UBC Faculty Research and Publications

Nurse requirements in British Columbia, 1979-82 trends : part 2, nurse educators (academic) preliminary… Kazanjian, Arminée 1947-; Chan, Susan Sep 30, 1986

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
52383-Kazanjian_A_et_al_Nurse_requirements2.pdf [ 22.34MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 52383-1.0075916.json
JSON-LD: 52383-1.0075916-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 52383-1.0075916-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 52383-1.0075916-rdf.json
Turtle: 52383-1.0075916-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 52383-1.0075916-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 52383-1.0075916-source.json
Full Text
52383-1.0075916-fulltext.txt
Citation
52383-1.0075916.ris

Full Text

NURSE REQUIREMENTS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA: 1979-1982 TRENDS Part II - Nurse Educators (Academic) - Preliminary Findings Report S:22 Prepared by: Division of Health Services Research and Development Office of the Coordinator of Health Sciences The John F. McCreary Health Sciences Centre The University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z6 A. Kazanjian S. Chan September, 1986 This report is one of a series describing the distribution of health manpower and health resources in the Province of British of British Columbia. These reports, prepared for the Health Manpower Working Group of the Ministry of Health and for the Association and Licensing bodies which provide the data, are working documents and comments or suggestions are welcome . HEALTH MANPOWER RESEARCH UNIT C/O OFFICE OF THE COORDINATOR HEAL TH SC'IENC'ES CENTRE PHONE: 1604 I 228-48 I 0 Mr. D.S. Haazen Chairman Health Manpower Working Group Ministry of Health 1515 Blanshard Street Victoria, B.C. V8W 3C8 Dear Mr. Haazen: 4th FLOOR l.R.C. BUILDING THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA V6T IZ6 September 25, 1986 It is with pleasure that I transmit to you and to the.members of the Health Manpower Working Group, Part II of the series "Nurse Requirements in British Columbia: 1979-1982 Trends", entitled "Nurse Educators (Academic) -Preliminary Findings". This report represents an attempt to fill a void in the area of manpower requirements, specifically for nurse educators. Regression analysis was utilized to investigate which factors affect demand for nurse educators, and also to develop a nurse educator requirement forecasting model. The results indicate that student demand for nursing education and nurse labour market conditions (as well as, to a very small extent, institutional budgets) are important influences on demand for nurse educators. Taken together, the contribution of these two factors is significant, although individually their importance remains nebulous. The results further indicate a strong link between student demand and labour market conditions, and suggest that this relationship be investigated in greater detail. Lastly, the forecasting function of the model is demonstrated using current data. We trust that you will find this document an interesting and useful addition to the available manpower planning information. IRP:kc Yours sincerely, Indra R. Pulcins, M.A. Research Associate Division of Health Services Research and Development A Research Unit for the Health Manpower Working Group, Ministry of Health, British Columbia Nurse Requirements in British Columbia: 1979-1982 Trends Part II - Nurse Educators (Academic) - Preliminary Findings Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures I. Introduction 1 . Background 2. Objectives II. Methods 3. Research Design 4. Data Components and Sources III, Analysis of Findings 5. Data Analysis 6. Interpretation IV. Discussion of Planning and Policy Applications References Appendix A B c College Districts Level, Duration of Training, Requirements for Practice, Manpower Category, and Supply, by Field of Study Nursing Programs 1979-1985 ii iii 1 3 4 8 14 27 29 ii List of Tables Table 1: Nurse Full Time Equivalents (FTEs), Average Annual DTF Vacancy Rates and Budgets (in Millions) by Nursi~g Education College Districts, 1979 through 1982 9 Table 2: Nursing Service Programs - Intake/Production -1979-1985 13 Table 3: Summary Statistics from Regression Analysis 18 Table 4: Summary of Regression Results, 1980, PROGLOAD v·ersus TOTVAC 19 Table 5: Summary Statistics from Regression Analyses 21 Table 6: Regression Results, 1980, Effects of PROGLOAD, AVGVAC and ADJBUD on RFTEs 22 Table 7: Regression Results, 1981, Effects of PROGLOAD, AVGVAC and ADJBUD on RFTEs 22 Table 8: Regression Results, 1982, Effects of PROGLOAD, AVGVAC and ADJBUD on RFTEs 22 Table 9: Regression Results, 1980-1982, Effects of PROGLOAD, AVGVAC and ADJBUD on RFTEs 31 iii List of Figures Figure 1: Conceptual Framework for Nurse Requirements Estimation Figure 2: Scatterplot of FT Es by PROGLOAD, 1980 Figure 3: Scatterplot of FT Es by TOTVAC, 1980 Figure 4: Scatterplot of FTEs by Institutional Budget, Figure 5: . Scatterplot of Standardized Residuals versus Predicted Values, 1980 Data Figure 6: Scatterplot of Standardized Residuals versus Predicted Values, 1981 Data Figure 7: Scatterplot of Standardized Residuals versus Predicted Values, 1982 Data Figure 8: Scatterplot of Standardized Residuals versus Predicted Values, Historical Data, 1980-1982 2 15 16 1980 17 24 25 26 28 .. • I. Introduction 1. Background This report is the second in a series on Registered Nurse (RN) requirements (Kazanjian and Chan, 1984). Manpower requirements in general, and nurse requirements in particular, are influenced by the complex interaction of so many economic, political and social factors that we cannot hope to quantify and fully measure all of the variables concerned. Alternative methodologies for estimating requirements, varying in degree of forecasting accuracy, are of course available ~o the plan~er and policymaker, but no one method has been identified as being methodologically superior to others. · All methodologies are tools for research and the quality of the product is as much a reflection of the insight and good judgement the researcher possesses as of the excellence of the · instrument (Kriesgberg et al., 1976). A detailed discussion of the literature on nurse requirements models was presented in our earlier report. The schematic presentation (Figure 1) of factors that influence requirements provides a comprehensive summary of research perspectives as well as a clear delineation of policy issues. Our literature review indicated, however, that among the various nurse markets which were studied during the past decade, the market for nurse educators was not one that was investigated in detail. Only a few of the models dealt with the education sector, and then, only to relate the behaviour of the education market to that of health manpower (Johnson, 1980) or health services (Levine, 1978) or both (Engler, Figure 1: NURSING EDUCATION fNuRsE &TOCK I MANPOWER RESOURCES SPECiiLTY a GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION LABOUR-FORCE BEHAVIOUR 2 Conceptual Framework for Nurse Regu1renents ~stimation HEALTH CARE DELIVERY HEALTH CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR "EDICAL REASONS FOR HEALTH SERVICES UTILIZATION INCIDENCE AND PREVALENCE OF ILLNESS SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS OF ILLNESS OCCURRENCE • 3 1981). Thus, projections based on historical trends of admissions to schools of nursing identified factors influencing the severity of nurse shortages; or made forecasts based on proposed changes in entry to practice policy, assuming a shift in demand, estimated the costs and benefits of baccalaureate education; or upon assessment of the impact of various policy alternatives to balance manpower supply and requirements suggested, among others, changing the scale of operations of educational institutions (Keaveny. and Hayden, 1978). These studies were not directly concerned with forecasting requirements for nurse educators and findings on this subject were generally of peripheral value to our study. The one study that specifically included requirements for nurse educators (among nine other fields in nursing) was undertaken fifteen years ago and based on U.S. data (Deane, 1971). Our model was therefore developed with an intent to examine the determinants of requirements for nurse educators (academic) in this province. 2. Objectives The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) to examine and evaluate the contribution of several exogenous (predictor) variables on the "demand" for nurse educators; and (2) to develop a simple forecasting model that provide·s the best linear projections. Requirements is defined as the amount of services, or manpower, required to satisfy an explicit or implicit set of assumptions about a 4 particular health sector function (Hall, 1978). Demand is generally used in this report as a synonym for requirements. The various analyses conducted in an attempt to attain our twin objectives are presented in Section III of this report. The research methodology is discussed in a preceding Section (II) and a discussion of planning and policy implications comprises the final Section (IV) of the report. II. Methods 3. Research Design Twenty years ago, nurses (i.e. those eligible to write RN exams) in British Columbia received their education either in a hospital-based program or in a university program. The former were granted a diploma upon successful completion of a three year program, whereas the latter were granted a Bachelor of Science in Nursing (B.S.N.) degree upon successful completion of a four year program. In contrast, during the 1985-86 academic year there remains only one hospital-based nursing program, supplemented by ten College/Institute-based programs in the province. Two universities offer post-diploma baccalaureate programs and one of the two continues to offer a generic baccalaureate program. To add to this proliferation, College/Institute programs also offer access/laddering/bridging programs for Licensed 5 Practical Nurses (LPNs) and Registered Psychiatric Nurses (RPNs), refresher programs, post-basic certificates and Advanced Diplomas in Nursing. In brief, the number and variety of available programs in B.C. have serious implications for the accurate forecasting of nurse educator requirements at the provincial level. Differences between programs have been identified in a number of areas (Zabawski, 1983). Among these, the following are of specific relevance to manpower planning: 1. The philosophies of the nursing programs v.ary in relation to their models of nursing and approaches to the learning process. 2. The admission criteria differ fo; each of the programs as to number and type. 3. Each program has a different way of writing the curriculum, terminal or program objectives and of stating the level objectives. 4. Each program shows variation in its selection of support courses, and its content. 5. Each program varies in terms of duration, number of hours of instruction, both theory and practice, and the length of the evaluation time period. 6. Each program varies in the amount of clinical practice and method of supervision provided for the student. 7. Each program varies in the degree of self-directed learning. To elaborate, varying philosophies of educational institutions and nursing programs coupled with varying admission criteria indicate that both teacher and student populations in these institutions have diverse expectations of the educational system. This divers.ity of expectations among institutions is manifested in differences in curriculum, duration, theory/practice mix of programs resulting in apparent differences in staffing and costs. The efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the various 6 modes of institutional delivery fields of study for the educational planner -- are beyond the scope of this study. The purpose of this brief overview of the diversity of the situation for this sector in B.C., is to provide the rationale for the proposed forecasting model and to assess what could realistically be expected from such an effort in quantification. While the diversity of programs may be somewhat discouraging to planners at the provincial level, the relatively small number of actors involved in the administration of educational policies may be encouraging to policymakers. These included, for the years under study, two provincial ministries, Education and Universities, administering the College and Institute Act, 1979 (RSBC Chapter 53) and the University Act, 1979 (RSBC Chapter 419), respectively. The two Acts currently (1986) fall within the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Post-Secondary Education. Throughout the study period, the Registered Nurses' Association of British Columbia was the professional body responsible for approval of programs preparatory to nurse registration. When specifying our regression model, therefore, simplicity was given priority to minimize methodological and data availability problems and to concentrate efforts on forecasting accuracy and statistical inference. The model specified Nurse educator requirements = f (capital, student demand, RN labour market conditions). Requirements for nurse educators was defined to be a function of financial resources, student demand and labour market conditions for this • 7 category of health personnel. Since no previous modelling work in this specific field was available, this first attempt was based on a more general theoretical and empirical literature on the "demand" for post-secondary education (Halsey et al., 1961; Breton, 1972). In operationalizing the above model data availability and accessibility served as guiding principles for two reasons. First, because time and resource constraints precluded a more "leisurely" survey design approach and secondly; because ultimately, the inherent value of the model to planners and decisibn makers would be predicated by its operational feasibility. Thus, the operationalized model became: Educ RFTEs - Po + P1•ADJBUD + P2•PROGLOAD + p3•VACRATE + u Where RFTEs is the per capita RN educator full-time-equivalent ADJBUD is the per capita, institution-wide Gross Budget PROGLOAD is the total number of months of nursing (or related) programs AVGVAC is the average annual hospital sector DTF vacancy rate and where Po ..... p3 are the model regression parameters determined from the data, and u is a random disturbance measuring the discrepancy in the linear function. Multiple regression analysis was chosen because it provides a simple method for establishing a functional relationship among variables. The regression equation, as a final product, provides a summary of the relationship between a dependent (endogenous or criterion) variable and a set of independent (exogenous or predictor) variables. The equation may be used for several purposes: 8 (1) to evaluate the importance of individual exogenous variables, (2) to analyse the effects of policy that involves changing values of these exogenous variables, and (3) to forecast values of the endogenous variable for a given set of exogenous variables. Based on a set of data analytic techniques that are used to help understand the interrelationships among variables in a certain environment, the task of· regression analysis is to learn as much as possible about the environment represented by the data. As such, it is infinitely suitable to an exploratory pioneer work such as this one. 4. Data Components and Sources The dependent variable in this model is per capita nurse educator FIE's for each of the years under study. Actual FIE distributions by year are shown in Table 1. The unit of analysis for the study is the College District (Appendix A); university and hospital-based schools of nursing were "observed" in their respective College Districts. One standard assumption of least square theory is that of homoscedasticity, that is, an error variance that is constant for all observations. The amount of spread about the least squares line is, thus, assumed to be equal. Raw data in Table 1 gives some indication that variance will not be constant in our dependent variables for various reasons. Among the more obvious, differences in population size between college catchment areas was the easiest one to quantify. In order to meet Table 1 Nurse Full Time Equivalents (FTEs), Average Annual DTF Vacancy Rates and Budgets (In Millions) by Nursing Education College Dtstrtcts 1979 through 1982 Coll .. 1171 1 1980 1981 District FTEs Vacs BUd118t FT Es Vacs Budaet FT Es Vacs Budaet FT Es 1 Victoria 12.22 --- 24.76 28.72 32.50 67.54 46.15 66.25 70.80 45. 11 (Camosun & UVic.) 2 North Vancouver 5.24 --- 9.46 3.77 11.58 10.83 4.79 13.00 12.37 5.52 (Capilano) 3 Kamloops 19.20 --- 10.53 28.03 18.08 9.91 28.75 19.25 11 .48 34.19 (Cariboo) 4 Prince George 21.39 --- 7.41 23.30 16.42 9.19 25.95 12 .17 10.98 26.60 (New Caledonia) 5 New Westminster 176.11 --- 46.14 213.02 22.00 53.82 214.45 52.43 54.51 177.80 (Douglas & BCIT) 6 Cranbrook 2.00 --- 2.32 2.72 0.17 3.25 3. to 2.00 4.32 4.70 (East Kootenay) 7 Chilliwack 3.95 --- 4.89 11.03 8.67 6.04 . 10.40 7.25 7.24 11.22 (Fraser Valley) 8 Surrey --- --- --- --- --- --- 1.25 5.50 10.68 5.25 (Kwantlen) 9 Nanaimo 17.58 --- 9.88 16.80 4.92 1 i . 13 17. 15 3.67 i3.59 21.40 (Malaspina) 10 Comox 2.85 --- 3.19 2.59 4.75 3.66 5.61 3.58 4.72 5.82 (North Island) 11 Dawson Creek 1.00 --- 3.65 1.00 12.33 4.84 1.60 4.92 5.27 1.60 (Northern Lights) 12 Terrace 2.00 --- 3.98 4.48 10.25 4.68 3.88 4.00 5.48 3.33 (Northwest Comm.) 13 Kelowna 22.93 --- 10. 16 29.10 2.92 12.06 28.71 3.58 13.88 26.07 (Okangan) 14 Castlegar 20.32 --- 6.94 17.60 6.08 7.74 19.75 8.42 9.29 17.00 (Selkirk) 15 Vancouver 69.21 --- 31.07 139.83 149.57 199.66 i44.94 196.42 265.47 143.87 (VCC & UBC) TOTAL 378.00 n/a 174.38 521.99 n/a 404.35 558.48 n/a 500.09 529.48 • No universities' data were included in districts 1 and 15. 1982 Vacs Budaet 9.50 78.73 5.17 13. 18 6.42 12.74 2.25 11.42 15.42 59.62 0.25 5.05 1.08 8.05 \0 0.75 11. 76 0.42 14. 14 3.67 4.64 2.00 5.05 0.17 6.37 1.33 15.33 0.0 10.27 96.33 266. i6 n/a 522.50 10 the homoscedasticity condition, careful variable construction was necessary. In this instance, heteroscedasticity was removed by using per 10,000 college age population (over 19) as denominator to the dependent variable. The source for all FTE and institutional budget data was the (then) Ministry of Education, Management Services Division. With the kind permission of the Ministry and the usual provisos of ensuring confidentiality of data and anonymity of individuals, information on gross budgets and instructor profiles by institution were made available on computer tapes and in hard copy. This was supplemented by budget data from the University sector available through published annual reports and by FTE data obtained from the Schools of Nursing. The source for 1981 population data for the province was Statistics Canada. We obtain this information, when it becomes available, through the auspices of the Provincial Ministry of Industry and Small Business Development, Central Statistics Bureau. Population data for 1980 had been interpolated from the 1976-1981 Census data and similarly, 1982 was an extrapolation from the previous year. Data on nursing (and related) programs were obtained from our biennial reports, PRODUCTION 79 through PRODUCTION 85 (HSRD, Reports P:4-7). The information is collected by a survey questionnaire to all Colleges, Institutes and Universities which offer health and human services programs. The variable PROGLOAD was constructed after much deliberation and testing of several other measures. Intuitively, and from the literature, enrollment figures would have been the most logical measure for quantifying 11 "student demand". However, in the case of nursing education it was not clear that that variable was the most appropriate for a number of reasons. Nursing programs are popular and the number of first year entrants are predetermined. Thus, with a ceiling on the number of admissions to the program all "student demand" is not expressed in enrollment statistics. While excess applications for admission or waiting lists to the program are more likely to be indicative of demand for nursing education, these lists are based on a variety of criteria and would not provide a consistent measure of· a common phenomenon. Even if methodological hurdles were successfully overcome, data collection on this' item of information alone would require additional resources. As well, the expected high correlation between budgets and enrollments would create another methodological problem, that of multicollinearity. The current construct, PROGLOAD, addresses these problems adequately. It is a summary measure of all nurse related instruction occurring in each institution (including practical nursing, nurse's aides, homemakers, etc.). It is the cumulative total length of all such programs, in months, for each College/Institute and is a measure of both size of institution and variety of programs offered by each institution. Multiple intakes are accounted for and discrepancies, between colleges, in the sum total of short/long term program offerings, thus receive appropriate weighting. One limitation of this measure, however, is that it is a global indicator and does not take into account the differences in the academic qualifications of personnel teaching various types of programs, because these latter are not weighted for instructional content. Therefore, PROGLOAD is strictly a predictor variable for forecasting FTE's, without any additional 12 descriptors regarding the type or qualifications of teaching personnel required in the province. The underlying assumption here is that the recruiting institution sets its own standards. The final variable inclu~ed in this analysis, AVGVAC, is constructed from the Difficult-to-Fill Positions Survey data (HMRU, 1980-ongoing) and provides a proxy measure of nurse labour market conditions. An average annual vacancy rate was estimated in the following manner total # of DTF months/year ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ x 12 total # of possible DTF months/year for combined RN and LPN vacancies. Initially, we used TOTVAC, simple DTF distributions for RN and LPN totals, in our regression analysis. We did not undertake any data adjustments for this variable since we had no reason to expect a high degree of correlation between this and the other exogenous variables (multicollinearity). The data, however, indicated otherwise; the simple correlation coefficient between PROGLOAD and TOTVAC vacancies was extremely high (approximately .9) for all years under study. The explanation of this occurrence lies in the components of the construct PROGLOAD. Although the regular core nursing programs comprise the largest component of this variable, the multitude of short term courses, be they of the refresher or the specialty type, are offered in quick response to labour market conditions. Our measures were sensitive enough to register this relationship. Data in Table 2 clearly affirm that postulate. While these data are shown for biennial periods and include more recent years not 13 Table 2 Nursing Service Programs - Intake/Production - 1979-1985 NURSING SERVICES 1979 1981 1983 1985 Intake Prod Intake Prod Intake Prod Intake Prod Basic Programs: 1. Practical Nursing 460 357 283 264 394 294 283 2. Nursing Access - - 16 12 85 63 70 3. Psychiatric Nursing 117 91 120 98 101 90 106 4. Nursing Diploma 791 525 844 566 773 584 833 5. Nursing - B.S.N. 113 112 113 · 47 ll3 69 80 6. Nursing Aide - - - - - - 92 7. Basic Nursing 81 46 78 45 0 59 0 Post-Basic Programs: 8. Nursing -Refresher 25 20 193 186 156 148 233 9. Nursing - Post-RN-B.S.N. 54 34 147 108 147 155 151 10. Nursing - Master's 19 9 12 8 30 10 35 11. Continuing Education 0 11 154 86 262 267 230 (all specialty programs) 12. Nursing - Bridgingl - - - - - - 24 Source: PRODUCTION 79, 81, 83, 85 1 Program allows LPN's to enter beyond the 1st semester of a general nursing or psychiatric nursing program. examined in t~e study, increases in intake/production of both refresher and post-RN programs reported for 1981 provide an estimate of the kinds of · program expansion (and subsequently contraction) that occurred during the 1979-1982 period. This will be discussed in more detail in the following chapter. 244 60 0 491 90 63 0 174 124 15 131 15 14 III. Analysis of Findings 5. Data Analysis Preliminary analyses included a detailed examination of raw data, prior to undertaking any data transformation or adjustment to overcome methodological limitations. Unfortunately, we did not have a complete data set for 1979, and therefore, could not include that year in the regression analyses. Figures 2 to 4 show scatterplots of the dependent variable, nurse educator FTE's by PROGLOAD, TOTVAC and BUDGET, respectively, using 1980 data for example. The data indicate that the assumption of linearity is appropriate for PROGLOAD and TOTVAC. For the variable BUDGET, a per 10,000 population adjustment is required to both reduce the spread about the mean and create a more linear variable. The method of least squares analysis is quite robust in that minor violations of the underlying assumptions do not completely invalidate the inferences or conclusions drawn from the analysis. Gross violations of the model assumptions will, of course, distort findings. This was not deemed to be the case here. Table 3 provides the data summary for all three years. It should be noted that for this table, and the regressions, the unit of analysis is the college district. Thus, the number of cases (observations) were 14 for 1980 and 15 for each year, 1981 and 1982. The latter years include a new college which was not in operation in 1980. Figure 2 Scatterplot of FTE's by PllOGLOAD. 1980 t3.I 37.1 lt.2 14.8 toa.I t32.3 tll.O t78.7 203.4 227.t .+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----·--~-·----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+. 2t3.0 + I • I + I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 18t.8 + I I + I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I t70.I + I I + I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I t48.4 + I I + I I I I 1----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------•1 I I I I I I I I + I I + I I I I .... t21.2 0 I I I I I I I I ~ r.S u m I I I I + I I + ::s -'tj ~ t07.0 ~H I I I I I I I I GI~ Ul I I I I I I I I + I I + '" ::s z 11.1 I I I I I I I I 1-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 I I I I 14.I + I I + I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 43.4 + I I + I I I I I I I I I • • I I I I • I I I 22.2 + • I I + I • • I I I I I I I I • I I I I • • I I I 1.0 +••• I I + .+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+. 2.0 25.7 49.4 73.1 96.8 120.5 144.2 t67.9 19t.6 2t5.3 239.0 Nursin2 (and Related) Pro2ram Load 2t3.0 191.8 t70.6 t49.4 t28.2 107.0 85.8 64.6 43.4 22.2 t.O ...... VI Figure 3 Scatterplot of FTE'o by TO'IVAC, 1980 24.5 63.5 t02.5 t4t .5 tl0.5 2t8.5 258.5 297.I 336.5 375.5 .+----·----·----·----·----·----+----·----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+. 2t3.0 + • I I + I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I t8t .8 + I I · + I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I t70.& + I I + I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I t48 .4 + I I + I I I I 1----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------•1 I I I I I I I I t28.2 + I I + I I I I I I I I .... 0 .u I I I I I I I I 111 tJ UJ ::s -+ I I + I I J I t07.0 -a i:z:I i:z:IH ~ I I J I I I I I GI UJ .... I I I I + I I + :E 85.8 J J J I J J J I 1-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 I I I I 64 .& + I J + I I I I I J J J I I I I I I I I 43.4 + I I + J I J J I I I I I• • I I I I • 1 · I I 22 .2 + • I I + I • • I I I I I I I I • I I I I • • I I I t .O + •• • I I + .+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+. 5.0 44.0 83.0 t22.0 t&t.O 200.0 239.0 278.0 3t7.0 356.0 395.0 End of Year Total (RN + LPN) Vacancies 213.0 t9t .8 no.& 149.4 t28.2 107.0 85.8 64.6 43.4 22.2 1 .0 ...... Cl' ,.. 0 .... 111 tJ II) ::I -"ti~ ~H ~ GI II) ,.. ::I z Figure 4 Scatterplot of FTE's by Inatitutional Budget. 1980 13070201 32711070 52351832 71882784 8163365& 1tt2745t8 1308t5311 t50556243 t70t97t05 t89837967 .+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----·----+----+----·----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+. 2t3.0 + • J I + I I I I I I J I I I I I I I I I 181.8 + I I + I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 170.& + I I + I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 148.4 + I I + I I I I 1----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------·1 I I I I I I I I 128 .2 + I I + I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 107 .O + I I + I I I I I I I I I I I. I I I I I 15.8 + I I + I I I I I I I I 1-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 I I I I &4 .& + I I + I I I . I I I I I I I I I I I I I 43.4 + I I + I I I I I I I I I • •1 I I I • I I I 22 .2 + • I I + I • • I I I I I I I I • I I I I • • I I I t.O +2• I I + .+----+----+----+----+----+----·----+----+----·----·----·----+----·----+----+----+----+----+----+----+. 3249777.0 22890639 42531501 62172363 81113228 t0t4&40l7 121084980 140735812 160376674 1800175J6 199658398 Inat:it:ut:innal RudQ'l!t: • 2t3.0 191 .8 170.6 149.4 128.2 107.0 85.8 64.6 43.4 22.2 1.0 '""' ...... 18 Table 3 Summary Statistics from Regression Analyses Mean Standard Deviation Cases 1980 FTE 37.3 61.5 14 PROGLOAD 45.5 66.0 14 BUDGET (in millions) 28.9 52.9 14 TOTVAC 59.4 100.3 14 1981 FTE 37 ·. l 60.8 15 PROGLOAD 46.3 67.2 15 BUDGET (in millions) 33.3 67.0 15 TOTVAC 54.7 98.l 15 1982 FTE 35.3 52.9 15 PROGLOAD 40.9 56.7 15 BUDGET (in millions) 34.8 67.5 15 TOTVAC 13.2 28.1 15 As mentioned previously, initial regressions were performed using total number of DTF vacancies for RN's and LPN's, at year end, for each of the years 1980-1982. As well, a pooled time-series analysis for the same years was performed. Briefly, the initial regressions revealed an unanticipated result: an extremely high correlation for PROGLOAD and TOTVAC for all three years. Further investigation of summary statistics from the regression analyses confirmed this condition to be one of multicollinearity where nonorthogonality among the explanatory variables prevails. Several attempts were made to eliminate, or at least alleviate this problem. Among these was an examination of the relationship between PROGLOAD and TOTVAC, using 1980 data. 19 A simple regression of PROGLOAD on TOTVAC provided some explanation. Table 4 shows the results . • Table 4 • Summarl of Regression Results, 1980 PROGLOAD versus TOTVAC Variable SE p t TOTVAC .601 .090 6.615 CONSTANT 13.430 9.950 1.350 n=l5 R2 - . 771 Beta-.878 Although intuitively changes in DTF vacancies for nurses are not usually or immediately associated with changes in nursing program loads, a closer examination of these constructs and the empirical evidence revealed the inherent nature of our methodological problem. An R2 of .771 indicates that TOTVAC accounts for 77 percent of the variation in the response variable PROGLOAD, and a regression coefficient of .601 indicates that an increase of one unit in DTF (i.e. DTF per 12 months) results in a .6 of a unit increase in nursing (and related) programs offered. This basic relationship did not change to any appreciable degree when we tested it using a time-lagged variable, TOTVACt-l· Bearing this in mind, we will first discuss the effects of this methodological limitation on the model, and then proceed to discuss the results of the regression model. It is usual to interpret a regression coefficient (p) as measuring the change in the dependent variable when the corresponding independent 2D variable is increased by one unit and all other explanatory variables are held constant. However, when there is a linear relationship among independent variables, such as that between PROGLOAD and TOTVAC, it may be impossible to change one variable while holding all others constant in the process being studied. Thus, simple interpretation of the regression coefficient as a marginal effect is lost. The condition of nonorthogonality among explanatory variables is difficult to detect at the conceptual· stage of the model. In fact, it is not a modelling error; it is a condition ·of the empirical data. Even in the presence of multicollinearity the regression equation may produce some good forecasts, that is, the least squares fit through the observations will be good and the residual variation will appear to be random. In summary, while collinear data will limit the usefulness of regression analysis for inference making in that the coefficients are no longer measuring the marginal influences of explanatory variables, this condition may not be a limiting factor for forecasting purposes. As long as the strength of the overall relationship will hold into the projected period (an underlying assumption in all forecasting models) accurate forecasts can be produced. Subsequently, we adjusted our TOTVAC variable to measure the DTF vacancy rate for the whole year, AVGVAC, taking into account the relative length of time each position remained vacant. This, we reasoned, was a more valid measure of labour market conditions and, for some years, was less collinear with PROGLOAD than was TOTVAC. However, multicollinearity still remained an inherent limitation of the data and the results should be interpreted with caution. 21 Table 5 provides means and standard deviations from data adjusted for the final regression for each of the years and for all three years together. Table 5 Summary Statistics from Regression Analyses RFTE PROGLOAD ADJBUD (in millions) AVGVAC RFTE PROGLOAD ADJBUD (in millions) AVGVAC RFTE PROGLOAD ADJBUD (in millions) AVGVAC RFTE PROGLOAD ADJBUD (in millions) AVGVAC 2.4 45.5 1. 7 21.4 2 :1 46.3 1.6 26.8 2.5 40.9 1.8 9.7 2.3 44.2 1. 7 19.3 Standard Deviation 1980 2.5 66.0 1. 6 37.9 1981 2.3 67.2 1. 3 50.6 3.3 56.7 1. 5 24.4 1980 - 1982 2.7 61. 9 1.4 38.9 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 44 44 44 44 Tables 6 through 8 provide statistics from the regress~on analyses for 1980, 1981 a~d 1982, respectively. Variable PROGLOAD AVGVAC ADJ BUD Constant Variable PROGLOAD AVGVAC Constant Variable PROGLOAD AVGVAC Constant 22 Table 6 Regression Results. 1980 Effects of PROGLOAD, AVGVAC and ADJBUD on RFTEs Correlation Matrix SE fJ t PROGLOAD AVGVAC ADJBUD .066 - .103 5.62707E-07 .566 .011 .019 2.3820E-07 .437 7.106 -5. 725 2.362 1.294 1 n - 14 R2 - .855 Sa ... 1.063 Table 7 Regression Results. 1981 .877 1 Effects of PROGLOAD, AVGVAC and ADJBUD on RFTEs .586 .680 1 Correlation Matrix SE fJ t PROGLOAD AVGVAC ADJ BUD .067 .0115 5.786 1 . 910 .873 -.066 .0153 -4.323 1 .932 .828 .389 2.132 n ... 15 R2 - .763 Sa = 1. 202 Table 8 Regression Results. 1982 Effects of PROGLOAD, AVGVAC and ADJBUD on RFTEs Correlation Matrix fJ SE fJ t PROGLOAD AVGVAC ADJ BUD .093 .007 13.063 1 .798 .879 - .150 .017 - 9.030 1 .738 .120 .303 .398 n - 15 R2 ~ .936 Sa - . 911 23 The 1980 data (Table 6) show that PROGLOAD, AVGVAC and ADJBUD jointly accounted for an appreciable proportion (85.5%) of the variation in per capita nurse educator FTE's. The R2 from the three variable equation was .855; PROGLOAD entered the stepwise regression first, contributing .381 to the R2 change, followed by AVGVAC with an additional .393 and finally ADJBUD, contributing .081 to the R2 change, thus accounting for 8.1 percent of the variation in the dependent variable. The t-values obtained for testing the null hypothesis H0 (p1 -0) against an alternative H1 (P1 r0) are significant at better than the .OS level leading to a rejection of the null hypothesis. . . Consequently, the observed F value (19 . 721) is larger than the p<0.01 F value for 3 and 10 degrees of freedom leading, therefore, to the rejection of the null hypothesis, i.e. all the P's cannot be taken as zero. However, the algebraic sign (negative) of the estimated coefficient of AVGVAC is contrary to prior expectation. The negative coefficient coupled with the previously discussed finding of high simple correlation coefficients among the three explanatory variables raise another potential problem of multicollinearity. Checking first the plot of the residuals against the predicted values of per capita FTE's (Figure 5) there are no glaring indications of model misspecification. The magnitude of residuals does not appear to vary systematically with t 1 (predicted values); there appear to be two cases of outliers. However, the significant t values indicated that 'each of the explanatory variables made a contribution to the total explanatory power of the model and, in fact, dropping any variable from the equation resulted in an appreciable decrease in the R2 coefficient. Simple regression analyses 24 Figure 5 Scatterplot of Standardized Residuals versus Predicted Values, 1980 Data Out ++-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----++ 3 + + I I 2 + + I I 1 + + I ·I 0 + + I I -1 + + I I -2 + + I I -3 + + Dut ++-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----++ •3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Out !>redicted FTE's Sy111bols: Ma>< N 1.0 2.0 were performed using each of the three independent variables singly, for 1980 (and 1981, 1982) data. The three separate models thus tested were: per capita FTE's £(program load), or per capita FTE's £(vacancy rates), or per capita FTE's - f(per capita budget). The best fit to the data (largest R2 ) was that of FTE's versus PROGLOAD, explaining 38.1 percent of the variation, with a significant F value at better than the 95 percent confidence level. but with a large standard error of prediction (S 8 = 2.01, Mean - 2.35). The regression with vacancy rate as the independent variable yielded an R2 of .109 and an F value insufficient for rejection of the null hypothesis. These results 25 indicate that AVGVAC alone is not a significant predictor of RFTE's. Similarly, a regression with per capita budget yielded a low R2 (.125) and an F value insufficient for rejection of the null hypothesis. Before we explore the nature and the source of the multicollinearity problem further we shall first examine the regression results from the subsequent two years and attempt a cautious interpretation of findings from a quantitative perspective. A discussion of possible ways for investigating the presence of nonconstant variance will then ensue. Figure· 6 Scatterplot of Standardized Residuals versus Predicted Values, 1981 Data Out ++-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----++ 3 + + Sy11bols: I I Mu: N 2 + + I I 1.0 2.0 1 + I 0 + + ~ I I 1 -1 + 4J I i:n -2 + + I + I I -3 + + Out ++-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----++ -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Out Predicted FTE's Ill .-4 Ill =' "'d or4 Ill :! ":I .... Cll "'d ~ .u ti) 26 Figure 7 Scatterplot of Standardized Residuals versus Predicted Values, 1982 Data Out ++-----·-----·-----·-----·-----+-----++ 3 + + I I 2 + + I I + I 0 + • + I I -1 + + I I -2 + + I I -3 + + ciut ++-----+-----·-----·-----+-----+-----++ -3 -2 -1 0 2 3 Out Predicted FTE'a Sy11bols : Mae< N 1.0 2.0 • 3.0 Data from 1981 closely replicated 1980 results (Table 7). Budget, however, was not a significant variable and did not enter the regression. PROGLOAD and AVGVAC combined explained only 76.3 percent of the variation in RFTE's for that year but the individual contribution of each of the variables remained comparable to that of the previous year. The R2 change for PROGLOAD was .394 and for AVGVAC , .369 , both significant at better than p<0.01. The partial regression coefficient for AVGVAC also remained similar to that of 1980 with a negative sign. Data from 1982 (Table 8) yielded slightly different results. An R2 of .936 was comprised of an R2 change of .502 for PROGLOAD and .434 for AVGVAC. The F value was significant at better than p<0.01 (df. 2, 12) and a S8 slightly lower than that for previous years (at .911). The individual 27 parameter null hypotheses were rejected with significant t values at the 99 percent confidence level. However, the algebraic sign to the estimated parameter for AVGVAC was negative. 6. Interpretation Given this empirical evidence that some degree of multicollinearity exists, the question then becomes: how does multicollinearity affect statistical inference and forecasting? The objectives of this study, as stated in Chapter I were to both quantify the contribution of the various independent variables to explaining the variation in nurse · educa~or FTE's and to develop a simple forecasting model that provides the "best" projections, given current data. Although the latter objective has been met satisfactorily, the results from this study only partially meet the former objective. While there remains great ambiguity regarding the individual contributions of each of the explanatory variables, an estimate of their joint contribution appears to be statistically significant. Since it was not the purpose of the study to identify important explanatory variables from among a linearly dependent collection of variables, the study therefore is at least partially successful in indicating the presence of structural dependencies (especially) between PROGLOAD and AVGVAC, the explanatory variables. Characteristics of the nature of these dependencies, of course, remain to be identified. However, ·the proportion of explained variation in RFTE is generally high and the residual variation appears to be random for the cross-sectional as well as for the pooled time-series data (Figure 8) indic~ting a reasonably good fit (R2-.764). That the relationship between 28 PROGLOAD and AVGVAC will hold into the future is implicit in the forecasting exercise. This latter will be accurate as long as future values of PROGLOAD and AVGVAC have the same structural characteristics as the current data. m .... "' :s ..., 'P4 en GI pi:: ..., ~ al '"Cl ~ .u t'l Figure 8 Scatterplot of Standardized Residuals versus Predicted Values, Historical Data, 1980-1982 Out ++-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----++ 3 + + I I 2 + I + + I ... I 0 + . : + I •• • I -1 + + I I -2 + + I I -3 + + Dut ++-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----++ -3 -2 -1 0 2 3 Out Predicted FTE's S)lllbols: Ma>e N 1.0 2.0 • 5.0 Applying, possibly, other analytic techniques to the same data to test postulated theoretical relationships among the variables or alternatively, respecifying the original model and undertaking further data collection, are therefore required for a more thorough understanding of nurse educator requirements. The central finding of this study is the previously unanticipated structural relationship between average annual vacancy rates and 29 nursing-related program loads. Thus, the analysis has provided new information about the socio-economic environment represented by these data. Because the two independent variables, PROGLOAD and AVGVAC are highly correlated and the former may be defined as a function of the latter (PROGLOAD - f(AVGVAC)) the respective parameters estimated from the regression model yield a counterintuitive result. A negative algebraic sign for the parameter AVGVAC should not be interpreted as a unit decrease of average annual vacancy rates producing the specified increase in nurse educator FTE's. The negative sign appears to compensate for the proportion of that variable's (AVGVAC) influence on FTE's ·that is manifested otherwise through PROGLOAD. Finally, because the independent variables are not interchangeable, that is, taken individually do not explain as much of the variation in FTE's and because often the individual variables are not even statistically significant regressors, it is clear that the interaction effect of the two independent variables need to be explored and quantified. IV. Discussion of Planning and Policy Applications This report contains information of various types and varying levels of generality. Historical information on nursing programs are included in the Appendix and provide an overview of the variety of programs offered in this province during the years under study. As well, the report contains information on the volume of nursing students during those years. Descriptive data on nurse educator FTE's and budgets provides another type of information, useful for planning purposes, especially because it is 30 given here in conjunction with program and student volume. It is interesting to note that 1982 witnessed an appreciable decrease in educator FTE's, while institutional budgets were held approximately constant or only marginally decreased. Apparently, College/Institution priorities were shifting that year but not necessarily due to extreme lack of financial· resources. In fact, college districts with increased budgets were more likely than others to have reduced FTE's in nursing related education. The apparently intimate relationship between nursing program loads (programs offered) and average annual vacancy rates certainly warrants further investigation. The current data indicate that one should be more interested in estimating [P1•PROGLOAD-P2•AVGVAC] than each of the parameters separately. The former would measure the increment to FTE's that corresponds to increasing PROGLOAD by one unit and simultaneously reducing AVGVAC by one unit. The data also indicate that variation in PROGLOAD is influenced mainly by a profusion of short-term programs such as post-basic, refresher, access programs. These latter are driven, in turn, by perceived changes in labour market conditions. Thus, while short-term programs increase appreciably during periods of perceived RN "shortages", the number of regular (two-year diploma) programs remain constant. The resulting fluctuation in RFTE between College Districts is, therefore, uneven and possibly, only temporary. 31 Finally, to illustrate the current forecasting model for a provincial average using data from the pooled time-series analysis (Table 9). per capita FTE's - .773 + .070(PROGLOAD) - .080(AVGVAC) .773 + .070(44.227) - .080(19.260) - 2.328 Table 9 Regression Results. 1980-1982 Effects of PROGLOAD, AVGVAC and ADJBUD on RFTEs Cor~elation Matrix Variable fJ SE fJ t PROGLOAD AVGVAC ADJ BUD PROGLOAD .070 .006 11.529 1 .849 .755 AVGVAC - .080 .010 - 8.261 1 . 721 Constant . 773 .245 3.150 n - 445 R2 - • 775 Se - 1. 300 Since the pooled time-series data are based on 44 observations, an appreciable variety of PROGLOAD/AVGVAC values have been taken into consideration. Bearing in mind the cautionary note regarding the structural characteristics of this relationship, future values of the two variables may be substituted for those above to forecast future requirements ._ REFERENCES 1. Breton, R. (1972), Social and Academic Factors in the Career Decisions of Canadian Youth, with J. McDonald and S. Richer, Manpower and Immigration, Program Development, Information Canada, Ottawa 2. College and Institute Act, 1979 (RSBC, Chapter 53 ). 3. Deane, R.T. (1971), Simulating an Econometric Model of the Market for Nurses, Ph.D. Dissertation, UCIA, UMI 72-13, 601 4. Division of Health Services Research and Development (1979-1985), PRODUCTION - A Status Report on the Production of Health and Human Services Personnel in the Province of British Columbia, Reports P:4-7, Office of the Coordinator of Health Sciences, The University of British Columbia 5. Engler, D. (1981), The Costs and Benefits of Baccalaureate Education for RNs, Thesis, Ohio State University, Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilm International 6. Hall, T.L. (1978), "Demand", in T.L. Hall and A. Mejia (eds.), Health Manpower Planning, Geneva: World Health Organization 7. Halsey, A.H., et al. (ed.) (1961), Education. Economy and Society, New York, The Free Press of Glencoe 8. Johnson, W.L. (1980), "Supply and Demand for Registered Nurses - Some Observations on the Current Picture and Prospects to 1985. Part 2", Nursing and Health Care, September 9. Kazanjian, A. and S. Chan (1984), Nurse Requirements in British Columbia: An Analysis of the 1979-82 Trends: Part 1 - Methods and Preliminary Findings, Report S:l6, Division of Health Services Research and Development, The University of British Columbia 10. Keaveny, T.J. and R.L. Hayden (1978), "Manpower Planning for Nurse Personnel", American Journal of Public Health, 68(7), 656-662 11. Kriesgberg, H.M. et al. (1976), Methodological Approaches for Determining Health Manpower Supply and Requirements. Volume I -Analytical Perspective, Health Planning Methods and Technology Series, DHEW Publication No. (HRA) 76-14511 12. Levine, E. (1978), "Nursing Supply and Requirements: The Current Situation and Future Prospects", in Political. Social and Educational Forces .on Nursing: Impact of Political Forces, New York: National League for Nursing, Pub. No. 15-1754 13. University Act, 1979 (RSBC, Chapter 419) 14. Zabawski, P. (1983), Diploma Nurse - Baccalaureate Nurse: Is There a Difference?, Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Education, August APPENDIX A College Districts If ········· .............. • COLLEGE DISTRICTS \. ) ... 11 .. . _, '""···\ ........... . ,... ; •\.r· .. ~ .• , ................. ···-··------... - ........ . IO NOllTHEllN LIGHTS COLLlGE 11 ==,'! COLL.IOE CAMOIUN COU.lCIE • ' APPENDIX B Level, Duration of Training, Requirements for Practice, Manpower Category, and Supply, by Field of Study • • Level, Duration of Training, Requirements for Practice, Manpower C~tegory, and Supply, by Field of Study Field Certificate Diuloma Baccalaureate Post-Graduate NURSING SERVICES ~: lOm 1. Practical Nursing ---> 9-18m 2 . Nursing Access ------> 3. Psych. Nursing 1-2 yr --------> 4. Nursing Diploma 2-3 yr --------- -- --> 5. Nursing - B.S .N. 4 yr -------------- --- --> 4m 6. Nursing Aide --> Pose-Basic: 3-511 7 . Nursing - Refresher --> 8. Nursing - B.S .N. - - - - - - -> 2 yr --------> (B.S.N.) 2 yr 9 . Nursing - Master's - - - - - - - - - -> --------> 10 . Continuing Educat:ion (various programs) 3m - 2yr --------> 11 . Nursing - Bridging• (10..)211 - -> -> * Required for Practice ** Difficult-to-Fill •includes Registered Psychiatric Nurses 'Program allows LPNs to enter beyond t:he 1st semester of a general nursing or psychiat:ric nursing program. (prerequisite) ------- (current: program) 1985 Registration/ Intake/ Li censure/ Production Certification No Yes RFP* 283 / 244 x Yes 10 / 60 x Yea 106 / o x Yes 833 / 491 x Yes so / 90 x Yes 92 / 63 x 223 / 174 x Yea 151 / 124 x Yea 35 / 15 x Yea 230 / 131 x Yes 24 / 15 x Yes • Manpower (Active) DIF** as D~~t:~mALL Number Sep . BS/ Seoc.!'185 Dec . SS Licensed Practical Nurses 6,402 3 I 2 (see Reg. Nurses) Registered Psych. 1,788 3 I 3 Nurses Registered Nurses 21,906 i61/80l (see Reg. Nurses) (see Reg. 1'uraea) (see Reg. 1'uraea) .. above (see Reg. 1'urae•) (see Reg. 1'uraes) ~see Licensed ractical Nurses) • APPENDIX C Nursing Programs 1979- 1985 • • Nursiq Sentca (1979) BASIC LEVEL HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICE PROGRAMS PROGRAM: Buie Nursiq INSTITUI10N OFFERED: Douglas College MANPOWER. CA'IF.GORY TRAINED: Basic Nurses (graduates are eligible to write the licensing exams of the B.C. Council or Practical Nurses) LENGTII OF COURSE: Twelve months QUAIJFICA TION OFFERFl>: Certificate EXTFR.NAL REGISTRATION, CFJlTIFICATION OR LICENSING: License - B.C. Council or Practtcal Nurses (required for employment in the field) PROGRAM: Naniq - Baccalameate INSTITUTION OFFERED: University of British Columbia (both a Basic and a Postbasic Level Program) MANPOWER. CA TEOORY TRAINED: BaccaJaureate Nurses LENOTII OF COURSE: Thirty-two months (or nineteen months for R.N.s studying to obtain their Baccalaureate - this will change in 1981 when the program for R.N.s will be sixteen months in length) QUAIJFICA TION OFFERED: B.S.N. EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CFJlTIFICATION OR LICENSING: Registration (R.N.) - Registered Nurses' Association of B.C. " (required for employment in the field) COMMENTS: The graduate figures are higher than the first-year enrollment figures because approximately 72 R.N.s enter the prograrp in third year to complete their B.S.N. degree. PROGRAM: Naniq - Diplct111a INSTITUTIONS OFFERED: British Columbia Institute of Technology Camosun College Cariboo CoDege College of New Caledonia Douglas College Okanagan College Royal Jubilee Hospital Selkirk College Vancouver Cormmmlty College Vancouver General Hospital Victoria General Hospital MANPOWER. CATEGORY TRAINED: Graduate Nurses LENGTH OF COURSE: Twelve months (after completion of Basic Nursing program) - Douglas College Thirty-six months - Royal Jubilee Hospital Thirty-Six months - Vancouver General Hospital Thirty-six months - Victoria General Hospital (All others - from twenty-two to twenty-eight months) QUAUFICA TION OFFERED: Diploma EXTERNAL llF.GISTRATION, CFllTIACATION OR LICENSING: Registration (R.N.) - Registered Nurses' Association of B.C. (required for employment in the field) a>MMENTS: British Columbia Institute of Technology - Only one class was enrolled in 1978. Camosun College - This Is a new program proposed to begtn In September, 1980. Oltanagan College - Oltanapn College plans to decrease the number of students enrolled In this program. Selkirk College - No new students were admitted into the program in January, 1980 - there is not expected to be a January intake for at least two years. Vanoouver Conununily College - The figures given in the tables also include those students who enroll in the Nursing Orderly program in 8eptember of each year. PROGRAM: Psychiatric Naning INSTITUl10NS OFFERED: British Columbia Institute. of Technology Douglas College MANPOWER CATEGORY TRAINED: Psychiatric Nurses LENOTII OF COURSE: Twenty-two months - British Columbia Institute of Technology Twelve months (after completion of the Basic Nursing program) - Douglas College QUAUFJCA TION OFFERED: Diploma EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: Registration (R.P.N.) - Registered Psychiatric Nurses Association of B.C. (required for employment in the field). COMMENTS: British Columbia Institute of Technology - The decrease in numbers for 1980 reflects one intake being missed due to delay in approval of new curriculum. The tentative plans include an increase in initial enrollment and admission of Partial Program students (e.g. L.P.N.s and R.N.s wi<lhing qualification in ~chiatric Nursing). Douglas College - This program was cancelled for 1979 only, due to lack or enrollmenL POSTBASIC LEVEL HE.Um AND HUMAN SERVICE PROGRAMS PROGRAM: Nuntq - Baaalameate INSTITUTIONS OFFERED: University of Victoria University of British Columbia (see the listing on Basic Level Health and Human Services Programs) MANPOWER CAlEOORY TRAINED: Baccalaureate Nurses LENGTII OF COURSE: Two academic years QUALIFICATION OFFERED: B.Sc.N. (Posl-R.N. Baccalaureate) EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: None (this is a post-R.N. program) PROGRAM: Narsiag - Master's INSTITUTION OFFERED: University of British Columbia MANPOWER CATEGORIFS TRAINED: Nursing Teachers, Nursing Administrators, Nursing Consultants, Nursing Researchers LENGTII OF a>URSE: Sixteen months QUALIFICATION OFFERED: M.S.N. EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: None PROGRAM: Narshl1 - Uppadin1 INSTITUTIONS OFFERED: British Columbia Institute of Technology College of New Caledonia Fraser Valley College MANPOWER CATEGORY TRAINED: Nol applicable - refresher II. QUALIFlCA TION OFFF.RED: Certificate EXTERNAL RF.GIS'IRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: None COMMENTS: This program is being phased out by August 31, 1980. The 1978 enrollment figma represent the total number of students who were currently enrolled in the program. I Nanln1 Senicel (1911) BASIC U:VEL BIALTH AND BUMAN SERVICE PIOGIAMS PROORAM: Bale N.U.1 INSmlITJON OFFF.RED: Douglas College MANPOWER CA TEOORY TRAINED: Basic Nunes (gndualel are eligible to write the licensing eums of the B.C. Council of Practical Nurses) LENGTII OF COURSE: Twelve months QUAUFICA TION OFFERFD: Certifate EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR. UCENSINO: License - B.C. Council of Prac:Ucal Nurses (required for employment In the field) PROORAM: Nanlq • Bacalaareate INSmuTION OFFF.RED: Unlvenity of Brlti..h Columbia (both a basic and a postbasic level program) MANPO'NER CATEGORY TRAINED: Baccalaureate Nunes LENOTII OF COURSE: Thirty-two months (or sixteen months for R.N.'s studying to obtain their Baccalaureate) QUALIFICATION OFFERED: 8.S.N. EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTlflCATION OR. LICENSING: Registration (R.N.) - Registered Nunes' Association of B.C. (required for employment In the field as a Registered Nurse) COMMENTS: From 1982, students enrolled In the basic U.B.C. degree program may not write registration cums until the end or fourth year. PROGRAM: Nmlq - m,to.I INSTITUTIONS OFFERID. British Columbia Institute of Technology Camosun College Cariboo College College . of New Caledonia Douglas College Okanagan College Royal Jubilee Hospkal Seltirt College Vancouver Community College Vancouver General Hospital Victoria General Hospital MANPOWER CA 'IEOORY TRAINED: Graduate Nurses LENOTII OF COURSE: Douglas College - Twelve months after completion of Basic Nursing program; nine months after completion or Psychiatric Nursing program Hospitals - Thirty-six months All others - from twenty-two to twenty-eight roonths QUALIFICATION OFFERED: Diploma EXTERNAL REOISTRA TION, CERTlflCA TION OR LICENSING: Registration (R.N.) - Registered Nunes' Association of B.C. (required for employment in the field as a Registered Nurse) COMMENTS: British Columbia Institute of Technology -Full-lime enrollment will be reduced to 32 students per ln~e commencing in January or 1982. The tentative increase represents a proposed part-lime program which, if funded, would begin in September 1982 and graduate its first students in 1986. Cariboo College - Because this program changed from twenty-three consecutive months to twenty-four months over a three-year period, there will be no graduates in 1982. College of New Caledonia - Diploma Nurses and Practical Nunes are enrolled In a common first year. The enrollment figures shown for diploma nursing include a yearly total or not more than 20 practical nurses. Douglas CoDege - The tentative increase for thn program represents Licensed Practical Nurses, graduates from the Basic Nursing program al Douglas College, and graduates from the Psychiabic Nursing programs at 8.CJ.T. and Douglas College. These people will be admlued Into the Diploma Nursing program at an advanced level. Royal JubUee Hospital - This program Is being dlscon tinued. The last class enrolled in 1980. Selkirk · CoDege - The 1981 decrease In enronment Is due to insuf1klent funding allocations to provide clinical instruction for 36 students. Vancouver Cormnunity College - An access program for Licensed Practical Nurses is proposed for 1982, with an annual Intake of 72 students. Victoria General Hospital - This program has been phased out. The last class graduated in July, 1981. PROORAM: Nania& Amss INSTITUTION OFFERFD: CoDege of New Caledonia MANPOWER CATEGORY TRAINED: Graduate Nurses LENGTH OF COURSE: Fourteen months QUALIFICATION OFFERFD: Diploma EXTERNAL RF.OISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR UCENSINO: Registration {R.N.) - Registered Nurses' Association of B.C. (required for employment In the field as a Registered Nurse) COMMENTS: Thn program Is for Licensed Practical Nmses who wish to become Graduate Nurses. PROGRAM: Pradlcal Nmsln1 INSTITUTIONS OFFERED: Camosun College College of New Caledonia Malaspina College Okanagan College Selkirk College Vancouver Community College MANPOWER CATEGORY TRAINED: Practical Nurses LEN01H OF COURSE: CoDege of New Caledonia - Twelve moruhs Malaspina College - Seven months (after Part I Practical Nursing) · All others - Ten months QUALIFICATIONS OFFERED: Transcript - Selkirk CoDege Diploma - Malaspina College, Okanagan College Certificate - all others EXTERNAL RF.OISTRA TION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: License - 8.C. Councl of Praclical Nurses (required for employment in the field as a Licensed Practical Nurse) COMMENTS: Camosun College - PnK:tlcal Nurses and Diploma Nurses are enrolled together. None of the Diploma Nursing stream sought licensure as a Practical Nurse in 1981. It Is hoped that one clinical group might do so In 1982 and subsequent years; however, Iha projection Is sbictly tentative. CoDege of New Caledonia - Diploma Nurses and Practical Nurses are enroDed in a common first year. Therefore, the enrollment figures shown for diploma nursing include a yearly total of not more than 20 practical nurses. Malaspina CoDege - Thn ts a new program which began In January of 1982. The 1980 and 1981 figures represent the old Practical Nursing program. otanagan CoDege - In 1981 this prolflm changed from three intakes per year lo only one. Selkirk CoDege - The tentative Increase represents an additional January intake to begin In 1983. Vancouver Community College - The figures given In the tables also include those students who enroll in the Nursing Orderly program In September of each year. PROGRAM: Ps1chiatric Nania1 INSTITUTIONS OFFERED: British Columbia Institute of Technology Douglas College MANPOWER CATEGORY TRAINED: Psychiatric Nurses LENOTII OF COURSE: British Columbia Institute of Technology - Twenty-one monlhs Douglas College - Twelve monlhs after completion of the Basic Nursing program QUALIACATION OFFERED: Diploma EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: Registration (R.P.N.) - Registered Psychiatric Nurses' Association of B.C. (required for employment In lhe field as a Registered Psychiatric Nurse) POSTBASIC LEVEL HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICE PROGRAMS PROGRAM: Cla.kal Ps1dllatrlc Nlll'Slq INSTinmON OFFERED: Univenity of British Columbia MANPOWER CATEGORY TRAINED: Registered Nurses with specialty preparation in dinical psychiatric nursing LENGTII OF COURSE: Not yet detennined QUALIACATION OFFERED: Certificate EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIRCATION OR LICENSING: None COMMENTS: This program is presendy in the planning stages. It is anticipated that it will be limited to twenty students; implementation is dependent on funding. PROGRAM: Crltkal Cue Nursta1 Letel I INSTinmONS OFFERED: University of British Columbia • Vancouver Connnunity College MANPOWER. CATEGORY TRAINED: Registered Nurses with specialty preparation in Critical Care Nursing. beginning le\·el of practice LENGTII OF COURSE: University or British Columbia - unknown: Vancouver Community College - six weeks part-lime, five weeks full-time QUALIACA TION OFFERED: Certificate EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIACATION OR LICENSING: None COMMENTS: Univenity of British Columbia - Information on this program was not received in time for publication. Vancouver Community College - The increase in enroll ment and graduates under tentative plans will be in offerinp conducted within hospitals by their own instructors, using Vancouver Community College's program. PROGRAM: Crltkal Cue Nmslq LeTel U laformatio• o• this ,,..,... which Is offered at the Uaitersil1 of British Col•hla wu aot recei•ed In lime for publla.lion. PROGRAM: t:nierse•CJ Nmsin1 INSmUTION OFFERED: Douglas College MANPOWER. CATEGORY TRAINED: Registered Nunes who are qualified for employment in Emergency Departments of both sm;all and large hospitals LENGTII OF COURSE: Eight months QUALIACA TION OFFERED: CertiflC8te EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIACATION OR LICENSING: None PROGRAM: Hospital Iafedloa Coatrol INSTITlfnON OFFERED: University of British Columbia MANPOWER CATEGORY TRAINED: in hospital infection oontrol Registered Nurses prepared LENOTII OF COURSE: Eight months QUAUF1CA TION OFFERED: Certificate EXTERNAL · REOISTRATION, CERTIF1CATION OR UCENSINO: None COMMENTS: This is the pilot program in the eight-month Hospital Infection Control program. Those students who did not continue with Level II indicated they would want to complete it in the future. It is impossible at this time to give an accurate estimate of how many students might complete the whole program. PROGRAM: luenke Id .. tioa INSTITUTION OFFERED: University of Britah Columbia MANPOWER CATEGORY TRAINED: Registered Nurses prepared for lnservlce education positions LENOTII OF COURSE: Nine months QUAUFICA TION OFFERED: Certificate (for completion of aD five parts) EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR UCENSINO: None COMMENTS: Students may choose to take all five parts of this program, or any one part which is most appropriate for their needs. Therefore the graduate figures for those who complete the entire program are Impossible to predict past 1982. PROGRAM: Loa1 Term Coath11d91 Cue Narsiq INSTITUTION OFFERED: University of British Columbia MANPOWER CATEGORY TRAINED: Registered Nurses prepared for long term continuing care nursing LENOTII OF COURSE: Four months QUAUF1CA TION OFFERED: CertifJCate EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIF1CATION OR LICENSING: None COMMENTS: Figures are based on the maximum number of students allowed to enroll in this program. Accurate predictions are difrlCUlt because of unknown availability of funding. PROGRAM: Neoaatal lateube Cue Narsin1 INSTITtrnON OFFERED: Vancouver Community College MANPOWER CA TEOORY TRAINED: Registered Nurses with specialty preparation in neonatal intensive care nursing LENOTII OF COURSE: Fifteen weeks QUALIF1CATION OFFERED: Certificate EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIF1CATION OR LICENSING: None PROGRAM: Nmslq - Baa:alawate INSTITUTIONS OFFERED: University of Victoria University of British Columbia (see the listing on Basic Level Health and Human service Programs) MANPOWER CATEGORY TRAINED: Baccalaureate Nurses LENOTII OF COURSE: Slightly more than two calendar years QUALIF1CA TION OFFERED: B.S.N. EXTERNAL REOISTRA TION, CERTIF1CA TION OR LICENSING: None (this Is a post-R.N. program) COMMENTS: The University of Victoria is planning to offer more courses during the May through August period each year. Also, it is delivering more off-campus courses. These offerings should increase the number of graduates a." • indicated in the tentative figures. PROGRAM: NaniJl1 • Muter'1 INSTITUilON OFFERED: University of British Columbia MANPOWER. CA TEOORIF.S TRAINED: Nurse Teachers, Nurse Administrators, Nurse Consuliants, Nurse Researchers LENGTH . OF COURSF.: Sixteen months QUALIFICATION OFFERED: M.S.N. EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: None PROGRAM: Nmlq - Refresher INSTITUilONS OFFERED: British Columbia Institute of Technology Capilano College Cariboo College College of New Caledonia Fraser Valley College Kwantlen College Malaspina College North Island College Vanoouver Community College MANPOWER. CATEGORY TRAINED: Not applicable - refRSher program LENOTII OF COURSF.: North Island College - Sixteen weeks Vancouver Community College - Eighteen weeks All others - Three months QUALIFICATION OFFERED: Not applicable EXTERNAL RF.GISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: Not applicable COMMENTS: British Columbia Institute of Technology - It is impossible " to predict enrollment and graduate figures past 1982, as this program's continuation is dependent on suf ficient enrollment and yearly funding. Capilano College - This program is not yet part of the anaoing budget of the college and is, therefore. offered on I temporary basis. Fraser Valley College - This program was last offered in January 1981. It is unknown when it will be offered again. Kwantlen College - F.nrollment and graduate figures are W18vailable past 1982, because funding is tmknown. Vancouver Commtmity College - This program is being offered with Special Training Initiative Funds for 1982. PROGRAM: Nanlq Admlalstratioa INSTITUTION OFFERED: Douglas College MANPOWER. CA TF.OORIF.S TRAINED: Registered Nurses and Registered PsychiaUic Nurses with specialty preparation for Head Nurse and Supervisor levels LENGTH OF COURSF.: Twelve months, or part-time over five years QUAUFICA TION OFFERED: Certificate EXTERNAL RF.GISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: None -COMMENTS: This program was phased out August 31, 1980. PROGRAM: Ohtetrlcal Nanlq L.tel I INSTITUTION OFFERED: Vancouver Community College MANPOWER. CATEGORY TRAINED: Registered Nurses with specialty preparation in normal obstetrics, with emphasis in intra partum period (labor and delivery) LENGTH OF COURSF.: Nine months (total of eleven weeks full-time, remainder part-time) QUALIACA TION OFFERED: Certificate EXTERNAL REOISlRATION, CERTIACATION OR LICENSING: None COMMENTS: Vancouver Community College proposes to videotape dassroorn experience and broadcast via televldon satellite starting 1983. Arrangements for clinical experience will be made in re&ional areas u well u In the lower mainland PROGRAM: Ollstdrk:al Nwslq Letel II INSTITimON OFFERED: Vancouver Community CoDqe MANPOWER CATEGORY TRAINED: Registered Nunes wtlh specialty preparation In hip risk obstetrics, wtth emphasis on intrapartwn period Oabor and delivery) LENOTII OF COURSE: Seven months (eleven weeks full-time, remainder part-time) QUAUFICA TION OFFERED: Certificate EXTERNAL REOIS1RATION, CERTIFICATION OR UCENSINO: None COMMENTS: Applicants for Level ll of the program must have completed or successf\Jlly challenged Level I. PROGRAM: Ocmpatloaal Health Nantn1 INSTITUfiON OFFERED: Douglu College MANPOWER CATOOORY TRAINED: Registered Nurses who are qualified for employment in Occupational Heallh settinp LENGTII OF COURSE: Twenty-four months part-time QUAUACA TION OFFERED: Certificate EXTERNAL REOISlRATION, CERTIACATION OR UCENSINO: None PROGRAM: Operatlq ROOlll Nanla1 INSTITUTIONS OFFERED: British Columbia Institute of Technology Cariboo CoRege MANPOWER. CATEGORY TRAINED: Operating Room Nurses LENOTII OF CO~E: Three months QUAUFICA TION OFFERED: Not applicable EXTERNAL REOISlRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: Not applicable COMMENTS: This course prepares lhe R.N. for staff nurse duties in hospital operating rooms. Beginning level skills are developed, primarily for graduates of two-year diploma programs; however, lhe course is also of value as a refresher for former OR nurses. British Columbia Institute of Technology - It is impossible to predict enroRment and graduate figures past 1982, as this progral!'l'S continuation is dependent on suffi dent enrollment and yearly funding. Cariboo College - Graduate figures cannot be given at lhis lime. because the fmt dass does nol enroll until January 1982. PROGRAM: Paftllatric Nlniq INSTITUTION OFFERED: Vancouver Community College MANPOWER CA TEOORY TRAINED: Registered Nurses '1rilh specialty preparation in paediatric nursing LEN01lf OF COURSE: Six months (seven weeks full-time, remainder part-time) QUAUFICA TION OFFERED: Certificate EXTERNAL REOISlRATION, CERTIACATION OR UCENSINO: None COMMENTS: Vancouver Community CoRege proposes to " • videolape classroom experience and broadcast via television satellite starting 1983. AnangemenlS for dinlcal experience will be made in regional areas. PROGRAM: Paediatric Nar1ia1 - Acute Care la tbe e ... INSTITUTION OFFF.RED: Vancouver Community College MANPOWER· CATEGORY TRAINED: Registered Nurses with specialty preparation u paedialric community health nurses (home care) LENOTif OF COURSE: . Six months (seven weeks ftlll-tne. remainder pan-time) QUALIFICATION OFFF.RED: Certifx:ate EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CER.11FICATION OR UCENSINO: None COMMENTS: This · is a pilot program being offered with Special Training Initiative Funds In 1982. PROGRAM: PrlmUJ Care N.mq INSTITUTION OFFF.RED: University of British Colmnbla MANPOWER CA TEOORY TRAINED: Registered Nurses prepared for primary care nursing LENGTif . OF COURSE: Not yet determined QUALIFICATION OFFF.RED: Certificate EXTERNAL REOISTRA TION, CF.RTIFICA TION OR LICENSING: None COMMENTS: Dependent upon funding, this program Is scheduled to begin in September 1982. PROGRAM: PIJchlltrlc Narsiaa la tbe CommaltJ INSTITUTION OFFERED: Douglas College MANPOWER CA TEOORIF.S TRAINED: Conununlty Psychiatric • Nurses at the Staff Nurse, Head Nurse and Supervisor levels LENOTif OF COURSE: Twelve months, or part-time over five years QUAUFICA TION. OFFERED: Certificate EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: None COMMENTS: This program was phased out August 31, 1 IJ!IO. PROGRAM: Small Hospital Narslna INS11TUTION OFFERED: College of New Caledonia MANPOWER CATEGORY TRAINED: Registered Nurses with special preparation In small hospital nursing LENGTif OF COURSE: Flfleen weeks QUALIFICATION OFFERED: Certificate EXTERNAL REOISlRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: None COMMENTS: This is a new program scheduled to begin in September 1982. It will be offered on a part-time and a full-time basis. .. • • Narshl1 Ser'rices (1983) BASIC U:VEL HE.Um AND HUMAN SERVICE PROGRAMS PROGRAM: Buie NursiD1 INSTITimON OFFERED: Douglas College MANPOWER CATFOORY lRAINED: Basic Nunes (graduates are eligible to write the licensing exams of the B.C. Council of Practical Nurses) LENOnt OF COURSE: Twelve months QUALIFICATION OFFERED: Certificate EXTERNAL REOISlRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: License - B.C. Council of Practical Nunes (required for employment in the field) COMMENTS: This program has been phased ouL The last class graduated In 1983. PROGRAM: N..... - Bacalaarate JNSTITimON OFFERED: Univenity of British Columbia (both a basic and a postbaslc level propmn) MANPOWER CATEOORY lRAINED: Baccalaureate Nunes LENOnt OF COURSE: Thirty-two months (or sixteen months for R.N.'s studying to obtain their BaccalaURlllte) QUALIFICATION OFFERED: B.S.N. EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: Registration (R.N.) - Registered Nunes' Association of B.C. (required for employment in the field a a Registered Nune) COMMENTS: Students enter the program at either of two PROGRAM: levels: first year for basic students and third year for nurses who have completed a college or hospital program. The latter group are already registered nurses and not new to the workforce upon grad~tion. Narsla1 - Diploma INSTITUTIONS OFFERED: British Columbia lnstiwte of Technology Camosun College Cariboo College College or New Caledonia Douglas College Okanagan College Royal Jubilee Hospital Selkirk College Vancouver Community College Vancouver General Hospital MANPOWER CATEGORY TRAINED: Graduate Nunes LENCJ1ll OF COURSE: Royal Jubilee Hospital - 36 months Vancouver General Hospital - 13S weeks AU others - from twenty-one to twenty-eight months QUALIFICATION OFFERED: Diploma EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: Registration (R.N.) - Registered Nunes' Association or B.C. (required for employment in the field as a Registered Nune) COMMENTS: College of New Caledonia - This program no longer offers the Practical Nursing option. Douglas College - Tht.. program was revised, starting in 1983. Royal Jubilee Hospital - This program has been discon tJnued. The last class graduated ht January or 1983. Vancouver Community College - Due to budgetary constraints. 8 fewer swdents were admitted in 1983. PROGRAM: Naniq Accas INSTITITTIONS OFFERED: College of New Caledonia Doualas College MANPOWER CA TEOORY TRAINED: Graduate Nurses LENGTII OF COURSE: CoUege of New Caledonia - 18 months Douglas College - 9 months for Psychiatric Nunes; 16 months for Prac:tic:al Nunes QUALIFICATION OFFERED: Diploma EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: Registration (R.N.) - Registered Nurses' Association of B.C. (required for employment in lhe field u a Registered Nwse) PROGRAM: Pradlcal Nanla1 INSTITUTIONS OFFERED: Camosun College College of New Caledonia Malaspina CoUege Okanagan College Selkirk College Vanmuver Conununlty College MANPOWER CATEOORY TRAINED: Practic:aJ Nunes LENGnt OF COURSE: Malaspina College - Twenty-eight weeks (after Part Prac:tic:al NUISing) All olhen - Ten months QUALIFICATIONS OFFERED: Diploma - Malaspina College Certificate - aU olhen · EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: Lkense - B.C. Council of Prac:tic:al Nurses (required for employment in lhe field as a Licensed Practical Nurse) COMMENTS: Camosun College - These students are enrolled in the Diploma Nwsin& program; intent to ellit as Practical Nurses is made known in March. Current propam appro\111 criteria cannot be met because pediatric and obsteUical clinical experience are no longer available for Practical NU1Sing swdents at Victoria General Hospital. Unless these program approval criteria change, Camosun College will not be able to graduate Practical Nurses aftrr 1983. College of New Caledonia - The Diploma Nursing program no longer offen lhe Prac:tic:al Nursing option. Otanagan College - Continuation of this program will be decided by an Advisory Committee alter a graduate employment follow-up swdy is completed. Selkirk College - The 1983 decrease in enrollment is due to insufficient funding allocations to provide clinical instJUction for 36 students. PROGRAM: Ps1dllatric Nwsiq INSTITUTIONS OFFERED: . · British Columbia Institute of Technology Douglas College MANPOWFR. CAlBJORY TRAINED: Psychiatric Nurses LENOnt OF COURSE: B.CJ.T. - Twenty-two months Doualas College - Twelve months QUALIFICATION OFFERED: Diploma EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: Registration (R.P.N.) - Registered Psychiatric Nurses' Association of B.C. (required for employment in the field IS a Registered Psychiatric Nurse) COMMENTS: B.CJ.T. - This program may possibly move to Douglas · College. Douglas College - This program wu discontinued as of September 1983. • POSTBASIC LEVEL HEALTH ANO HUMAN SERVICE PROGRAMS PROGRAM: CUnlcal Ps7dllalrlc NIWSlq INSTITUilON OFFERED: University of British Columbia MANPOWER. CATEGORY TRAINID. Registered Nurses with specialty preparation in clinical psychiatric nuning LENOTII OF COURSE: Nine months QUALIFICATION OFFERED: Cerlific:ate EXTERNAL REGISTRATION. CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: None COMMENTS: This program slarted in 1983. PROGRAM: Crltlcal Care Nmsta1 Lewel I INSTITUllONS OFFERED: University of British Columbia Vancouver Community College MANPOWER. CATEGORY TRAINED: Registered Nurses who are prepared to wort in Intensive or Coronary Care Units LENGTII OF COURSE: .University of British Columbia - 370 houn; Vancouver Conununity College - fourteen weeks QUAUFICA TION OFFERED: Certificate EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: None COMMENTS: University of British Columbia - In 1982 there were 40 full-time and 72 part-time students enrolled in this program; in 1983 there were 16 full-time and 4S part-time enrolled The graduate figures for 1982 are shown in the following tables. Due to uncertainty of fundin& it is not possible to project graduates from this program for future dates. • Vancouver Conununlty College - Hospital implemented programs have occurred annually in 1982 and 1983. Using the Vancouver Community College c:urriculum and their mm instructors, hospitals offered the course to upgrade their current staff and auract new recruits. It Is anticipated there will be a hbspital implemented program each year with a maximum intake of IS students. PROGRAM: Critical Care Nlll'Sia& Lem I lor TertlarJ Hospitals INSTITUTION OFFERED: Vancouver Conununity College MANPOWER CATEGORY TRAINED: Registered Nurses with specialty preparation to begin practice in critical care areas of tertiary hospitals LENOTII OF COURSE: Sixteen weeks. QUALIFICATION OFFERED: Certificate EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: None COMMENTS: This project is a cost-shared, joint offering of the Critical Care Nursing Level I program expanded by two weeks to permit achievement of additional knowledge and skills required of nurses working in tertiary level hospitals. If successful, V.C.C. expects to continue co-sponsoring the program with tertiary hospitals. PROGRAM: Critical Cue Nllrliaa Lewel II INSTITUTION OFFERED: University of British Columbia MANPOWER CATEGORY TRAINED: Registered Nurses prepared for critical care nuning LENOTII OF COURSE: Five months QUALIFICATION OFFERED: Certificate EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: None -COMMENI'S: It is not possible lo project future plans due to funding uncertainties. PROGRAM: t:meraeKJ Nmma INSTITUnON OFFERED: Douglas College MANPOWF.R CATEOORY TRAINED: Reptered Nunes who are qualified for ~loyment bt Emergency Departments of both small and large hospitals LEN01H OF COURSE: Eight months QUAUFICA TION OFFERED: Certific:ate EXTERNAL REOISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR UCENSINO: None PROGRAM: Hospital lafectloa Coatrol Lewi I INSmunON OFFERED: Unlvenlty of Brltlsb Colmnbil MANPOWF.R CATEOORY TRAINED: Reptered Nunes prepmd in hospital lnfedion amllol LENOTII OF COURSE: Eight months QUAUFICA TION OFFERED: Certilic:ate EXTERNAL REOISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR UCENSINO: None COMMENlS: It Is not possible to project enrollmenV graduation for future yeus due to current .......... situation. PROGRAM: Hospital larectloa Coatrol l.eftl II INSTITUnON OFFERED: Univenity of Brltlsb Colmnbil MANPOWER. CATEOORY TRAINED: Registered Nunes prqiued in hospital infection amtrol LENGTII OF COURSE: Five months QUAUFICA TION OFFERED: Certif1Cate EXTERNAL REOISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: None PROGRAM: bRnice 1A1 .. t1oa INSTITUTION OFFER.ED: University of British Columbia MANPOWER CAJ'EO{)RY TRAINED: Reptered Nurses prepared for inservice education positions LENGTII OF COURSE: Nine months QUAUFICA TION OFFER.ED: Certificate (for completion of all five parts) EXTERNAL RF.GISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: None COMMENlS: Students may choose. to lake all five pans of this program, or any one part which Is most appropriate for their needs. Approximately 48 people hal'e enrolled in this program since it began in 1982. To date there have been no graduates. The program will be discontinued in December 1983; 8-10 students are expected to graduate at that time. PROGRAM: Loq Term CollU.alq Care Naniq Letti I INSTITUTION OFFER.FD: University of British Columbia MANPOWER CATEOORY TRAINED: Registered Nurses prepared for long tenn amtinubtg care nursing LENGTII OF COURSE: Four months QUAUFICA TION OFFER.ED: CertiflClte EXTERNAL RF.GISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: None COMMENTS: It is not possible to project enrollment/graduation for f\llure yem due to current economic situation. PROGRAM: Loq Tmn Coatlaaln1 Cue Nmlq Letti II INSTITUTION OFFER.ED: University of British Columbia 4 • MANPOWER CATEGORY TRAINED: Registeml Nurses prepared for long tenn continuing care nursing LENGrn OF COURSE: Four monlhs QUAUFICATION OFFERED: Certificate EXTERNAL' REGISTRATION, CERTIACATION OR LICENSING: None PROGRAM: Neoaalll Iatnsbe Care Nmlq INSmtmON OFFEllFD: Vancouver Cormnunity College MANPOWER CATEGORY TRAINED: Registered Nurses with specialty tralnln& in neonatal Intensive care nwsin& LENGrn OF COURSE: Twenty weeks QUAUACATION OFFERED: Certificate EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIACATION OR UCENSING: None COMMENTS: Anticipated demand for this coune will require only one olferlna per year after 1983. PROGRAM: Narsla1 - B1ccalaareate INSTITUTIONS OFFEllFD: University of Victoria University of British Columbia (see the listing on Basic: Level Health Uld Human Service Propams) MANPOWER CATEGORY TRAINED: Baa:alaureate Nurses LENGTII OF COURSE: 1+ years QUALIACA TION OFFERED: B.S.N. EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIACATION OR LICENSING: None (this is a post-R.N. program) COMMENTS: • University of Vic:IOria - The tentative increases may be underestimated, although they are full-time-equivalent estimates and refer specifx:ally to distance students who may be doin& courses off campus or at summer school. PROGRAM: Nwsla1 - . Olaical Spedalt1 INSTITUTION OFFERED: Camosun Collqe MANPOWER CATEGORY TRAINED: Registered Nurses \\ith postbasic trainin& in a particular specialty LENG1H OF COURSE: Sil to ei&ht monlhs part-time QUAUFICA TION OFFERED: Certificate EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIACATION OR LICENSING: None PROGRAM: Nwslq - Master's INSTITUTION OFFERED: University of British Columbia MANPOWER CATEGORIES TRAJNED: Nurse Teachers, Nurse Administrators, Nurse Consultants, Nurse Researchers LENGTH OF COURSE: Minimum of sixteen monlhs (two academic years) QUALIFICATION OFFERED: M.S.N. EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIACATION OR LICENSING: None PROGRAM: Narsla1 - Refresher INSTITUTIONS OFFERED: British Columbia Institute of Technology Capilano Colleae Cariboo College College of New Caledonia Fraser Valley College Kwantlen College Malaspina College North Island College Open Leamin& Institute Vancouver Conununity College MANPOWER CATEGORY lRAINED: Not applicable - refresher program LENOTII OF COURSE: Capilano College - Fifteen weeks North Island College - Approx. flve months Open Leamin& Institute - Twelve to twenty weeks (half of the program is home study) Vancouver Community College - 390 hours All othen - Three months QUALIFICATION OFFERED: Not applicable EXTERNAL REGIS1RATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: Not applicable COMMENTS: British Columbia Institute of Technology - It is impossible to predict enrollment and graduate figures put 1984, as this program's continuation is dependent on suf flcient funding. Capilano College - This program ts not being offered at present - It will be offered again upon sufficient demand. College of New Caledonia - This program's continuation Is dependent on need and available funding. K wantlen College - F.nrollment and graduate flaures are unavailable past 1984. F.nrollment Is dependent on degree of collaboration with the Open Leaming Institute. Malaspina College - This program will re-start only if there ts a nurse shortage and funding a avaDable. Open Leaming Institute - The figures given for tha program are subject to funding. Vancouver Community College - This program did not run in 1983. Vancouver Community CoDege has requested funding for the 1984-BS year and plans to use the provincial curriculum which has been developed, but modify the learning strategies to btclude more classroom and clinical supervision. PROGRAM: Narslq ID I.al Hospitals INSTITtmON OFFERED: College of New Caledonia MANPOWER CATEGORY TRAINED: Registered Nurses with special preparation in rural hospital nursing LENGTII OF COURSE: Twenty-five months (combined home study and suucwred class and clinical practice) QUALIFICATION OFFERED: Diploma EX"JCRNAL REGIS'IRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: None PROGRAM: Oca,atloaal Health Nmma INSTITUTION OFFERED: Douglas College MANPOWER CATEDORY lRAINED: Registered Nurses who are qualified for employment in Occupational Health settings LENGTII OF COURSE: Twenty-four months part-time QUALIFICATION OFFERED: Certificate EX"JCRNAL REGIS'IRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: None COMMENTS: This program is being discontinued. PROGRAM: ()pentta1 Roen Nmslq INSTITUTIONS OFFERED: British Columbia Institute of Technology Cariboo College SL Paul's Hospital MANPOWER CATEGORY lRAINED: Operatin& Room Nurses • • LENGTII OF COURSE: Thirteen weeks - B.CJ.T. Six months - SL Paul's Hospilal QUALiflCA TION OFFERED: Certificate EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: None COMMENTS: Cariboo CoDege - This program is not currently offered. PROGRAM: Paediatric Nanla1 INS11TU110N OFFERED: Vancouver Conununity College MANPOWER CA TEOORY TRAINED: Registered Nurses with specialty preparation in paediatric nursing · LENGTII OF COURSE: Six months QUALlflCA TION OFFERED: Certificate EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: None PROGRAM: hedmtrlc Nwsia1 - Acute Care t. tlle Rome This propam has been incorporated in the post-baste paediatric nursing program at Vancouver Community CoDege. PROGRAM: Periutal . Narsla1 Letti I (formerly Obstetrical Nursing Level I) INS11TU110N OFFERED: Vancouver Conummity Colteae MANPOWER CATEGORY TRAINED: Registered Nunes with specialty preparation in perinalal nursing LENGTII OF COURSE: Six months QUALlflCA TION OFFERED: Certificate EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTiflCATION OR LICENSING: • ~ None PROGRAM: Perillatal Nmsfq Letti D (formerly Obstetrical Nursing Level D) INS11TU110N O~ Vancouver Conununity College MANPOWER CATEGORY TRAINED: Registered Nurses \\ilh specialty preparation in high risk perinalal nursing LENGTII OF COURSE: Seven months (eleven weeks full-time. remainder part-time) QUAUACATION OFFERED: Certificate EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: None COMMENTS: This program was cancelled in 1982, due to tacit of enrollmenL It may be offered again in 1985. PROORAM: PrlimUJ Care Nllllq This propam. which was scheduled to begin in 1982 at !he University of British Columbia. did not become operational. PROGRAM: Ps7dllatrlc N... - Refreslwr INS11TU110N OFFERED: British Columbia Institute of Technology MANPOWER CATEGORY TRAINED: Not applicable - refresher program LENGTII OF COURSE: Twelve weeks QUAUflCATION OFFERED: Not aJ>Plicable EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: Not applicable COMMENTS: This program was offered only once. Funding has not been received for subsequent offerings. • • Narsla1 Senices (1915) BASIC LEVEL HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICE PROGIAMS PROGRAM: Narsta1 - Baccalaureate INSTITUTION OFFERED: University of Brltnh Columbia MANPOWER CATF.OORY TRAINED: Baa:alaureate Nurses LENGTII OF COURSE: Thirty-two months CREDENTIAL RECEIVED: B.S.N. EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: Registration (RN) - Registered Nurses' Association or 8.C. (required for employment In the field as a Registered Nurse) COMMENTS: Tentative decrease in enroUment due to funding. PROGRAM: Nmslq - Diploma INSTITUTIONS OFFERED: British Columbia Institute of Technology Camosun College Cariboo College College of New Caledonia Douglas College North Island College Okanapn College Selkirk College Vancouver Cormnunlty College Vancouver General Hospital MANPOWER CATEGORY TRAINED: Graduate Nurses LENOTII OF COURSE: North Island College - Part-time over two years (4 sessions), then transfer to BCIT (full-thne, two terms) and then a final term, full-time at North Island College Vancouver General Hospital - 132 weeks .. " All othrrs - from two to two and one-half years CREDENTIAL RECEIVED: Diploma EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CER11FICA TION OR LICENSING: Registration (RN) - Registered - Nurses' Association of ·e.c. (required for employment in the field as a Registered Nurse) COMMENTS: British Columbia lnstutite of Technology - Beginning January, 1987 transfer students will be admitted to second year from North Island College and Northwest Cormnunity College. We predict 12 students in January and 20 students In August on an on-going basis. Also dirrct entry students(RPN gr.ds from BCIT and individual transfer students from other nursing programs) are admitted if space is available. Cariboo College - Enrollment figures are usually based on the number of students enrolled in first year and the number entering second year. The increase in graduate figures i.. based on the number re-entering or being transferred from another program. The decrease in graduate figures is based on attrition during the fmal year or the program. North Island College - This Is a part-thne program which conunenced in 1984. It is run in conjunction with BCIT. The . first class will graduate in 1987. Selkirk College - Nonnally attrition would be ten to twelve students. Vancouver Cormnunity College - Decrease in admissions is due to budgeL The graduates anticipated for 1985 to 1987 are "8sed on cunent enrollment figures. The attrition factor Is not incorporated in these figures. Vancouver General Hospital - Projections for 1987 to 1990 depend on attrition, but the yearly average has been remartedly consistenL PROGRAM: Nwslq Access INS11TU110NS OFFERED: College of New Caledonia Douglas College (Nursing Access I and Nursing Access II) MANPOWER CATEGORY TRAINED: Graduate Nurses LENGTII OF COURSE: College of New Caledonia - lS months Douglas Colleae - Nursing Access I - 16 months; Nursing Access II - 10 months CREDENTIAL RF.cEIVED: Diploma EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: Registration (RN) - Registered Nurses' Association of B.C. (required for employment In the field as a Registered Nurse) COMMENTS: College of New caledonia - Curriculum beWtg revised -may affect date of entry. Douglas College - Nursing Access I - This program is for LPN's and RPN's who received their buic nursing at 111 insliWtion other than Douglas CoDese and BCIT In 1985 the enrollment decreased by four because there were not enough qualified applicants to fill the seats avaOable. Douglas College - Nursing Access U - This program was designed specific:ally for RPN's who received their nursing education at Douglas College or BCIT since July 1975. The program is being phased our. but will be offered January 1986 and January 1987. PROGRAM: Nana.1 Aide (previously Long Tenn Care Aide) INSTITimON OFFERFD: Vancouver Community College MANPOWER CATEGORIES TRAINED: Nwslng Aides. Oeriatrtc Aides. Long Tenn Care Aides, and Health Care Worten LENGTII OF COURSE: Four months CREDENTIAL RF.cEIVED: Certificate EX1ERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: None COMMENTS: No projections given past 1986. ~ PROGRAM: Nwsia1 Onlerlr INS11TUTION OFFERED: Vancouver Community Collqe MANPOWER CATEGORY TRAINED: Nursing Orderlies LENGTII OF COURSE: Ten months CREDENTIAL RECEIVED: Certificate EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTlFJCA TION OR LICENSING: Licence - 8.C. Council of Practical Nurses (required for employment in the field as a Licensed Pnctlcal Nurse) PROGRAM: Pnictkal Nmslat INSTITlmONS OFFERED: Camosun College Malaspina College Otanapn College Selkirt College Vancouver Commtmity College MANPOWER CATEGORY TRAINED: Practical Nurses LENOTII OF COURSE: Malaspina College - Thirty-two weeks Okanagan College - Forty-one weeks All others - Ten months . CREDENTIAL RECBVED: Diploma - Malaspina College Certificate - all others EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: Licence - B.C. Council of Practical Nurses (required for employment in the field as a Licensed Practical Nurse) COMMENTS: Camosun College - Due to uncertainty of employment for LPNs and the fact that swdents select the PN option during the second semester of Diploma Nursing Program. it Is impossible to project enrollmenL No swdents selected this option In 1985. • • Malaspina College - Presenlly the first level of this progmn Is the Long Tenn Care Aide/Homemaker program. This Is to change in January 1986. A decrease In numben is anticipated as there are tentative plans for a two-year diploma nursing progmn which wm share facilities with the practical nursing program. Okanagan College - A pre-entrance requirement of grade 11 or grade 12 Biology or the equivalent is required. A 'C- grade s the minimum IJIS.'. Ths seems to have had an effect on attrition and bu Increased the liklihood of success in the progmn. PROGRAM: P17chlatric Narsiq INSTITU110NS OFFERED: BritBh Columbia Institute of Technology Douglas College MANPOWER CATEGORY TRAINED: Psychiatric Nunes LENGTII OF COURSE.: BCIT - Twenty-two months Douglas College - Two years CREDENTIAL RECFJVFD: Diploma &TERNAL RF.GISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: Registration (RPN) - Registered Psychiatric Nurses' Association of B.C. (required for employment in the field u a Registered Psychiatric Nurse) COMMENTS: BCIT - This progmn is being transferred to Douglas College. The last class was admiued Januray 1984. Douglas College - This progmn was transferred from BCIT to Douglas College in September, 1984. The gradual phue in will be completed by September, 1986. PROGRAM: Ps7chlatrlc Nurs1D1 Access INSTITUTION OFFERED: Douglas College LENGTII OF COURSE.: Sixteen months for LPN's; twelve months for RN's • • CREDENTIAL RECEIVFD: Diploma EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: Registration (RPN) - Registered Psychiatric Nurses' Association of B.C. (required for employment in the field as a Registered Psychiauic Nurse) COMMENTS: · LPN's pin entry to the program at the Semester Ill level of the Psychiatric Nursing Program. RN's gain entry IO the program at the semester IV level of the Psychiatric Nwsing Program. Availabt1ity of seats_ depends on attrition from the first two semesten or the Psychiatric Nursing Program. POSTBASJC U:Vl:L HliLm AND HUMAN SERVICE PROGRAMS PROGRAM: Cllalcal Psychiatric Nursiq INSTITUTION OFFERED: University of British Columbia COMMENTS: No longer offered. PROGRAM: Critical Care Nmslq Le.-el I INS11TUl10NS OFFERED: University of BritBh Columbia Vancouver Community College MANPOWER. CA TF.GORY TRAINED: Registered Nurses with specialty preparation in Intensive or Coronary Care Units LENGTII OF COURSE.: University of Britbh Columbia - eight weeks; Vancouver Conununity CoRege - fourteen weeks CREDENTIAL RECEJVFD: Certificate EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIACATION OR LICENSING: None specific to critical care nursing. Regisuation (RN) - Registered Nurses Association of B.C. (required for employment in the field as a Registered Nurse) COMMENTS: University of BritBh Columbia - Program offerings are dependent on need in non-metropOlitan areas and funding available to support the program. Due IO uncntainty of fundin& It Is not possible to project entrants or graduates from this program for future dates. Vancouver Conununity College - No classes will be enrolled after November. 1985 as postbasic nursing funding m being transferred from VCC to BCIT. PROGRAM: Critical Care Nurslq Letti I for TertluJ Hospitals INS1ITUTION OFFERED: Vancouver Cormnunlty College COMMENTS: Thm program m no longer offered. The acute shortage of critical care nurses at SL Paul"s and Vancouver General Hospitals diminished slgnilkandy, and no further offerings have been requested. Numbers for 1984 are contained In the tables. PROGRAM: Critlcd Care Nmm1 Letti n INS1ITUTION OFFERED: University of British Columbia MANPOWER CA TEOORY TRAINED: Reptered Nurses prepared for critical care nursing LENGTH OF COURSE.: Twelve weeks CREDENTIAL RECEIVED: Certif'IC8te EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: None specific to critical care nursing. Registration (RN) - Registered Nurses' Association of B.C. (required for employment in the field as a Registered Nurse) COMMENTS: Program will be offered on a part-time basm creating a probable increase in enroDment and the number of offerings. PROGRAM: EmeraUCJ Nmsi•1 INS1ITUTION OFFERED: Douglas College MANPOWER CATEGORY TRAINED: Registered Nurses who ue qualified for employment in Emergency llepartmenlS of both small and luge hospitals LENGTH OF COURSE.: Nine months CREDENTIAL RECEIVED: Certificate EXTERNAL REGISTRATION, CERTIFICATION OR LICENSING: None specific to emergency nursing. Registration (RN) - Registered Nurses' Association of B.C. (required for employment in the field as a Registered Nurse) · COMMENTS: This program is being transferred to BCIT in September. 1986. PROGRAM: Rospilll hfectloa Coatrol Letel I INSTITtmON OFFERED: University of British Columbia COMMENl'S: No longer offered. PROGRAM: Hospltll hfectloa Coalrol 'Letti II INSTITUTION OFFERED: University of British Columbia COMMENl'S: No longer offered. PROGRAM: lnenke ~aaitloa INS11TUI10N OFFERED: University of British Columbia COMMENTS: No longer offered. PROGRAM: Loq Term Coatlaala1 Care Nmsla1 Letel I INS11TUI10N OFFERED: University of British Columbia COMMENTS: No longer offered. PROGRAM: Loa1 Term Coaliaala1 Care fllmsia1 Letel II INS11TUI10N OFFERED: University of British Columbia COMMENTS: No longer offered. PROGRAM: Neoulal lateulte Care Nmslaa ... 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.52383.1-0075916/manifest

Comment

Related Items