121 34 15 14681995 810 98 8 100 71 55 360 227 51 8 17881997 827 104 20 100 59 69 386 234 63 5 18672000 842 86 17 89 50 70 393 298 66 13 19241 Includes PTs who indicated "Director" or "Assistant Director" as their position.2 Includes PTs who indicated "Clinical Instructor", "Research Therapist" or "Other" as their position.*******************************************************************Table 2.9bPercent of Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Position and Study Year, 1991-2000Position (%)YearStaff TherapistSole ChargeProgram CoordinatorSenior TherapistDirector/ Assistant Director1 ConsultantOwner/Partner Private PracticeAssociate Private Practice Other2 Unknown Total1991 49.25 5.31 0.75 6.47 5.72 2.32 18.60 8.24 2.32 1.02 100.001995 45.30 5.48 0.45 5.59 3.97 3.08 20.13 12.70 2.85 0.45 100.001997 44.30 5.57 1.07 5.36 3.16 3.70 20.67 12.53 3.37 0.27 100.002000 43.76 4.47 0.88 4.63 2.60 3.64 20.43 15.49 3.43 0.68 100.001 Includes PTs who indicated "Director" or "Assistant Director" as their position.2 Includes PTs who indicated "Clinical Instructor", "Research Therapist" or "Other" as their position.  16   Tables 2.11a and 2.11b present the location of PTs employed in the field in B.C. during the study period.  The location is presented using the eighteen Health Authorities (11 Regional Health Boards and 7 Community Health Services Societies) in British Columbia.  Table 2.11b differs from other (b) tables in this section, in that it presents numbers per 10,000 population rather than row percentages, allowing for valid comparisons between regions with dramatically different population bases.   All Health Authorities but one, Peace Liard, showed an increase over the study period in the number of PTs working in the regions (see Table 2.11a).  Peace Liard had an increase in the absolute number of PTs working in the region between 1991 and 1997 (13 to 18), but the number decreased between 1997 and 2000 to only 11.  Three regions saw increases of 80% or more in the absolute numbers of PTs working in the regions over the study period: North Okanagan (from 36 to 65), Coast Garibaldi (from 27 to 50), and Upper Island/Central Coast (from 30 to 54).  In total, eight of the eighteen regions had increases in the absolute numbers of PTs working in the regions of more than 40% between 1991 and 2000.   The number per 10,000 population figures presented in Table 2.11b show that Vancouver/Richmond, followed by Capital, had the highest numbers of PTs per 10,000 population, in fact, well above the provincial numbers per 10,000 population, in each of the study years.  Other regions with numbers per 10,000 population consistently above the province-wide numbers per 10,000 population, were the North Shore and Okanagan Similkameen (two regions with relatively larger population bases), and somewhat surprisingly, Kootenay Boundary and Coast Garibaldi.  The latter two regions have relatively small population bases (ranking 14th and 16th out of 18, respectively in 2000 – see Appendix A), but seem to be very well supplied with PTs, with the number per 10,000 population varying from 4.63 in 1991 to 6.16 in 2000 for Kootenay Boundary, and from 4.41 in 1991 to 6.22 in 2000 for Coast Garibaldi.  In comparison, the South Fraser, Simon Fraser and Fraser Valley regions have relatively larger population bases (ranking 2nd, 3rd and 6th out of 18, respectively in 2000), but much lower numbers of PTs per 10,000 population (ranging from 3.65 in 1991 to 4.09 in 1997 for Simon Fraser; from 2.60 in 1991 to 3.02 in 2000 for South Fraser; and from 2.30 in 1991 to 2.89 in 1995 for Fraser Valley).  Table 2.10Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Place of Graduation and Study Year, 1991-2000Place of GraduationB.C. Other Canada Other Country Unknown TotalYear No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)1991 382 (26.02) 469 (31.95) 609 (41.49) 8 (0.54) 1468 (100.00)1995 486 (27.18) 589 (32.94) 693 (38.76) 20 (1.12) 1788 (100.00)1997 513 (27.48) 679 (36.37) 668 (35.78) 7 (0.37) 1867 (100.00)2000 569 (29.57) 745 (38.72) 594 (30.87) 16 (0.83) 1924 (100.00)  17Table 2.11aNumber of Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby B.C. Health Authority and Study Year, 1991-2000B.C. Health Authorities - Regional Health BoardsYearNorth OkanaganOkanagan Similkameen ThompsonFraser ValleySouth FraserSimon FraserCentral Vancouver IslandNorthern InteriorVancouver/ RichmondNorth Shore Capital1991 36 85 42 44 117 151 73 26 475 81 1771995 60 109 47 67 152 187 92 35 526 91 2031997 63 125 52 62 162 204 92 34 515 98 2262000 65 133 51 60 174 204 90 42 528 99 230... continued belowB.C. Health Authorities - Community Health Services SocietiesYear East KootenayKootenay BoundaryCoast GaribaldiUpper Island/ Central Coast Cariboo North WestPeace Liard Total1991 22 34 27 30 16 19 13 14681995 27 47 36 47 24 21 17 17881997 30 45 43 48 24 26 18 18672000 36 51 50 54 22 24 11 1924*******************************************************************Table 2.11bNumber per 10,000 Population1 of Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby B.C. Health Authority and Study Year, 1991-2000B.C. Health Authorities - Regional Health BoardsYearNorth OkanaganOkanagan Similkameen ThompsonFraser ValleySouth FraserSimon FraserCentral Vancouver IslandNorthern InteriorVancouver/ RichmondNorth Shore Capital1991 3.72 4.65 3.71 2.30 2.60 3.65 3.67 2.22 7.64 4.98 5.751995 5.40 5.04 3.71 2.98 2.89 3.94 4.02 2.77 7.73 5.24 6.171997 5.40 5.53 3.90 2.63 2.92 4.09 3.84 2.57 7.20 5.49 6.752000 5.45 5.70 3.71 2.47 3.02 3.94 3.67 3.13 7.12 5.49 6.87... continued belowB.C. Health Authorities - Community Health Services SocietiesYear East KootenayKootenay BoundaryCoast GaribaldiUpper Island/ Central Coast Cariboo North WestPeace Liard Total1991 3.07 4.63 4.41 2.97 2.43 2.23 2.18 4.351995 3.49 5.85 5.09 4.06 3.38 2.37 2.71 4.731997 3.73 5.47 5.63 3.95 3.16 2.83 2.75 4.722000 4.36 6.16 6.22 4.40 2.85 2.61 1.66 4.731 Source: Population projections are from P.E.O.P.L.E. Projection Run #25, supplied by the Population Section, BC STATS, BC Ministry of Finance   and Corporate Relations.   18 c) Sources of Change in the Supply of Physical Therapists   This section of the report examines the sources of change in the supply of physical therapists.  It should be noted that most of the data presented in this section of the report are from four separate data files, representing four discrete points in time: 1991, 1995, 1997 and 2000.  Thus in each data file the registration history of each PT at that point in time is being observed.  In the 1995 file for example, each PT is labeled as either a continuing member, a new registrant or a reactivation.  This analytic approach needs to be kept in mind when interpreting the findings in this section.  An analysis of data across the study years on stability and movement among PTs is presented in the following section of this report (see Section 2(d)).   There are four basic sources of change in the supply of PTs: continuing members, new registrant members, reactivated members, and attrition.  In the data files used for this section of the report, continuing members are those PTs who were registered during the study year and were also registered two years previously.  New registrant members are PTs who were registered during the study year, and who had registered for the first time in B.C. during the 2-year interval before the study year.  Reactivations are PTs who were registered during the study year, but were not registered two years previously, and who had registered for the first time in B.C. more than two years previously.  Attrition was more difficult to define and measure, because in any given study year the PTs who had not renewed their registration would not of course appear in the data file of registered members.  Thus in the case of attrition, unlike continuing members, new registrants, or reactivations, the data files from each study year had to be compared to find those PTs who were registered during one study year but not registered during the following study year.  This is an important difference in method to note when interpreting the data presented in this section.   (i) New Registrants   The employment status of new registrant physical therapists (PTs) in British Columbia for each of the four study years is presented in Tables 2.12a and 2.12b.  Table 2.12a shows that there has been a decrease in the total number of new registrants over the study period, from 355 in 1991 to only 264 in 2000.  The extremely large percentage of new registrant PTs with unknown employment status in 1991, 1995, 1997 and 2000, limits our ability to draw further conclusions on the data.  Table 2.12b shows that in 2000, only 14.77% of new registrant PTs were known to be employed in physical therapy, compared to 80.83% of the total PT population employed in physical therapy in 2000 (see Table 2.1b).   For the tables following, the study group becomes those new registrant physical therapists known to be employed ‘in the field’ (i.e. in physical therapy, occupational therapy, or joint physical/occupational therapy) in each of the study years (the subtotal column in Table 2.12a).  As discussed above, the very large percentage of new registrants with unknown employment status in all study years in Table 2.12a will affect any discussions on the subgroup of new registrant PTs employed in the field in these years.  Any comparisons between study years will therefore need to be made with great caution.      Table 2.12aNumber of New Registrant Physical Therapists by Employment Status and Study Year, 1991-2000Employment StatusEmployed in Physical and/or Occupational TherapyYear In PT In OT In PT/OT SubtotalEmployed in Other On LeaveNot Employed Unknown Total1991 136 0 3 139 1 1 6 208 3551995 123 0 0 123 3 0 5 142 2731997 59 0 0 59 0 2 2 175 2382000 39 0 0 39 0 0 2 223 264********************************************************************Table 2.12bPercent of New Registrant Physical Therapists by Employment Status and Study Year, 1991-2000Employment Status (%)Employed in Physical and/or Occupational TherapyYear In PT In OT In PT/OT SubtotalEmployed in Other On LeaveNot Employed Unknown Total1991 38.31 0.00 0.85 39.15 0.28 0.28 1.69 58.59 100.001995 45.05 0.00 0.00 45.05 1.10 0.00 1.83 52.01 100.001997 24.79 0.00 0.00 24.79 0.00 0.84 0.84 73.53 100.002000 14.77 0.00 0.00 14.77 0.00 0.00 0.76 84.47 100.0019   20 Table 2.13 illustrates the sex breakdown of the subset of new registrant PTs employed in the field for each of the study years, and shows that women represented the majority of new registrant PTs.  The proportions of women in the new registrant PT group were lower than the proportions of women in the total PT group (see Table 2.4) in all study years by approximately 3-10%.     Table 2.14a and 2.14b show the age breakdown for new registrant physical therapists employed in the field for each of the study years.  Table 2.14b shows that between 60-85% of new registrant PTs were under the age of 35 in all study years, compared to the total PT population where only 20-30% in total of the PTs were under 35 (see Table 2.5a), indicating that the new registrant PT population is much younger on average than the total PT group.   The type of employment for new registrant PTs employed in the field is shown in Table 2.15.  The proportion of new registrant PTs with full-time employment is approximately four to six times the proportion of new registrant PTs with part-time employment, although the proportion of full-time new registrants has declined over the study period.  The dramatic fluctuation in the proportion of casual employment over the study period is very interesting, from 10.07% in 1991 down to 0.00% in 1995 when the category “Casual” was not used, then up again to 18.64% in 1997 and 17.95% in 2000; these figures may be reflecting the same phenomenon as the large numbers of new registrant PTs with unknown employment status seen in Table 2.12a.  Table 2.13New Registrant Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Sex and Study Year, 1991-2000Female Male Unknown TotalYear No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)1991 108 (77.70) 31 (22.30) 0 (0.00) 139 (100.00)1995 90 (73.17) 33 (26.83) 0 (0.00) 123 (100.00)1997 45 (76.27) 14 (23.73) 0 (0.00) 59 (100.00)2000 30 (76.92) 9 (23.08) 0 (0.00) 39 (100.00)Sex  21  *******************************************     Table 2.15New Registrant Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Type of Employment and Study Year, 1991-2000Full-time Part-Time Casual Unknown TotalYear No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)1991 100 (71.94) 21 (15.11) 14 (10.07) 4 (2.88) 139 (100.00)1995 96 (78.05) 26 (21.14) 0 (0.00) 1 (0.81) 123 (100.00)1997 41 (69.49) 7 (11.86) 11 (18.64) 0 (0.00) 59 (100.00)2000 25 (64.10) 7 (17.95) 7 (17.95) 0 (0.00) 39 (100.00)Type of EmploymentTable 2.14aNumber of New Registrant Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Age and Study Year, 1991-2000Year <30 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65+ Unknown Total1991 71 28 16 13 4 0 0 0 0 7 1391995 67 24 11 11 2 5 1 0 0 2 1231997 30 18 6 2 2 0 1 0 0 0 592000 14 10 6 4 0 3 1 0 0 1 39*************************************************Table 2.14bPercent of New Registrant Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Age and Study Year, 1991-2000Year <30 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65+ Unknown Total1991 51.08 20.14 11.51 9.35 2.88 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.04 100.001995 54.47 19.51 8.94 8.94 1.63 4.07 0.81 0.00 0.00 1.63 100.001997 50.85 30.51 10.17 3.39 3.39 0.00 1.69 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.002000 35.90 25.64 15.38 10.26 0.00 7.69 2.56 0.00 0.00 2.56 100.00Age GroupAge Group (%)  22 Tables 2.16a and 2.16b present place of employment information for new registrant PTs.  Some categories in these tables represent groupings of employers where the numbers of PTs reporting employment within these categories were small.  In all such cases, the footnotes list the employer categories.   Table 2.16b shows that the largest proportion of new registrant PTs worked in ‘General Hospitals’ in 1991 (43.88%), but since 1995, the largest proportion of new registrant PTs have worked in ‘Private Practice’ (53.66% in 1995, 47.46% in 1997 and 53.85% in 2000).  This appreciable increase in ‘Private Practice’ by the new registrants from 1991 to 2000 is much greater than the increase observed for the entire PT workforce (from 32.70% in 1991 to 44.49% in 2000 in Table 2.7b), reflecting clear differences between the groups.  Two possible explanations for these differences could be differing employment preferences, or differing employment opportunities for the two groups.   Tables 2.17a and 2.17b show area of service for new registrant physical therapists employed in the field for each of the study years.  As was the case for Tables 2.8a and 2.8b, an additional category of ‘Paediatrics’ existed in 1991, which was absent in 1995, 1997 and 2000; PTs who indicated ‘Paediatrics’ in 1991 have been proportionately distributed among the categories of ‘Cardiology/Respirology’ and ‘Orthopaedics’ in Tables 2.17a and 2.17b.  In all such cases, there is a footnote on the tables indicating the affected areas of service.  Additionally, some categories in these tables represent groupings of areas of service when the numbers of PTs reporting employment within these categories were small.  In these cases, there are also footnotes indicating the areas of service.   Similar to the total PT group (see Table 2.8b), the largest proportions of new registrant PTs worked in the areas of ‘Orthopaedics’ and ‘General’, and there were trends towards an increasing proportion of PTs working in ‘Orthopaedics’ and a decreasing proportion working in ‘General’.  The increase in the proportion of PTs working in ‘Orthopaedics’ was more pronounced in the new registrant group than in the total PT group, particularly between 1991 and 1995 (31.65% in 1991 to 56.91% in 1995 for the new registrants vs. 37.47% in 1991 to 43.06% in 1995 for the total group).  Similarly, the decrease in the proportion of new registrant PTs working in ‘General’ was more pronounced between 1991 and 1995 (38.85% to17.89%).      23 Table 2.16aNumber of New Registrant Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Place of Employment1 and Study Year, 1991-2000Place of EmploymentYearGeneral HospitalRehab. Hospital/ FacilityLong Term CareWorkers' Compensation BoardCommunity Health CentreHome CareArthritis SocietyPaediatric Hospital/ FacilityPrivate Practice Other2 Unknown Total1991 61 12 1 3 3 2 3 11 36 6 1 1391995 31 4 2 5 1 2 1 5 66 6 0 1231997 18 5 1 2 1 0 0 4 28 0 0 592000 12 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 21 1 0 391 There were no new registrant PTs who indicated "Industry", "Other Visiting Agency", "Psychiatric Hospital/Facility", "Mentally Handicapped", "Retail" or "School Board"   as their place of employment.2 Includes PTs who indicated either "Government/Official Agency", "University/College", "Child Development" or "Other" as their place of employment.*******************************************************************Table 2.16bPercent of New Registrant Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Place of Employment1 and Study Year, 1991-2000Place of Employment (%)YearGeneral HospitalRehab. Hospital/ FacilityLong Term CareWorkers' Compensation BoardCommunity Health CentreHome CareArthritis SocietyPaediatric Hospital/ FacilityPrivate Practice Other2 Unknown Total1991 43.88 8.63 0.72 2.16 2.16 1.44 2.16 7.91 25.90 4.32 0.72 100.001995 25.20 3.25 1.63 4.07 0.81 1.63 0.81 4.07 53.66 4.88 0.00 100.001997 30.51 8.47 1.69 3.39 1.69 0.00 0.00 6.78 47.46 0.00 0.00 100.002000 30.77 7.69 5.13 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 53.85 2.56 0.00 100.001 There were no new registrant PTs who indicated "Industry", "Other Visiting Agency", "Psychiatric Hospital/Facility", "Mentally Handicapped", "Retail" or "School Board"   as their place of employment.2 Includes PTs who indicated either "Government/Official Agency", "University/College", "Child Development" or "Other" as their place of employment.  24   Tables 2.18a and 2.18b show position as reported by new registrant physical therapists employed in the field for each of the study years.  Some categories in these tables represent groupings of positions when the numbers of PTs reporting employment within these categories were small.  In all such cases, the footnotes list the positions.   Expectedly, the majority of new registrant PTs reported employment as ‘Staff Therapists’ in all study years, with an overall decrease occurring between 1991 (77.70%) and 2000 (64.10%).  These proportions are higher than those reported by the total PT group which Table 2.17aNumber of New Registrant Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Area of Service1 and Study Year, 1991-2000Area of ServiceYearCardiology/ Respirology2 NeurologyOrtho-paedics2Sports MedicineGeron-tology GeneralAdmin-istrationOther Patient Care3Other Non-Patient Care4 Unknown1991 5 16 44 2 4 54 2 3 4 51995 4 11 70 2 5 22 1 5 0 31997 7 8 30 0 3 7 0 3 0 12000 2 3 22 1 3 7 0 1 0 01 There were no new registrant PTs who indicated "Consulting", "Sales" or "Other Non-patient Care" as their area of service.2 Includes some PTs who indicated "Paediatrics" as their area of service in 1991.  Please see the text for details.3 Includes PTs who indicated either "Amputees", "Burns", "Plastics", "Palliative Care", "Psychiatric/Mental Health", " Prevention/Health Promotion",   "Rheumatology" or "Obstetrics/Gynaecology" as their area of service.4 Includes PTs who indicated either "Teaching" or "Research" as their area of service.*******************************************************************Table 2.17bPercent of New Registrant Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Area of Service1 and Study Year, 1991-2000Area of Service (%)YearCardiology/ Respirology2 NeurologyOrtho-paedics2Sports MedicineGeron-tology GeneralAdmin-istrationOther Patient Care3Other Non-Patient Care4 Unknown1991 3.60 11.51 31.65 1.44 2.88 38.85 1.44 2.16 2.88 3.601995 3.25 8.94 56.91 1.63 4.07 17.89 0.81 4.07 0.00 2.441997 11.86 13.56 50.85 0.00 5.08 11.86 0.00 5.08 0.00 1.692000 5.13 7.69 56.41 2.56 7.69 17.95 0.00 2.56 0.00 0.001 There were no new registrant PTs who indicated "Consulting", "Sales" or "Other Non-patient Care" as their area of service.2 Includes some PTs who indicated "Paediatrics" as their area of service in 1991.  Please see the text for details.3 Includes PTs who indicated either "Amputees", "Burns", "Plastics", "Palliative Care", "Psychiatric/Mental Health", " Prevention/Health Promotion",   "Rheumatology" or "Obstetrics/Gynaecology" as their area of service.4 Includes PTs who indicated either "Teaching" or "Research" as their area of service.  25ranged from 49.25% in 1991 to 43.76% in 2000.  Although the proportions of new registrant PTs working as ‘Owner/Partner Private Practice’ and as ‘Associate Private Practice’ were similar in 1991 (4.32% vs. 5.76%, respectively), they were very different in the remaining study years (22.76% as associate vs. 4.07% owner in 1995; 27.12% vs. 10.17% in 1997; and 17.95% vs. 0.00% in 2000), indicating that new registrants were three to five times more likely in the latter part of the decade to go into private practice as an associate than earlier in the decade.  In addition, the data indicate the increased likelihood of new registrants to start private practice as associates rather than owners.     Table 2.19 illustrates the place of graduation of new registrant PTs employed in the field between 1991 and 2000.  The table shows that the proportion of B.C. graduates among new registrant PTs increased between 1991 and 1997, from 16.55% to 27.12%, mainly due to the Table 2.18aNumber of New Registrant Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Position1 and Study Year, 1991-2000PositionYearStaff TherapistSole ChargeDirector/ Assistant Director2 ConsultantOwner/Partner Private PracticeAssociate Private Practice Other3 Unknown Total1991 108 2 5 4 6 8 4 2 1391995 70 9 1 5 5 28 4 1 1231997 33 1 0 1 6 16 2 0 592000 25 0 0 5 0 7 2 0 391 There were no new registrant PTs who indicated "Program Coordinator", "Clinical Instructor" or "Research Therapist" as their position.2 Includes PTs who indicated "Director" or "Assistant Director" as their position.3 Includes PTs who indicated "Senior Therapist" or "Other" as their position.*******************************************************************Table 2.18bPercent of New Registrant Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Position1 and Study Year, 1991-2000Position (%)YearStaff TherapistSole ChargeDirector/ Assistant Director2 ConsultantOwner/Partner Private PracticeAssociate Private Practice Other3 Unknown Total1991 77.70 1.44 3.60 2.88 4.32 5.76 2.88 1.44 100.001995 56.91 7.32 0.81 4.07 4.07 22.76 3.25 0.81 100.001997 55.93 1.69 0.00 1.69 10.17 27.12 3.39 0.00 100.002000 64.10 0.00 0.00 12.82 0.00 17.95 5.13 0.00 100.001 There were no new registrant PTs who indicated "Program Coordinator", "Clinical Instructor" or "Research Therapist" as their position.2 Includes PTs who indicated "Director" or "Assistant Director" as their position.3 Includes PTs who indicated "Senior Therapist" or "Other" as their position.  26large decrease in the number of graduates from other countries.  The proportion of B.C. graduates dropped in 2000 to 7.69%.  The proportion of B.C. graduates among the total PT population, in comparison, remained relatively constant over the same period, from 26.02% in 1991 to 29.57% in 2000 (see Table 2.10).  The proportion of ‘Other Canada’ graduates also increased among the new registrant PTs.  Although the number of ‘Other Canada’ graduates remained constant between 1997 and 2000, the increase in proportion was dramatic (from 55.93% in 1997 to 84.62% in 2000) because of decreases in both numbers and proportions of other types of graduates.  There was a corresponding large decrease in the proportion of ‘Other Country’ graduates among the new registrants PTs over the study period from 46.04% in 1991 to only 7.69% in 2000.     Tables 2.20a and 2.20b present the location of new registrant PTs employed in the field in B.C. during the study period.  The location is presented using the eighteen Health Authorities (11 Regional Health Boards and 7 Community Health Services Societies) in British Columbia.  Table 2.20b differs from other (b) tables in this section, in that it presents numbers per 10,000 population rather than row percentages, allowing for valid comparisons between regions with dramatically different population bases.   The number per 10,000 population figures presented in Table 2.20b show that, similar to the total PT supply, the new registrant PT supply is greater in the Vancouver/Richmond and Capital regions than in other regions of the province.  The numbers per 10,000 population in both Vancouver/Richmond and Capital have however been dropping over the study period, from 0.95 in 1991 to 0.15 in 2000 for Vancouver/Richmond, and from 0.52 in 1991 to 0.12 in 2000 for Capital.  Table 2.19New Registrant Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Place of Graduation and Study Year, 1991-2000Place of GraduationB.C. Other Canada Other Country Unknown TotalYear No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)1991 23 (16.55) 50 (35.97) 64 (46.04) 2 (1.44) 139 (100.00)1995 31 (25.20) 50 (40.65) 30 (24.39) 12 (9.76) 123 (100.00)1997 16 (27.12) 33 (55.93) 10 (16.95) 0 (0.00) 59 (100.00)2000 3 (7.69) 33 (84.62) 3 (7.69) 0 (0.00) 39 (100.00)  27Table 2.20aNumber of New Registrant Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby B.C. Health Authority and Study Year, 1991-2000B.C. Health Authorities - Regional Health BoardsYearNorth OkanaganOkanagan Similkameen ThompsonFraser ValleySouth FraserSimon FraserCentral Vancouver IslandNorthern InteriorVancouver/ RichmondNorth Shore Capital1991 3 6 0 3 14 14 6 0 59 3 161995 4 2 4 13 7 16 5 0 43 5 161997 1 4 0 1 6 10 0 1 21 2 82000 0 3 0 0 8 1 2 0 11 3 4... continued belowB.C. Health Authorities - Community Health Services SocietiesYear East KootenayKootenay BoundaryCoast GaribaldiUpper Island/ Central Coast Cariboo North WestPeace Liard Total1991 1 2 5 1 2 2 2 1391995 4 1 1 0 2 0 0 1231997 2 0 1 1 1 0 0 592000 2 1 2 1 0 0 1 39*******************************************************************Table 2.20bNumber per 10,000 Population1 of New Registrant Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby B.C. Health Authority and Study Year, 1991-2000B.C. Health Authorities - Regional Health BoardsYearNorth OkanaganOkanagan Similkameen ThompsonFraser ValleySouth FraserSimon FraserCentral Vancouver IslandNorthern InteriorVancouver/ RichmondNorth Shore Capital1991 0.31 0.33 0.00 0.16 0.31 0.34 0.30 0.00 0.95 0.18 0.521995 0.36 0.09 0.32 0.58 0.13 0.34 0.22 0.00 0.63 0.29 0.491997 0.09 0.18 0.00 0.04 0.11 0.20 0.00 0.08 0.29 0.11 0.242000 0.00 0.13 0.00 0.00 0.14 0.02 0.08 0.00 0.15 0.17 0.12... continued belowB.C. Health Authorities - Community Health Services SocietiesYear East KootenayKootenay BoundaryCoast GaribaldiUpper Island/ Central Coast Cariboo North WestPeace Liard Total1991 0.14 0.27 0.82 0.10 0.30 0.23 0.33 0.411995 0.52 0.12 0.14 0.00 0.28 0.00 0.00 0.331997 0.25 0.00 0.13 0.08 0.13 0.00 0.00 0.152000 0.24 0.12 0.25 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.15 0.101 Source: Population projections are from P.E.O.P.L.E. Projection Run #25, supplied by the Population Section, BC STATS, BC Ministry of Finance   and Corporate Relations.   28 (ii) Reactivations   As mentioned previously, reactivations are PTs who were registered during the study year, but were not registered two years previously, and who had registered for the first time in B.C. more than two years previously.   The employment status of returning physical therapists (PTs) in British Columbia is presented in Tables 2.21a and 2.21b.  Table 2.21a shows that between 1991 and 1997, there was a significant increase in the number of reactivations from 29 to 81, and then a slight drop between 1997 and 2000 to 78.  The proportion employed in physical therapy, however, decreased over the study period, from 86.21% in 1991 to 71.79% in 2000.  When comparing to the new registrant PTs, it should be kept in mind that there is a large number of unknowns in the new registrant data for all study years (see Table 2.12a).  With this point in mind, it is still interesting to note that the proportion of reactivations employed in physical therapy is much higher than the proportion of new registrant PTs employed in physical therapy for all study years.  When compared to the total PT population (see Table 2.1b), in 1995, 1997 and 2000, the proportion of returning PTs employed in physical therapy was lower than the total population (73.58% reactivations and 83.70% total population in 1995; 76.54% reactivations and 83.67% total population in 1997, 71.79% reactivations and 80.83% total population in 2000).    For the tables following, the study group becomes those returning PTs employed ‘in the field’ (i.e. in physical therapy, occupational therapy, or joint physical/occupational therapy) in each of the study years (the subtotal column in Table 2.21a).   Table 2.22 provides the sex breakdown of the subset of reactivations employed in the field for each of the study years.  Between 1991 and 1997, the majority of reactivations were women (81.48% in 1991 and 87.30% in 1997).  However, by 2000, although the majority were still women, the proportion had dropped to 72.41%.  The number of men had increased in 2000.        Table 2.21aNumber of Returning Physical Therapists by Employment Status and Study Year, 1991-2000Employment StatusEmployed in Physical and/or Occupational TherapyYear In PT In OT In PT/OT SubtotalEmployed in Other On LeaveNot Employed Unknown Total1991 25 0 2 27 0 0 1 1 291995 39 0 0 39 3 3 7 1 531997 62 1 0 63 2 3 9 4 812000 56 2 0 58 7 0 7 6 78********************************************************************Table 2.21bPercent of Returning Physical Therapists by Employment Status and Study Year, 1991-2000Employment Status (%)Employed in Physical and/or Occupational TherapyYear In PT In OT In PT/OT SubtotalEmployed in Other On LeaveNot Employed Unknown Total1991 86.21 0.00 6.90 93.10 0.00 0.00 3.45 3.45 100.001995 73.58 0.00 0.00 73.58 5.66 5.66 13.21 1.89 100.001997 76.54 1.23 0.00 77.78 2.47 3.70 11.11 4.94 100.002000 71.79 2.56 0.00 74.36 8.97 0.00 8.97 7.69 100.0029   30   Tables 2.23a and 2.23b show the age breakdown for returning PTs employed in the field for each of the study years.  Table 2.23b shows that the proportion of reactivations aged 50 years and older who were employed increased between 1991 and 1997 from 0.00% in 1991 to 20.63% in 1997 and then decreased to 10.34% in 2000, indicating an increased likelihood, in the latter years, for older PTs to return to the workforce.     The type of employment of returning PTs is shown in Table 2.24.  In 1991 and 1997, the proportion of reactivations employed part-time and casual were approximately equal.  In 1995, the proportion of reactivation PTs employed part-time was slightly higher than the Table 2.22Returning Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Sex and Study Year, 1991-2000Female Male TotalYear No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)1991 22 (81.48) 5 (18.52) 27 (100.00)1995 33 (84.62) 6 (15.38) 39 (100.00)1997 55 (87.30) 8 (12.70) 63 (100.00)2000 42 (72.41) 16 (27.59) 58 (100.00)SexTable 2.23aNumber of Returning Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Age and Study Year, 1991-2000Year <30 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65+ Unknown Total1991 7 10 4 4 1 0 0 0 0 1 271995 8 8 11 5 3 4 0 0 0 0 391997 10 8 14 11 7 7 3 2 1 0 632000 7 22 8 14 1 2 2 1 1 0 58*************************************************Table 2.23bPercent of Returning Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Age and Study Year, 1991-2000Year <30 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65+ Unknown Total1991 25.93 37.04 14.81 14.81 3.70 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.70 100.001995 20.51 20.51 28.21 12.82 7.69 10.26 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.001997 15.87 12.70 22.22 17.46 11.11 11.11 4.76 3.17 1.59 0.00 100.002000 12.07 37.93 13.79 24.14 1.72 3.45 3.45 1.72 1.72 0.00 100.00Age GroupAge Group (%)  31proportion employed full-time.  Compared to the total PT population (Table 2.6), and the new registrant PTs (Table 2.15) in all years, the proportion of reactivations employed full-time was lower than the total population and the new registrant PTs, although the gap between the proportions of reactivation PTs and new registrant PTs employed full-time was closing over the study period.     Tables 2.25a and 2.25b provide place of employment information for reactivations.  Some categories in these tables represent groupings of employers where the numbers of PTs reporting employment within these categories were small.  In all such cases, the footnotes list the employer categories.   Table 2.25b shows that in 1991, the largest proportion of reactivation PTs were employed in ‘General Hospital’ but that after 1995, the proportion employed in ‘General Hospital’ dropped by half and the proportion employed in ‘Private Practice’ increased significantly.  This trend is similar to that seen with the new registrant PTs (Table 2.16b) and with the total PT population (Table 2.7b).  The trend continued after 1995 and by 2000, over 40% of the returning PTs were employed in ‘Private Practice’ and only 22% were employed in ‘General Hospital’.  Compared to the total PT population and the new registrant population, on average over the study period, the proportion of reactivations employed in ‘Private Practice’ was equal to the proportion of total PTs employed in ‘Private Practice’ and lower than the proportion of new registrant PTs (37.27% reactivations, 40.03% total PT population, and 45.22% of new registrant population).  Table 2.24Returning Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Type of Employment and Study Year, 1991-2000Full-time Part-Time Casual Unknown TotalYear No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)1991 16 (59.26) 5 (18.52) 6 (22.22) 0 (0.00) 27 (100.00)1995 18 (46.15) 19 (48.72) 0 (0.00) 2 (5.13) 39 (100.00)1997 32 (50.79) 15 (23.81) 15 (23.81) 1 (1.59) 63 (100.00)2000 34 (58.62) 10 (17.24) 8 (13.79) 6 (10.34) 58 (100.00)Type of Employment  32   Tables 2.26a and 2.26b show area of service for returning PTs employed in the field for each of the study years.  Some categories in these tables represent groupings of areas of service when the numbers of PTs reporting employment within these categories were small.  In all such cases, the footnotes indicate the areas of service.   Similar to the total PT population (Table 2.8b) and to the new registrant PTs (Table 2.17b), the largest proportion of reactivation PTs worked in ‘Orthopaedics’ and ‘General’, and there was a trend towards an increasing proportion of returning PTs working in ‘Orthopaedics’ and a decreasing proportion working in ‘General’.  Between 1991 and 2000, the decrease in the proportion of reactivations working in ‘General’ was much more dramatic compared to the total PT population.  Over the study period, there was also an increase in the proportion of reactivations working in ‘Neurology’.  In 2000, there were more reactivation PTs working in ‘Neurology’ than ‘General’. Table 2.25aNumber of Returning Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Place of Employment1 and Study Year, 1991-2000Place of EmploymentYearGeneral HospitalRehab. Hospital/ FacilityLong Term CareCommunity Health CentreHome CarePaediatric Hospital/ FacilityPrivate PracticeUniversity/ College Other2 Unknown Total1991 11 1 1 1 2 1 9 0 1 0 271995 8 7 1 1 0 0 16 2 0 4 391997 15 3 2 3 2 2 21 3 7 5 632000 13 8 1 0 0 2 24 2 5 3 581 There were no returning PTs who indicated "Industry", "Workers' Compensation Board", "Other Visiting Agency", "Psychiatric Hospital/Facility",   "Mentally Handicapped", "Retail" or "Government/Official Agency" as their place of employment.2 Includes PTs who indicated "Arthritis Society", "School Board" or "Other" as their place of employment.*******************************************************************Table 2.25bPercent of Returning Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Place of Employment1 and Study Year, 1991-2000Place of Employment (%)YearGeneral HospitalRehab. Hospital/ FacilityLong Term CareCommunity Health CentreHome CarePaediatric Hospital/ FacilityPrivate PracticeUniversity/ College Other2 Unknown Total1991 40.74 3.70 3.70 3.70 7.41 3.70 33.33 0.00 3.70 0.00 100.001995 20.51 17.95 2.56 2.56 0.00 0.00 41.03 5.13 0.00 10.26 100.001997 23.81 4.76 3.17 4.76 3.17 3.17 33.33 4.76 11.11 7.94 100.002000 22.41 13.79 1.72 0.00 0.00 3.45 41.38 3.45 8.62 5.17 100.001 There were no returning PTs who indicated "Industry", "Workers' Compensation Board", "Other Visiting Agency", "Psychiatric Hospital/Facility",   "Mentally Handicapped", "Retail" or "Government/Official Agency" as their place of employment.2 Includes PTs who indicated "Arthritis Society", "School Board" or "Other" as their place of employment.  33   Tables 2.27a and 2.27b provide position information as reported by reactivation PTs employed in the field for each of the study years.  Some categories in these tables represent groupings of positions when the numbers of PTs reporting employment within these categories were small.  In all such cases, the footnote lists the positions.   Similar to the total PT population (Table 2.9b) and the new registrant PTs (Table 2.18b), the majority of returning PTs reported employment as ‘Staff Therapist’ in all study years.  Table 2.26aNumber of Returning Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Area of Service1 and Study Year, 1991-2000Area of ServiceYear NeurologyOrtho-paedics2Sports MedicineGeron-tology GeneralOther Patient Care3Other Non-Patient Care4 Unknown Total1991 1 13 2 4 5 0 1 1 271995 4 15 1 2 9 1 3 4 391997 6 28 2 3 13 3 3 5 632000 6 30 4 2 4 4 3 5 581 There were no returning PTs who indicated  "Burns", "Plastics", "Palliative Care", "Psychiatric/Mental Health" or "Prevention/  Health Promotion" as their area of service.2 Includes some PTs who indicated "Paediatrics" as their area of service in 1991.3 Includes PTs who indicated either "Amputees", "Cardiology/Respirology", "Rheumatology", or "Obstetrics/Gynaecology"   as their area of service.*******************************************************************Table 2.26bPercent of Returning Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Area of Service1 and Study Year, 1991-2000Area of Service (%)Year NeurologyOrtho-paedics2Sports MedicineGeron-tology GeneralOther Patient Care3Other Non-Patient Care4 Unknown Total1991 3.70 48.15 7.41 14.81 18.52 0.00 3.70 3.70 100.001995 10.26 38.46 2.56 5.13 23.08 2.56 7.69 10.26 100.001997 9.52 44.44 3.17 4.76 20.63 4.76 4.76 7.94 100.002000 10.34 51.72 6.90 3.45 6.90 6.90 5.17 8.62 100.001 There were no returning PTs who indicated  "Burns", "Plastics", "Palliative Care", "Psychiatric/Mental Health" or "Prevention/  Health Promotion" as their area of service.2 Includes some PTs who indicated "Paediatrics" as their area of service in 1991.3 Includes PTs who indicated either "Amputees", "Cardiology/Respirology", "Rheumatology", or "Obstetrics/Gynaecology"   as their area of service.4 Includes PTs who indicated either "Administration", "Teaching", "Sales", "Consulting", "Research"or "Other Non-patient Care"   as their area of service4 Includes PTs who indicated either "Administration", "Teaching", "Sales", "Consulting", "Research"or "Other Non-patient Care"   as their area of service  34However, in contrast to the total PT population and the new registrant PTs, who showed a decrease in the proportions employed as ‘Staff Therapist’ between 1991 and 2000, the proportion of reactivations employed as ‘Staff Therapist’ increased in this period from 37.04% in 1991 to 48.28% in 2000.  Similar to the new registrant PTs who were more likely to go into private practice as an associate rather than as an owner or partner, the reactivation PTs were also more likely to go into private practice as associates over the study period.       Table 2.28 shows the place of graduation of returning PTs employed in the field between 1991 and 2000.  The largest proportion of reactivation PTs appear to have graduated from schools in ‘Other Canada’ for each of the study years.  The proportion of reactivations graduating from schools in ‘Other Canada’ increased between 1991 and 1997 from 40.74% in 1991 to 58.73% in 1997 but then decreased to 37.93% in 2000.  The proportion of reactivations graduating from BC is lower than the proportion graduating from ‘Other Country’.  In contrast to the trend for ‘Other Canada’ graduates among reactivation PTs, the Table 2.27aNumber of Returning Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Position and Study Year, 1991-2000PositionYearStaff TherapistSole Charge ConsultantOwner/Partner Private PracticeAssociate Private Practice Other1 Unknown Total1991 10 3 2 1 8 3 0 271995 16 2 2 3 8 6 2 391997 35 6 3 3 8 7 1 632000 28 2 3 5 10 8 2 581 Includes PTs who indicated "Program Coordinator", "Senior Therapist", "Director", "Assistant Director",   "Clinical Instructor", "Research Therapist" or "Other" as their position.*******************************************************************Table 2.27bPercent of Returning Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Position and Study Year, 1991-2000Position (%)YearStaff TherapistSole Charge ConsultantOwner/Partner Private PracticeAssociate Private Practice Other1 Unknown Total1991 37.04 11.11 7.41 3.70 29.63 11.11 0.00 100.001995 41.03 5.13 5.13 7.69 20.51 15.38 5.13 100.001997 55.56 9.52 4.76 4.76 12.70 11.11 1.59 100.002000 48.28 3.45 5.17 8.62 17.24 13.79 3.45 100.001 Includes PTs who indicated "Program Coordinator", "Senior Therapist", "Director", "Assistant Director",   "Clinical Instructor", "Research Therapist" or "Other" as their position.  35proportion of reactivations graduating from B.C. and the proportion graduating from other country decreased between 1991 and 1997 but increased in 2000.     Tables 2.29a and 2.29b present the geographic location of reactivation PTs employed in the field in B.C. during the study period.  The location is presented using the eighteen Health Authorities (11 Regional Health Boards and 7 Community Health Services Societies) in British Columbia.  Table 2.29b differs from other (b) tables in this section, in that it presents numbers per 10,000 population rather than row percentages, allowing for valid comparisons between regions with dramatically different population bases.   On a province-wide basis, the number per 10,000 population figures presented in Table 2.29b for reactivation PTs have increased slightly over the study period (from 0.08 in 1991 to 0.14 in 2000).  Unlike the total PT group or the new registrant group, the number of returning PTs per 10,000 population in the Vancouver/Richmond region, although always above the provincial number, was not the highest number per 10,000 population in any of the study years.  The regions which tend to have the highest numbers per 10,000 population of reactivation PTs are Coast Garibaldi, Okanagan Similkameen, Kootenay/Boundary, Vancouver/Richmond and Capital regions.  Table 2.28Returning Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Place of Graduation and Study Year, 1991-2000Place of GraduationB.C. Other Canada Other Country Unknown TotalYear No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)1991 8 (29.63) 11 (40.74) 8 (29.63) 0 (0.00) 27 (100.00)1995 8 (20.51) 20 (51.28) 11 (28.21) 0 (0.00) 39 (100.00)1997 12 (19.05) 37 (58.73) 13 (20.63) 1 (1.59) 63 (100.00)2000 13 (22.41) 22 (37.93) 21 (36.21) 2 (3.45) 58 (100.00)  36Table 2.29aNumber of Returning Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby B.C. Health Authority and Study Year, 1991-2000B.C. Health Authorities - Regional Health BoardsYearNorth OkanaganOkanagan Similkameen ThompsonFraser ValleySouth FraserSimon FraserCentral Vancouver IslandNorthern InteriorVancouver/ RichmondNorth Shore Capital1991 1 2 2 0 3 2 0 0 8 1 51995 1 8 0 1 2 7 1 1 9 4 31997 4 5 3 1 4 6 2 0 14 2 132000 1 7 0 0 7 2 1 2 16 3 6... continued belowB.C. Health Authorities - Community Health Services SocietiesYear East KootenayKootenay BoundaryCoast GaribaldiUpper Island/ Central Coast Cariboo North WestPeace Liard Total1991 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 271995 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 391997 1 2 2 1 1 2 0 632000 3 3 3 2 0 2 0 58*******************************************************************Table 2.29bNumber per 10,000 Population1 of Returning Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby B.C. Health Authority and Study Year, 1991-2000B.C. Health Authorities - Regional Health BoardsYearNorth OkanaganOkanagan Similkameen ThompsonFraser ValleySouth FraserSimon FraserCentral Vancouver IslandNorthern InteriorVancouver/ RichmondNorth Shore Capital1991 0.10 0.11 0.18 0.00 0.07 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.13 0.06 0.161995 0.09 0.37 0.00 0.04 0.04 0.15 0.04 0.08 0.13 0.23 0.091997 0.34 0.22 0.22 0.04 0.07 0.12 0.08 0.00 0.20 0.11 0.392000 0.08 0.30 0.00 0.00 0.12 0.04 0.04 0.15 0.22 0.17 0.18... continued belowB.C. Health Authorities - Community Health Services SocietiesYear East KootenayKootenay BoundaryCoast GaribaldiUpper Island/ Central Coast Cariboo North WestPeace Liard Total1991 0.00 0.14 0.16 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.081995 0.00 0.00 0.14 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.101997 0.12 0.24 0.26 0.08 0.13 0.22 0.00 0.162000 0.36 0.36 0.37 0.16 0.00 0.22 0.00 0.141 Source: Population projections are from P.E.O.P.L.E. Projection Run #25, supplied by the Population Section, BC STATS, BC Ministry of Finance   and Corporate Relations.   37 (iii)  Attrition   As explained previously, data for attrition were more difficult to obtain, because in any given study year the PTs who have not renewed registration would not of course appear in the data file of registered members.  Thus in the case of attrition, unlike continuing members, new registrants, or reactivations, the data files from each study year had to be compared to each other to find those PTs who were registered during one study year but not registered during the following study year.  The information presented in this section on attrition is labeled as 1991-1995, 1995-1997 and 1997-2000 to remind the reader of the source of the data.  It is important to remember that in the case of attrition, the 1991-1995 period includes attrition which happened over a four-year time span, while the 1995-1997 and 1997-2000 periods include attrition which happened over two and three-year time spans respectively.   Detailed information which is presented on employment areas such as employment status or position are taken from the study year in which the member was last registered, i.e. for the 1995-1997 attrition data, the information presented is from the 1995 data file.  Thus, this section describes what was last known about the member prior to exiting the workforce by not registering in the following study year.  This is an important point to note when interpreting these data.  Please note also that not all variables described in previous sections are discussed in this section, as the data on attrition often may not present any new or differing trends from those seen in the total PT population over the study period.   The employment status of exiting physical therapists (PTs) in British Columbia for each of the three attrition periods is presented in Tables 2.30a and 2.30b.  Table 2.30a shows fluctuation in the number of attritions over the study period.  It ranged from 292 in the four-year period of 1991-1995 to 230 in the two-year period of 1995-1997 and to 261 in the three-year period of 1997-2000.  Similar fluctuation was seen for the PTs employed in physical and/or occupational therapy.  Table 2.30b shows that an increasing proportion of exiting PTs was employed in the field prior to leaving.  Table 2.30b also shows that a large proportion of the exiting PTs had unknown employment status in the last year they were registered for all three study periods; for example, of the 1995-1997 exiting PTs, 15.22% had unknown employment status in 1995.     In order to compare this sub-group of PTs to the total PT group (Tables 2.1a and 2.1b), we compare the 1991-1995 attritions to the 1991 total group, the 1995-1997 attritions to the 1995 total group and the 1997-2000 attritions to the 1997 total group.  Comparing these sets of two groups, the proportions of the exiting PTs employed in physical and/or occupational therapy (the subtotal column in Table 2.30b) are 9-20% lower than the proportions of the total PT group (see Table 2.1b).   For the following tables, the study group becomes those exiting physical therapists who were employed ‘in the field’ (i.e. in physical therapy, occupational therapy, or joint physical/occupational therapy) in the last year they were registered (the subtotal column from Table 2.30a).     38 Table 2.30aNumber of Exiting Physical Therapists by Employment Status and Study Period, 1991-1995 to 1997-2000Employment StatusEmployed in Physical and/or Occupational TherapyYear In PT In OT In PT/OT SubtotalEmployed in Other On LeaveNot Employed Unknown Total1991-1995 168 1 11 180 10 4 18 80 2921995-1997 166 0 3 169 4 8 14 35 2301997-2000 195 2 6 203 8 5 8 37 261********************************************************************Table 2.30bPercentage of Exiting Physical Therapists by Employment Status and Study Period, 1991-1995 to 1997-2000Employment Status (%)Employed in Physical and/or Occupational TherapyYear In PT In OT In PT/OT SubtotalEmployed in Other On LeaveNot Employed Unknown Total1991-1995 57.53 0.34 3.77 61.64 3.42 1.37 6.16 27.40 100.001995-1997 72.17 0.00 1.30 73.48 1.74 3.48 6.09 15.22 100.001997-2000 74.71 0.77 2.30 77.78 3.07 1.92 3.07 14.18 100.00  39 Table 2.31 presents the registration history of the exiting PTs who had been employed in the field for each of the attrition periods.  It is important to note that registration history presented in this table is the registration status, i.e. continuing, new registrant, or reactivation, of the members when they were last registered.  A large majority of the exiting PTs was registered as continuing members prior to attrition in each of the study periods, and the majority was increasing over the study period from 78.33% in 1991-1995 to 80.47% in 1995-1997 and 88.67% in 1997-2000.  In comparison, the proportions of the total PT group employed in the field (Table 2.3) who were continuing members in each study year were also increasing over the study period from 88.69% in 1991 to 93.47% in 1997.   The proportion of those who had been new registrants in the study year prior to attrition was also significant, but it has decreased over the study period from 20.00% in 1991-1995 to 5.42% in 1997-2000.  Meanwhile, the proportion of those who had previously been reactivations has increased from 1.67% in 1991-1995 to 5.91% in 1997-2000.  These figures tend to be larger than the comparable figures for the total PT group, i.e. 9.47% of the total group were new registrants in 1991, and 3.37 % of the total group were reactivations in 1997 (see Table 2.3).     Tables 2.32a and 2.32b show the age (when last registered) of attritions for each of the study periods.  The largest proportions of those were in the <30 or 30-34 year age groups in each of the study periods, ranging from 13.30% in 1997-2000 to 27.22% in 1995-1997 for the <30 year age group, and from 19.21% in 1997-2000 to 20.00% in 1991-1995 for the 30-34 year age group.  This seems to indicate that exiting PTs are fairly young when they leave the profession in B.C.  This is confirmed when their age is compared to that of the total PT group (Tables 2.5a and 2.5b).  The <30 year age group ranges from 8.03% of the total group in 1997 to 13.69% in 1991, and the 30-34 year age group ranges from 15.88% of the total group in 1995 to 16.35% in 1991.     Examining the age of those leaving the workforce over the study periods in Table 2.32b, the proportions in the <30 year age group and the 40-44 year age group were decreasing over this period, while the proportions in the 35-39 age group and the 50-64 year age groups were increasing.  Table 2.31Exiting Physical Therapists Employed in the Field by Registration Status and Study Period, 1991-1995 to 1997-2000Registration StatusContinuing Member New Registrant Reactivation TotalYear No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)1991-1995 141 (78.33) 36 (20.00) 3 (1.67) 180 (100.00)1995-1997 136 (80.47) 27 (15.98) 6 (3.55) 169 (100.00)1997-2000 180 (88.67) 11 (5.42) 12 (5.91) 203 (100.00)  40   The place of graduation of attrition PTs is presented in Table 2.33.  The table shows that most were either ‘Other Country’ or ‘Other Canada’ graduates.  ‘Other Country’ graduates accounted for the largest proportion of attrition in all study years.  The proportions of ‘Other Country’ and ‘Other Canada’ graduates among the total PT population (Table 2.10) are slightly smaller than among this sub-group, ranging from 35.78% in 1997 to 41.49% in 1991 for ‘Other Country’ and from 31.95% in 1991 to 36.37% in 1997 for ‘Other Canada’.     Table 2.32aNumber of Exiting Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Age and Study Period, 1991-1995 to 1997-2000Year <30 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65+ Unknown Total1991-1995 48 36 16 20 9 11 13 15 8 4 1801995-1997 46 33 20 14 9 13 9 14 8 3 1691997-2000 27 39 24 13 12 26 27 27 7 1 203*************************************************Table 2.32bPercent of Exiting Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Age and Study Period, 1991-1995 to 1997-2000Year <30 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65+ Unknown Total1991-1995 26.67 20.00 8.89 11.11 5.00 6.11 7.22 8.33 4.44 2.22 100.001995-1997 27.22 19.53 11.83 8.28 5.33 7.69 5.33 8.28 4.73 1.78 100.001997-2000 13.30 19.21 11.82 6.40 5.91 12.81 13.30 13.30 3.45 0.49 100.00Age GroupAge Group (%)Table 2.33Exiting Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Place of Graduation and Study Period, 1991-1995 to 1997-2000Place of GraduationB.C. Other Canada Other Country Unknown TotalYear No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)1991-1995 31 (17.22) 65 (36.11) 84 (46.67) 0 (0.00) 180 (100.00)1995-1997 29 (17.16) 56 (33.14) 81 (47.93) 3 (1.78) 169 (100.00)1997-2000 37 (18.23) 79 (38.92) 85 (41.87) 2 (0.99) 203 (100.00)  41 Tables 2.34a and 2.34b describe the position (when last registered) of the exiting PTs for each of the study periods.  As was the case with the total PT population, the largest proportion of the exiting PTs were employed (when last registered) as ‘Staff Therapists’ (from 57.78% in 1991-1995 to 47.93% in 1995-1997).  An appreciable proportion of those leaving were also employed as either ‘Owner/Partner Private Practice’ (from 10.00% in 1991-1995 to 13.61% in 1995-1997 to 11.82% in 1997-2000) or ‘Associate Private Practice’ (from 8.89% in 1991-1995 to 19.53% in 1995-1997 to 11.33% in 1997-2000).  These figures show that among those leaving the workforce, the proportions of ‘Owner/Partners’ and ‘Associates’ have fluctuated.  Among the total PT group (Table 2.9b), the proportions of PTs working as either ‘Owner/Partner Private Practice’ or ‘Associate Private Practice’ over the study period have increased gradually.   Table 2.34aNumber of Exiting Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Position and Study Period, 1991-1995 to 1997-2000PositionYearStaff TherapistSole ChargeSenior TherapistDirector/ Assistant Director1 ConsultantOwner/Partner Private PracticeAssociate Private Practice Other2 Unknown Total1991-1995 104 7 10 8 5 18 16 9 3 1801995-1997 81 12 8 4 1 23 33 7 0 1691997-2000 105 18 12 5 9 24 23 6 1 2031 Includes PTs who indicated "Director" or "Assistant Director" as their position.2 Includes PTs who indicated "Program Coordinator", "Clinical Instructor", "Research Therapist" or "Other" as their position.*******************************************************************Table 2.34bPercent of Exiting Physical Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Position and Study Period, 1991-1995 to 1997-2000Position (%)YearStaff TherapistSole ChargeSenior TherapistDirector/ Assistant Director1 ConsultantOwner/Partner Private PracticeAssociate Private Practice Other2 Unknown Total1991-1995 57.78 3.89 5.56 4.44 2.78 10.00 8.89 5.00 1.67 100.001995-1997 47.93 7.10 4.73 2.37 0.59 13.61 19.53 4.14 0.00 100.001997-2000 51.72 8.87 5.91 2.46 4.43 11.82 11.33 2.96 0.49 100.001 Includes PTs who indicated "Director" or "Assistant Director" as their position.2 Includes PTs who indicated "Program Coordinator", "Clinical Instructor", "Research Therapist" or "Other" as their position.  42 d) Physical Therapists – Stability Analysis   As mentioned in the methodology section, in order to analyze the stability of the PT registrants, registration data from 1991 to 2000 for PTs were combined in a single, linked data set.  Using the linked data set, a separate data file was created containing registrants who were registered as ‘active’ and resident in B.C. in all 10 years (i.e. from 1991-2000).  A total of 1182 PTs (or 65.63% of the total PTs registered in 1991; N=1801) were found to be registered in all 10 years.  It is important to note that we are looking at the 1991 cohort and following them through to the year 2000.   The first part of this section compares the ‘stable’ registration cohort (i.e. the 1182 PTs who were registered in all 10 years) with the ‘unstable’ registration cohort (i.e. the remaining 619 PTs from 1991 who were not registered in all of the following 9 years) with respect to age, sex, registration status, years since first registration, years of registration since 1991, years since graduation, place of graduation, employment status, type of employment, place of employment, area of service, and regional distribution.   The second part of the analysis examines the ‘stable’ cohort at three points in time – 1991, 1995 and 2000 - with respect to employment status, type of employment, place of employment, area of service and regional distribution.  However, for simplicity, information from these variables only at two points in time – 1991 and 2000 – is presented.  The purpose of undertaking this analysis is to examine the stability of PT employment status, employment type, place of employment, area of service and regional distribution over the 10-year period.   Table 2.35 shows a significant difference between the age distributions of the two cohorts (Pearson Chi-Square p=0.000).  The majority of the ‘stable’ cohort of PTs was in the middle age group with 58.55% aged 35-49 years in 1991.  In contrast, the ‘unstable’ cohort was more likely to be younger than 35 years of age (36.99% of ‘unstable’ vs. 28.34% of ‘stable’) and 50 years or older (24.55% of ‘unstable’ vs. 6.68% of ‘stable’) in 1991.  The median age of the ‘stable’ cohort was 39.00 years and the median age of the ‘unstable’ cohort was 38.00 years.  Thus, overall, the ‘stable’ cohort is older.   No significant difference (Pearson Chi-Square p=0.239) with respect to sex was seen between the ‘stable’ and ‘unstable’ cohorts.  Table 2.36 shows that the majority of the PTs in both groups were female (84.52% of ‘stable’ and 86.59% of ‘unstable’).    43  ******************************      Table 2.37 shows the registration status of the ‘stable’ and ‘unstable’ cohorts in 1991.  The PTs who were registered in all 10 years were slightly more likely to be Chartered and Registered members than those not registered in all 10 years (67.01% of ‘stable’ vs. 63.65% of ‘unstable’ being Chartered; 29.95% of ‘stable’ vs. 26.66% of ‘unstable’ being Registered).  However, almost 10% of the ‘unstable’ group was registered as Temporary vs. only 3% of the ‘stable’ group (Pearson Chi-Square p=0.000).  It is important to note that the registration Table 2.35Physical Therapists Registered in 1991 in B.C.by Stability Status and Age Group1Stability StatusStable2 Unstable3Age Group No. (%) No. (%)<25 18 (1.52) 31 (5.01)25-29 129 (10.91) 106 (17.12)30-34 188 (15.91) 92 (14.86)35-39 260 (22.00) 59 (9.53)40-44 262 (22.17) 59 (9.53)45-49 170 (14.38) 50 (8.08)50-54 61 (5.16) 48 (7.75)55-59 15 (1.27) 58 (9.37)60-64 2 (0.17) 25 (4.04)65+ 1 (0.08) 21 (3.39)Unknown 76 (6.43) 70 (11.31)TOTAL 1182 (100.00) 619 (100.00)1 Age as of 1991.2 Includes PTs who were registered in all 10 years from 1991 to 2000.3 Includes PTs who were registered in 1991, but then were not registered   at some point in the following 9 year interval.Pearson Chi-Square p=0.000 (Unknown category excluded).Table 2.36Physical Therapists Registered in 1991 in B.C.by Stability Status and SexStability StatusStable1 Unstable2Sex No. (%) No. (%)Female 999 (84.52) 536 (86.59)Male 183 (15.48) 83 (13.41)TOTAL 1182 (100.00) 619 (100.00)1 Includes PTs who were registered in all 10 years from 1991 to 2000.2 Includes PTs who were registered in 1991, but then were not registered   at some point in the following 9 year interval.Pearson Chi-Square p=0.239.  44categories discussed here are categories that were used in 1991.  At that time, Chartered physical therapists were not allowed to practice except under supervision of a medical practitioner.3     A significant difference in the years since first registration was found between the cohorts (Pearson Chi-Square p=0.000).  The majority of the ‘stable’ PTs (58.21%) fell in the range of 6-20 years since first registration in B.C. and 42.81% of the ‘unstable’ cohort fell into the 0-5 years since first registration in B.C (see Table 2.38).  A higher proportion of ‘unstable’ PTs had 21+ years since their first registration (15.83%) compared to 11.51% of the ‘stable’ cohort.  This indicates that the ‘unstable’ group had a higher proportion of new registrants as well as a higher proportion of PTs who might have been at retirement age compared to the ‘stable’ cohort.   When examining the years of registration since 1991, the ‘unstable’ cohort had a mean of 5.31 years of registration since 1991; this reflects a mix of early exits and long-term professional loyalty (the mean for the ‘stable’ group was 10 years since, by definition, they had been registered for all 10 years from 1991-2000).  Fifteen percent of the ‘unstable’ cohort was registered only during 1991, and 33% of the cohort was registered for eight or nine years since 1991 (no table showing this).  Seventy-seven percent of the total 1991 PTs (n=1801) were registered for 8 years or more in the 10-year period.  Of the PTs who were not continuously registered for the 10 years (n=619), 15% were there in the three years we examined (1991, 1995 and 2000), and 6% were there in 1991 and back in 2000.  Thus, even if a PT leaves the workforce (or does not register), there is a finite likelihood of returning.                                                  3  ROLLCALL 91. A Status Report of Selected Health Personnel in the Province of British Columbia.  Health Human Resources Unit Research Reports 92:2.  Vancouver (BC): Health Human Resources Unit, Centre for Health Services & Policy Research, The University of British Columbia, 1992.  p.387. Table 2.37Physical Therapists Registered in 1991 in B.C.by Stability Status and Registration Status1Stability StatusRegistration Stable2 Unstable3Status No. (%) No. (%)Chartered 792 (67.01) 394 (63.65)Registered 354 (29.95) 165 (26.66)Temporary 36 (3.05) 60 (9.69)TOTAL 1182 (100.00) 619 (100.00)1 Registration status in 1991.2 Includes PTs who were registered in all 10 years from 1991 to 2000.3 Includes PTs who were registered in 1991, but then were not registered   at some point in the following 9 year interval.Pearson Chi-Square p=0.000.  45   Table 2.39 illustrates that the majority of the ‘stable’ cohort (56.60%) fell into the 6-20 year range since graduation compared to only 37.96% of the ‘unstable’ group who fell into this range (Pearson Chi-Square p=0.000).  Compared to PTs who were registered in all 10 years, the PTs in the ‘unstable’ group were more likely to have been new graduates (i.e. 0-5 years since graduation) or older graduates (i.e. 21+ years since graduation).  The ‘stable’ cohort had a median of 14.00 years since graduation, while the median number of years since graduation for the ‘unstable’ cohort was 13.00 years.  Table 2.38Physical Therapists Registered in 1991 in B.C.by Stability Status and Years Since First Registration in B.C.1Stability StatusYears since Stable2 Unstable31st Registration No. (%) No. (%)0 to 5 355 (30.03) 265 (42.81)6 to 10 208 (17.60) 71 (11.47)11 to 15 263 (22.25) 69 (11.15)16 to 20 217 (18.36) 54 (8.72)21 to 25 113 (9.56) 50 (8.08)26+ 23 (1.95) 48 (7.75)Unknown 3 (0.25) 62 (10.02)TOTAL 1182 (100.00) 619 (100.00)1 Number of years since first registration in B.C. as of 1991.2 Includes PTs who were registered in all 10 years from 1991 to 2000.3 Includes PTs who were registered in 1991, but then were not registered   at some point in the following 9 year interval.Pearson Chi-Square p=0.000 (Unknown category excluded).Table 2.39Physical Therapists Registered in 1991 in B.C.by Stability Status and Years Since Graduation1Stability StatusYears since Stable2 Unstable3Graduation No. (%) No. (%)0 to 5 192 (16.24) 152 (24.56)6 to 10 181 (15.31) 112 (18.09)11 to 15 264 (22.34) 75 (12.12)16 to 20 224 (18.95) 48 (7.75)21 to 25 181 (15.31) 53 (8.56)26+ 123 (10.41) 153 (24.72)Unknown 17 (1.44) 26 (4.20)TOTAL 1182 (100.00) 619 (100.00)1 Number of years since graduation as of 1991.2 Includes PTs who were registered in all 10 years from 1991 to 2000.3 Includes PTs who were registered in 1991, but then were not registered   at some point in the following 9 year interval.Pearson Chi-Square p=0.000 (Unknown category excluded).  46 Table 2.40 shows that a substantially higher proportion of the ‘stable’ cohort had graduated from B.C. compared to the ‘unstable’ cohort (27.41% of ‘stable’ vs. 17.93% of ‘unstable’), whereas a higher proportion of the ‘unstable’ group had graduated from ‘Other Country’ (47.33% of ‘unstable’ vs. 37.73% of ‘stable’) (Pearson Chi-Square p=0.000).  However, it is interesting to note that for both the ‘stable’ and ‘unstable’ groups, the highest proportion of PTs had graduated from ‘Other Country’ (37.73% of the ‘stable’ group was from ‘Other Country’ vs. 30.46% and 27.41% from ‘Other Canada’ and B.C. respectively, and 47.33% of the ‘unstable’ cohort were from ‘Other Country’ vs. 27.63% and 17.93% from ‘Other Canada’ and B.C., respectively).  This is consistent with B.C.’s reputation of being a net importer of health professionals, although this has changed slowly over time.  Fewer rehabilitation professionals now come from ‘Other Country’ (i.e. the relative distribution of PTs from ‘Other Country’ has been decreasing since 1991 – see Table 2.10).      Table 2.41 shows that 87.31% of the ‘stable’ cohort was employed in the field compared to 69.95% of the ‘unstable’ group (Pearson Chi-Square p=0.000).  A higher proportion of the ‘unstable’ group was employed in ‘Other’ and ‘Not Employed’ compared to the ‘stable’ group (3.39% of ‘unstable’ vs. 1.10% of ‘stable’ employed in ‘Other’ and 5.01% of ‘unstable’ vs. 1.52% of ‘stable’ ‘Not Employed’).  Further, the ‘unstable’ group had a high proportion of individuals with unknown employment status (i.e. 20.84%). Table 2.40Physical Therapists Registered in 1991 in B.C.by Stability Status and Place of GraduationStability StatusPlace of Stable1 Unstable2Graduation No. (%) No. (%)BC 324 (27.41) 111 (17.93)Other Canada 360 (30.46) 171 (27.63)Other Country 446 (37.73) 293 (47.33)Unknown 52 (4.40) 44 (7.11)TOTAL 1182 (100.00) 619 (100.00)1 Includes PTs who were registered in all 10 years from 1991 to 2000.2 Includes PTs who were registered in 1991, but then were not registered   at some point in the following 9 year interval.Pearson Chi-Square p=0.000 (Unknown category excluded).  47   Of the PTs registered in all 10 years, the majority (53.47%) was employed full-time and a higher proportion were employed part-time/casual compared to the ‘unstable’ group (see Table 2.42).  The ‘unstable’ group had a high percentage of unknowns (22.29%).  (Pearson Chi-Square p=0.145)    Table 2.41Physical Therapists Registered in 1991 in B.C.by Stability Status and Employment Status1Stability StatusStable2 Unstable3Employment Status No. (%) No. (%)Employed in PT 995 (84.18) 412 (66.56)Employed in PT/OT 37 (3.13) 21 (3.39)SUBTOTAL Employed in PT 1032 (87.31) 433 (69.95)Employed in Other4 13 (1.10) 21 (3.39)On Leave 15 (1.27) 5 (0.81)Not Employed 18 (1.52) 31 (5.01)SUBTOTAL Not Employed in PT 46 (3.89) 57 (9.21)Unknown 104 (8.80) 129 (20.84)TOTAL 1182 (100.00) 619 (100.00)1 Employment Status in 1991.2 Includes PTs who were registered in all 10 years from 1991 to 2000.3 Includes PTs who were registered in 1991, but then were not registered   at some point in the following 9 year interval.4 Includes PTs who indicated they were employed in OT.Pearson Chi-Square p=0.000 (based on 'Employed in PT' vs 'Not Employed in PT';   Unknown category excluded).Table 2.42Physical Therapists Registered in 1991 in B.C.by Stability Status and Type of Employment1Stability StatusType of Stable2 Unstable3Employment No. (%) No. (%)FT 632 (53.47) 245 (39.58)PT/Casual 389 (32.91) 179 (28.92)Unknown 115 (9.73) 138 (22.29)Not Employed in PT 46 (3.89) 57 (9.21)TOTAL 1182 (100.00) 619 (100.00)1 Type of employment in 1991.2 Includes PTs who were registered in all 10 years from 1991 to 2000.3 Includes PTs who were registered in 1991, but then were not registered   at some point in the following 9 year interval.Pearson Chi-Square p=0.145 (Unknown and Not Employed in PT excluded).  48 Table 2.43 illustrates the place of employment of the ‘stable’ and ‘unstable’ cohorts.  Almost half of the ‘stable’ cohort was employed in ‘Hospital’ compared to approximately 40% of the ‘unstable’ group, and 29% of the ‘stable’ group was employed in ‘Private Practice’ compared to 22% of the ‘unstable’ group.  (Pearson Chi-Square p=0.753)  The ‘unstable’ group was more likely to have unknown place of employment or have individuals who were ‘Not Employed’ in physical therapy.      Table 2.44 shows the area of service of the two cohorts under study.  The ‘stable’ cohort was significantly more likely than the ‘unstable’ cohort to be employed in ‘Orthopaedics/Sports Medicine’ (31.13% of ‘stable’ vs. 19.39% of ‘unstable’) and slightly more likely than the ‘unstable’ cohort to be employed in ‘General/Other Patient Care’ (49.83% of ‘stable’ vs. 45.07% of ‘unstable’) (Pearson Chi-Square p=0.013).  The ‘unstable’ cohort was more likely to have unknown area of service or to be ‘Not Employed’ in physical therapy compared to the ‘stable’ group. Table 2.43Physical Therapists Registered in 1991 in B.C.by Stability Status and Place of Employment1Stability StatusStable2 Unstable3Place of Employment No. (%) No. (%)Hospital4 567 (47.97) 243 (39.26)Private Practice5 344 (29.10) 136 (21.97)Other6 114 (9.64) 51 (8.24)Unknown 111 (9.39) 132 (21.32)Not Employed in PT 46 (3.89) 57 (9.21)TOTAL 1182 (100.00) 619 (100.00)1 Place of employment in 1991.2 Includes PTs who were registered in all 10 years from 1991 to 2000.3 Includes PTs who were registered in 1991, but then were not registered   at some point in the following 9 year interval.4 Hospital = "Acute Care Hospital", "Childrens' Hospital", "Diagnostic and Treatment Centre",   "Centre for Mentally Handicapped", "Continuing Care", "Extended Care", "Psychiatric Hospital",   and "Rehabilitaion Hospital" in 1991; and "General Hospital", "Rehab Hospital/Facility",   "Long Term Care", "Paediatric Hospital/Facility" and "Psychiatric Hospital/Facility" in 2000.5 Private Practice = "Private Practice" in both 1991 and 2000.6 Other = "Workers' Compensation Board", "Community Health Centre", "Non-Profit Agency",   "School Board", "University or College", "Industry", "Child Development" and "Other" in 1991;   and "Workers' Compensation Board", "Community Health Centre", "Home Care", "Arthritis   Society", "Other Visiting Agency", "Facility for Mentally Handicapped", "Government/Official   Agency", "School Board", "University/College", and "Other" in 2000.Pearson Chi-Square p=0.753 (Unknown and Not Employed in PT excluded).  49   Table 2.45 shows the regional distribution of the ‘stable’ and ‘unstable’ cohorts.  No significant difference was seen in the regional distribution between the two cohorts.  (Pearson Chi-Square p=0.778)   Table 2.44Physical Therapists Registered in 1991 in B.C.by Stability Status and Area of Service1Stability StatusStable2 Unstable3Area of Service No. (%) No. (%)Orthopaedics/Sports Medicine4 368 (31.13) 120 (19.39)General/Other Patient Care5 589 (49.83) 279 (45.07)Non-Patient Care6 56 (4.74) 22 (3.55)Unknown 123 (10.41) 141 (22.78)Not Employed in PT 46 (3.89) 57 (9.21)TOTAL 1182 (100.00) 619 (100.00)1 Area of Service in 1991.2 Includes PTs who were registered in all 10 years from 1991 to 2000.3 Includes PTs who were registered in 1991, but then were not registered   at some point in the following 9 year interval.4 Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine = as indicated on registration form in both 1991 and 2000.5 General and Other Patient Care = "ICU", "Rheumatology", "General", "Geriatrics", "Paediatrics",   "Burns/Plastics", "Rehabilitation", "Cardiology/Respirology", "Neurology", "Chronic Care",   "Mentally Handicapped", "Prevention", "Obstetrics/Gynaecology", and "Other" in 1991; and "Amputees",   "Cardiology", "Neurology", "Plastics", "Palliative Care", "Psychiatry", "Prevention", "Respirology",   "Rheumatology", "Burns", "Gerontology", "Obstetrics/Gynaecology", and "General" in 2000.  6 Non-Patient Care = "Administration", "Teaching", "Research", and "Other" in both 1991 and 2000,   and "Consultancy" and "Sales" as well for 2000.Pearson Chi-Square p=0.013 (Unknown and Not Employed in PT excluded).Table 2.45Physical Therapists Registered in 1991 in B.C.by Stability Status and Health Region1Stability StatusStable2 Unstable3Health Region No. (%) No. (%)Vancouver & District 667 (56.43) 357 (57.67)Capital 133 (11.25) 76 (12.28)Okanagan 102 (8.63) 44 (7.11)Island Coast 109 (9.22) 54 (8.72)Other 171 (14.47) 88 (14.22)TOTAL 1182 (100.00) 619 (100.00)1 Location (Health Region) in 1991.2 Includes PTs who were registered in all 10 years from 1991 to 2000.3 Includes PTs who were registered in 1991, but then were not registered   at some point in the following 9 year interval.Pearson Chi-Square p=0.778.  50 The following set of tables comprise only the ‘stable’ group and illustrate the stability of PTs who were registered in all 10 years from 1991-2000 with respect to their employment status, type of employment, place of employment, area of service and regional distribution.   Ninety-four percent of PTs who were registered in all 10 years and who were employed in physical therapy or physical therapy/occupational therapy in 1991 were still employed in physical therapy or physical therapy/occupational therapy in 2000 (see Table 2.46).  The majority of the small number of PTs who were not employed in physical therapy or physical therapy/occupational therapy (N=46) or whose employment status was unknown in 1991 (N=104) were employed in the field in 2000.  This indicates that the large majority of PTs in the ‘stable’ cohort retained or regained employment in the field over the 10-year period.     Table 2.47 shows type of employment in 1991 by type of employment in 2000 of PTs registered in 1991-2000.  Of those PTs employed full-time in 1991, 68.83% remained in full-time employment in 2000; of those who were employed part-time/casual in 1991, 66.84% were still employed part-time/casual in 2000.  This indicates that being employed full-time or part-time in 1991 was a strong indicator of similar status in 2000.  Approximately 27% of those who were employed part-time/casual in 1991 were employed full-time in 2000 and 23% of those employed full-time in 1991 were employed part-time/casual in 2000.  Those PTs who were not employed in PT or PT/OT in 1991 were more likely to be employed part-time/casual in 2000 than full-time (65.22% part-time/casual vs. 21.74% full-time).  Those whose employment type was unknown in 1991, were more likely to be employed full-time in 2000 rather than part-time/casual (56.52% full-time vs. 33.04% part-time/casual).    Table 2.46Physical Therapists Registered in B.C. in 1991 to 2000,Employment Status in 1991 by Employment Status in 20001991Employed in Not Employed in PT or PT/OT PT or PT/OT Unknown Total2000 No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)Employed in PT or PT/OT 971 (94.09) 40 (86.96) 97 (93.27) 1108 (93.74)Not Employed in PT or PT/OT 29 (2.81) 5 (10.87) 2 (1.92) 36 (3.05)Unknown 32 (3.10) 1 (2.17) 5 (4.81) 38 (3.21)TOTAL 1032 (100.00) 46 (100.00) 104 (100.00) 1182 (100.00)  51   As a summary measure, an odds ratio was calculated based on the frequencies of PTs who were full-time or not employed in PT in 2000 given that they were full-time or not employed in the field in 1991.  Comparing PTs who were working full-time in 1991 with those not employed in the field, the odds ratio of being full-time versus not  employed in the field in 2000 was 10.0.  That is, PTs who were full-time in 1991 were 10 times more likely to be full-time in 2000 than PTs who were not employed in 1991.   Table 2.48 illustrates place of employment in 1991 by place of employment in 2000 of the ‘stable’ cohort.  Approximately 67% of those who were employed in ‘Hospital’ in 1991 were still employed in ‘Hospital’ in 2000; approximately 15% moved to ‘Private Practice’ and 13% moved to ‘Other’ in 2000.  Of the PTs who were employed in ‘Private Practice’ in 1991, 80.23% remained employed in ‘Private Practice’, and only 7.85% switched to ‘Hospital’.  The majority of PTs who were employed in ‘Other’ in 1991 remained employed in ‘Other’ in 2000 (52.63%); however, PTs in this category were more likely to switch to ‘Hospital’ compared to ‘Private Practice’ (27.19% in ‘Hospital’ vs. 13.16% in ‘Private Practice’ in 2000).  Those PTs who were ‘Not Employed in PT’ in 1991 were more likely to be employed in ‘Hospital’ (39.13%), followed by ‘Other’ (26.09%) and then ‘Private Practice’ (19.57%) in 2000.  The information in this Table indicates that there was some movement in and out of the hospital sector and that fewer PTs remained employed in this sector, but that the private practice sector remained relatively ‘stable’ in comparison, with 80% of the PTs retaining employment in private practice.  Further, over the 10-year period, the hospital sector lost approximately 15% of its PTs to private practice in 2000.   To quantify the odds of hospital employment, an odds ratio was  calculated based on the frequencies of PTs who were in hospitals or private practice in 2000 given their place of employment in 1991.  PTs employed in hospitals in 1991 were 44.4 times more likely to be employed in hospitals in 2000 than PTs in private practice in 1991.   To examine employment trajectories, the area of service in 1991 by area of service in 2000 of PTs registered in 1991-2000 is shown in Table 2.49.  Approximately 64% of PTs who were employed in ‘Orthopaedics/ Sports Medicine’ in 1991 remained employed in this area of service in 2000, and 21.20% shifted to ‘General/Other Patient Care’.  Of the PTs who were employed in the ‘General/Other Patient Care’ area of service in 1991, 71.48% remained in  Table 2.47Physical Therapists Registered in B.C. in 1991 to 2000,Type of Employment in 1991 by Type of Employment in 20001991FT PT/Casual Unknown Not employed in PT Total2000 No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)FT 435 (68.83) 105 (26.99) 65 (56.52) 10 (21.74) 615 (52.03)PT/Casual 146 (23.10) 260 (66.84) 38 (33.04) 30 (65.22) 474 (40.10)Unknown 29 (4.59) 18 (4.63) 9 (7.83) 1 (2.17) 57 (4.82)Not employed in PT 22 (3.48) 6 (1.54) 3 (2.61) 5 (10.87) 36 (3.05)TOTAL 632 (100.00) 389 (100.00) 115 (100.00) 46 (100.00) 1182 (100.00)   52 Table 2.48Physical Therapists Registered in B.C. in 1991 to 2000,Place of Employment in 1991 by Place of Employment in 20001991Hospital1 Private Practice2 Other3 Unknown Not employed in PT Total2000 No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)Hospital1 379 (66.84) 27 (7.85) 31 (27.19) 42 (37.84) 18 (39.13) 497 (42.05)Private Practice2 84 (14.81) 276 (80.23) 15 (13.16) 45 (40.54) 9 (19.57) 429 (36.29)Other3 76 (13.40) 14 (4.07) 60 (52.63) 14 (12.61) 12 (26.09) 176 (14.89)Unknown 12 (2.12) 20 (5.81) 3 (2.63) 7 (6.31) 2 (4.35) 44 (3.72)Not employed in PT 16 (2.82) 7 (2.03) 5 (4.39) 3 (2.70) 5 (10.87) 36 (3.05)TOTAL 567 (100.00) 344 (100.00) 114 (100.00) 111 (100.00) 46 (100.00) 1182 (100.00)1 Hospital = "Acute Care Hospital", "Childrens' Hospital", "Diagnostic and Treatment Centre", "Centre for Mentally Handicapped", "Continuing Care", "Extended Care",   "Psychiatric Hospital", and "Rehabilitaion Hospital" in 1991; and "General Hospital", "Rehab Hospital/Facility", "Long Term Care", "Paediatric Hospital/Facility"   and "Psychiatric Hospital/Facility" in 2000.2 Private Practice = "Private Practice" in both 1991 and 2000.3 Other = "Workers' Compensation Board", "Community Health Centre", "Non-Profit Agency", "School Board", "University or College", "Industry", "Child Development"   and "Other" in 1991; and "Workers' Compensation Board", "Community Health Centre", "Home Care", "Arthritis Society", "Other Visiting Agency",   "Facility for Mentally Handicapped", "Government/Official Agency", "School Board", "University/College", and "Other" in 2000.Table 2.49Physical Therapists Registered in B.C. in 1991 to 2000,Area of Service in 1991 by Area of Service in 20001991Orthopaedics/ General/Sports Medicine1 Other Patient Care2 Non-Patient Care3 Unknown Not employed in PT Total2000 No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)Orthopaedics/Sports Medicine1235 (63.86) 102 (17.32) 8 (14.29) 47 (38.21) 11 (23.91) 403 (34.09)General/Other Patient Care278 (21.20) 421 (71.48) 18 (32.14) 55 (44.72) 25 (54.35) 597 (50.51)Non-Patient Care3 15 (4.08) 25 (4.24) 22 (39.29) 7 (5.69) 4 (8.70) 73 (6.18)Unknown 30 (8.15) 28 (4.75) 3 (5.36) 11 (8.94) 1 (2.17) 73 (6.18)Not employed in PT 10 (2.72) 13 (2.21) 5 (8.93) 3 (2.44) 5 (10.87) 36 (3.05)TOTAL 368 (100.00) 589 (100.00) 56 (100.00) 123 (100.00) 46 (100.00) 1182 (100.00)1 Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine = as indicated on registration form in both 1991 and 2000.2 General and Other Patient Care = "ICU", "Rheumatology", "General", "Geriatrics", "Paediatrics", "Burns/Plastics", "Rehabilitation", "Cardiology/Respirology",   "Neurology", "Chronic Care", "Mentally Handicapped", "Prevention", "Obstetrics/Gynaecology", and "Other" in 1991; and "Amputees", "Cardiology",   "Neurology", "Plastics", "Palliative Care", "Psychiatry", "Prevention", "Respirology", "Rheumatology", "Burns", "Gerontology", "Obstetrics/Gynaecology",   and "General" in 2000.  3 Non-Patient Care = "Administration", "Teaching", "Research", and "Other" in both 1991 and 2000, and "Consultancy" and "Sales" as well for 2000.  53this area of service and 17.32% shifted to ‘Orthopaedics/Sports Medicine’.  Those PTs who were employed in ‘Non-Patient Care’ or who were ‘Not Employed in PT’ in 1991 were more likely in 2000 to be employed in the ‘General/Other Patient Care’ area of service rather than in ‘Orthopaedics/Sports Medicine’ (32.14% ‘General/Other Patient Care’ vs. 14.29% ‘Orthopaedics/Sports Medicine’ for ‘Non-Patient Care; and 54.35% ‘General/Other Patient Care’ vs. 23.91% ‘Orthopaedics/Sports Medicine’ for those ‘Not Employed in PT’).   Finally, we examined geographic stability; Table 2.50 illustrates that the majority of PTs who resided in a particular region in 1991 remained in that region in 2000 (ranging from 86.55% of PTs remaining in the ‘Other’ region to 92.50% of PTs remaining in the ‘Vancouver and District’ region in 2000).     54 Table 2.50Physical Therapists Registered in B.C. in 1991 to 2000,Health Region in 1991 by Health Region in 20001991Vancouver & District Capital Okanagan Island Coast Other Total2000 No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)Vancouver & District 617 (92.50) 4 (3.01) 3 (2.94) 6 (5.50) 7 (4.09) 637 (53.89)Capital 1 (0.15) 122 (91.73) 2 (1.96) 4 (3.67) 4 (2.34) 133 (11.25)Okanagan 11 (1.65) 1 (0.75) 94 (92.16) 0 (0.00) 8 (4.68) 114 (9.64)Island Coast 15 (2.25) 6 (4.51) 1 (0.98) 95 (87.16) 4 (2.34) 121 (10.24)Other 23 (3.45) 0 (0.00) 2 (1.96) 4 (3.67) 148 (86.55) 177 (14.97)TOTAL 667 (100.00) 133 (100.00) 102 (100.00) 109 (100.00) 171 (100.00) 1182 (100.00)  553. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPISTS   a) All Occupational Therapists   An important factor to note when interpreting the data presented on occupational therapists is that the data were obtained from a membership group, the British Columbia Society of Occupational Therapists (BCSOT) rather than a regulatory body.  As a result, the information presented here is representative only of those people trained as OTs who chose to become members of the BCSOT.  Many employers may insist on membership with the BCSOT as a prerequisite for employment, and the BCSOT is thought to have a fairly comprehensive membership, but there is no way to guarantee, as with the physical therapists where licensure is a condition for employment, that the entire workforce is represented in these tables.   Most of the tables in the following sections present data on both numbers and percentages.  In cases where the tables are large, there are separate tables for the numbers (part a) and percentages (part b).  In cases where the tables are smaller, both the numbers and percentages appear within a single table.   The employment status of occupational therapists (OTs) in British Columbia for each of the four study years is presented in Tables 3.1a and 3.1b.  Please note, as discussed in the Introduction, there is a small group of PTs and OTs who are eligible for registration and/or employment in either field.  These are individuals who completed a ‘combined-training’ program which was available at UBC until 1984.  Thus, Tables 3.1a and 3.1b show a small number of OTs working in joint PT/OT positions, as well as those working in OT positions.  OTs working in any of these positions are considered to be working ‘in the field’ in this report.   Table 3.1a shows that there has been a continual increase over the study period in both the total number of OTs, and in the number of OTs employed in occupational therapy (from 566 in 1991 to 920 in 1999 and from 495 in 1991 to 829 in 1999, respectively).  In comparison, the number of OTs employed in joint PT/OT has remained at a fairly constant low level, varying between 20 in 1991 and 25 in both 1995 and 1999.  The small numbers of OTs in the remaining categories in Table 3.1a limit any discussion about these categories, although it should be noted that both the ‘Not Employed’ and ‘Maternity Leave’ categories increased consistently over the study period.   Table 3.1b shows that 87.46% of OTs were employed in occupational therapy in 1991, and that in 1995, 1997 and 1999 the proportion was over 90%.  Interestingly, the proportion of OTs employed in occupational therapy peaked in 1995 at 91.23%.  The proportion of OTs employed in joint PT/OT has steadily decreased over the study period from 3.53% in 1991 to 2.72% in 1999.      Table 3.1aNumber of Occupational Therapists by Employment Status and Study Year, 1991-1999Employment StatusEmployed in Occupational and/or Physical TherapyYear In OT In PT/OT SubtotalEmployed in OtherNotEmployedMaternityLeaveExtendedLeave Other Unknown Total1991 495 20 515 8 7 9 3 20 4 5661995 707 25 732 6 15 13 2 6 1 7751997 753 22 775 3 13 20 1 14 3 8291999 829 25 854 5 18 23 3 12 5 920*************************************************************Table 3.1bPercent of Occupational Therapists by Employment Status and Study Year, 1991-1999Employment Status (%)Employed in Occupational and/or Physical TherapyYear In OT In PT/OT SubtotalEmployed in OtherNotEmployedMaternityLeaveExtendedLeave Other Unknown Total1991 87.46 3.53 90.99 1.41 1.24 1.59 0.53 3.53 0.71 100.001995 91.23 3.23 94.45 0.77 1.94 1.68 0.26 0.77 0.13 100.001997 90.83 2.65 93.49 0.36 1.57 2.41 0.12 1.69 0.36 100.001999 90.11 2.72 92.83 0.54 1.96 2.50 0.33 1.30 0.54 100.0056   57 Tables 3.2a and 3.2b present the number, number per 10,000 population, and the average annual rates of change4 for the total group of OTs (Table 3.2a) and for the subgroup of OTs employed ‘in the field’ (Table 3.2b) for each of the study years.  The average annual rates of change in the numbers reflect the average yearly percentage growth in the number of OTs.  The average annual rates of change in the ratios reflect the average yearly percentage growth of OTs relative to the growth in the overall population; this number tells us if the profession grew faster than the population (a positive number), at the same rate as the population (0), or more slowly than the population (a negative number).   The numbers per 10,000 population for the total group of OTs (Table 3.2a) increased steadily over the study period, from 1.68 in 1991 to 2.29 in 1999, indicating that there were more OTs per 10,000 population at the end of the study period than at the beginning.   The average annual rate of change in the number of OTs was considerably larger between 1991 and 1995 (8.17%) than the average annual rate of change between 1995 and 1997 (3.16%), and also larger than the average annual rate of change between 1997 and 1999 (5.13%).  This illustrates that the average yearly growth in the supply of OTs was much larger during the early 1990’s than in the latter parts of the decade.  The average annual rates of change in the ratio show that the supply of OTs grew more quickly than the population during the study period (ranging from 1.02% between 1995 and 1997 to 5.11% between 1991 and 1995).                                                    4  Average annual rates of change (in percent) are computed as follows:  [(data in the later year/data in the earlier year)12/n - 1] x 100  where n = the number of months separating the data based on the date of record.  Between 1991 and 1995,  n = 48; between 1995 and 1997, n = 26; and between 1997 and 1999, n = 25. Table 3.2aNumber, Number per 10,000 Population, and Average Annual Rates of Change forOccupational Therapists by Study Year, 1991-1999Average AnnualNumber per Rate of Change2Year Number 10,000 Population1 Number3 Ratio41991 566 1.68 -- --1995 775 2.05 8.17 5.111997 829 2.09 3.16 1.021999 920 2.29 5.13 4.331 Source: Population projections are from P.E.O.P.L.E. Projection Run #25, supplied by the   Population Section, BC STATS, BC Ministry of Finance and Corporate Relations. 2 The average annual rate of change is calculated as follows:      [(data in the later year/data in the earlier year)12/n - 1] x 100        where n=number of months separating the data based on the date of record.  Between 1991 and        1995, n=48; between 1995 and 1997, n=26; and between 1997 and 1999, n=25.3 Rate of change (in percent) in the number.4 Rate of change (in percent) in the number per 10,000 population.  58 Table 3.2b shows that the numbers per 10,000 population of OTs employed in the field steadily increased from 1.53 in 1991 to 2.12 in 1999.  This rise indicates there were more OTs employed in the field per 10,000 population at the end of the study period than at the beginning.   As was the case in Table 3.2a, Table 3.2b shows that the average annual rate of change in both the number of OTs and the ratio of OTs was much larger during the early part of the study period than during the middle or latter portions (9.19% vs. 2.67% and 4.77%, and 6.10% vs. 0.54% and 3.97%, respectively).  Thus the average yearly growth in both the supply of OTs employed in the field and the supply relative to the population was much larger during the early 1990’s versus the late 1990’s.      Table 3.3 presents the registration status of OTs for each of the study years.  The table shows there has been a steady increase in the number of continuing members over the study period, from 352 in 1991 to 685 in 1999.  Continuing members make up the majority of the OTs employed in the field, accounting for 62.19% in 1991, 71.48% in 1995, 77.68% in 1997 and 74.46% in 1999.  The number of new registrants for each study year fluctuated, and showed only a small net increase, starting at 108 in 1991, then increasing to 132 in 1995, before decreasing to 119 in 1995, and then increasing again to 131 in 1999.  The proportion of new registrants, however, steadily decreased over the study period from 19.08% in 1991 to 14.24% in 1999 due mainly to the increase in continuing members.  Both the numbers and proportions of reactivations decreased from 1991 through 1997, and then increased from 1997 to 1999.  Table 3.2bNumber, Number per 10,000 Population, and Average Annual Rates of Change for Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field1by Study Year, 1991-1999Average AnnualNumber per Rate of Change3Year Number 10,000 Population2 Number4 Ratio51991 515 1.53 -- --1995 732 1.93 9.19 6.101997 775 1.96 2.67 0.541999 854 2.12 4.77 3.971 Excludes occupational therapists not working in occupational therapy or joint PT/OT.2 Source: Population projections are from P.E.O.P.L.E. Projection Run #25, supplied by the   Population Section, BC STATS, BC Ministry of Finance and Corporate Relations. 3 The average annual rate of change is calculated as follows:      [(data in the later year/data in the earlier year)12/n - 1] x 100        where n=number of months separating the data based on the date of record.  Between 1991 and        1995, n=48; between 1995 and 1997, n=26; and between 1997 and 1999, n=25.4 Rate of change (in percent) in the number.5 Rate of change (in percent) in the number per 10,000 population.  59   b) Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field   For the following tables, the study group becomes those occupational therapists employed in occupational therapy or joint physical/occupational therapy in each of the study years (the subtotal column in Table 3.1a).  Table 3.4 and Tables 3.5a and 3.5b therefore present the sex and age breakdown of the subset of occupational therapists employed ‘in the field’ for each of the study years.  Table 3.4 shows that the proportion of female OTs remained relatively constant during the study period, ranging from 93.58% in 1995 to 95.08% in 1999.  Male OTs account for only a small proportion of the OT supply.     In Tables 3.5a and 3.5b the large number of unknowns in 1997 and 1999 create a problem when interpreting the tables.  (Information in Part (i) of Section 3(c) of this report appears to indicate that most of the unknowns in these years are new registrants.)  If we limit our discussion to the 1991 and 1995 data in Table 3.5a, it appears that the OT group was getting slightly older on average.  The proportions (Table 3.5b) of OTs in the age groups under 35 both decreased between 1991 and 1995, while the proportions of OTs in the 35-39 age group and the over 45 age groups have increased.  For example, the proportion of OTs under the age of 30 decreased from 20.78% in 1991 to 17.21% in 1995, and the proportion of OTs in the 30-34 year age group decreased slightly from 21.94% in 1991 to 21.17% in 1995.  In comparison, the proportion of OTs in the 35-39 year age group increased from 17.86% in 1991 to 21.04% in 1995, the proportion of OTs in the 45-49 year age group increased from Table 3.4Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Sex and Study Year, 1991-1999Female Male TotalYear No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)1991 488 (94.76) 27 (5.24) 515 (100.00)1995 685 (93.58) 47 (6.42) 732 (100.00)1997 727 (93.81) 48 (6.19) 775 (100.00)1999 812 (95.08) 42 (4.92) 854 (100.00)SexTable 3.3Occupational Therapists by Registration Status and Study Year, 1991-1999Registration StatusContinuing Member New Registrant Reactivation TotalYear No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)1991 352 (62.19) 108 (19.08) 106 (18.73) 566 (100.00)1995 554 (71.48) 132 (17.03) 89 (11.48) 775 (100.00)1997 644 (77.68) 119 (14.35) 66 (7.96) 829 (100.00)1999 685 (74.46) 131 (14.24) 104 (11.30) 920 (100.00)  6012.23% to 13.52%, and the proportion of OTs in the 50-54 year age group increased from 4.66% to 7.92%.     The type of employment is shown in Table 3.6.  The majority of OTs were employed on a full-time basis, although the proportion decreased over the study period from 65.05% in 1991 to 61.36% in 1999.  The proportion of part-time OTs increased between 1991 (26.21%) and 1997 (32.13%), before decreasing slightly to 31.15% in 1999.  The proportion of casuals followed the opposite trend, decreasing between 1991 and 1997, and then increasing again in 1999.      Table 3.5aNumber of Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Age and Study Year, 1991-1999Year <30 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65+ Unknown Total1991 107 113 92 83 63 24 21 8 0 4 5151995 126 155 154 103 99 58 20 9 1 7 7321997 90 125 146 109 103 61 32 12 1 96 7751999 32 103 126 135 99 84 45 11 2 217 854*************************************************Table 3.5bPercent of Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Age and Study Year, 1991-1999Year <30 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65+ Unknown Total1991 20.78 21.94 17.86 16.12 12.23 4.66 4.08 1.55 0.00 0.78 100.001995 17.21 21.17 21.04 14.07 13.52 7.92 2.73 1.23 0.14 0.96 100.001997 11.61 16.13 18.84 14.06 13.29 7.87 4.13 1.55 0.13 12.39 100.001999 3.75 12.06 14.75 15.81 11.59 9.84 5.27 1.29 0.23 25.41 100.00Age GroupAge Group (%)Table 3.6Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Type of Employment and Study Year, 1991-1999Full-time Part-Time Casual/Locum Unknown TotalYear No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)1991 335 (65.05) 135 (26.21) 41 (7.96) 4 (0.78) 515 (100.00)1995 463 (63.25) 233 (31.83) 35 (4.78) 1 (0.14) 732 (100.00)1997 489 (63.10) 249 (32.13) 35 (4.52) 2 (0.26) 775 (100.00)1999 524 (61.36) 266 (31.15) 61 (7.14) 3 (0.35) 854 (100.00)Type of Employment  61 Tables 3.7a and 3.7b present place of employment information.  Some categories in these tables represent groupings of employers where the numbers of OTs reporting employment within these categories were small.  In all such cases, footnotes list the employer categories.   Table 3.7a shows there were some very large increases in the numbers of OTs employed in some places of employment over the study period.  The largest increases were for OTs employed in ‘Community Health Agency’ and ‘Private Practice’ (from 52 in 1991 to 124 in 1999, and from only 28 in 1991 to 189 in 1999, respectively).  Other areas such as ‘Acute Care Hospital’ and ‘Workers Compensation Board’ also showed notable increases in the number of OTs reporting employment.    The proportions of OTs by place of employment are presented in Table 3.7b, and some interesting trends appear.  As might be expected from Table 3.7a, there were very large increases in the proportions of OTs working in ‘Community Health Agency’ (from 10.10% in 1991 to 14.52% in 1999) and ‘Private Practice’ (from 5.44% in 1991 to 22.13% in 1999), indicating an increasing move for OTs to work in the community (in public and private sector), rather than within facilities.  More OTs still work in ‘Acute Care Hospitals’ (30.33% in 1999) than for any other employer category, but this proportion has been decreasing, while categories such as ‘Private Practice’ (22.13% in 1999) are gaining ground.  Overall, the extremely large increases seen in the proportions of OTs working in ‘Community Health Agency’ and ‘Private Practice’ affected the proportions seen for all remaining categories.  For example, the proportions of OTs employed in each of the five hospital categories decreased over the study period, regardless of the trend seen with the absolute numbers in Table 3.7a; the proportion of OTs employed in ‘Acute Care Hospital’ went down from 36.31% in 1991 to 30.33 in 1999, and the proportion of OTs employed in ‘Rehabilitation Hospital’ decreased from 11.65% in 1991 to 7.85% in 1999, although both categories had seen increases in the numbers of OTs employed in them over the study period (Table 3.7a).     Tables 3.8a and 3.8b show area of service for occupational therapists employed in the field for each of the study years.  In 1995, an additional category of ‘Community’ existed which was absent in 1991, 1997 and 1999.  Rather than simply aggregating those OTs who indicated ‘Community’ into the ‘Other’ category for 1995, the OTs were distributed among several categories based on their areas of service in 1991, 1997 and 1999.  In all such cases,  there is a footnote on the tables indicating the affected areas of service.  Additionally, some categories in these tables represent groupings of areas of service when the numbers of OTs reporting employment within these categories were small.  In these cases, there is also a footnote indicating the areas of service.   The number of OTs (Table 3.8a) who described themselves as working in areas such as the three ‘Outpatient’ categories, ‘Home Care’ or ‘Vocational Rehabilitation’ all increased substantially over the study period.  ‘Rehabilitation Outpatient’ increased from 55 in 1991 to 122 in 1999, while both ‘Psychiatric Outpatient’ and ‘General Outpatient’ showed an almost 200% increase between 1991 and 1999 (from 20 to 58, and from 34 to 99, respectively).  ‘Home Care’ and ‘Vocational Rehabilitation’ showed even larger increases in the number of OTs working in these areas, from 32 in 1991 to 109 in 1999 for ‘Home Care’ and from 13 in 1991 to 114 in 1999 for ‘Vocational Rehabilitation’.  This obviously reflects the increase in     Table 3.7aNumber of Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Place of Employment and Study Year, 1991-1999Place of EmploymentYearAcute Care HospitalPaediatric HospitalRehab. HospitalPsychiatric HospitalLong Term Care1Public Community Health Agency2Children's Treatment/ Outpatient CentreWorker's Comp- ensation BoardVoluntary/ Non-profit AgencySchool Board/ University/ College3Private Practice Other4 Unknown Total1991 187 18 60 20 50 52 26 11 13 16 28 31 3 5151995 229 16 61 17 70 101 40 29 17 17 118 16 1 7321997 236 14 57 16 62 103 44 25 32 18 160 7 1 7751999 259 16 67 17 75 124 37 24 21 17 189 8 0 8541 Includes  OTs who indicated "Extended Care Hospital", "Intermediate Care Facility", "Personal/Home Care" or "Centre for Mentally Handicapped" as their place of employment.2 Includes OTs who indicated "Adult Day Care" or "Public Community Health Agency" as their place of employment.3 Includes OTs who indicated "School Board" or "University/College" as their place of employment.4 Includes OTs who indicated "Insurance Corporation", "Retail" or "Other" as their place of employment.*******************************************************************Table 3.7bPercent of Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Place of Employment and Study Year, 1991-1999Place of Employment (%)YearAcute Care HospitalPaediatric HospitalRehab. HospitalPsychiatric HospitalLong Term Care1Public Community Health Agency2Children's Treatment/ Outpatient CentreWorker's Comp- ensation BoardVoluntary/ Non-profit AgencySchool Board/ University/ College3Private Practice Other4 Unknown Total1991 36.31 3.50 11.65 3.88 9.71 10.10 5.05 2.14 2.52 3.11 5.44 6.02 0.58 100.001995 31.28 2.19 8.33 2.32 9.56 13.80 5.46 3.96 2.32 2.32 16.12 2.19 0.14 100.001997 30.45 1.81 7.35 2.06 8.00 13.29 5.68 3.23 4.13 2.32 20.65 0.90 0.13 100.001999 30.33 1.87 7.85 1.99 8.78 14.52 4.33 2.81 2.46 1.99 22.13 0.94 0.00 100.001 Includes  OTs who indicated "Extended Care Hospital", "Intermediate Care Facility", "Personal/Home Care" or "Centre for Mentally Handicapped" as their place of employment.2 Includes OTs who indicated "Adult Day Care" or "Public Community Health Agency" as their place of employment.3 Includes OTs who indicated "School Board" or "University/College" as their place of employment.4 Includes OTs who indicated "Insurance Corporation", "Retail" or "Other" as their place of employment.62    63 Table 3.8aNumber of Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Area of Service and Study Year, 1991-1999Area of ServiceYearAcute Care InpatientExtended Care InpatientPsychiatry InpatientPsychiatry OutpatientRehab. InpatientRehab. Outpatient1General Outpatient1Admin-istrationResearch/ Teaching2Home Care1Vocational Rehab- ilitation1 Other1 Unknown Total1991 76 58 42 20 66 55 34 36 9 32 13 67 7 5151995 98 65 44 45 57 99 94 38 9 82 74 24 3 7321997 97 56 40 55 69 131 86 29 13 91 92 13 3 7751999 132 66 36 58 67 122 99 28 12 109 114 11 0 8541 In 1995 only, includes several OTs who indicated "Community" as their area of service.  Please see the text for details.2 Includes OTs who indicated "Research" or "Teaching" as their area of service.*******************************************************************Table 3.8bPercent of Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Area of Service and Study Year, 1991-1999Area of Service (%)YearAcute Care InpatientExtended Care InpatientPsychiatry InpatientPsychiatry OutpatientRehab. InpatientRehab. Outpatient1General Outpatient1Admin-istrationResearch/ Teaching2Home Care1Vocational Rehab- ilitation1 Other1 Unknown Total1991 14.76 11.26 8.16 3.88 12.82 10.68 6.60 6.99 1.75 6.21 2.52 13.01 1.36 100.001995 13.39 8.88 6.01 6.15 7.79 13.52 12.84 5.19 1.23 11.20 10.11 3.28 0.41 100.001997 12.52 7.23 5.16 7.10 8.90 16.90 11.10 3.74 1.68 11.74 11.87 1.68 0.39 100.001999 15.46 7.73 4.22 6.79 7.85 14.29 11.59 3.28 1.41 12.76 13.35 1.29 0.00 100.001 In 1995 only, includes several OTs who indicated "Community" as their area of service.  Please see the text for details.2 Includes OTs who indicated "Research" or "Teaching" as their area of service.  64the trend towards outpatient/community-based care in the larger health care system, and indicates a trend away from inpatient-based occupational therapy services.   The proportions of OTs working in particular service areas presented in Table 3.8b show the same trend.  There were decreases in the proportions of OTs working in most of the inpatient areas such as ‘Extended Care Inpatient’, ‘Psychiatric Inpatient’, ‘Rehabilitation Inpatient’ and ‘Administration’, while there were large increases in the outpatient areas.  For example, the proportion of OTs working in the area of ‘Psychiatric Inpatient’ decreased from 8.16% in 1991 to 4.22% in 1999, while the proportion of OTs working in the area of ‘Psychiatric Outpatient’ increased from 3.88% in 1991 to 6.79% in 1999.   Tables 3.9a and 3.9b show positions as reported by occupational therapists employed in the field for each of the study years.  Some categories in these tables represent groupings of positions when the numbers of OTs reporting employment within these categories were small.  In all such cases, footnotes list the positions.   The number of OTs reporting work in the position of ‘Staff Therapist’ increased over the study period from 274 in 1991 to 457 in 1999 (see Table 2.9a).  There were also notable increases in the number of OTs working in ‘Sole Charge’ positions and ‘Program Coordinator/Director’ positions.  However, the largest relative increases were seen for the positions of ‘Consultant’ and ‘Clinical Specialist’, increasing from 38 in 1991 to 139 in 1999, and from 2 in 1991 to 20 in 1999, respectively.   Table 3.9b shows that a slight majority of OTs reported ‘Staff Therapist’ as their position in each of the study years, but that overall, there was little change in the proportion of OTs working in the position of ‘Staff Therapist’ over the study period (from 53.20% in 1991 to 50.96% in 1995 and then to 52.00% in 1997 and 53.51% in 1999).  The positions of  ‘Sole Charge’ and ‘Program Coordinator/Director’ showed only small increases in the proportions of OTs working in these positions over the study period.  Notable changes in proportions were seen for the positions of ‘Senior Therapist’ which decreased from 13.20% in 1991 to 8.08% in 1999, while “Consultant’ increased from 7.38% in 1991 to 16.28% in 1999.      Table 3.9aNumber of Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Position and Study Year, 1991-1999PositionYearStaff TherapistSenior TherapistSole ChargeDept. Head/ Asst. Dept. Head1Clinical CoordinatorProgram Coordinator/ DirectorFaculty Position ConsultantClinical Specialist Other2 Unknown Total1991 274 68 38 42 6 17 9 38 2 17 4 5151995 373 86 71 33 7 29 8 102 15 5 3 7321997 403 66 68 37 8 27 7 133 11 12 3 7751999 457 69 67 35 8 34 7 139 20 18 0 8541 Includes OT's who indicated "Department Head" or "Assistant Department Head" as their position .2 Includes OTs who indicated "Researcher" or "Other" as their position.*******************************************************************Table 3.9bPercent of Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Position and Study Year, 1991-1999Position (%)YearStaff TherapistSenior TherapistSole ChargeDept. Head/ Asst. Dept. Head1Clinical CoordinatorProgram Coordinator/ DirectorFaculty Position ConsultantClinical Specialist Other2 Unknown Total1991 53.20 13.20 7.38 8.16 1.17 3.30 1.75 7.38 0.39 3.30 0.78 100.001995 50.96 11.75 9.70 4.51 0.96 3.96 1.09 13.93 2.05 0.68 0.41 100.001997 52.00 8.52 8.77 4.77 1.03 3.48 0.90 17.16 1.42 1.55 0.39 100.001999 53.51 8.08 7.85 4.10 0.94 3.98 0.82 16.28 2.34 2.11 0.00 100.001 Includes OT's who indicated "Department Head" or "Assistant Department Head" as their position .2 Includes OTs who indicated "Researcher" or "Other" as their position.65   66 Table 3.10 illustrates the place of graduation of OTs employed in the field between 1991 and 1999.  The number of OTs who were graduates of either ‘B.C.’ or ‘Other Canada’ schools almost doubled between 1991 and 1999, from 169 to 336 and from 171 to 316, respectively, while the number from schools outside Canada fluctuated from a low of 172 in 1991 to a high of 196 in 1995.   Proportionally, ‘Other Country ’ graduates accounted for the largest percentage of the OTs in 1991 at 33.40%, followed closely by ‘Other Canada’ graduates at 33.20% and then B.C. graduates at 32.82%.  By 1995, B.C. graduates accounted for the largest percentage of OTs (37.02%) followed by ‘Other Canada’ (34.97%) and then the ‘Other Country ’ graduates (26.78%).  This same pattern was seen in 1997 and 1999, by which time B.C. graduates accounted for almost 40% of the OTs.     Tables 3.11a and 3.11b present the location of OTs employed in the field in B.C. during the study period.  The location is presented using the 18 Health Authorities (11 Regional Health Boards and 7 Community Health Services Societies) in British Columbia.  Table 3.11b differs from other (b) tables in this section, in that it presents numbers per 10,000 population rather than row percentages, allowing for valid comparisons between regions with dramatically different population bases.   All Health Authorities showed an increase over the study period in the number of OTs working in each of the regions (see Table 3.11a).  Almost half of the regions, in fact, saw increases of over 100% in the absolute numbers of OTs working in the regions over the study period, although the numbers within many of these regions were very small to begin with, so any increase would appear significant.   Like the absolute numbers (Table 3.11a), the numbers per 10,000 population increased over the study period in all regions (Table 3.11b).  The figures presented in Table 3.11b show that the Vancouver/Richmond, Capital and Okanagan Similkameen regions had numbers per 10,000 population greater than the provincial number per 10,000 population in all study years.  In comparison, the South Fraser and Fraser Valley regions, although they too have relatively large population bases, have much lower numbers of OTs per 10,000 population (1.18 and 0.75, respectively in 1999, compared to 4.38 in Vancouver/Richmond, 3.03 in Okanagan Similkameen and 2.76 in Capital in 1999). Table 3.10Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Place of Graduation and Study Year, 1991-1999Place of GraduationB.C. Other Canada Other Country Unknown TotalYear No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)1991 169 (32.82) 171 (33.20) 172 (33.40) 3 (0.58) 515 (100.00)1995 271 (37.02) 256 (34.97) 196 (26.78) 9 (1.23) 732 (100.00)1997 297 (38.32) 277 (35.74) 188 (24.26) 13 (1.68) 775 (100.00)1999 336 (39.34) 316 (37.00) 190 (22.25) 12 (1.41) 854 (100.00)  67Table 3.11aNumber of Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby B.C. Health Authority and Study Year, 1991-1999B.C. Health Authorities - Regional Health BoardsYearNorth OkanaganOkanagan Similkameen ThompsonFraser ValleySouth FraserSimon FraserCentral Vancouver IslandNorthern InteriorVancouver/ RichmondNorth Shore Capital1991 4 29 11 11 31 53 24 6 228 25 701995 14 49 17 17 50 77 42 11 293 28 801997 8 66 18 15 60 94 39 11 302 25 801999 13 70 22 18 67 98 46 8 321 29 92... continued belowB.C. Health Authorities - Community Health Services SocietiesYear East KootenayKootenay BoundaryCoast GaribaldiUpper Island/ Central Coast Cariboo North WestPeace Liard Total1991 2 5 1 5 2 8 0 5151995 6 6 6 15 5 14 2 7321997 9 7 5 15 6 12 3 7751999 11 9 8 20 4 12 6 854*******************************************************************Table 3.11bNumber per 10,000 Population1 of Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby B.C. Health Authority and Study Year, 1991-1999B.C. Health Authorities - Regional Health BoardsYearNorth OkanaganOkanagan Similkameen ThompsonFraser ValleySouth FraserSimon FraserCentral Vancouver IslandNorthern InteriorVancouver/ RichmondNorth Shore Capital1991 0.41 1.59 0.97 0.58 0.69 1.28 1.21 0.51 3.67 1.54 2.281995 1.26 2.27 1.34 0.76 0.95 1.62 1.84 0.87 4.31 1.61 2.431997 0.69 2.92 1.35 0.64 1.08 1.89 1.63 0.83 4.22 1.40 2.391999 1.10 3.03 1.62 0.75 1.18 1.93 1.89 0.60 4.38 1.62 2.76... continued belowB.C. Health Authorities - Community Health Services SocietiesYear East KootenayKootenay BoundaryCoast GaribaldiUpper Island/ Central Coast Cariboo North WestPeace Liard Total1991 0.28 0.68 0.16 0.49 0.30 0.94 0.00 1.531995 0.78 0.75 0.85 1.30 0.70 1.58 0.32 1.931997 1.12 0.85 0.65 1.24 0.79 1.31 0.46 1.961999 1.34 1.09 1.01 1.63 0.52 1.31 0.90 2.121 Source: Population projections are from P.E.O.P.L.E. Projection Run #25, supplied by the Population Section, BC STATS, BC Ministry of Finance   and Corporate Relations.   68 c) Sources of Change in the Supply of Occupational Therapists   This section of the report examines the sources of change in the supply of occupational therapists.  It should be noted that most of the data presented in this section of the report are from four separate data files, representing four discrete points in time: 1991, 1995, 1997 and 1999.  Thus in each data file the registration history of each OT at that point in time is being observed; in the 1995 file for example, each OT is labeled as either a continuing member, a new registrant or a reactivation.  This analytic approach needs to be kept in mind when interpreting the findings in this section.  An analysis of data across the study years on stability and movement among OTs is presented in the following section of this report (see Section 3(d)).   There are four basic sources of change in the supply of OTs: continuing members, new registrant members, reactivated members, and attrition.  In the data files used for this section of the report, continuing members are those OTs who were registered during the study year and were also registered two years previously.  New registrant members are OTs who were registered during the study year, and who had registered for the first time in B.C. during the 2-year interval before the study year.  Reactivations are OTs who were registered during the study year, but were not registered two years previously, and who had registered for the first time in B.C. more than two years previously.  Attrition was more difficult to get information on, because in any given study year the OTs who had not renewed their registration would not of course appear in the data file of registered members.  Thus in the case of attrition, unlike continuing members, new registrants, or reactivations, the data files from each study year had to be compared to each other to find those OTs who were registered during one study year but not registered during the following study year.  This is an important difference in method to note when interpreting the data presented in this section.   (i) New Registrants   The employment status of new registrant occupational therapists (OTs) in British Columbia for each of the four study years is presented in Tables 3.12a and 3.12b.  Table 3.12a shows that the contribution of new registrants to the supply of OTs has varied during the four study years, from 108 new registrants in 1991 to 132 in 1995, then to 119 in 1997, and then to 131 in 1999.  The number of new registrant OTs who were employed in occupational therapy also varied in a similar manner, while the number of new registrant OTs who were not employed was somewhat greater in the latter study years than in the early part of the decade (13 in 1999 vs. 4 in 1991).     Table 3.12b shows that over 80% of new registrant OTs are employed in occupational therapy in each of the study years.  This proportion is slightly lower in 1999 (83.21%) than it was in 1991 (88.89%), so it appears fewer of the new registrant OTs are employed in occupational therapy in the latter part of the decade.  By comparing the proportions of new registrant OTs (Table 3.12b) with the total OT population discussed in the previous section (Table 3.1b), it also appears that fewer of the new registrant population are employed in occupational therapy compared to the total OT population (83.21% vs. 90.11% in 1999, respectively).     Table 3.12aNumber of New Registrant Occupational Therapists by Employment Status and Study Year, 1991-1999Employment StatusEmployed in Occupational and/or Physical TherapyYear In OT In PT/OT SubtotalEmployed in OtherNotEmployedMaternityLeaveExtendedLeave Other Unknown Total1991 96 2 98 3 4 0 1 2 0 1081995 112 3 115 5 9 1 0 1 1 1321997 106 1 107 0 7 0 0 4 1 1191999 109 1 110 2 13 3 0 0 3 131*************************************************************Table 3.12bPercent of New Registrant Occupational Therapists by Employment Status and Study Year, 1991-1999Employment Status (%)Employed in Occupational and/or Physical TherapyYear In OT In PT/OT SubtotalEmployed in OtherNotEmployedMaternityLeaveExtendedLeave Other Unknown Total1991 88.89 1.85 90.74 2.78 3.70 0.00 0.93 1.85 0.00 100.001995 84.85 2.27 87.12 3.79 6.82 0.76 0.00 0.76 0.76 100.001997 89.08 0.84 89.92 0.00 5.88 0.00 0.00 3.36 0.84 100.001999 83.21 0.76 83.97 1.53 9.92 2.29 0.00 0.00 2.29 100.0069   70 For the following tables, the study group becomes those new registrant occupational therapists employed ‘in the field’ (i.e. in occupational therapy or joint physical/occupational therapy) in each of the study years (the subtotal column in Table 3.12a).  Table 3.13 therefore illustrates the sex breakdown of the subset of new registrant occupational therapists employed in the field for each of the study years.  Table 3.13 shows that in the latter part of the decade the proportion of female new registrant OTs was greater (100.00% in 1999) than at the beginning of the decade (93.88% in 1991) and that the proportion of female new registrant OTs was also greater than the proportions of female OTs in the total OT population (see Table 3.4).  It would seem therefore that in recent years there has been a trend towards more women than men entering occupational therapy.      Table 3.14a and 3.14b show the age breakdown for new registrant occupational therapists employed in the field for each of the study years.  As was mentioned in Section 3(b) in the discussion on the age breakdown of OTs, age was unknown for a very large proportion of the 1997 and 1999 new registrant OT populations (85.05% and 100.00%, respectively).  This effectively limits the discussion of age among the new registrant population to the 1991 and 1995 study years.  Table 3.14b shows that over 70% of new registrant OTs employed in occupational and/or physical therapy were under the age of 35 in both 1991 and 1995.  Also noteworthy is that in 1991 15.3% of new registrant OTs were 40 years older or over, while in 1995 this figure was only 9.6%.  This indicates that the new registrants in 1995 were, on average, younger than the previous cohort; it also reflects a likely decrease in the number of OTs moving to B.C. and registering in B.C. after having worked elsewhere for a number of years.   The type of employment for new registrant OTs employed in the field is shown in Table 3.15.  The majority of new registrant OTs were employed on a full-time basis, although the proportion decreased over the study period from 71.43% in 1991 to 64.55% in 1999.  If the proportions of new registrant OTs are compared to the proportions of all OTs employed in the field (see Table 3.6) some interesting trends appear.  In all study years, the proportions of new registrant OTs working on a full-time basis and the proportions of new registrant OTs working on a casual basis are higher than the comparable proportions for all OTs.  For example, in 1999, 64.55% of new registrant OTs worked full-time and 21.82% worked on a Table 3.13New Registrant Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Sex and Study Year, 1991-1999Female Male TotalYear No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)1991 92 (93.88) 6 (6.12) 98 (100.00)1995 100 (86.96) 15 (13.04) 115 (100.00)1997 103 (96.26) 4 (3.74) 107 (100.00)1999 110 (100.00) 0 (0.00) 110 (100.00)Sex  71casual basis, while only 61.36% of the total OT population worked full-time and only 7.14% worked casual.     *********************************************     Table 3.14aNumber of New Registrant Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Age and Study Year, 1991-1999Year <30 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65+ Unknown Total1991 40 30 10 6 6 2 1 0 0 3 981995 48 39 15 7 2 2 0 0 0 2 1151997 7 3 2 3 1 0 0 0 0 91 1071999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 110 110*************************************************Table 3.14bPercent of New Registrant Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Age and Study Year, 1991-1999Year <30 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65+ Unknown Total1991 40.82 30.61 10.20 6.12 6.12 2.04 1.02 0.00 0.00 3.06 100.001995 41.74 33.91 13.04 6.09 1.74 1.74 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.74 100.001997 6.54 2.80 1.87 2.80 0.93 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 85.05 100.001999 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 100.00Age GroupAge Group (%)Table 3.15New Registrant Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Type of Employment and Study Year, 1991-1999Full-time Part-Time Casual/Locum Unknown TotalYear No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)1991 70 (71.43) 12 (12.24) 16 (16.33) 0 (0.00) 98 (100.00)1995 76 (66.09) 25 (21.74) 13 (11.30) 1 (0.87) 115 (100.00)1997 72 (67.29) 21 (19.63) 12 (11.21) 2 (1.87) 107 (100.00)1999 71 (64.55) 13 (11.82) 24 (21.82) 2 (1.82) 110 (100.00)Type of Employment  72 Tables 3.16a and 3.16b present place of employment information for new registrant OTs.  Some categories in these tables represent groupings of employers where the numbers of OTs reporting employment within these categories were small.  In all such cases, footnotes list the employer categories.   Table 3.16b shows that the largest proportion of new registrant OTs work in ‘Acute Care Hospitals’, although this proportion varied considerably over the study period going from 42.86% in 1991 to 28.70% in 1995, then to 28.97% in 1997 and then back up to 35.45% in 1999.  In contrast, the proportion of new registrant OTs working in ‘Private Practice’ has increased substantially over the study period from 4.08% in 1991 to 30.00% in 1999.  The pronounced increase in OTs working in ‘Private Practice’ was also seen in the entire OT population (Tables 3.7a and 3.7b).  There tend to be more new registrant OTs working in ‘Acute Care Hospitals’ or ‘Private Practice’ than for the OT population as a whole.  For example, 30.33% of the entire OT population worked in ‘Acute Care Hospitals’ in 1999 while 35.45% of the new registrant population worked in ‘Acute Care Hospitals’ in 1999, and 22.13% of the total OT population worked in ‘Private Practice’ in 1999, while 30.00% of the new registrant population worked in ‘Private Practice’.  Further comparisons of Table 3.16b and Table 3.7b show that new registrant OTs were far less likely to work in ‘Community Health Agencies’ in all of the study years than OTs in the entire OT population (5.10% of new registrants in 1991 vs. 8.74% of all OTs in 1991, for example).   Tables 3.17a and 3.17b show area of service for new registrant occupational therapists employed in the field for each of the study years.  Some categories in these tables represent groupings of areas of service when the numbers of OTs reporting employment within these categories were small.  In these cases, a footnote indicates the areas of service.   The proportions of new registrant OTs who described themselves as working in ‘Inpatient’ areas in 1991 were far greater than the proportions working in ‘Outpatient’ areas in 1991.  In total, 61.22% worked in the four inpatient areas shown in Table 3.17b compared to 17.35% in the three outpatient areas shown in the Table.  By 1999, the difference was much less pronounced, but new registrant OTs were still more likely to be working in inpatient areas rather than outpatient areas (45.45% total for Inpatient vs. 23.64 total for Outpatient).  Generally, new registrant OTs were also more likely than the total OT population (Tables 3.8a and 3.8b) to be working in each of the four inpatient areas, and less likely to be working in the three outpatient areas during most of the study years.  In 1997 for example, 16.82% of new registrants worked in ‘Acute Care Inpatient’ and 8.41% worked in ‘Psychiatric Inpatient’ compared to 12.52% and 5.16%, respectively, of the total OT population, while 3.74% of the new registrants worked in ‘Psychiatric Outpatient’ and 7.48% worked in ‘General Outpatient’ compared to 7.10%% and 11.10%, respectively, of the total OT population.   Tables 3.18a and 3.18b show position as reported by new registrant occupational therapists employed in the field for each of the study years.  Some categories in these tables represent groupings of positions when the numbers of OTs reporting employment within these categories were small.  In all such cases, footnotes list the positions.    Table 3.16aNumber of New Registrant Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Place of Employment and Study Year, 1991-1999Place of EmploymentYearAcute Care HospitalPaediatric HospitalRehab. HospitalPsychiatric HospitalLong Term Care1Public Community Health Agency2Children's Treatment/ Outpatient CentreWorker's Comp- ensation BoardVoluntary/ Non-profit AgencySchool Board/ University/ College3Private Practice Other4 Total1991 42 3 10 7 10 5 8 3 2 0 4 4 981995 33 0 5 11 13 15 5 6 2 2 21 2 1151997 31 2 8 5 7 8 3 2 1 1 38 1 1071999 39 0 7 5 11 8 1 1 2 1 33 2 1101 Includes  OTs who indicated "Extended Care Hospital", "Intermediate Care Facility", "Personal/Home Care" or "Centre for Mentally Handicapped" as their place of employment.2 Includes OTs who indicated "Adult Day Care" or "Public Community Health Agency" as their place of employment.3 Includes OTs who indicated "School Board" or "University/College" as their place of employment.4 Includes OTs who indicated "Insurance Corporation", "Retail" or "Other" as their place of employment.*******************************************************************Table 3.16bPercent of New Registrant Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Place of Employment and Study Year, 1991-1999Place of Employment (%)YearAcute Care HospitalPaediatric HospitalRehab. HospitalPsychiatric HospitalLong Term Care1Public Community Health Agency2Children's Treatment/ Outpatient CentreWorker's Comp- ensation BoardVoluntary/ Non-profit AgencySchool Board/ University/ College3Private Practice Other4 Total1991 42.86 3.06 10.20 7.14 10.20 5.10 8.16 3.06 2.04 0.00 4.08 4.08 100.001995 28.70 0.00 4.35 9.57 11.30 13.04 4.35 5.22 1.74 1.74 18.26 1.74 100.001997 28.97 1.87 7.48 4.67 6.54 7.48 2.80 1.87 0.93 0.93 35.51 0.93 100.001999 35.45 0.00 6.36 4.55 10.00 7.27 0.91 0.91 1.82 0.91 30.00 1.82 100.001 Includes  OTs who indicated "Extended Care Hospital", "Intermediate Care Facility", "Personal/Home Care" or "Centre for Mentally Handicapped" as their place of employment.2 Includes OTs who indicated "Adult Day Care" or "Public Community Health Agency" as their place of employment.3 Includes OTs who indicated "School Board" or "University/College" as their place of employment.4 Includes OTs who indicated "Insurance Corporation", "Retail" or "Other" as their place of employment.73    Table 3.17aNumber of New Registrant Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Area of Service and Study Year, 1991-1999Area of ServiceYearAcute Care InpatientExtended Care InpatientPsychiatry InpatientPsychiatry OutpatientRehab. InpatientRehab. OutpatientGeneral OutpatientHome CareVocational Rehab- ilitation Other1 Total1991 22 15 10 4 13 5 8 4 3 14 981995 18 11 13 4 9 9 5 12 17 17 1151997 18 7 9 4 10 17 8 10 21 3 1071999 25 10 7 9 8 8 9 9 22 3 1101 Includes OTs who indicated "Administration", "Research", "Teaching" or "Other" as their area of service.  In 1995 only, also includes several OTs who indicated "Community"   as their area of service.*******************************************************************Table 3.17bPercent of New Registrant Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Area of Service and Study Year, 1991-1999Area of Service (%)YearAcute Care InpatientExtended Care InpatientPsychiatry InpatientPsychiatry OutpatientRehab. InpatientRehab. OutpatientGeneral OutpatientHome CareVocational Rehab- ilitation Other1 Total1991 22.45 15.31 10.20 4.08 13.27 5.10 8.16 4.08 3.06 14.29 100.001995 15.65 9.57 11.30 3.48 7.83 7.83 4.35 10.43 14.78 14.78 100.001997 16.82 6.54 8.41 3.74 9.35 15.89 7.48 9.35 19.63 2.80 100.001999 22.73 9.09 6.36 8.18 7.27 7.27 8.18 8.18 20.00 2.73 100.001 Includes OTs who indicated "Administration", "Research", "Teaching" or "Other" as their area of service.  In 1995 only, also includes several OTs who indicated "Community"   as their area of service.74    Table 3.18aNumber of New Registrant Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Position1 and Study Year, 1991-1999PositionYearStaff TherapistSenior TherapistSole ChargeDept. Head/ Asst. Dept. Head2Clinical CoordinatorProgram Coordinator/ Director Consultant Other3 Unknown Total1991 69 12 6 3 2 0 5 1 0 981995 82 5 7 0 1 0 15 4 1 1151997 69 1 9 0 0 2 22 4 0 1071999 79 3 6 0 2 2 16 2 0 1101 There were no new registrant OTs who indicated "Researcher" as their position in any of the study years.2 Includes OTs who indicated "Department Head" or "Assistant Department Head" as their position.3 Includes OTs who indicated "Faculty Position", "Clinical Specialist" or "Other" as their position.*******************************************************************Table 3.18bPercent of New Registrant Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Position1 and Study Year, 1991-1999Position (%)YearStaff TherapistSenior TherapistSole ChargeDept. Head/ Asst. Dept. Head2Clinical CoordinatorProgram Coordinator/ Director Consultant Other3 Unknown Total1991 70.41 12.24 6.12 3.06 2.04 0.00 5.10 1.02 0.00 100.001995 71.30 4.35 6.09 0.00 0.87 0.00 13.04 3.48 0.87 100.001997 64.49 0.93 8.41 0.00 0.00 1.87 20.56 3.74 0.00 100.001999 71.82 2.73 5.45 0.00 1.82 1.82 14.55 1.82 0.00 100.001 There were no new registrant OTs who indicated "Researcher" as their position in any of the study years.2 Includes OTs who indicated "Department Head" or "Assistant Department Head" as their position.3 Includes OTs who indicated "Faculty Position", "Clinical Specialist" or "Other" as their position.75   76 A majority of new registrant OTs are employed as ‘Staff Therapists’ in all of the study years, ranging from 64.49% in 1997 to 71.82% in 1999 (see Table 3.18b).  These proportions are much larger than the proportions of OTs working as ‘Staff Therapists’ in the total OT population seen in Table 3.9b, where the proportions range from 50.96% in 1995 to 53.51% in 1999.  The new registrant OTs, like the total group of OTs, are far more likely to be in ‘Consultant’ positions in 1995, 1997 or 1999 than they were in 1991 (13.04% in 1995 vs. 5.10% in 1991 for example).  The new registrant OT group, however, is slightly less likely than the total OT group to be in ‘Consultant’ positions (14.55% of new registrant OTs in 1999 vs.16.28% of all OTs in 1999).   The place of graduation of new registrant OTs is shown in Table 3.19.  The largest proportions of new registrant OTs have graduated from schools in ‘Other Canada’ throughout the study period.  In fact, in 1999 a majority of new registrant OTs graduated in ‘Other Canada’ (56.36%).  This is in contrast to the total OT group, for whom the proportion of OTs graduating from schools in ‘Other Canada’ ranges from only 33.20% in 1991 to 37.00% in 1999 (see Table 3.10).  The proportion of B.C. graduates among the new registrant group has been increasing over the study period (from 21.43% in 1991 to 27.27% in 1999), while the proportion of ‘Other Country’ graduates has been decreasing (30.61% in 1991 compared to 11.82% in 1999).  These two trends were also seen in the total OT group (Table 3.10).     Tables 3.20a and 3.20b present the location of new registrant OTs employed in the field in B.C. during the study period.  The location is presented using the 18 Health Authorities (11 Regional Health Boards and 7 Community Health Services Societies) in British Columbia.  Table 3.20b differs from other (b) tables in this section, in that it presents numbers per 10,000 population rather than row percentages, allowing for valid comparisons between regions with dramatically different population bases.   The number per 10,000 population figures presented in Table 3.20b show that the new registrant OT supply is much greater in Vancouver/Richmond than in the other regions of the province (ranging from 0.79 in 1991 to 0.60 in 1999, compared to 0.36 in 1991 and 0.30 in 1999 in Capital, and 0.29 in 1991 and 0.27 in 1999 for the province as a whole).  Similar to the total OT supply, the number of new registrant OTs per 10,000 population in the Vancouver/Richmond, Okanagan Similkameen and Capital regions was greater than the provincial numbers per 10,000 population in all study years.Table 3.19New Registrant Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Place of Graduation and Study Year, 1991-1999Place of GraduationB.C. Other Canada Other Country Unknown TotalYear No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)1991 21 (21.43) 47 (47.96) 30 (30.61) 0 (0.00) 98 (100.00)1995 31 (26.96) 55 (47.83) 26 (22.61) 3 (2.61) 115 (100.00)1997 35 (32.71) 46 (42.99) 22 (20.56) 4 (3.74) 107 (100.00)1999 30 (27.27) 62 (56.36) 13 (11.82) 5 (4.55) 110 (100.00)  77 Table 3.20aNumber of New Registrant Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby B.C. Health Authority and Study Year, 1991-1999B.C. Health Authorities - Regional Health BoardsYearNorth OkanaganOkanagan Similkameen ThompsonFraser ValleySouth FraserSimon FraserCentral Vancouver IslandNorthern InteriorVancouver/ RichmondNorth Shore Capital1991 0 7 1 4 6 9 3 1 49 3 111995 3 15 3 1 7 12 5 0 48 0 111997 1 16 0 3 9 13 3 1 41 1 111999 1 10 1 5 10 13 3 1 44 2 10... continued belowB.C. Health Authorities - Community Health Services SocietiesYear East KootenayKootenay BoundaryCoast GaribaldiUpper Island/ Central Coast Cariboo North WestPeace Liard Total1991 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 981995 1 1 0 2 2 3 1 1151997 0 0 1 3 1 1 2 1071999 2 1 0 3 1 1 2 110*******************************************************************Table 3.20bNumber per 10,000 Population1 of New Registrant Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby B.C. Health Authority and Study Year, 1991-1999B.C. Health Authorities - Regional Health BoardsYearNorth OkanaganOkanagan Similkameen ThompsonFraser ValleySouth FraserSimon FraserCentral Vancouver IslandNorthern InteriorVancouver/ RichmondNorth Shore Capital1991 0.00 0.38 0.09 0.21 0.13 0.22 0.15 0.09 0.79 0.18 0.361995 0.27 0.69 0.24 0.04 0.13 0.25 0.22 0.00 0.71 0.00 0.331997 0.09 0.71 0.00 0.13 0.16 0.26 0.13 0.08 0.57 0.06 0.331999 0.08 0.43 0.07 0.21 0.18 0.26 0.12 0.08 0.60 0.11 0.30... continued belowB.C. Health Authorities - Community Health Services SocietiesYear East KootenayKootenay BoundaryCoast GaribaldiUpper Island/ Central Coast Cariboo North WestPeace Liard Total1991 0.00 0.27 0.00 0.10 0.15 0.00 0.00 0.291995 0.13 0.12 0.00 0.17 0.28 0.34 0.16 0.301997 0.00 0.00 0.13 0.25 0.13 0.11 0.31 0.271999 0.24 0.12 0.00 0.25 0.13 0.11 0.30 0.271 Source: Population projections are from P.E.O.P.L.E. Projection Run #25, supplied by the Population Section, BC STATS, BC Ministry of Finance   and Corporate Relations.   78 (ii) Reactivations   As explained previously, reactivations are OTs who were registered during the study year, but were not registered two years previously, and who had registered for the first time in B.C. more than two years previously.   The employment status of returning occupational therapists (OTs) in British Columbia for each of the four study years is presented in Tables 3.21a and 3.21b.  Table 3.21a shows that the contribution of reactivations to the overall supply of OTs was almost equal in 1991 and 1999 (106 and 104, respectively), but was lower in 1995 and 1997 (89 and 66, respectively).  Between 1991 and 1997, reactivations decreased from 106 to 66, and then increased between 1997 and 1999 to 104.  The number of returning OTs who were employed in occupational therapy also showed a similar trend.  When the contribution of reactivations to the overall supply of OTs is compared with the contribution of new registrant OTs, one finds that in 1991, the contribution of reactivations was the same as the contribution of new registrant OTs (106 reactivations and 108 new registrants).  However, in 1995 and 1997, the number of reactivations was much lower than the number of new registrants (89 reactivations and 132 new registrants in 1995; 66 reactivations and 119 new registrants in 1997); in 1999, the number of reactivations increased and thus was only slightly lower than the new registrants (104 reactivations and 131 new registrants).  Table 3.21b shows that approximately 90% of reactivations are employed in occupational therapy in each of the study years.  In 1999, the proportion of returning OTs employed in occupational therapy was slightly higher than the proportion employed in 1991 (90.38% and 88.68%, respectively).  When comparing the proportion of reactivations employed in occupational therapy with the proportion of new registrant OTs, the proportion of reactivations is higher than the proportion of new registrant OTs, especially in 1995 (91.01% reactivations and 84.85% new registrants) and 1999 (90.38% reactivations and 83.21% new registrants).  By comparing the proportion of reactivations employed in occupational therapy with the proportion of the total OT population (Table 3.1b), it appears that similar proportions are employed in occupational therapy (90.38% of reactivations in 1999 and 90.11% of total OT population in 1999).  For the following tables, the study group becomes those reactivated OTs who were employed in the field in each of the study years (the subtotal column in Table 3.21a).  Table 3.22 illustrates the sex breakdown of this subset for each of the study years.  Table 3.22 shows that females made up over 90% of the reactivations in 1991, 1995 and 1999; in 1997, that proportion was 86%.  The proportion female among reactivations in 1997 was also substantially lower than the proportion female among all OTs in that year (85.94% of reactivations and 93.81% of all OTs, respectively).     Table 3.21aNumber of Returning Occupational Therapists by Employment Status and Study Year, 1991-1999Employment StatusEmployed in Occupational and/or Physical TherapyYear In OT In PT/OT SubtotalEmployed in OtherNotEmployedMaternityLeaveExtendedLeave Other Unknown Total1991 94 2 96 2 1 0 0 5 2 1061995 81 3 84 1 0 0 3 1 0 891997 60 4 64 0 0 0 0 1 1 661999 94 2 96 2 1 2 1 2 0 104*************************************************************Table 3.21bPercent of Returning Occupational Therapists by Employment Status and Study Year, 1991-1999Employment Status (%)Employed in Occupational and/or Physical TherapyYear In OT In PT/OT SubtotalEmployed in OtherNotEmployedMaternityLeaveExtendedLeave Other Unknown Total1991 88.68 1.89 90.57 1.89 0.94 0.00 0.00 4.72 1.89 100.001995 91.01 3.37 94.38 1.12 0.00 0.00 3.37 1.12 0.00 100.001997 90.91 6.06 96.97 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.52 1.52 100.001999 90.38 1.92 92.31 1.92 0.96 1.92 0.96 1.92 0.00 100.0079   80  Tables 3.23a and 3.23b show the age breakdown for returning OTs employed in the field for each of the study years.  As mentioned in section 3(b), the large proportion of unknown ages in 1997 and 1999 limits the discussion of age for the new registrants and total OT population.  However, this does not appear to be the case with reactivations except in 1999, when approximately 43% of reactivation ages were unknown.  In general, in 1991 and 1997, over 55% of the reactivations were aged 35 years or older, and in 1995, less than 50% were aged 35 and over.  Although in 1999 there was a high proportion of unknown ages, it is interesting to note that the number of the reactivations in the 50-54 year age group in 1999 were appreciably larger than previous years.    The type of employment for returning OTs employed in the field is shown in Table 3.24.  The majority are employed full-time and the proportion in full-time employment has increased over the study period from 53.13% in 1991 to 61.46% in 1999.  The proportion of returning OTs in part-time employment has decreased from 30.21% in 1991 to 22.92% in 1999 and the proportion in casual employment has remained ‘stable’ over the study period.  When the reactivations are compared to the new registrants, the proportion of reactivations in full-time and casual employment is lower than the proportion of new registrants (in 1999, 61.46% reactivations in full-time and 64.66% new registrants in full-time; 14.58% reactivations in casual and 21.82 % new registrants in casual).  In contrast, the proportion of reactivations in part-time employment is double that of new registrants (22.92% of reactivations in part-time in 1999 and 11.82% of new registrants in part-time).  When returning OTs are compared to all OTs employed in the field (Table 3.6), the proportion of reactivations in part-time employment is slightly higher than that for all OTs, and the proportion in casual employment is double that for all OTs.  Table 3.22Returning Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Sex and Study Year, 1991-1999Female Male TotalYear No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)1991 88 (91.67) 8 (8.33) 96 (100.00)1995 79 (94.05) 5 (5.95) 84 (100.00)1997 55 (85.94) 9 (14.06) 64 (100.00)1999 91 (94.79) 5 (5.21) 96 (100.00)Sex  81  ***********************************************     Tables 3.25a and 3.25b present place of employment information for returning OTs.  Some categories in these tables represent groupings of employers where the numbers of OTs reporting employment within these categories were small.  In all such cases, the footnotes indicate the specific employer categories.  Table 3.25b shows that the largest proportion of reactivations are employed in ‘Acute Care Hospitals’, although this proportion has decreased over the study period (35.42% in Table 3.23aNumber of Returning Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Age and Study Year, 1991-1999Year <30 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65+ Unknown Total1991 26 16 22 20 11 0 0 1 0 0 961995 21 22 21 8 7 5 0 0 0 0 841997 16 12 16 11 5 2 1 0 0 1 641999 5 9 15 8 5 11 2 0 0 41 96*************************************************Table 3.23bPercent of Returning Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Age and Study Year, 1991-1999Year <30 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65+ Unknown Total1991 27.08 16.67 22.92 20.83 11.46 0.00 0.00 1.04 0.00 0.00 100.001995 25.00 26.19 25.00 9.52 8.33 5.95 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.001997 25.00 18.75 25.00 17.19 7.81 3.13 1.56 0.00 0.00 1.56 100.001999 5.21 9.38 15.63 8.33 5.21 11.46 2.08 0.00 0.00 42.71 100.00Age GroupAge Group (%)Table 3.24Returning Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Type of Employment and Study Year, 1991-1999Full-time Part-Time Casual/Locum Unknown TotalYear No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)1991 51 (53.13) 29 (30.21) 14 (14.58) 2 (2.08) 96 (100.00)1995 43 (51.19) 33 (39.29) 8 (9.52) 0 (0.00) 84 (100.00)1997 40 (62.50) 21 (32.81) 3 (4.69) 0 (0.00) 64 (100.00)1999 59 (61.46) 22 (22.92) 14 (14.58) 1 (1.04) 96 (100.00)Type of Employment  821991 and 29.17% in 1999).  A large proportion of reactivations are also employed in ‘Private Practice’ (18% on average over the study period).  However, in contrast to the decrease in proportion of reactivations employed in the ‘Acute Care Hospitals’ seen over the study period, the proportion working in ‘Private Practice’ has increased from 3.13% in 1991 to 21.88% in 1999; a seven-fold increase.  The increase in OTs working in ‘Private Practice’ was also seen in the new registrant group and in the entire OT population.  Similar to the new registrant OTs, returning OTs are more likely to be employed in ‘Private Practice’ compared to the entire OT population.  However, a lower proportion of reactivations is employed in ‘Acute Care Hospitals’ compared to both the new registrant OTs and all OTs employed in the field.  Tables 3.26a and 3.26b provide area of service information for the returning OTs employed in the field for each of the study years.  Some categories in these tables represent groupings of areas of service when the numbers of OTs reporting employment within these categories were small.  In all such cases, the footnote indicates the specific service area categories.  The proportions of reactivations who described themselves as working in inpatient areas of service in 1991 was more than double those who worked in outpatient areas (48.97% and 20.83%, respectively).  In 1999, the proportion of reactivations working in inpatient areas of service was still larger than those working in outpatient areas, but had dropped to 40.62%, while those working in outpatient areas had increased to 23.96%.  In 1999, returning OTs were more likely than the total OT population and less likely than the new registrant OTs to be working in inpatient areas of service, while they were less likely than the total OT population and equally likely as the new registrant group to be working in outpatient areas of service.  Tables 3.27a and 3.27b show position information as reported by returning OTs employed in the field in each of the study years.  Some categories in these tables represent groupings of positions when the numbers of OTs reporting employment within these categories were small.  In all such cases, the footnotes detail the specific position categories.  A majority of the reactivations are employed as ‘Staff Therapists’ in all of the study years, ranging from 63.54% in 1991 to 66.67% in 1999 (see Table 3.27b).  Similar to the new registrants, the proportion of reactivations employed as ‘Staff Therapists’ is much larger than the proportion of OTs working as ‘Staff Therapists’ in the total OT population (see Table 3.9b).  Compared to the new registrant OTs working as ‘Staff Therapists’, the proportion of reactivations working as ‘Staff Therapists’ is somewhat lower.  As seen with both the new registrants and the total OT population, reactivations are much more likely to be in ‘Consultant’ positions between 1995 and 1999 than in 1991.  In 1999, the reactivation OTs were as likely as the new registrant OTs to be in ‘Consultant’ positions, but less likely than the OTs in the total population (14.58% reactivations, 14.55% new registrants, 16.28% in total OT population).   Table 3.25aNumber of Returning Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Place of Employment and Study Year, 1991-1999Place of EmploymentYearAcute Care HospitalPaediatric HospitalRehab. HospitalPsychiatric HospitalLong Term Care1Public Community Health Agency2Children's Treatment/ Outpatient CentreWorker's Comp- ensation BoardVoluntary/ Non-profit AgencySchool Board/ University/ College3Private Practice Other4 Total1991 34 1 16 4 10 7 6 2 2 5 3 6 961995 17 2 9 0 9 8 12 4 2 1 18 2 841997 15 0 8 3 5 6 3 5 2 1 15 1 641999 28 2 7 2 8 15 7 5 1 0 21 0 961 Includes  OTs who indicated "Extended Care Hospital", "Intermediate Care Facility", "Personal/Home Care" or "Centre for Mentally Handicapped" as their place of employment.2 Includes OTs who indicated "Adult Day Care" or "Public Community Health Agency" as their place of employment.3 Includes OTs who indicated "School Board" or "University/College" as their place of employment.4 Includes OTs who indicated "Insurance Corporation", "Retail" or "Other" as their place of employment.*******************************************************************Table 3.25bPercent of Returning Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Place of Employment and Study Year, 1991-1999Place of Employment (%)YearAcute Care HospitalPaediatric HospitalRehab. HospitalPsychiatric HospitalLong Term Care1Public Community Health Agency2Children's Treatment/ Outpatient CentreWorker's Comp- ensation BoardVoluntary/ Non-profit AgencySchool Board/ University/ College3Private Practice Other4 Total1991 35.42 1.04 16.67 4.17 10.42 7.29 6.25 2.08 2.08 5.21 3.13 6.25 100.001995 20.24 2.38 10.71 0.00 10.71 9.52 14.29 4.76 2.38 1.19 21.43 2.38 100.001997 23.44 0.00 12.50 4.69 7.81 9.38 4.69 7.81 3.13 1.56 23.44 1.56 100.001999 29.17 2.08 7.29 2.08 8.33 15.63 7.29 5.21 1.04 0.00 21.88 0.00 100.001 Includes  OTs who indicated "Extended Care Hospital", "Intermediate Care Facility", "Personal/Home Care" or "Centre for Mentally Handicapped" as their place of employment.2 Includes OTs who indicated "Adult Day Care" or "Public Community Health Agency" as their place of employment.3 Includes OTs who indicated "School Board" or "University/College" as their place of employment.4 Includes OTs who indicated "Insurance Corporation", "Retail" or "Other" as their place of employment.83    Table 3.26aNumber of Returning Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Area of Service and Study Year, 1991-1999Area of ServiceYearAcute Care InpatientExtended Care InpatientPsychiatry InpatientPsychiatry OutpatientRehab. InpatientRehab. OutpatientGeneral OutpatientAdmin-istrationHome CareVocational Rehab- ilitation Other1 Unknown Total1991 15 9 8 2 15 11 7 3 7 2 17 0 961995 10 9 4 1 8 14 10 1 5 12 10 0 841997 5 7 3 5 6 11 7 0 4 11 4 1 641999 20 8 3 5 8 10 8 1 14 17 2 0 961 Includes OTs who indicated "Research", "Teaching" or "Other" as their area of service.  In 1995 only, also includes several OTs who indicated "Community" as their area of service.*******************************************************************Table 3.26bPercent of Returning Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Area of Service and Study Year, 1991-1999Area of Service (%)YearAcute Care InpatientExtended Care InpatientPsychiatry InpatientPsychiatry OutpatientRehab. InpatientRehab. OutpatientGeneral OutpatientAdmin-istrationHome CareVocational Rehab- ilitation Other1 Unknown Total1991 15.63 9.38 8.33 2.08 15.63 11.46 7.29 3.13 7.29 2.08 17.71 0.00 100.001995 11.90 10.71 4.76 1.19 9.52 16.67 11.90 1.19 5.95 14.29 11.90 0.00 100.001997 7.81 10.94 4.69 7.81 9.38 17.19 10.94 0.00 6.25 17.19 6.25 1.56 100.001999 20.83 8.33 3.13 5.21 8.33 10.42 8.33 1.04 14.58 17.71 2.08 0.00 100.001 Includes OTs who indicated "Research", "Teaching" or "Other" as their area of service.  In 1995 only, also includes several OTs who indicated "Community" as their area of service.84    Table 3.27aNumber of Returning Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Position1 and Study Year, 1991-1999PositionYearStaff TherapistSenior TherapistSole ChargeDept. HeadProgram Coordinator/ Director ConsultantClinical Specialist Other2 Unknown Total1991 61 8 7 6 2 7 0 5 0 961995 42 8 14 1 2 12 3 1 1 841997 39 3 4 0 0 15 1 1 1 641999 64 5 3 1 2 14 5 2 0 961 There were no reactivation OTs who indicated "Assistant Department Head" or "Researcher" as their position in any of the study years.2 Includes OTs who indicated "Clinical Coordinator", "Faculty Position" or "Other" as their position.*******************************************************************Table 3.27bPercent of Returning Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Position1 and Study Year, 1991-1999Position (%)YearStaff TherapistSenior TherapistSole ChargeDept. HeadProgram Coordinator/ Director ConsultantClinical Specialist Other2 Unknown Total1991 63.54 8.33 7.29 6.25 2.08 7.29 0.00 5.21 0.00 100.001995 50.00 9.52 16.67 1.19 2.38 14.29 3.57 1.19 1.19 100.001997 60.94 4.69 6.25 0.00 0.00 23.44 1.56 1.56 1.56 100.001999 66.67 5.21 3.13 1.04 2.08 14.58 5.21 2.08 0.00 100.001 There were no reactivation OTs who indicated "Assistant Department Head" or "Researcher" as their position in any of the study years.2 Includes OTs who indicated "Clinical Coordinator", "Faculty Position" or "Other" as their position.85   86The place of graduation of reactivations is shown in Table 3.28.  The largest proportion of returning OTs graduated from B.C. throughout the study period, with the proportion from B.C. peaking in 1997 at 60.94%.  This is contrasted with the new registrant population, the majority of whom have graduated from schools in ‘Other Canada’ (see Table 3.19).  The proportion of reactivations trained in BC has increased slightly from 52.08% to 55.21% between 1991 and 1999, while the proportion trained in ‘Other Country’ has decreased from 25.00% in 1991 to 18.75% in 1999.    Tables 3.29a and 3.29b present the geographic location of reactivations employed in the field during the study period.  The location is presented using the 18 Health Authorities (11 Regional Health Boards and 7 Community Health Services Societies) in British Columbia.  Table 3.29b differs from other (b) tables in this section, in that it presents numbers per 10,000 population rather than row percentages, allowing for valid comparisons between regions with dramatically different population bases.  The numbers per 10,000 population of reactivations presented in Table 3.29b tend to be small.  However, similar to the total OT supply and the new registrant supply, the reactivated OT supply in the Vancouver/Richmond region, in all but 1995, was greater than in other regions of the province (e.g. 0.66 in 1991 compared to 0.42 in 1991 in Capital, and 0.55 in 1999 compared to 0.33 in Capital in 1999).  Unlike the total OT supply and the new registrant OT supply, the Okanagan Similkameen region had relatively low numbers of reactivation OTs per 10,000 population in 1991 and 1995 (0.00 and 0.09, respectively, compared to 0.28 in 1991 and 0.22 in 1995 for the province as a whole), but then improved greatly in 1997 and 1999 (0.22 and 0.26, respectively, compared to 0.16 in 1991 and 0.24 in 1999 for the province as a whole).  Table 3.28Returning Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Place of Graduation and Study Year, 1991-1999Place of GraduationB.C. Other Canada Other Country Unknown TotalYear No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)1991 50 (52.08) 22 (22.92) 24 (25.00) 0 (0.00) 96 (100.00)1995 46 (54.76) 27 (32.14) 11 (13.10) 0 (0.00) 84 (100.00)1997 39 (60.94) 12 (18.75) 12 (18.75) 1 (1.56) 64 (100.00)1999 53 (55.21) 24 (25.00) 18 (18.75) 1 (1.04) 96 (100.00)  87Table 3.29aNumber of Returning Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby B.C. Health Authority and Study Year, 1991-1999B.C. Health Authorities - Regional Health BoardsYearNorth OkanaganOkanagan Similkameen ThompsonFraser ValleySouth FraserSimon FraserCentral Vancouver IslandNorthern InteriorVancouver/ RichmondNorth Shore Capital1991 0 0 3 2 9 6 7 3 41 6 131995 1 2 2 2 9 5 10 2 29 3 111997 2 5 1 0 5 8 2 0 34 2 21999 2 6 3 0 10 10 3 0 40 3 11... continued belowB.C. Health Authorities - Community Health Services SocietiesYear East KootenayKootenay BoundaryCoast GaribaldiUpper Island/ Central Coast Cariboo North WestPeace Liard Total1991 0 1 0 3 0 2 0 961995 1 0 1 1 0 4 1 841997 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 641999 0 1 2 3 0 2 0 96*******************************************************************Table 3.29bNumber per 10,000 Population1 of Returning Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby B.C. Health Authority and Study Year, 1991-1999B.C. Health Authorities - Regional Health BoardsYearNorth OkanaganOkanagan Similkameen ThompsonFraser ValleySouth FraserSimon FraserCentral Vancouver IslandNorthern InteriorVancouver/ RichmondNorth Shore Capital1991 0.00 0.00 0.27 0.10 0.20 0.15 0.35 0.26 0.66 0.37 0.421995 0.09 0.09 0.16 0.09 0.17 0.11 0.44 0.16 0.43 0.17 0.331997 0.17 0.22 0.07 0.00 0.09 0.16 0.08 0.00 0.48 0.11 0.061999 0.17 0.26 0.22 0.00 0.18 0.20 0.12 0.00 0.55 0.17 0.33... continued belowB.C. Health Authorities - Community Health Services SocietiesYear East KootenayKootenay BoundaryCoast GaribaldiUpper Island/ Central Coast Cariboo North WestPeace Liard Total1991 0.00 0.14 0.00 0.30 0.00 0.23 0.00 0.281995 0.13 0.00 0.14 0.09 0.00 0.45 0.16 0.221997 0.12 0.24 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.161999 0.00 0.12 0.25 0.25 0.00 0.22 0.00 0.241 Source: Population projections are from P.E.O.P.L.E. Projection Run #25, supplied by the Population Section, BC STATS, BC Ministry of Finance   and Corporate Relations.   88 (iii)  Attrition   As explained previously, data for attritions were more difficult to obtain, because in any given study year the OTs who have not renewed registration would not of course appear in the data file of registered members.  Thus in the case of attrition, unlike continuing members, new registrants, or reactivations, the data files from each study year had to be compared to each other to find those OTs who were registered during one study year but not registered during the following study year.  The information presented in this section on attritions is labeled as 1991-95, 1995-97 and 1997-99 to remind the reader of the source of the data.  It is important to remember that in the case of attrition, the 1991-95 period includes attrition which happened over a four-year time span, while the 1995-97 and 1997-99 periods include attrition which happened over a two-year time span.   Detailed information which is presented on employment areas such as employment status or position are taken from the study year in which the member was last registered, i.e. for the 1995-97 attrition data, the information presented is from the 1995 data file.  Thus, this section describes what was last known about the member prior to exiting the workforce by not registering in the following study year.  This is an important point to note when interpreting these data.  Please note also that not all variables described in previous sections are discussed within this section, as the data on attritions often may not present any new or differing trends from those seen in the total OT population over the study period.   The employment status of exiting occupational therapists (OTs) in British Columbia for each of the three attrition periods is presented in Tables 3.30a and 3.30b.  Table 3.30a shows that there has been a small, but steady, increase in the number of attritions over the study period, from 112 in 1991-95 to 144 in 1997-99.  The same trend was seen for the number of attritions for OTs employed in the field.  Table 3.30b shows that the proportion of exiting OTs employed in the field (the subtotal column), unlike the absolute numbers, has decreased slightly over the study period from 91.96% in 1991-95 to 86.81% in 1997-99.   The proportions who were either ‘not employed’ or on ‘maternity leave’ were higher in the 1995-97 and 1997-99 study periods, than in the 1991-95 study period.   In order to compare the attrition sub-group to the total OT group (Tables 3.1a and 3.1b), we compare the 1991-95 attritions to the 1991 total group, the1995-97 attritions to the 1995 total group and the 1997-99 attritions to the 1997 total group.   While the proportion of exiting OTs employed in the field (the subtotal column) is similar in 1991 to the proportion of the total OT group (87.50% among attritions vs. 87.46% among the total OT group), it is lower than for the total group in both 1995 and 1997 (87.02% for attritions vs. 91.23% for the total OT group in 1995, and 84.72% vs. 90.83%, respectively in 1997).   For the following tables, the study group becomes those occupational therapists who were employed in the field in the last year they were registered before they dropped their membership (the subtotal column from Table 3.30a).     Table 3.30aNumber of Exiting Occupational Therapists by Employment Status and Study Period, 1991-95 to 1997-99Employment StatusEmployed in Occupational and/or Physical TherapyYear In OT In PT/OT SubtotalEmployed in OtherNotEmployedMaternityLeaveExtendedLeave Other Unknown Total1991-95 98 5 103 2 2 0 2 3 0 1121995-97 114 5 119 0 8 1 2 1 0 1311997-99 122 3 125 1 7 6 1 4 0 144*************************************************************Table 3.30bPercent of Exiting Occupational Therapists by Employment Status and Study Period, 1991-95 to 1997-99Employment Status (%)Employed in Occupational and/or Physical TherapyYear In OT In PT/OT SubtotalEmployed in OtherNotEmployedMaternityLeaveExtendedLeave Other Unknown Total1991-95 87.50 4.46 91.96 1.79 1.79 0.00 1.79 2.68 0.00 100.001995-97 87.02 3.82 90.84 0.00 6.11 0.76 1.53 0.76 0.00 100.001997-99 84.72 2.08 86.81 0.69 4.86 4.17 0.69 2.78 0.00 100.0089   90 Table 3.31 presents the registration history of the exiting OTs who had been employed in the field for each of the attrition periods.  It is important to note that the registration history presented in this table is the registration status, i.e. continuing, new registrant, or reactivation, of the member when they were last registered.  A small majority was registered as continuing members prior to attrition in each of the study periods, and the majority increased over the study period from 57.28% in 1991-95 to 63.20% in 1997-99.  In comparison, the proportions of continuing members among the total OT group (Table 3.3) were much higher over the study period ranging from 62.33% in 1991 to 77.94% in 1997.   The proportion of OTs who had been new registrants in the study year prior to attrition remained relatively constant over the study period, ranging from 23.53% in 1995-97 to 24.80% in 1997-99.  Meanwhile, the proportion of OTs who had previously been reactivations decreased from 18.45% in 1991-95 to 12.00% in 1997-99.      Tables 3.32a and 3.32b show the age (when last registered) of exiting OTs for each of the study periods.  Table 3.32b seems to indicate that OTs are fairly young when they discontinue their membership in B.C. as the largest proportions were in the <30 or 30-34 year age groups in each of the study periods.  The proportions ranged from 16.80% in 1997-99 to 23.30% in 1991-95 for the <30 year age group; from 22.40% in 1997-99 to 25.21% in 1995-97 for the 30-34 year age group.  Comparing the proportions in Table 3.32b to the proportions in the table for the total OT group (Table 3.4b) shows that exiting OTs are in fact younger than the total OT group.  Table 3.31Exiting Occupational Therapists Employed in the Field by Registration Status and Study Period, 1991-95 to 1997-99Registration StatusContinuing Member New Registrant Reactivation TotalYear No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)1991-95 59 (57.28) 25 (24.27) 19 (18.45) 103 (100.00)1995-97 72 (60.50) 28 (23.53) 19 (15.97) 119 (100.00)1997-99 79 (63.20) 31 (24.80) 15 (12.00) 125 (100.00)  91   The type of employment of exiting OTs is presented in Table 3.33.  The majority had full-time positions when they were last registered (70.87% in 1991-95, 59.66% in 1995-97 and 66.40% in 1997-99).  These proportions are slightly higher than for the total OT group (Table 3.6) whose full-time proportions were 65.05% in 1991, 63.25% in 1995 and 63.10% in 1997.  The proportions of part-time and casual OTs fluctuated over the study period for the attrition group.     Table 3.32aNumber of Exiting Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Age and Study Period, 1991-95 to 1997-99Year <30 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65+ Unknown Total1991-95 24 25 14 9 10 6 9 5 0 1 1031995-97 25 30 20 15 10 9 3 3 1 3 1191997-99 21 28 16 6 12 5 4 4 0 29 125*************************************************Table 3.32bPercent of Exiting Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Age and Study Period, 1991-95 to 1997-99Year <30 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65+ Unknown Total1991-95 23.30 24.27 13.59 8.74 9.71 5.83 8.74 4.85 0.00 0.97 100.001995-97 21.01 25.21 16.81 12.61 8.40 7.56 2.52 2.52 0.84 2.52 100.001997-99 16.80 22.40 12.80 4.80 9.60 4.00 3.20 3.20 0.00 23.20 100.00Age GroupAge Group (%)Table 3.33Exiting Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Type of Employment and Study Period, 1991-95 to 1997-99Full-time Part-Time Casual/Locum Unknown TotalYear No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)1991-95 73 (70.87) 24 (23.30) 5 (4.85) 1 (0.97) 103 (100.00)1995-97 71 (59.66) 38 (31.93) 10 (8.40) 0 (0.00) 119 (100.00)1997-99 83 (66.40) 34 (27.20) 8 (6.40) 0 (0.00) 125 (100.00)Type of Employment  92 Table 3.34 presents the place of graduation; the table shows the proportion of exiting OTs who were ‘Other Country’ graduates decreased steadily over the study period, from 40.78% in 1991-95 to 31.09% in 1995-97 then to 22.40% in 1997-99.  The proportions of ‘Other Canada’ and B.C. graduates fluctuated over the study period.  The proportion of ‘Other Country’ graduates among the total OT population (Table 3.10) is slightly smaller than among attritions in 1991 (33.40% vs. 40.78%) and in 1995 (26.78% vs. 31.09%).     Table 3.34Exiting Occupational Therapists Employed in the Fieldby Place of Graduation and Study Period, 1991-95 to 1997-99Place of GraduationB.C. Other Canada Other Country Unknown TotalYear No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)1991-95 25 (24.27) 36 (34.95) 42 (40.78) 0 (0.00) 103 (100.00)1995-97 45 (37.82) 36 (30.25) 37 (31.09) 1 (0.84) 119 (100.00)1997-99 40 (32.00) 54 (43.20) 28 (22.40) 3 (2.40) 125 (100.00)  93 d) Occupational Therapists -- Stability Analysis   As mentioned in the methodology section, in order to analyze the stability of the OT registrants, registration data from 1991 to 1999 for OTs were combined in a single, linked data set.  Using the linked data set, a separate data file was created containing members who were registered as ‘active’ and resident in B.C. in all 9 years (i.e. from 1991-1999).  A total of 313 OTs (or 55.30% of the total OTs registered in 1991; N=566) were found to be registered in all 9 years.  It is important to note that we are looking at the 1991 cohort and following them through to the year 1999.   The first part of this section compares the ‘stable’ registration cohort (i.e. the 313 OTs who were registered in all 9 years) with the ‘unstable’ registration cohort (i.e. the remaining 253 OTs from 1991 who were not registered in all of the following 8 years) with respect to age, sex, membership category, years since first registration, years of registration since 1991, years since graduation, place of graduation, employment status, type of employment, place of employment, area of service, and regional distribution.  It is interesting to note the more even split between the ‘stable’ and ‘unstable’ OT cohorts (i.e. 55.30% of 1991 OTs were ‘stable’ and 44.70% ‘unstable’) compared to the PT cohorts.   The second part of this analysis examines the ‘stable’ registration cohort (N=313) at three points in time – 1991, 1995 and 1999 - with respect to employment status, type of employment, place of employment, area of service and regional distribution.  However, for simplicity, information from these variables only at two points in time -- 1991 and 1999 -- is presented.  The purpose of undertaking this analysis is to examine the stability of OT employment status, employment type, place of employment, area of service and regional distribution over the 9-year period.   Table 3.35 shows a significant difference in the age distributions between the ‘stable’ and ‘unstable’ cohorts (Pearson Chi-Square p=0.000).  The majority of the ‘stable’ cohort of OTs was in the middle age group with 52.72% aged 35-49 years in 1991.  In contrast, the ‘unstable’ cohort was more likely to be younger than 35 years of age (45.06% of the ‘unstable’ vs. 40.26% of ‘stable’) and 50 years or older (15.02% of ‘unstable’ vs. 6.39% of ‘stable’) in 1991.  The median age of the ‘stable’ cohort was 37.00 years and the median age of the ‘unstable’ cohort was 35.00 years.  Thus, overall, the ‘stable’ cohort is older.   No significant difference with respect to sex was seen between the ‘stable’ and ‘unstable’ cohorts (Pearson Chi-Square p=0.245).  Table 3.36 shows that the majority of the OTs in both groups was female (96.17% of ‘stable’ and 94.07% of ‘unstable’).   94  ******************************      Table 3.37 shows the membership category of the ‘stable’ and ‘unstable’ cohorts in 1991.  Although the difference did not achieve statistical significance (Pearson Chi-Square p=0.100), the OTs who were registered in all 9 years were more likely to be Registered-Full-time members than those not registered in all 9 years (82.43% of ‘stable’ vs. 75.10% of ‘unstable’).  In comparison, the ‘unstable’ cohort was more likely to be Registered-Part-time members Table 3.35Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in 1991 in B.C.by Stability Status and Age Group1Stability StatusStable2 Unstable3Age Group No. (%) No. (%)<25 5 (1.60) 12 (4.74)25-29 48 (15.34) 49 (19.37)30-34 73 (23.32) 53 (20.95)35-39 59 (18.85) 41 (16.21)40-44 62 (19.81) 31 (12.25)45-49 44 (14.06) 27 (10.67)50-54 15 (4.79) 11 (4.35)55-59 4 (1.28) 19 (7.51)60-64 1 (0.32) 7 (2.77)65+ 0 (0.00) 1 (0.40)Unknown 2 (0.64) 2 (0.79)TOTAL 313 (100.00) 253 (100.00)1 Age as of 1991.2 Includes OTs who were 'active' members of the BCSOT in all 9 years from 1991 to 1999.3 Includes OTs who were 'active' members of the BCSOT in 1991, but then were not 'active'   members of the BCSOT at some point in the following 8 year interval.Pearson Chi-Square p=0.000 (Unknown category excluded).Table 3.36Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in 1991 in B.C.by Stability Status and SexStability StatusStable1 Unstable2Sex No. (%) No. (%)Female 301 (96.17) 238 (94.07)Male 12 (3.83) 15 (5.93)TOTAL 313 (100.00) 253 (100.00)1 Includes OTs who were 'active' members of the BCSOT in all 9 years from 1991 to 1999.2 Includes OTs who were 'active' members of the BCSOT in 1991, but then were not 'active'   members of the BCSOT at some point in the following 8 year interval.Pearson Chi-Square p=0.245.  95(22.92% of the ‘unstable’ vs. 15.97% of ‘stable’).  It is important to note that the membership categories discussed here are categories that were used in 1991.     There was a slight but significant difference between the cohorts in the years since first registration (Pearson Chi-Square p=0.028).  The ‘unstable’ cohort of OTs was more likely to fall into the 0-5 years and 21+ years since first registration categories compared to the ‘stable’ cohort which was considerably more likely to fall in the 6-20 years since first registration category (see Table 3.38).  The median number of years since first registration is 5.00 years for the ‘stable’ group and 4.00 years for the ‘unstable’ cohort.   Table 3.37Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in 1991 in B.C.by Stability Status and Membership Category1Stability StatusStable2 Unstable3Membership Category No. (%) No. (%)Registered - Full-time 258 (82.43) 190 (75.10)Registered - Part-time 50 (15.97) 58 (22.92)Provisional 5 (1.60) 5 (1.98)TOTAL 313 (100.00) 253 (100.00)1 Membership category in 1991.2 Includes OTs who were 'active' members of the BCSOT in all 9 years from 1991 to 1999.3 Includes OTs who were 'active' members of the BCSOT in 1991, but then were not 'active'   members of the BCSOT at some point in the following 8 year interval.Pearson Chi-Square p=0.100.Table 3.38Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in 1991 in B.C.by Stability Status and Years Since First Registration in B.C.1Stability StatusYears since Stable2 Unstable31st Registration No. (%) No. (%)0 to 5 157 (50.16) 139 (54.94)6 to 10 51 (16.29) 37 (14.62)11 to 15 53 (16.93) 32 (12.65)16 to 20 29 (9.27) 16 (6.32)21 to 25 15 (4.79) 11 (4.35)26+ 2 (0.64) 11 (4.35)Unknown 6 (1.92) 7 (2.77)TOTAL 313 (100.00) 253 (100.00)1 Number of years since first registration in B.C. as of 1991.2 Includes OTs who were 'active' members of the BCSOT in all 9 years from 1991 to 1999.3 Includes OTs who were 'active' members of the BCSOT in 1991, but then were not 'active'   members of the BCSOT at some point in the following 8 year interval.Pearson Chi-Square p=0.028 (Unknown category excluded).  96 When examining the years of registration since 1991, the ‘unstable’ cohort had a mean of 5.24 years of registration since 1991; this reflects a mix of early exits and long-term professional loyalty (the mean for the ‘stable’ group was 9 years since they had been registered for all 9 years from 1991-1999).  Twenty-eight percent of the ‘unstable’ cohort (N=253) was registered for eight years since 1991 (no table showing this).  Seventy-three percent of the total 1991 OTs (N=566) were registered for 7 years or more in the 9-year period.  Of the OTs who were not continuously registered for the 9 years, 33% were there in the two years we examined (1991 and 1999), and 8% were there in 1991 and back in 1999.  Thus, even if an OT leaves the workforce (or does not register), there is a finite likelihood of returning.   Table 3.39 illustrates that approximately the same proportion of the ‘stable’ and ‘unstable’ OT cohorts fell into the 6-20 year range since graduation (53.04% of ‘stable’ vs. 50.59% of ‘unstable’).  Compared to OTs who were registered in all 9 years, the OTs in the ‘unstable’ group were more likely to have been new graduates (i.e. 0-5 years since graduation), although there was no statistical significant difference (Pearson Chi-Square p=0.133).  The ‘stable’ cohort had a median of 13.00 years since graduation, while the median number of years since graduation for the ‘unstable’ cohort was 12.00 years.      There was no significant difference  (Pearson Chi-Square p=0.870) in the place of graduation between the two OT cohorts under study (see Table 3.40).  However, it is interesting to note that BC graduates made up the highest proportion of the ‘stable’ group, while the highest proportion of the ‘unstable’ group was made up of graduates of ‘Other Canada’. Table 3.39Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in 1991 in B.C.by Stability Status and Years Since Graduation1Stability StatusYears since Stable2 Unstable3Graduation No. (%) No. (%)0 to 5 61 (19.49) 59 (23.32)6 to 10 58 (18.53) 51 (20.16)11 to 15 58 (18.53) 42 (16.60)16 to 20 50 (15.97) 35 (13.83)21 to 25 43 (13.74) 20 (7.91)26+ 38 (12.14) 43 (17.00)Unknown 5 (1.60) 3 (1.19)TOTAL 313 (100.00) 253 (100.00)1 Number of years since graduation as of 1991.2 Includes OTs who were 'active' members of the BCSOT in all 9 years from 1991 to 1999.3 Includes OTs who were 'active' members of the BCSOT in 1991, but then were not 'active'   members of the BCSOT at some point in the following 8 year interval.Pearson Chi-Square p=0.133 (Unknown category excluded).  97   Table 3.41 shows that approximately the same proportion of the ‘stable’ and ‘unstable’ OT cohorts under study were employed in the field (91.05% of ‘stable’ vs. 90.91% of ‘unstable’).  A slightly higher proportion of the ‘stable’ OTs was employed in ‘Other’ while a higher proportion of the ‘unstable’ OTs was ‘Not Employed’.   Table 3.40Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in 1991 in B.C.by Stability Status and Place of GraduationStability StatusPlace of Stable1 Unstable2Graduation No. (%) No. (%)BC 107 (34.19) 82 (32.41)Other Canada 103 (32.91) 88 (34.78)Other Country 100 (31.95) 81 (32.02)Unknown 3 (0.96) 2 (0.79)TOTAL 313 (100.00) 253 (100.00)1 Includes OTs who were 'active' members of the BCSOT in all 9 years from 1991 to 1999.2 Includes OTs who were 'active' members of the BCSOT in 1991, but then were not 'active'   members of the BCSOT at some point in the following 8 year interval.Pearson Chi-Square p=0.870 (Unknown category excluded).Table 3.41Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in 1991 in B.C.by Stability Status and Employment Status1Stability StatusStable2 Unstable3Employment Status No. (%) No. (%)Employed in OT 276 (88.18) 219 (86.56)Employed in OT/PT 9 (2.88) 11 (4.35)SUBTOTAL Employed in OT 285 (91.05) 230 (90.91)Employed in Other 6 (1.92) 2 (0.79)Not Employed 3 (0.96) 4 (1.58)Maternity Leave 7 (2.24) 2 (0.79)Extended Leave 1 (0.32) 2 (0.79)Other 10 (3.19) 10 (3.95)SUBTOTAL Not Employed in OT 27 (8.63) 20 (7.91)Unknown 1 (0.32) 3 (1.19)TOTAL 313 (100.00) 253 (100.00)1 Employment Status in 1991.2 Includes OTs who were 'active' members of the BCSOT in all 9 years from 1991 to 1999.3 Includes OTs who were 'active' members of the BCSOT in 1991, but then were not 'active'   members of the BCSOT at some point in the following 8 year interval.Pearson Chi-Square p=0.781 (based on 'Employed in OT' vs 'Not Employed in OT';   Unknown category excluded).  98 There was no significant difference (Pearson Chi-Square p=0.762) in the type of employment between the two OT cohorts (see Table 3.42).  Approximately 60% of both cohorts were employed full-time (the ‘unstable’ OTs were slightly more likely to be employed full-time compared to the ‘stable’ group – 60.87% ‘unstable’ vs. 58.15% ‘stable’) and a slightly higher proportion of the ‘stable’ OT group was employed part-time compared to the ‘unstable’ cohort (24.92% of ‘stable’ vs. 22.53% of ‘unstable’).      Table 3.43 illustrates the place of employment of the ‘stable’ and ‘unstable’ cohorts.  There was no significant difference between the two groups (Pearson Chi-Square p=0.315).  Both groups had similar patterns of place of employment with almost 60% of both groups being employed in ‘Hospital’ and 14% employed in ‘Community’.  However, the ‘unstable’ cohort was more likely to have been employed in ‘Other’ compared to the ‘stable’ cohort (15.81% of ‘unstable’ vs. 10.54% of ‘stable’).   Table 3.44 shows the area of service of the two cohorts under study.  Both groups showed similar area of service patterns.  Both groups also had a high proportion of OTs (20%) employed in ‘Other’ area of service. Table 3.42Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in 1991 in B.C.by Stability Status and Type of Employment1Stability StatusType of Stable2 Unstable3Employment No. (%) No. (%)Employed FT 182 (58.15) 154 (60.87)Employed PT 78 (24.92) 57 (22.53)Employed Casual/Locum 22 (7.03) 19 (7.51)Unknown 4 (1.28) 3 (1.19)Not Employed in OT 27 (8.63) 20 (7.91)TOTAL 313 (100.00) 253 (100.00)1 Type of employment in 1991.2 Includes OTs who were 'active' members of the BCSOT in all 9 years from 1991 to 1999.3 Includes OTs who were 'active' members of the BCSOT in 1991, but then were not 'active'   members of the BCSOT at some point in the following 8 year interval.Pearson Chi-Square p=0.762 (Unknown and Not Employed in OT excluded).  99  ******************************   Table 3.44Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in 1991 in B.C.by Stability Status and Area of Service1Stability StatusPlace of Stable2 Unstable3Employment No. (%) No. (%)Inpatient4 132 (42.17) 110 (43.48)Outpatient5 61 (19.49) 48 (18.97)Home Care 18 (5.75) 14 (5.53)Vocational Rehab. 6 (1.92) 7 (2.77)Other 64 (20.45) 48 (18.97)Unknown 5 (1.60) 6 (2.37)Not Employed in OT 27 (8.63) 20 (7.91)TOTAL 313 (100.00) 253 (100.00)1 Area of Service in 1991.2 Includes OTs who were 'active' members of the BCSOT in all 9 years from 1991 to 1999.3 Includes OTs who were 'active' members of the BCSOT in 1991, but then were not 'active'   members of the BCSOT at some point in the following 8 year interval.4 Inpatient = "Acute Care Inpatient", "Extended Care Inpatient", "Psychiatry Inpatient",   and "Rehab. Inpatient".5 Outpatient = "Pyschiatry Outpatient", "Rehab. Outpatient", and "General Outpatient".  Pearson Chi-Square p=0.954 (Unknown and Not Employed in OT excluded).Table 3.43Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in 1991 in B.C.by Stability Status and Place of Employment1Stability StatusPlace of Stable2 Unstable3Employment No. (%) No. (%)Hospital4 187 (59.74) 144 (56.92)Community5 45 (14.38) 35 (13.83)Other6 33 (10.54) 40 (15.81)Private Practice7 17 (5.43) 11 (4.35)Unknown 4 (1.28) 3 (1.19)Not Employed in OT 27 (8.63) 20 (7.91)TOTAL 313 (100.00) 253 (100.00)1 Place of employment in 1991.2 Includes OTs who were 'active' members of the BCSOT in all 9 years from 1991 to 1999.3 Includes OTs who were 'active' members of the BCSOT in 1991, but then were not 'active'   members of the BCSOT at some point in the following 8 year interval.4 Hospital = "Acute Care Hospital", "Paediatric Hospital", "Rehab. Hospital", "Psychiatric Hospital",   "Extended Care Hospital", and "Intermediate Care Facility".  5 Community = "Personal/Home Care", "Adult Day Care", "Public Community Health Agency",   and "Children's Treatment/Outpatient Centre".  6 Other = "Worker's Compensation Board", "Voluntary/Non-Profit Agency", "School Board",   "University/College", "Retail", and "Other".7 Private Practice = as identified on registration form.  Pearson Chi-Square p=0.315 (Unknown and Not Employed in OT excluded).  100 Table 3.45 shows the regional distribution of the ‘stable’ and ‘unstable’ cohorts.  Although there was no statistical significance (Pearson Chi-Square p=0.147), the ‘stable’ cohort was more likely to be in the Okanagan region compared to the ‘unstable’ cohort (8.31% of ‘stable’ vs. 3.16% of ‘unstable’) and less likely to be in the Vancouver and District region (63.26% of ‘stable’ vs. 66.80% of ‘unstable’).      The following set of tables comprise only the ‘stable’ registration group and illustrate the stability of OTs who were registered in all 9 years from 1991-1999 with respect to their employment status, type of employment, place of employment, area of service, and regional distribution.   Ninety-six percent of OTs who were registered in all 9 years and who were employed in occupational therapy in 1991 were still employed in occupational therapy in 1999 (see Table 3.46).  The majority of the small number of OTs who were not employed in occupational therapy (N=27) or whose employment status was unknown in 1991 (N=1) were employed in the field in 1999.  This indicates that the large majority of OTs in the ‘stable’ cohort retained or regained employment in the field over the 9-year period.  Table 3.45Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in 1991 in B.C.by Stability Status and Health Region1Stability StatusStable2 Unstable3Health Region No. (%) No. (%)Vancouver & District 198 (63.26) 169 (66.80)Capital 40 (12.78) 35 (13.83)Okanagan 26 (8.31) 8 (3.16)Island Coast 18 (5.75) 17 (6.72)Other 31 (9.90) 24 (9.49)TOTAL 313 (100.00) 253 (100.00)1 Location (Health Region) in 1991.2 Includes OTs who were 'active' members of the BCSOT in all 9 years from 1991 to 1999.3 Includes OTs who were 'active' members of the BCSOT in 1991, but then were not 'active'   members of the BCSOT at some point in the following 8 year interval.Pearson Chi-Square p=0.147.  101   Table 3.47 shows type of employment in 1991 by type of employment in 1999 of OTs registered in 1991-1999.  Of those OTs employed full-time in 1991, 68.13% remained in full-time employment in 1999; of those who were employed part-time in 1991, 66.67% were still employed part-time in 1999.  This indicates that being employed FT or PT in 1991 was a strong indicator of similar status in 1999.  Fifty-five percent of the OTs who were casual in 1991 were employed full-time in 1999 and 41% were employed part-time in 1999.  Only 5% remained in casual employment in 1999.  Those OTs who were not employed in occupational therapy in 1991 were more likely to be employed full-time in 1999 than part-time (51.85% full-time vs. 40.74% part-time).  Those, whose employment type was unknown in 1991 (N=4), were also more likely to be employed full-time in 1999 rather than part-time (75% full-time vs. 25% part-time).      As a summary measure, an odds ratio was calculated based on the frequencies of OTs who were full-time or not employed in OT in 1999 given that they were full-time or not employed in the field in 1991.  Comparing OTs who were employed full-time with those not employed in the field in 1991, the odds ratio of working full-time versus not being employed in 1999 was 1.96.  That is, OTs who were full-time in 1991 were 1.96 times more likely to be full-time in 1999 than OTs who were not employed in 1991.  Table 3.48 illustrates place of employment in 1991 by place of employment in 1999 of the ‘stable’ cohort.  Approximately 70% of those who were employed in ‘Hospital’ in 1991 were Table 3.46Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in B.C. in 1991 to 1999,Employment Status in 1991 by Employment Status in 19991991Employed in OT Not Employed in OT Unknown Total1999 No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)Employed in OT 275 (96.49) 25 (92.59) 1 (100.00) 301 (96.17)Not Employed in OT 10 (3.51) 2 (7.41) 0 (0.00) 12 (3.83)Unknown 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00)TOTAL 285 (100.00) 27 (100.00) 1 (100.00) 313 (100.00)Table 3.47Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in B.C. in 1991 to 1999,Type of Employment in 1991 by Type of Employment in 19991991FT PT Casual/Locum Unknown Not employed in OT Total1999 No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)FT 124 (68.13) 21 (26.92) 12 (54.55) 3 (75.00) 14 (51.85) 174 (55.59)PT 47 (25.82) 52 (66.67) 9 (40.91) 1 (25.00) 11 (40.74) 120 (38.34)Casual/Locum 2 (1.10) 4 (5.13) 1 (4.55) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 7 (2.24)Unknown 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00)Not employed in OT 9 (4.95) 1 (1.28) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 2 (7.41) 12 (3.83)TOTAL 182 (100.00) 78 (100.00) 22 (100.00) 4 (100.00) 27 (100.00) 313 (100.00)  102still employed in ‘Hospital’ in 1999; approximately 9% moved to ‘Private Practice’ and 12% moved to ‘Community’ in 1999.  Of the OTs who were employed in ‘Private Practice’ in 1991, 76% remained employed in ‘Private Practice’, and only 6% switched to ‘Hospital’ and ‘Community’, respectively, while 12% switched to ‘Other’.  Eighty percent of the OTs who were employed in ‘Community’ in 1991 remained in ‘Community’ in 1999; 9% moved to ‘Hospital’ and 9% to ‘Private Practice’.  Of those OTs who were employed in ‘Other’ in 1991, only 42% remained in ‘Other’ in 1999; 33% were employed in ‘Hospital’, 12% in ‘Community’, and 6% in ‘Private Practice’ in 1999.  Those OTs who were not employed (N=27) or whose place of employment was unknown (N=4) in 1991 were more likely to be employed in ‘Private Practice’ in 1999.  The information in this Table indicates that there was some movement in and out of the hospital sector and that fewer OTs remained employed in this sector, but that the community and private practice sector remained relatively stable in comparison, with 80% of the OTs retaining employment in ‘Community’ and 76% in ‘Private Practice’.  To quantify the odds of hospital employment, odds ratios were calculated based on the frequencies of OTs who were in hospital or private practice in 1999 given their place of employment in 1991, and based on the frequencies of OTs who were in hospital or the community in 1999 given their place of employment in 1991.  OTs employed in hospitals in 1991 were 87.5 times more likely to be employed in hospitals in 1999 than OTs in private practice in 1991.  OTs employed in hospitals in 1991 were 51.2 times more likely than OTs in the community to be employed in hospitals in 1999.   To examine employment trajectories, the area of service in 1991 by area of service in 1999 of OTs registered in 1991-1999 is shown in Table 3.49.  Only 50% of OTs who were employed in ‘Inpatient’ in 1991 remained in ‘Inpatient’ in 1999 compared to 77% who remained in ‘Outpatient’, 78% who remained in ‘Home Care’ and 83% who remained in ‘Vocational Rehabilitation’.  Almost 30% of OTs employed in ‘Inpatient’ in 1991 moved to ‘Outpatient’ in 1999.  Those OTs whose area of service was unknown (N=5) or who were not employed in occupational therapy in 1991 were more likely to be employed in ‘Outpatient’ than ‘Inpatient’, as were those OTs whose area of service was ‘Other’ in 1991.   Finally, we examined geographic stability; Table 3.50 illustrates that the majority of OTs who resided in a particular region in 1991 remained in that region in 1999 (ranging from 77.42% of OTs remaining in ‘Other’ region to 100% of OTs remaining in the Okanagan region in 1999; N=26).     ******************************  Table 3.48Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in B.C. in 1991 to 1999,Place of Employment in 1991 by Place of Employment in 19991991Hospital1 Community2 Private Practice3 Other4 Unknown Not employed in OT Total1999 No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)Hospital1 130 (69.52) 4 (8.89) 1 (5.88) 11 (33.33) 1 (25.00) 6 (22.22) 153 (48.88)Community2 22 (11.76) 36 (80.00) 1 (5.88) 4 (12.12) 0 (0.00) 5 (18.52) 68 (21.73)Private Practice3 17 (9.09) 4 (8.89) 13 (76.47) 2 (6.06) 2 (50.00) 12 (44.44) 50 (15.97)Other4 10 (5.35) 1 (2.22) 2 (11.76) 14 (42.42) 1 (25.00) 2 (7.41) 30 (9.58)Unknown 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00)Not employed in OT 8 (4.28) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 2 (6.06) 0 (0.00) 2 (7.41) 12 (3.83)TOTAL 187 (100.00) 45 (100.00) 17 (100.00) 33 (100.00) 4 (100.00) 27 (100.00) 313 (100.00)1 Hospital = "Acute Care Hospital", "Paediatric Hospital", "Rehab. Hospital", "Psychiatric Hospital", "Extended Care Hospital", and "Intermediate Care Facility".  2 Community = "Personal/Home Care", "Adult Day Care", "Public Community Health Agency", and "Children's Treatment/Outpatient Centre".  3 Private Practice = as identified on registration form.  4 Other = "Worker's Compensation Board", "Voluntary/Non-Profit Agency", "School Board", "University/College", "Retail", and "Other".Table 3.49Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in B.C. in 1991 to 1999,Area of Service in 1991 by Area of Service in 19991991Inpatient1 Outpatient2 Home Care Vocational Rehab. Other Not employed in OT Unknown Total1999 No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)Inpatient1 67 (50.76) 7 (11.48) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 16 (25.00) 1 (3.70) 0 (0.00) 91 (29.07)Outpatient2 36 (27.27) 47 (77.05) 2 (11.11) 1 (16.67) 20 (31.25) 14 (51.85) 3 (60.00) 123 (39.30)Home Care 12 (9.09) 2 (3.28) 14 (77.78) 0 (0.00) 5 (7.81) 2 (7.41) 1 (20.00) 36 (11.50)Vocational Rehab. 5 (3.79) 3 (4.92) 0 (0.00) 5 (83.33) 3 (4.69) 2 (7.41) 0 (0.00) 18 (5.75)Other 8 (6.06) 0 (0.00) 2 (11.11) 0 (0.00) 16 (25.00) 6 (22.22) 1 (20.00) 33 (10.54)Not employed in OT 4 (3.03) 2 (3.28) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 4 (6.25) 2 (7.41) 0 (0.00) 12 (3.83)Unknown 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00)TOTAL 132 (100.00) 61 (100.00) 18 (100.00) 6 (100.00) 64 (100.00) 27 (100.00) 5 (100.00) 313 (100.00)1 Inpatient = "Acute Care Inpatient", "Extended Care Inpatient", "Psychiatry Inpatient", and "Rehab. Inpatient".2 Outpatient = "Pyschiatry Outpatient", "Rehab. Outpatient", and "General Outpatient".  103      Table 3.50Occupational Therapists (BCSOT Members) in B.C. in 1991 to 1999,Health Region in 1991 by Health Region in 19991991Vancouver & District Capital Okanagan Island Coast Other Total1999 No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)Vancouver & District 186 (93.94) 1 (2.50) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 3 (9.68) 190 (60.70)Capital 0 (0.00) 38 (95.00) 0 (0.00) 1 (5.56) 0 (0.00) 39 (12.46)Okanagan 5 (2.53) 0 (0.00) 26 (100.00) 0 (0.00) 1 (3.23) 32 (10.22)Island Coast 3 (1.52) 1 (2.50) 0 (0.00) 16 (88.89) 3 (9.68) 23 (7.35)Other 4 (2.02) 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) 1 (5.56) 24 (77.42) 29 (9.27)TOTAL 198 (100.00) 40 (100.00) 26 (100.00) 18 (100.00) 31 (100.00) 313 (100.00)104  105APPENDIX   Map of British Columbia Health Authorities  and  Population Estimates for  British Columbia by Health Authority   106   107 Table 1Population Estimates1 in British Columbiaby Health Authority21991, 1995, 1997, 1999 and 2000Health Authorities 1991 1995 1997 1999 2000Regional Health Boards  1 North Okanagan 96,837     111,164     116,752     118,329     119,250       2 Okanagan Similkameen 182,953     216,099     226,124     230,773     233,133       3 Thompson 113,136     126,594     133,390     135,683     137,639       4 Fraser Valley 191,031     224,527     236,019     240,144     243,175       5 South Fraser 449,421     526,828     555,640     567,732     575,919       6 Simon Fraser 413,614     474,355     498,640     508,490     517,594       7 Central Vancouver Island 198,884     228,672     239,425     243,112     245,279       8 Northern Interior 117,191     126,516     132,125     133,227     134,081       9 Vancouver/Richmond 621,787     680,153     715,068     732,482     741,862     10 North Shore 162,536     173,729     178,395     179,234     180,432     11 Capital 307,644     328,947     334,577     333,859     334,847     Comm. Health Services Societies  1 East Kootenay 71,705     77,396     80,418     81,964     82,552       2 Kootenay Boundary 73,462     80,293     82,217     82,386     82,758       3 Coast Garibaldi 61,195     70,741     76,366     78,906     80,448       4 Upper Island/Central Coast 101,066     115,747     121,438     122,359     122,809       5 Cariboo 65,808     70,995     75,903     76,659     77,188       6 North West † 85,380     88,458     91,786     91,403     91,959       7 Peace Liard 59,749     62,794     65,415     66,358     66,254     TOTAL 3,373,399     3,784,008     3,959,698     4,023,100     4,067,179     1 Source:  B.C. Local Health Area Population Projections from the P.E.O.P.L.E. Projection Run # 25, supplied by the Population Section,   BC STATS, B.C. Ministry of Finance and Corporate Relations, and the Health Data Warehouse, B.C. Ministry of Health.† Includes the Nisga'a Health Authority.  108   109Health Human Resources Unit Centre for Health Services and Policy Research The University of British Columbia 429 - 2194 Health Sciences Mall Vancouver, B.C.  V6T 1Z3 Telephone:  (604) 822-4810             Fax:  (604) 822-5690   R = Reprint C = Conference Presentation W =  Working Paper   Some of the early reports may not be available for distribution  HHRU 01:7R Oral health in long-term care.  The implications of organizational culture.  (S. Thorne, A. Kazanjian, M. MacEntee).  Journal of Aging Studies 2001;15:271-283.  HHRU 01:6 INVENTORY UPDATE 00.  A Regional Analysis of Health Personnel in the Province of British Columbia.  November 2001.  ISBN 1-894066-81-2.  ISSN 1196-9911.  HHRU 01:5W Literature Review of HHR Policy/Planning Models Summary of Population-Based Models.  Prepared for the Planning Methodologies Working Group, Health Human Resources Advisory Committee, BC Ministry of Health Planning.  August 2001.  (A. Kazanjian, S. Rahim-Jamal, A. MacDonald).  HHRU 01:4 ROLLCALL UPDATE 00.  A Status Report of Selected Health Personnel in the Province of British Columbia.  June 2001.  ISBN 1-894066-82-0.  ISSN 0828-9360.  HHRU 01:3 Doctors & Patients: Supply, Use and Payments in British Columbia, 1998-1999.  Part I - Physician FTEs and Distribution in B.C.  June 2001.  (The "Doctors & Patients" reports are an updated version of the HHRU series of reports formerly titled: "Fee Practice Medical Services Expenditures per Capita and Full-Time-Equivalent (FTE) Physicians".)   (A. Kazanjian, A. Chen, L. Wood, P. Wong Fung).  HHRU 01:2W Mental Health Workforce – General Analysis.  January 2001.  (S. Rahim-Jamal.)  HHRU 01:1W Continuing Care Workforce – General Analysis.  January 2001.  (S. Rahim-Jamal.)  HHRU 00:10 PLACE OF GRADUATION 99.  A Status Report on Place of Graduation for Selected Health Personnel in the Province of British Columbia.  August 1998.  (K. Kerluke, A. MacDonald, L. Wood).  ISBN 1-894066-83-9.  ISSN 1200-0701.  HHRU 00:9 INVENTORY 99.  A Regional Analysis of Health Personnel in the Province of British Columbia.  September 2000.  ISBN 1-894066-84-7.  HHRU 00:8 ROLLCALL 99.  A Status Report of Health Personnel in the Province of British Columbia.  August 2000.  ISBN 1-894066-85-5.  ISSN 0707-3542.  HHRU 00:7 Nursing Workforce Study Volume V  Changes in the Nursing Workforce and Policy Implications.  April 2000.  (A. Kazanjian).  ISBN 1-894066-86-3.  HHRU 00:6 Nursing Workforce Study Volume IV  Nursing Workforce Deployment:  A Survey of Employers.  April 2000.  (A. Kazanjian, S. Rahim-Jamal, A. MacDonald, L. Wood, C. Cole).  ISBN 1-894066-87-1.  HHRU 00:5 Nursing Workforce Study Volume III  An Inventory of Nursing Program Enrolments and Graduates in Canada by Province/Territory, 1998.  April 2000.  (A. Kazanjian, A. MacDonald, L. Wood, C. Cole).  ISBN 1-894066-88-X.    110HHRU 00:4 Nursing Workforce Study Volume II The Supply of Nursing Personnel in Canada.  April 2000.  (A. Kazanjian, L. Wood, H. Yip, S. Rahim-Jamal, A. MacDonald).  ISBN 1-894066-89-8.  HHRU 00:3 Nursing Workforce Study Volume 1 Demographic Context and Health System Structure for Nursing Services in Canada.  April 2000.  (A. Kazanjian, S. Rahim-Jamal, L. Wood, A. MacDonald).  ISBN 1-894066-90-1.  HHRU 00:2 Issues in Physician Resources Planning in B.C.:  Key Determinants of Supply and Distribution, 1991-96.  March 2000.  (A. Kazanjian, R.J. Reid, N. Pagliccia, L. Apland, L. Wood).  ISBN 1-894066-91-X.  HHRU 00:1 The Effects of Rationed Access Days (RADs) on Physician Fee-for-service Payments in B.C.  March 2000.  (R. Hanvelt, R. Reid, D.G. Schneider, N. Pagliccia, K. McGrail, M.L. Barer, R.G. Evans).  ISBN 1-894066-92-8.  HHRU 99:6 Immigration and Emigration of Physicians to/from Canada.  December 1999.  (M.L. Barer, William A. Webber).  ISBN 1-894066-93-6.  HHRU 99:5 Improving Access to Needed Medical Services in Rural and Remote Canadian Communities:  Recruitment and Retention Revisited.  June 1999.  (M.L. Barer, Greg L. Stoddart).  ISBN 1-894066-94-4.  HHRU 99:4 INVENTORY UPDATE 98.  A Regional Analysis of Health Personnel in the Province of British Columbia.  June 1999.  ISBN 1-894066-95-2.  ISSN 1196-9911.  HHRU 99:3 Toward Improved Access to Medical Services for Relatively Underserved Populations:  Canadian Approaches, Foreign Lessons.  May 1999.  (M.L. Barer, L. Wood, D.G. Schneider).  ISBN 1-894066-95-2.  HHRU 99:2 ROLLCALL UPDATE 98.  A Status Report of Selected Health Personnel in the Province of British Columbia.  May 1999.  ISBN 1-894066-97-9.  ISSN 0828-9360.  HHRU 99:1 Regional Health Human Resources Planning & Management:  Policies, Issues and Information Requirements.  January 1999.  (A. Kazanjian, M. Hebert, L. Wood, S. Rahim-Jamal).  ISBN 1-894966-98-7.  HHRU 98:4 Proceedings of the Second Trilateral Physician Workforce Conference.  November 14-16, 1997, Vancouver, B.C.  (M.L. Barer, L.Wood, eds.).  ISBN 1-894066-99-5.  HHRU 98:3 PLACE OF GRADUATION 97.  A Status Report on Place of Graduation for Selected Health Personnel in the Province of British Columbia.  August 1998.  (K. Kerluke, A. MacDonald, L. Wood).  ISBN 1-896459-99-4.  ISSN 1200-0701.  HHRU 98:2 INVENTORY 97.  A Regional Analysis of Health Personnel in the Province of British Columbia.  June 1998.  ISSN1-896459-98-6.  ISBN 1-896459-98-6.  HHRU 98:1 ROLLCALL 97.  A Status Report of Selected Health Personnel in the Province of British Columbia.  July 1998.  ISBN 1-896459-95-1.  ISSN 0707-3542.  HHRU 97:4 COMMON PROBLEMS, DIFFERENT SOLUTIONS:  Learning from International Approaches to Improving Medical Services Access for Underserved Populations.  October 1997.  ISBN 1-896459-96-X.  HHRU 97:3 INVENTORY UPDATE 96.  A Regional Analysis of Health Personnel in the Province of British Columbia.  August 1997.  ISBN 1-896459-94-3.  ISSN 1196-9911.  HHRU 97:2 ROLLCALL UPDATE 96.  A Status Report of Selected Health Personnel in the Province of British Columbia.  August 1997.  ISBN 1-896459-95-1.  ISSN 0828-9360.   111HHRU 97:1 PLACE OF GRADUATION 95.  A Status Report on Place of Graduation for Selected Health Personnel in the Province of British Columbia.  January 1997..  (K. Kerluke, A. MacDonald, L. Wood).  ISBN 1-896459-93-5.  ISSN 1200-0701.  HHRU 96:5 INVENTORY 95.  A Regional Analysis of Health Personnel in the Province of British Columbia.  December 1996.  ISBN 1-896459-92-7.  HHRU 96:4 PRODUCTION 95. A Status Report on the Production of Health Personnel in the Province of British Columbia.  October 1994.  ISBN 1-896459-91-9.  ISSN 1199-4010.  HHRU 96:3 ROLLCALL 95. A Status Report of Health Personnel in the Province of British Columbia. October 1994.  ISBN 1-896459-90-0.  ISSN 0707-3542.  HHRU 96:2R Identifying the Population of Health Managers in one Canadian Province:  A Two-Stage Approach.  April 1996.  (A. Kazanjian, N. Pagliccia).  ISBN 1-896459-89-7.  HHRU 96:1R Key Factors in Physicians’ Choice of Practice Location - Level of Satisfaction and Spousal Influence.  March 1996.  (A. Kazanjian, N. Pagliccia).  ISBN 1-896459-88-9.  HHRU 95:5R The Impact of Professional and Personal Satisfaction On Perceptions of Rural and Urban:  Some Analytic Evidence.  May 1995.  (N. Pagliccia, L. Apland, A. Kazanjian).  ISBN 1-896459-87-0.  HHRU 95:4 PRODUCTION UPDATE 94.  A Status Report on the Production of Selected Health Personnel in the Province of British Columbia. May 1995.  ISBN 1-896459-86-2.    ISSN 119-4010.  HHRU 95:3 Health Personnel Modelling 1975-1994:  An Updated Bibliography with Abstracts.  March 1995.  (N. Pagliccia, K. McGrail, L. Wood).  ISBN 1-896459-85-4.  HHRU 95:2 INVENTORY UPDATE 94.  A Regional Analysis of Health Personnel in the Province of British Columbia.  March 1995.  ISBN 1-896459-84-6.  ISSN 1196-9911.  HHRU 95:1 ROLLCALL UPDATE 94.  A Status Report of Selected Health Personnel in the Province of British Columbia.  March 1995.  ISBN 1-896459-83-8.  ISSN 0828-9360.  HHRU 94:5 PLACE OF GRADUATION 93.  A Status Report on Place of Graduation for Selected Health Personnel in the Province of British Columbia.  October 1994.  (K. McGrail, K. Kerluke, A. MacDonald, L. Wood).  ISBN 1-896459-82-X.  ISSN 1200-0701.  HHRU 94:4 PRODUCTION 93. A Status Report on the Production of Health Personnel in the Province of British Columbia. August 1994.  ISBN 1-896459-81-1.  ISSN 1199-4010.  HHRU 94:3 ROLLCALL 93. A Status Report of Health Personnel in the Province of British Columbia. May 1994.  ISBN 1-896459-80-3.  ISSN 0707-3542.  HHRU 94:2 Interpreting the Historical Difficult-to-Fill Vacancy Trends - A Mulitvariate Analysis.  April 1994.  (N. Pagliccia, A. Kazanjian, L. Wood).  ISBN 1-896459-79-X.  HHRU 94:1 Social Work Personnel in British Columbia:  Defining the population and describing deployment patterns in 1993.  January 1994.  (J. Finch, A. Kazanjian, L. Wood). ISBN 1-896459-78-1.  HHRU 93:8R Health Care Managers in British Columbia  Part I:  Who Manages Our System?, Part II:  Exploring Future Directions.  December 1993.  (A. Kazanjian, N. Pagliccia). ISBN 1-896459-77-3.    112HHRU 93:7 Fee Practice Medical Services Expenditures Per Capita, and Full-Time-Equivalent Physicians in British Columbia, 1991-1992.  December 1993.  (A. Kazanjian, P. Wong Fung, L. Wood).  ISBN 1-896459-76-5.  HHRU 93:6 Social Workers in Health Care in British Columbia, 1991.  July 1993.  (L.E. Apland,    L. Wood, A. Kazanjian).  ISBN 1-896459-75-7.  HHRU 93:5 Difficult-to-Fill Vacancies in Selected Health Care Disciplines in British Columbia, 1980-1991.  June 1993.  (A. MacDonald, A. Kazanjian).  ISBN 1-896459-74-9.  HHRU 93:4 ROLLCALL UPDATE 92. A Status Report of Selected Health Personnel in the Province of British Columbia. April 1993.  ISBN 1-896459-73-0.  ISSN 0828-9360.  HHRU 93:3 Nursing Resources in British Columbia: Trends, Tensions and Tentative Solutions.  February 1993.  (A. Kazanjian, L. Wood).  ISBN 1-896459-72-2.  Also listed as Health Policy Research Unit Report    HPRU 93:5D.  HHRU 93:2 Nursing Resources Models:  Part I: Synthesis of the Literature and a Modelling Strategy for B.C..  February 1993.  (N. Pagliccia, L. Wood, A. Kazanjian).  ISBN 1-896459-71-4.  HHRU 93:1 Study of Rural Physician Supply: Perceptions of Rural and Urban.  January 1993.    (N. Pagliccia, L.E. Apland, A. Kazanjian).  ISBN 1-896459-70-6.  HHRU 92:8 Diagnostic Medical Sonographers in British Columbia, 1991.  December 1992.    (L.E. Apland, A. Kazanjian).  ISBN 1-896459-69-2.  HHRU 92:7 Fee Practice Medical Service Expenditures per Capita, and Full-Time-Equivalent Physicians in British Columbia, 1989-1990.  November 1992.  (A. Kazanjian, P. Wong Fung, M.L. Barer).  ISBN 1-896459-68-4.  HHRU 92:6 PLACE OF GRADUATION 91. A Status Report on Place of Graduation for Selected Health Personnel in the Province of British Columbia.  November 1992.  (A. MacDonald, K. Kerluke, L.E. Apland, L. Wood).  ISBN 1-896459-67-6.  ISSN 1200-0701.  HHRU 92:5R Health "Manpower" Planning or Gender Relations? The Obvious and the Oblique.  June 1992.  (A. Kazanjian).  ISBN 1-896459-66-8.  HHRU 92:4R A Human Resources Decision Support Model: Nurse Deployment Patterns in One Canadian System.  November 1992.  (A. Kazanjian, I. Pulcins, K. Kerluke).  ISBN 1-896459-65-X.  HHRU 92:3 PRODUCTION 91. A Status Report on the Production of Health Personnel in the Province of British Columbia.  May 1992.  ISBN 1-896459-64-1, ISSN 1194010.  HHRU 92:2 ROLLCALL 91. A Status Report of Health Personnel in the Province of British Columbia. May 1992.  ISBN 1-896459-63-3.  ISSN 0707-3542.  HHRU 92:1 Information Needed to Support Health Human Resources Management.  February 1992.  (A. Kazanjian).  ISBN 1-896459-62-5.  

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