UBC Faculty Research and Publications

From Mexico to Brazil : Central Atlantic fisheries catch trends and ecosystem models Zeller, Dirk; Booth, Shawn; Mohammed, Elizabeth; Pauly, Daniel 2003

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                                                                                                         ISSN 1198-6727  From Mexico to Brazil:  Central Atlantic Fisheries Catch  Trends and Ecosystem Models    Fisheries  Centre  Research  Reports 2003   Volume  11   Number 6         Fisheries Centre Research Reports  2003   Volume 11   Number 6     From Mexico to Brazil: Central Atlantic Fisheries Catch Trends and Ecosystem Models                 Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, CanadaISSN 1198-6727   FROM MEXICO TO BRAZIL: CENTRAL ATLANTIC FISHERIES CATCH TRENDS AND ECOSYSTEM MODELS                Edited by  Dirk Zeller, Shawn Booth, Elizabeth Mohammed & Daniel Pauly     264 pages © published 2003 by   The Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia  2259 Lower Mall Vancouver, B.C., Canada 2003   ISSN 1198-6727        Page iDirector’s Foreword   One often hears, when dealing with tropical fisheries, that “there are no data.” Usually, this is not true and the complainers are usually persons who have not bothered to look, or at least not beyond conventional sources. A large fraction of standard journals in marine and fishery biology contain articles with tropical contents. Moreover, there is a huge, if gray, literature with valuable information on the state of marine ecosystems and tropical resources in the world, some of these reaching deep into the colonial period, which for many countries ended in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Thus, for the tropics generally, and for the Western Central Atlantic specifically, it is never true that there are no data.  What is true, however, is that the available scattered data are hardly synthesized and rendered coherent and thus useful for resource management and conservation. Thus, every applied project has to start from scratch at great cost, because “they have no data”, and every evaluation of the state of resources or of biodiversity is marred by the absence of a sound baseline rooted in well documented accounts of the past.  This report, one of several similar reports by the Sea Around Us and Back to the Future projects, is devoted to two types of syntheses. One is the reconstruction of catch series, which are crucial in evaluating the present, and enabling a positive future for fisheries. Here, as in previous reports of this kind, the job was to reconstruct catch series, ideally from 1950 on, matching the period covered by the FAO statistics, and thus allowing an improvement of the corresponding countries fisheries data in the Sea Around Us database (see www.seaaroundus.org). Note that the comparison between FAO FISHSTAT and ‘original’ sources undertaken by most of the present reports are in fact comparisons between two ‘national’ data sets: 1) Data FAO receives from its member countries via national governments; and 2) National data obtained by the authors from sources as close to the initial collection source as possible. Thus, differences and discrepancies between these two sets can tell us a lot about data quality loss.  The other syntheses presented here are food web models of ecosystems of the Central Marine Atlantic. Constructing such ecosystem models requires large amounts of field data. In themselves, such models thus represent syntheses of previously scattered data. Moreover, such models form the basis for the exploration of alternative policies, a topic that has hardly ever been explored in the geographic area covered here.  With the exception of one model recently constructed by one of the editors (E.M.), these models are outdated, having been constructed during and right after a workshop held in 1996, and which I was supposed to have helped co-edit, a job I was previously unable to complete (the other contributions from this 1996 workshop, written in Spanish, will be published elsewhere). These models retain, however, their interest both as syntheses of the knowledge then available and as a starting point for more thorough and updated models.  The Fisheries Centre Research Report series publishes results of research carried out, or workshops held, at the UBC Fisheries Centre. The series focuses on the multidisciplinary problems of fisheries management, and aims to provide a synoptic overview of the foundations, themes and prospects for current research. Fisheries Centre Research Reports are covered by Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts and are distributed to appropriate workshop participants or project partners. A full list of the reports is published at the end of this issue. All papers are available as free PDF downloads from the Fisheries Centre’s web site www.fisheries.ubc.ca, while paper copies of a report are available on request.    Daniel Pauly Director UBC Fisheries Centre December 2003            Page ii FROM MEXICO TO BRAZIL: CENTRAL ATLANTIC FISHERIES CATCH TRENDS AND ECOSYSTEM MODELS  Edited by   Dirk Zeller, Shawn Booth, Elizabeth Mohammed and Daniel Pauly  2003   Fisheries Centre Research Reports 11(6), 264 pp.   CONTENTS Page  DIRECTOR’S FOREWORD.............................................................................................................................i  TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….ii   PART 1: FISHERIES TRENDS The global fisheries crisis as a rationale for improving the FAO’s database of fisheries statistics ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….1 Daniel Pauly and Dirk Zeller  Reconstructing fisheries catches and fishing effort for the southeastern Caribbean (1940-2001): General methodology…………...........................................................11 Elizabeth Mohammed  St. Lucia, eastern Caribbean: Reconstructed fisheries catches and  fishing effort, 1942-2001………………………...............................................................................21 Elizabeth Mohammed and Williana Joseph  Barbados: Reconstructed fisheries catches and fishing effort, 1940-2000……………………….45 Elizabeth Mohammed, Christopher Parker and Stephen Willoughby  Grenada and the Grenadines: Reconstructed fisheries catches and fishing effort, 1942-2001………………………………………………………………..............................................67 Elizabeth Mohammed and Justin Rennie  St. Vincent and the Grenadines: Reconstructed fisheries catches and fishing effort, 1942-2001…………………………………………………………………...............................95 Elisabeth Mohammed, Leslie E. Straker and Cheryl Jardine  Trinidad and Tobago: Preliminary reconstruction of fisheries catches and fishing effort, 1908-2002……………………………………………………………………………….……117 Elizabeth Mohammed and Christine Chan A Shing  Cuban fisheries catches within FAO area 31 (Western Central Atlantic): 1950-1999..........133 Julio Baisre, Shawn Booth and Dirk Zeller  The fisheries of Belize…………………………………………………………...........................................141 Vincent Gillett  Fisheries landings and trade of the Turks and Caicos Islands………………............................149 Murray A. Rudd     Page iii Brief history of Bermudan fisheries, and catch comparison between national sources and FAO records……………………………………………………………………………..163 Brian Luckhurst, Shawn Booth and Dirk Zeller  Venezuelan marine fisheries catches in space and time: 1950-1999……………………………….171 Jeremy Mendoza, Shawn Booth and Dirk Zeller  A database of landings data on Brazilian marine fisheries, 1980-2000………………………….181 Kátia de M. F. Freire  PART 2: ECOSYSTEM MODELS  A generic marine ecosystem model for the southeastern Caribbean in the late 1990s: Application to Grenada and the Grenadines……………………………………………….191 Elizabeth Mohammed  Trophic model of a fringing coral reef in the southern Mexican Caribbean……………………227 José Humberto Alvarez-Hernández  Trophic dynamics of a mangrove ecosystem in Celestun Lagoon, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico………………………………………………………………………………………237 M.E. Vega-Candejas  Trophodynamic ecology of two critical habitats (seagrasses and mangroves) in Términos Lagoon, southern Gulf of Mexico……………………………………………………………245 Evelia Rivera-Arriaga, Ana L. Lara-Domínguez, Guillermo Villalobos-Zapata and Alejandro Yáñez-Arancibia  A preliminary trophic model of Bahía de la Ascensión, Quintana Roo, Mexico………………255 L. Vidal and M. Basurto      Rationale for improving FAO’s database, Page 1 PART I: FISHERIES TRENDS  The Global Fisheries Crisis as a Rationale for Improving the FAO’s Database of Fisheries Statistics1 Daniel Pauly and Dirk Zeller  Fisheries Centre, 2259 Lower Mall University of British Columbia,  Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Z4 E-mail: d.pauly@fisheries.ubc.cad.zeller@fisheries.ubc.ca  ABSTRACT  Global fisheries are in a crisis, and so are the marine ecosystems upon which these fisheries depend. Major policy and management changes are required to halt and reverse the trends that have brought about this situation. Underlying these changes is the need for availability of data sets, pertaining to large areas, that unequivocally demonstrate any large-scale fisheries impacts on marine ecosystems. Not until recently have such secondary data begun to be assembled, although data sets have been available for some time upon which suc