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Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the Marine… Bhathal, Brajgeet 2005

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   ISSN 1198-6727  Fisheries Centre Research Reports      2005 Volume 13 Number 5     Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘Marine Trophic Index’      Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Canada    Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘Marine Trophic Index’1    by Brajgeet Bhathal                    Fisheries Centre Research Reports 13(5) 122 pages © published 2005 by  The Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia  2259 Lower Mall Vancouver, B.C., Canada, V6T 1Z4      ISSN 1198-6727                                                  1 Cite as: Bhathal, B. 2005. Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘Marine Trophic Index’.  Fisheries Centre Research Reports 13(4). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.   Fisheries Centre Research Reports 13(5) 2005   HISTORICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF INDIAN MARINE FISHERIES CATCHES, 1950-2000, AS A BASIS FOR TESTING THE ‘MARINE TROPHIC INDEX’   by Brajgeet Bhathal   CONTENTS    Page DIRECTOR’S FOREWORD ...................................................................................................................................... 1 ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................................................................... 2 DEVELOPMENT OF INDIA’S FISHERIES .................................................................................................................. 3 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 3 Study Objective ........................................................................................................................................4 Study  Area ...............................................................................................................................................4 India .....................................................................................................................................................4 Background Information .........................................................................................................................6 History .................................................................................................................................................6 Historical studies on fish fauna...........................................................................................................6 Development of marine fisheries ........................................................................................................ 7 Development of fisheries research institutions ..................................................................................9 Regulatory bodies ...............................................................................................................................11 Legal instruments .............................................................................................................................. 12 Different sectors of fisheries.............................................................................................................. 15 Progress of different sectors through time........................................................................................ 16 Present situation : problems and challenges .................................................................................... 18 DESCRIPTION OF TAXA CAUGHT..........................................................................................................................22 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................22 Functional Groups .................................................................................................................................22 Elasmobranchs .................................................................................................................................22 Eels ....................................................................................................................................................23 Catfishes ............................................................................................................................................23 Clupeoids ..........................................................................................................................................24 Bombay duck ..................................................................................................................................... 25 Lizardfishes........................................................................................................................................ 25 Halfbeaks and Fullbeaks ...................................................................................................................26 Flyingfishes .......................................................................................................................................26 Perches...............................................................................................................................................26 Goatfishes .......................................................................................................................................... 27 Threadfins.......................................................................................................................................... 27 Sciaenids ............................................................................................................................................ 27 Ribbonfishes ......................................................................................................................................28 Jacks and their relatives ....................................................................................................................28 Silverbellies........................................................................................................................................29 Big jawed jumper ...............................................................................................................................29 Pomfrets ............................................................................................................................................29 Mackerels ...........................................................................................................................................29   Seerfishes .......................................................................................................................................... 30 Tunas ................................................................................................................................................. 30 Billfishes .............................................................................................................................................31 Barracudas..........................................................................................................................................31 Mullets................................................................................................................................................31 Unicorn cod ........................................................................................................................................31 Flatfishes ............................................................................................................................................31 Crustaceans ....................................................................................................................................... 32 Molluscs excluding cephalopods ...................................................................................................... 33 Cephalopods ...................................................................................................................................... 34 Miscellaneous.................................................................................................................................... 34 HISTORICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF INDIAN CATCHES: 1950 - 2000......................................................................35 Introduction............................................................................................................................................35 Materials and methods.......................................................................................................................... 36 Compilation and encoding................................................................................................................ 36 Recorded landings............................................................................................................................. 36 Unreported catches ........................................................................................................................... 39 MEASURING THE IMPACTS OF FISHING............................................................................................................... 42 Introduction........................................................................................................................................... 42 Materials and methods:......................................................................................................................... 43 Catch statistics................................................................................................................................... 43 Trophic levels .................................................................................................................................... 43 Mean Trophic Index (MTI) ............................................................................................................... 43 Fishing in Balance (FiB) index.......................................................................................................... 44 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ................................................................................................................................ 45 Results.................................................................................................................................................... 45 India .................................................................................................................................................. 45 Gujarat............................................................................................................................................... 45 Daman and Diu ................................................................................................................................. 46 Goa..................................................................................................................................................... 46 Maharashtra ...................................................................................................................................... 46 Karnataka ...........................................................................................................................................52 Kerala..................................................................................................................................................52 Lakshadweep......................................................................................................................................52 Tamil Nadu........................................................................................................................................ 56 Pondicherry ....................................................................................................................................... 56 Andhra Pradesh................................................................................................................................. 56 Orissa................................................................................................................................................. 60 West Bengal....................................................................................................................................... 60 Andaman and Nicobar Islands ......................................................................................................... 60 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS............................................................................................................................ 64 Summary and conclusions..................................................................................................................... 64 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .......................................................................................................................................67 REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................................... 68 APPENDICES ......................................................................................................................................................79 Appendix 1. List of the Frequently used Acronyms ...............................................................................79 Appendix 2. Catch data for India and its individual states and union territories................................ 80     A Research Report from the Fisheries Centre at UBC 122 pages © Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, 2005   FISHERIES CENTRE RESEARCH REPORTS ARE ABSTRACTED IN THE FAO AQUATIC SCIENCES AND FISHERIES ABSTRACTS (ASFA) ISSN 1198-6727  Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  1 DIRECTOR’S FOREWORD This document demonstrates the occurrence of the ‘fishing down’ phenomenon in India’s marine fisheries, i.e., the tendency, through time, for these fisheries to rely increasingly on small fishes and invertebrates low in the food webs, due to increased scarcity of large, high trophic-level predatory fish. This demonstration is remarkable for several reasons. The first is that data were available to document this phenomenon. ‘Fishing down’ has been demonstrated mainly in developed countries, notably in Europe and North America, while demonstrations from developing countries has been rare. The reasons for this were, perhaps, lack of interest by developing country scientists (but see below) and the absence of suitable data, notably long catch time series of sufficient taxonomic resolution. In India, however, reasonably detailed catch statistics, covering both the small-scale (‘non-mechanized’) fisheries and the industrial (‘mechanized’) fisheries are available for every year since 1950, which make possible an analysis that would not have been feasible for other countries in South Asia. The second reason why this analysis is remarkable is that, contrary to analyses done elsewhere, where data sets are available which pertain to the whole country, this analysis was performed for each of India’s States and Union Territories separately, with each exhibiting the ‘fishing down’ phenomenon. This is certainly due to the detailed nature of Indian catch statistics, alluded to above, but also to the pre-processing of these catch statistics performed by Ms. Bhathal. This pre-processing resolved inconsistencies, filled gaps, and reduced the large amount of ‘miscellaneous fish’ in the statistics, while maintaining overall total catch. The painstaking procedure she employed led to internally consistent data sets, one for each of the States and Union Territories, and these are presented here as Appendix II. The third reason why this study is remarkable is that it resembles, but still is not inspired from, the account of Vivekanandan et al. (Fishing the marine food web along the Indian coast. 2005, Fisheries Research 72: 241-252). The reason, quite simply, is that Ms. Bhathal, who visited India in July 2003 to gather the data needed for her analysis, innocently told those ‘colleagues’ of her research question, of which models and literature she was going to use, which temporal resolution she was hoping to achieve, etc.  It was thus easy to ‘scoop’ her work, especially as she was incapacitated by sickness for several months after her trip, and especially if corners could be cut, e.g., by not subjecting one’s data to the same time-consuming data pre-processing that Ms. Bhathal performed.  Nevertheless, I still will encourage my graduate students to be open about their research: a few bad apples should not cause us to become secretive, and cut us off from fair and respectful exchanges. This episode was a bump in the road for Ms Bhathal, it is true. However, her study, and its follow-up will change the way we view the future of Indian fisheries, and by extension, the fisheries of the developing world.  Daniel Pauly Director, Fisheries Center   Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches,  1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  2 ABSTRACT Presently, fisheries are in deep crisis worldwide due to overfishing. Increasing intensity of fishing throughout the world has had impacts on the target species and their supporting marine ecosystems. Globally, the total catches are declining by about ½ million t per year since 1988. As well mean trophic level of landings are declining at a rate of 0.1 per decade. This threatens the world’s food security specifically its animal protein supply, especially in developing countries.   In order to evaluate the status of marine fisheries in India, the catches were reconstructed over the period of 1950 to 2000. This reconstruction shows marine fish catches increased gradually from 0.6 in 1950 to 3.3 million t in 2000. To determine if the Indian marine fisheries trends are ecologically sustainable or not, the mean trophic level of landings was analysed over the five decades. It was found that the fishing down marine food web phenomenon is happening all over India, i.e., in each state and union territory, similarly to the rest of the world. This trend, however, was generally not visible when the catches of small pelagics fishes were included, i.e., their variability masked the fishing down phenomenon when this was based on the mean trophic level of all shelf species. On the other hand, application of the cut off trophic level of 3.25 (i.e., excluding small pelagics and most invertebrates) made the fishing down effect visible for all states and union territories. This analysis thus confirms the potential usefulness of the MTI (Marine Trophic Index), recently adopted by the Convention on Biological Diversity as one of the 8 indicators of biodiversity. It also confirms that the use of MTI, jointly with a TL cutoff point (i.e., 3.25MTI) better reveals underlying trend than overall mean TL. The time series of Fishing in Balance (FiB) index show an overall increase for all Indian states and union territories, suggesting a geographic expansion of the fisheries. However, in recent years, a stagnation or decline of FiB index is visible in almost all areas. This indicates a serious problem, presumably the end of the expansion phase in Indian fisheries. Overall, this historical review clearly indicates that India has suffered from sequential depletions of coastal stocks.          Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  3 DEVELOPMENT OF INDIA’S FISHERIES INTRODUCTION  Fishing has been for humans an important occupation at least since the Palaeolithic period, some 90,000 years (Yellen, et al., 1995) and fishing methods have gradually improved and diversified over the millennia.  The impacts of fishing did not receive attention until John Cleghorn’s 1854 term, ‘overfishing’ became an issue in the scientific community (Smith, 2002). Two leading zoologists of the time, Thomas Huxley and Ray Lankester had contradictory perspectives on this. Thomas Huxley, in 1884, stated that “probably all the great fisheries are inexhaustible”, i.e., the fishes have too high fecundity for their biomass to be influenced by fishing (Hart, et al., 2002; Smith, 2002). Contrarywise, Ray Lankester emphasised that the high fecundity of fishes does not imply that fishing will have no effect on them. He suggested instead, that “there is a definite place of living beings with complex interactions within their area” (Smith, 2002). This argument was partially resolved by McIntosh (1900) through a paper titled, ‘The Impoverishment of the Sea’, in which he presented the results of his analysis of Scottish data, which supported Lankester’s argument about complex interactions, and agreed that fishing does reduce the abundance of fishes (Smith, 2002). Soon there was a growing scientific consensus that research was needed to identify the effects of fishing and through time fisheries science2 had its major breakthroughs, not detailed here. For many years, fisheries scientists have tried to provide advice that could be used to prevent the overexploitation or collapse of fished stocks. However, the increasing intensity of fishing throughout the world has had impacts on the target species and their supporting marine ecosystems (Jennings, et al., 2001; Pauly, et al., 2002; Reynolds, et al., 2002).The erroneous belief in the inexhaustibility of the sea has largely ended, except perhaps in some industry circles. Several factors have brought global fisheries to the present plight; they range from uncertainties in stock assessments, overcapitalization, open access and common pool fisheries, shifting baselines, deterioration of coastal habitats, rapid expansion of unsustainable aquaculture enterprises to increasing consumption rates (Burger, et al., 2001; Pauly, 1995; Pauly, et al., 2002; Watson, et al., 2001). According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), which has been compiling catch data worldwide since 1950, there was a steady increase of fish catches until the mid-1990s, i.e., a 6% increase per year from 1950-1970, and 2% from 1970-1990 (FAO, 2000), when the catch began to level off. However, Watson and Pauly (2001) has shown that, when more realistic series of Chinese catches are substituted into the FAO fisheries statistics, they clearly indicate decline by about ½ million tonnes per year since 1988. The apparent continued increase until the mid-1990s was due to inflated catch statistics reported by China3. These new results, which confirm previous claims of global overfishing, clearly indicate that the fisheries sector is in deep crisis and that such a situation threatens the world’s food security and its protein needs (Watson and Pauly, 2001), especially, in developing countries. The problems created by open access system for fisheries are further exacerbated by increases in human population growth (Hardin, 1968). For example, in India, where the population has reached over 1 billion, making the required protein available to the existing population is a challenge on its own. With an increasing population and an increasing number of fishers (10 million in 1998), the effort exerted to catch more fish is also increasing. Furthermore, the bulk of fish catches (62%) comes from coastal capture fisheries (Vivekananadan, et al., 2003). Given these constraints, it becomes essential to look at the impacts of fishing on the marine environment of India. Moreover, more than 50% of global marine fisheries catches are made in developing countries, with a very large and increasing fraction of these catches entering the world market increasingly at the loss of exporting countries (Pauly, et al., 2003a). Therefore, fisheries related issues in the developing world ought to be addressed and always included when discussing global fisheries issues. As stated earlier, FAO compiles, based on member country reports, worldwide fisheries statistics. However, the datasets in question are assembled by large, arbitrary statistical areas (rather then by ecosystems), and not verified against local data sets (Pauly and Zeller, 2003a). On the other hand, there is                                                  2 Fisheries science has been recognized as a scientific discipline since the late 1850s, when the Norwegian government hired scientists to find out why the catches of Atlantic cod fluctuated from year to year (Jennings et al., 2001, Smith, 1994). 3 The reason for over reporting by Chinese officials is analysed in some detail by Pang and Pauly (2001), and attributed to the incentives (promotions) associated with optimistic reports. Development of India’s fisheries   4 a growing need for catch data sets with fine spatial resolution for use in ecosystem models (Watson, et al., 2004). Such an approach has already been initiated by the Sea Around Us Project (www.seaaroundus.org), which has started assembling databases of the global distribution of all commercial marine species and assigning these to ½ degree latitude and longitude cells, which can then be grouped into larger areas (Watson,  et al., 2004).  Local data sets and better local knowledge are preconditions to better policy in the field of marine resource management (Watson et al., 2004). This chapter sets the general background for this study, notably by presenting key definitions and a brief history of Indian fisheries.   STUDY OBJECTIVE  In India, fish and fisheries have always played an important role in nutrition and livelihood. However, concerted efforts at development of Indian fisheries began only after the Independence of India (Bensam, 1999a). Then, over the span of 50 years, marine fish catches increased considerably from 0.6 to 3.3 million t4. Presently, there are too many fishing vessels, generating an excess fishing effort in various areas, especially where valuable species occur (Somvanshi, 2001a). This situation reflects the lack of appropriate fisheries management policies. It is believed that there is not much scope for further catch increase from inshore waters. Hence, the impetus in the last 20 years has been to diversify the fishing activities and exploit deeper water areas (Pillai, et al., 2000).  It is thus appropriate, at this point, to collate the available data, in order to assess Indian marine landing trends and to evaluate the feasibility of Indian Government’s push for growth in this sector.  Specifically, the objectives of this study are to: (1) reconstruct India’s marine catches from 1950 to 2000; (2) identify changes in catch composition in space (i.e., by state and union territory) and time; (3) study the ecosystem impact of fisheries via a test of the occurrence of the “fishing down effect” by examining trends of mean trophic level of catches (Pauly, et al., 1998) and; (4) use the FiB (Fishing in Balance) index to test if Indian marine fisheries are sustainable (Pauly, et al., 2000). The ultimate goal of this study is to assemble scattered data into a coherent whole and make it readily available to interested parties. Transparency of this sort should eventually increase public understanding and participation in making policy. The database on Indian fisheries developed in the process will allow a first order assessment of the fisheries over time, and an evaluation of the status of the species and populations (stocks) upon which the fisheries depend (Caddy, et al., 1983; Grainger, et al., 1996; Pauly, Zeller, 2003a) For clarity, we must also define here the key term of this report. Catch refers to “the fish (or other aquatic organisms) of a given stock killed during a certain period by the operation of fishing gear(s)” (Pauly, et al., 2001a). This definition implies that fish not landed, that is, discarded at sea, or killed by lost gear (ghost fishing), should be counted as a part of the catch of a fishery. It is widely recognized that catch statistics are crucial to fisheries management, as they provide the most important information about a fishery over time (Pauly and Zeller, 2003a).  STUDY  AREA  India  India is located between latitudes 8° 4' and 37° 6' N and longitudes 68° 7' and 97° 25' E (Figure 1) with 28 states (9 maritime) and 7 union territories5 (4 maritime) covering a total land area of about 3.3 million km2 (Arora, et al., 1996e). India’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) covers a total area of 2.02 million km2, i.e., 0.86 million km2 on the west coast; including the Lakshadweep Islands and 1.16 million km2 on the east coast, including the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Nair, 1998). The continental shelf cover half a million km2 (Vivekananadan, et al., 2003).                                                   4 ‘t’ is used here for tonne, or metric ton, corresponding to 1000 kg. 5 The union territories are under direct control of the India’s federal government. Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  5 The country tapers off near the Tropic of Cancer into the Indian Ocean, between the Arabian Sea on the west and the Bay of Bengal on the east. These two seas are very different from each other.                West coast of India  The following states and union territories border the west coast of the country: 1. Maritime States • Gujarat; • Maharashtra; • Goa; • Karnataka; • Kerala. 2. Union Territories • Daman and Diu; • Lakshadweep.  The west coast, also known as ‘Malabar coast’, has a broader continental shelf (Table 3) (DAHD, 1993; 1994), with pronounced upwelling that results in high primary productivity and thus, high fish catches.  The northwest monsoon has a strong influence on the dynamics of the Arabian Sea; the seasonal cycles of the waters of the Arabian Sea are well mixed and nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates are more abundant, leading to higher plankton production (Jhingran, 1975b; Pannikar, et al., 1966). The joint effect of these factors is a richer fish fauna, both in terms of diversity and in abundance. Over 75% of India’s total fish landings originate from the west coast (Chandy, 1970a).    FIGURE 1. Map of India, showing all maritime states and union territories with the Arabian Sea on the west and the Bay of Bengal in the east.  Development of India’s fisheries   6 East coast of India  The following states and union territories border the east coast of the country: 1. Maritime States • Tamil Nadu; • Andhra Pradesh; • Orissa; • West Bengal. 2. Union Territories • Pondicherry; • Andaman and Nicobar Islands.  The eastern coast, also known as ‘Coromandel coast’, has a narrow continental shelf (Table 3) (Chandy, 1970a; DAHD, 1993; 1994). The northeast monsoon winds, which sweep over the Bay of Bengal are moderate and have short duration. Primary production in the Bay of Bengal is relatively low and the open oceanic waters are oligotrophic (Chauhan, et al., 2001; Dwivedi, 1993). Overall, this region accounts for only 25% of total Indian marine landings.  BACKGROUND INFORMATION  History  Fish and fisheries occupy an important place in Indian mythology, history and tradition. It is believed that formal knowledge on fish in India dates back to 3000 B.C. (Jhingran, 1975c). This is supported by relics such as fish remains with cut marks (indicative of their use as food), fish drawings on potteries and fish figurines from ancient sites of human civilization, such as Mohenjodaro and Harappa which thrived in the Indus valley from 2500 to 1500 B.C.6 (Chandy, 1970b; Prashad, 1936; Pushkarna, 1998). Kautilya’s Arthasastra (circa 300 B.C.) also has a reference to the utility of fish as food. Historically, many references to fish, their trade and fisher communities are found in the great epics, stone carvings, paintings, and even in the songs of the Sangam Age, from 1st to 4th century A.D. (Silas, 1977). Traditionally, fishing has been the principal source of livelihood for many people living in the coastal region, and on the banks of rivers, lakes and canals. According to Hindu mythology, one of the incarnations of God was in the form of a fish, “Matsyavathara” (Silas, 1977).  Several other findings also support the significance of fish and fisheries in ancient times. For example, the second pillar edict of Ashoka forbade use of fish during the certain phases of the moon (Panikkar, 1957) which has been interpreted by Hora (1950) as reflecting existing principles of fisheries conservation; a coin from the Uttama Chola Dynasty  (973 - 985 A.D.) has a seated tiger facing right, roaring at two fishes with a bow and torch behind (Mitchiner, 1979); and records in the form of traveler’s diaries (for example, Pliny) to India and the guide for merchant traders known as ‘Periplus of the Erythraean Sea’, dating back to 2000 years, made several references to fish and their trade (Johnson, 2002; McPherson, 1993; Silas, 1977).   Sport fishing was also popular in India among the elite. King Somesvara, the son of King Vikramditya VI, composed a book titled “Mansoltara” in 1127 A.D., to record the common sport fish of India, grouping them into marine and freshwater forms (Jhingran, 1975a).   Historical studies on fish fauna  Efforts to collect the fishes of India and to describe them in the scientific literature were initiated in the 18th century, at the time of foreign domination in India. Several significant contributions were made on the systematics, distribution and bionomics of the freshwater and marine fishes.                                                  6 The Indus Valley, or Harrapan, civilization was discovered in 1920-1921 when engraved seals were unearthed near present-day Sahiwal in Pakistani Punjab, at a place called Harappa. Excavations at Mohenjodaro, in Sind, led to the buried remains of another civilization, which used a pictographic script. This civilization extended to the Yamuna along the bed of the river Ghaggar in Rajasthan, Gujarat and up to the mouths of the rivers Narbada and Tapati. The major sites of this civilization are in present-day Pakistan. Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  7 Research work done on fisheries in the 18th and 19th century, in general, was confined to observations recorded by some officers of the erstwhile East India Company.  Some of the important achievements for Indian ichthyology based on Day (1873); Jhingran (1975b); Bensam (1999c) and Pauly (2004) are the following: • 1785: Marcus Eliezer Bloch publishes “Ausländische Fische” and “Icthyologia”; • 1801:  Joseph Gottlob Schneider extends Bloch’s work on the “Icthyologia”;  • 1798–1803:  Bernard Germain Etienne de Lacepède publishes his “Histoire des Naturelle Poissons”; • 1803: D. Russel describes 200 fish species from ‘Vizagapatnam’ (now Vishakapatnam); • 1822: Francis Hamilton presents his pioneer work, “An account of the fishes in the river Ganges and its Branches”; • 1828-1849: Georges Cuvier and Achille Valenciennes published their masterpiece, “Histoire Naturelle des Poissons”; • 1839-1860: John McClelland, Pieter Bleeker, Edward Blyth, Albert Günther and others add to the knowledge of Indian fishes; • 1876-1878: Francis Day, then Inspector-General7 of fisheries in India completes his monumental work on the “Fishes of India”, still a major reference in the Indian region.   During the closing of the 19th century and starting of 20th century, officials of the Marine Survey of India and the Zoological Survey of India undertook numerous studies on fishes and other aquatic fauna (BOBP, 1982). A report by the Industrial Commission of 1916-1918 stipulated that the central government should promote studies on fisheries.  In the 1930s, Dr. Stanley Kemp, Director of the Marine Biological Laboratory, Plymouth, U.K. and the former Director of the Zoological Survey of India, also emphasized the need to improve knowledge on Indian fishes (Bensam, 1999b). In the twentieth century, a biologist, S. L. Hora (1920-1956) also made considerable contributions to fish systematics (Bensam, 1999a). FishBase (www.fishbase.org) may be consulted for a comprehensive bibliography on Indian ichthyology.   Development of marine fisheries  Before Independence (1947) The first formal step toward the development and management of marine fisheries was an enactment of the Indian Fisheries Act of 1897, delegating various erstwhile provinces with the responsibility of fisheries administration and management (Bensam, 1999a; d; BOBP, 1982; Chidambram, 1982). However, in pre-Independence times, regulations regarding the fisheries were essentially revenue-oriented, and expressed little interest in the development of the fisheries. The first fisheries department explicitly aimed at developing the fisheries was the Madras Presidency, organized in 1907 by Sir F. Nicholson, also called the “Father of Indian Fisheries Development” (Bensam, 1999c; Devanesen, et al., 1953).  Overall, however, Indian marine fisheries were neglected until the 1940s. The Second World War (1939-1945) changed this. During the war, India provided bases for American and other allied army personnel and this brought the problem of supplying adequate amounts of good quality fish. This scarcity of food led to interest in expansion of marine fisheries. As a result, Dr. Beni Prasad, then the director of the Zoological Survey of India, was asked to inquire and write a report on Indian fisheries (Bensam, 1999a). Before 1947, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Travancore (now in Kerala) were the only states which had a separate department of fisheries (Samuel, 1968a).  After Independence (1947) After Independence (1947), concerted efforts were undertaken to develop Indian fisheries, as expressed through a succession of National Five Year Plans. The First Plan was initiated under Prime Minister Nehru                                                  7 Francis Day joined as a veterinary surgeon in the British Army and was initially stationed in southern India. He developed an intense interest in Indian fishes and fisheries and soon become Inspector General of fisheries in India and Myanmar (Bensam, 1999b). Development of India’s fisheries   8 in 1951 as a part of an effort to strengthen the country’s economic and social structure, and to stimulate overall growth of the country (industrial, economic, scientific and technical). It was felt in the 1950s that the development of fisheries would be one of the most promising means of improving the Indian diet. Fisheries planning in India was then officially guided by the same goals as agriculture, i.e., increasing production and equitable distribution. However, with time, the priorities of the central government gradually shifted from providing fish as a protein supply to the poor (First Five Year Plan) towards increasing foreign exchange reserves (Ninth Five Year Plan) (Table 1).  Table 1. Major developments and objectives of successive Five Year Plans. Sources: GOI, 1951, 1956, 1961, 1969, 1974; Silas, 1977; GOI, 1980, 1985, 1992, 1997; Bensam, 1999c; Johnson, 2002 and Vivekanandan, et al., 2003.  Plan period Duration Main objectives and developments I  1951-1956 • Increase fish catch by introduction of mechanized boats; • Improve ground facilities and supplies to fishers; • Improve fisheries statistics and training facilities; • Initiate the charting for deep sea fishing grounds and develop newly located ones. II 1956-1961  • Further expansion of existing activities related to mechanization and introduction of new vessels and gear materials; • Further improvement of infrastructure for training, preservation, processing, storage and transportation; • Improve statistical information regarding production, supply and marketing of fish; • Organizing multipurpose co-operative societies to encourage development of fishers. III 1961-1966 • Designing of improved mechanized fishing vessels and gear materials; • Adequate equipments and facilities for preserving fish and their marketing; • Impetus towards development of fisheries education, research institutes, improves condition of fishers and export trade. Annual Plans 1966-1968 • Encourage export trade. IV 1969-1974 • Expansion of export trade; • Initiation of deep sea fishing by import of trawlers and indigenous construction of deep sea trawlers; • Construction of fishing harbours at major and minor ports; •  Intensification of exploratory fishery surveys. V 1974-1979 • Motorization of artisanal craft and introduction of purse seines in 1977; • Development of fishing harbours; • Declaration of EEZ (1977). Annual Plans 1979-80 • Development of diversified fishery products. VI 1980-1985 • Motorisation of artisanal crafts; • Exploratory surveys in offshore grounds; • Promulgation of Maritime Zone of India Act, 1981; • Encouragement to deep sea fishing through licensing, chartering and joint venture vessels. VII 1985-89 • New chartering policy (1989); • Development of post-harvest technologies. Annual Plan 1990 • Development of deep sea fishing. Annual Plan 1991 • Substantial growth in motorized artisanal fleet of ring seiners. VIII 1992-1996 • Deep sea fishing by joint venture; • Development of coastal aquaculture; • Substantial growth in motorized artisanal fleet of ring seiners; • Export trade changes from a resource-based to food engineering industry. IX 1997-2002 • Increase fisheries production (aquaculture and offshore fisheries); • Further diversify and modernize fisheries and fishery products; • Intensify research activities.  The major thrust in marine fisheries throughout that time was to increase mechanization and foster to transition from inshore towards offshore, i.e., to encourage deep sea fisheries. During the first five of the Five Year Plans and intervening three annual plan years (1951-1979), special emphasis was given to the introduction of mechanized fishing boats and remove the ‘middlemen’ involved in fish marketing through establishment of co-operative societies.  Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  9 However by 1961, it was realized that co-operatives set up mainly to avoid the perceived exploitation of fishers by ‘middlemen’ were not very successful (BOBP, 1982; GOI, 1951; 1956; 1961; 1969; 1974; Johnson, 2002). In the 1980s, the top priority of planning in India was fast economic growth and self-sufficiency in food through the agriculture sector. The Sixth and Seventh Five Year Plan (GOI, 1980; 1985) explicitly addressed the severity of the balance of payments deficit that India faced from the mid 1970s on. In 1991, India nearly defaulted on a loan of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and its only escape was to agree to a liberalization strategy drawn up by the IMF. This included the phased reduction of import duties, the promise to shrink government and to reduce reliance on subsidies (Byers, 1998; Johnson, 2002). At this point, India tried various means to increase its foreign exchange earnings; one of these was to promote the marine fisheries sector. However, by the end of 1991, it was realized that the marine fisheries were reaching near maximum levels of production in the inshore areas (and overexploited at various locations) and that no substantial increase in production could be expected. Therefore, the emphasis of fisheries development shifted towards expansion of the inland sector and aquaculture, and towards the offshore and deep sea fisheries (ICAR, 1998; Johnson, 2002). This led to the announcement of a Deep Sea Fishing Policy in 1991. One of the crucial elements of all these Five Year Plans was the intention to strengthen the network of research and educational institutions meant to support fisheries. The history of some of these research institutions is given in the section below.   Development of fisheries research institutions  Before Independence  Many reports were published after the First World War by committees and specialists, aiming to encourage the expansion of fisheries. During this post-war development phase, Dr. Beni Prasad was asked to review the fisheries of the country and to recommend necessary measures for their development. In his historical memorandum “Post-war development of Indian fisheries” submitted in 1941, a definite programme to develop a research department for fisheries was proposed for the first time (Bensam, 1999a; Prasad, 1944). Then, in the ‘Kharegat Memorandum’ (1944), the advisory board of the Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR) laid down the essential elements of fisheries development to be achieved in the country. Among these were: (1) establishment of a Central Fish committee and of a fisheries research station; (2) starting a pilot project for mechanization of catching, and for storing catches; (3) development of pond culture practices; and (4) improvement of fish transport (Panikkar, 1957).  Another important document was a report of the Fish Subcommittee of the Policy Committee No. 5 on Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, which embodied the results of country wide surveys carried out by the Fish Subcommittee, with Dr. Prasad, fishery development adviser to the Government of India (BOBP, 1982; GOI, 1945a; Samuel, 1968a). Reports of the ‘Bengal Famine Commission’ (GOI, 1945b) and on the ‘Scientific Research in India’ (Hill, 1945), also emphasized fisheries as an essential aid to increase the country’s food supply (Panikkar, 1957). As result, a Deep Sea Fishing Station was set up at Mumbai in 1946, whose main functions were mapping of fishing grounds and the training of deep sea fishing personnel (Bensam, 1999b; CMFRI, 1987a). In 1946, Lt. Col. Dr. Seymour Sewell also submitted a memorandum on the proposed fisheries research institute. He recommended the creation of a marine fisheries research station in Karachi (present-day Pakistan) for the west coast, and another in Mandapam (Tamil Nadu) for the east coast (Bensam, 1999a). Sewell’s recommendations covered pre-Independence India as a whole, but the Partition, resulted in numerous changes.   After Independence (1947) On 3rd February 1947, just after Independence, the Government of India, through its ministry of Food and Agriculture, established the Central Marine Fisheries Research Station (renamed Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute [(CMFRI) in 1962] in Mandapam, with a mandate of conducting biological research on Development of India’s fisheries   10 fisheries (Figure 2). In October 1967, the management and administrative control of the Institute was transferred from the Ministry of Food and Agriculture to the Indian Council of Agriculture Research, and its headquarters were also shifted from Mandapam, Tamil Nadu to Kochi, Kerala (ICAR, 1998; James, 1987). After Independence, two more stations were established: the Offshore Fishing Station (OFS) at Tuticorin (Tamil Nadu) and Vishakapatnam (Andhra Pradesh) and the Exploratory Fisheries Project (EFP) at Kochi (Kerala). In 1983, these various entities, along with the Deep Sea Fishing Station, were merged into the Fisheries Survey of India (FSI), with headquarters in Mumbai (Bensam, 1999b; Sudarsan, 1987). The FSI’s main objective was to conduct surveys of the fishery resources and charting of fishing grounds in the Indian EEZ. In 1952, the Indian Government drew international assistance through the Indo-Norwegian Project, the product of a tripartite agreement between the governments of India, Norway and the United Nations. The main objectives of this project were to study the operational efficiency and commercial feasibility of different crafts and gears, propagate various fishing methods, train personnel and provide technical consultancy services (Johnson, 2002; Sandven, 1959; Sathiarajan, 1987). In 1972, the agreement with the Government of Norway was terminated and the project’s administration was taken over by the Government of India, as ‘Integrated Fisheries Project’ (IFP), with three substations managed by the respective state fisheries division (Bensam, 1999c; Sathiarajan, 1987).                     In 1954, the Government of India appointed a committee to consider steps toward the development of the fishing industry. Following the recommendations of this committee, a Central Fisheries Technological Research Station (re-designated Central Institute of Fisheries Technology (CIFT) in 1962) was established in Kochi in 1957. The activities of the institute are oriented towards designing craft and gear appropriate for Indian waters (Bensam, 1999b; Nair, 1987).  Ministry of Agriculture Department of Agriculture  and Co-operation Department of Agricultural Research and Education Fisheries division 1. Fishery Survey of India 2. Central Institute of Fisheries 3. Nautical Engineering and     Training 4. Integrated Fisheries Project 5. Central Institute of Coastal     Engineering for Fishery Indian Council of Agricultural Research 1. Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute 2. Central Inland Capture Fisheries Research      Institute 3. Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture 4. Central Institute of Fisheries Technology 5. Central Institute of Brackishwater        Aquaculture 6. Central Institute of fisheries Education 7. National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources 8. National Research Centre on Cold Water      Fisheries State Agricultural Universities Government of India Ministry of Commerce Marine Products Export Development Authority Fisheries Colleges Figure 2. Organization chart given above clearly shows that fisheries research institutes in India are under control of the Ministry of Agriculture except MPEDA, with two main departments: Department of Agriculture and Co-operation and Department of Agricultural Research and Education. Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  11 The Central Institute of Fisheries Education (CIFE) was founded in 1961 in Mumbai to improve fisheries education. It has its ancillary institutions in Barrackpore (West Bengal), Agra (Uttar Pradesh), and Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh) (Sreekrishna, 1987). In the same year, the Marine Products Export Promotion Council was set up (Johnson, 2002). This statutory body was renamed Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) in 1972, and put under the Ministry of Commerce. It is vested with the responsibility for developing the Indian seafood industry with special reference to exports (MPEDA, 1987).  In 1963, the Central Institute of Fisheries Nautical and Engineering Training (CIFNET) was founded at Kochi in 1963 to provide technical training for crew of ocean going fishing vessels. CIFNET also provides technical consultancy services and conduct studies on fishing craft, gear and equipments to accelerate development in fishery technology (Swaminath, 1987).  All fisheries research institutes listed above fall under the Ministry of Agriculture, except MPEDA, which falls under the Ministry of Commerce. The majority of these institutes operate under the ICAR, and have regional offices spread all along the Indian coast (Figure 2). Regulatory bodies  Fisheries in India are regulated by both the Central and the State Governments, responsible for the EEZ outside of territorial waters and for the territorial waters respectively (GOI, 2004a). Role of federal government is explicitly stated in the Constitution of India, Part XII, Chapter 3, article 2978: Things of value within territorial waters or continental shelf and resources of the exclusive economic zone to vest in the Union: • All lands, minerals and other things of value underlying the ocean within the territorial waters, or the continental shelf, or the exclusive economic zone, of India shall vest in the Union and be held for the purposes of the Union.  • All other resources of the exclusive economic zone of India shall also vest in the Union and be held for the purposes of the Union. • The limits of the territorial waters, the continental shelf, the exclusive economic zone, and other maritime zones, of India shall be such as may be specified, from time to time, by or under any law made by the Government of India.  Schedule VII, Article 246, Entry 21 of List II specifies fisheries as the responsibility of the states (Somvanshi, 2001a; Yadav, 2001). Hence, both the governments play a vital role in management, conservation, development and monitoring of India’s fisheries. Since, there is no separate Fisheries Department at the national level, therefore, the administration of fisheries lies within the Ministry of Agriculture (Figure 3).                                                              8 The Article 297 was amended in 1963, according to which the limits of territorial waters were extended from 3 to 12 nautical miles. The Act of the Maritime Zones defines the extension of the territorial waters to 12 nautical miles (Nawaz, 1981).  Government of India Ministry of Agriculture Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying Animal husbandry Dairy Development Fisheries Department of Agricultural Research and Education Department of Agriculture and Co-operation FIGURE 3. Position of fisheries within the Government of India.  Development of India’s fisheries   12 Legal instruments  International  Some of the important global, legal, voluntary and advisory instruments regarding marine habitat in which, India is participating are the following (Chaudhary, 2000; Froese, et al., 2002; Mathews, 2001; Somvanshi, 2001a; Yadav, 2001) :  • International Whaling Commission (ICW), 1946;  • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), 1973; • Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), 1980;  • UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), 1982 (entered into force in 1994); • Agenda 21 of Rio Earth Summit, 1992; • Convention on Highly Migratory Fish Stocks and Straddling Fish Stocks, 1995; • Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, 1995;  • Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora, 1964 (entered into force in 1982); • Asia Pacific Fishery Commission (APFIC), 1948; • Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), 1992 (entered into force in 1993); • Convention on the International Maritime Organization (IMO Convention), 1948 (entered into force in 1958); • Indian Ocean Fishery Commission (IOFC), 1967; • Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC), 1993 (entered into force in 1996); • Indo-Pacific Fishery Commission (IPFC), 1960.  For more information on international treaties and conventions signed by India, see FishBase (www.fishbase.org) and Sea Around Us (seaaroundus.org).    National The British Government enacted the Indian Fisheries Act of 1897, which restrained certain injurious fishing activities in seas and inland waters. This Act banned and penalized the usage of explosives and poisons to catch fish and also empowered the provincial governments to frame rules under it (Bensam, 1999c; BOBP, 1982; Srivastava, et al., 1991). It is still in force and various states and union territories have introduced fishery legislations under its enabling provision.  Following Independence, various Acts, regulations and guidelines were promulgated. Details of main ones are listed chronologically below (Choudhury, 1987; Nawaz, 1981): • The Marine Products Export Development Authority Act, 1972; • The Territorial Waters (12 nautical miles), the Contiguous Zone (24 nautical miles), the Continental Shelf (200 nautical miles), the EEZ and other Maritime Zones Act, 1976; • The Indian Coast Guard Act, 1977; • The Declaration of Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in May 1976 (but which, came into force in 1977); • The Maritime Zones of India (Regulation of Fishing by foreign vessels) Act came in place in 1981 to regulate fishing by foreign fishing vessels in India’s EEZ.  Although chartering of foreign fishing vessels was permitted as early as 1976, the detailed rules in Act were framed in 1982, to forbid fishing by foreign vessels in coastal areas. Subsequently, the rules were modified for chartered vessels requiring that they shall fish: i. Beyond 24 nautical miles from the shore on the west coast as a general rule (with some exceptions9); ii. Beyond 12 nautical miles from the shore on the east coast (with some exceptions10);                                                  9 Off the Maharashtra-Gujarat coastline, fishing is not allowed by foreign vessels between the coastline and the line joining the following points: 220 54’ N-670 33’E, 210 33’N- 680 56’E, 190 02’N-720E, 180 33’ N- 720E, 180N-720 31’E. Similarly off the Kerala-Tamilnadu coastline fishing is not permitted to foreign vessels in the areas defined by the following points: 70 45’N-770E, 70 45’N-780E, 70 30’N-780E, 70 30’N- 770E (Somvanshi, 2001). Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  13 • In 1991, the Deep Sea Fishing Policy (DSFP) was announced which allowed leasing of foreign fishing vessels for operation in Indian waters beyond 12 nautical miles and joint ventures between Indian and foreign company in deep sea fishing, processing and marketing (Atookaren, 1991; Das, 1993). However, because of protests from local fishers, this policy was rescinded in 1997 (Vijayakumaran, et al., 1998). Thereafter, no new licenses were granted to joint venture companies to operate in the EEZ (MOEF, 2002). There is an interest in strengthening the deep sea fishing policy in order to encourage the exploitation of deep water resources. However, opinions on this are very diverse, many supporting and others opposing the involvement of foreign companies on supporting traditional fishers (Bhandarkar, 1999; Dehadrai, 1999; Dixitulu, 1999; Kocherry, 1999; Sathiadhas, 1999; Vijyakumaran, 1999). • In 2002, new set of guidelines came with an order issued by union Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying (DAHD) for fishing operations in EEZ. These guidelines are similar to the 1991 provision of DSFP, but its main focus is registration status of the foreign fishing vessels and the promotion of deep sea fishing in the Indian EEZ (Anonymous, 2002). These guidelines have been criticized as favouring foreign deep sea fishing vessel operators registered as Indian companies (Mathew, 2003) given its two major provisions: (1) deep sea fishing vessel above 20 m can take a mid transfer of fish and can leave the Indian EEZ for foreign port, (2) there is no obligation for the vessels to return to the base port in India within a stipulated period. The provision of transfer of catch at high sea was even included in DSFP of 1991 because of requests by purse seine owners (mainly targeting tuna) to grant a waiver from the requirement to report back to base ports before export. They argued that it would involve avoidable fuel expenditures and makes the project unviable. As a result, to encourage tuna purses seining operation in India, the transfer/export of catch in high seas was permitted, but only after issuance of certificate by reputed surveyors (Das, 1993).  There are no regulations regarding the operations of Indian vessels beyond her territorial waters (Anonymous, 2002), but various Marine Fisheries Regulation Acts (MFRAs) were enacted by the maritime States, under a model bill circulated by the Government of India in 1979 (Yadav, 2001).    State  A review of Indian fishery laws and regulations reveals that their primary intent is to prevent and minimize the disputes and conflicts among different sectors of the industry (James, 1992b). However, most of these rules and regulations do not seem to have included adequate provisions regarding the undertaking of responsible fishing activities, such as imposing mandatory input and/or output controls. The list of major regulations concerning marine fisheries for all coastal states and union territories is as follows (Arora, et al., 1996a; b; c; d; Atookaren, 1991; Davidar, 1968; James, 1992b; JICA, 1999; MOEF, 2002; Nawaz, 1981; Rajguru, 1994; Somvanshi, 2001a; Vivekanandan, 2003; Yadav, 2001): Gujarat • The Indian Fisheries Act as adopted and applied by the State of Saurashtra11, 1897. Maharashtra • The Maharashtra Fisheries Act, 1961; • The Maharashtra Marine Fishing Regulation Act, 1981.  Goa • Indian Fisheries (Goa, Daman, Diu Amendment Act), 1968; • The Goa Marine Fishing Regulation Act, 1980. Karnataka • The Mysore Game and Fish Preservation Act 2, 1901; • The Karnataka Marine Fishing Regulation Act, 1986.  Daman and Diu • Indian Fisheries (Goa, Daman, Diu Amendment Act), 1968.                                                                                                                                                                 10 Fishing is allowed only beyond 24 nautical miles between the Nizampatanam (Andhra Pradesh) and Paradeep Port (Orissa) and is not allowed between the areas covered by coastline and the line joining the following points in the north of Chilka (Orissa) and up to Bangladesh boundary: 190 22’N-850 30’E, 200N-860 56’E, 200 42’N-880E, 210 08’N-890 07’E, 210 16’N-890 14’E (Somvanshi, 2001). 11 The peninsular landmass of Gujarat state has been known as ‘Saurashtra’ since ancient times (Rajguru, 1994). Development of India’s fisheries   14 Lakshadweep • The Lakshadweep Marine Fishing Regulation Act, 2000. Kerala • The Game and Fish Protection Regulation Act 12 of 1914, Government of Travancore (modified in 1921);   • Cochin Fisheries Act 3 of 1917 (modified in 1921), Government of Cochin; • The United Provinces Fisheries Act 45 of 1948; •  Government of Travancore-Cochin Fisheries Act 34, 195012; • The Kerala Marine Fishing Regulation Act and Rules, 1980 (Act 10 of 1981).  Tamil Nadu  • Nilgiris Game and Fish Preservation Act II of 1879, Government of Madras (‘Madras’ was renamed as Tamil Nadu in 1969); • Government of Bengal and Madras Amendment Act 1929 (Act 11 of 1929); • The Tamil Nadu Marine Fishing Regulation Rules, 1983.  Andhra Pradesh • Executive Order 1983 of the Government of Andhra Pradesh;  • Indian fisheries (Andhra Pradesh Extension and Amendment Act), 1961.  Orissa • The Orissa Marine Fishing Regulation Act, 1981 (Orissa Act 10 of 1982);  • The Orissa Marine Fishing Regulation Rules, 1983;  • Judgement by the Orissa High court making mandatory the use of Turtle Exclusion Devices (TED) by fishing trawlers (1998). West Bengal • Bengal Private Fisheries Protection Act 2 of 1889;  • Government of Bengal and Madras Amendment Act 11 of 1929;  • Fisheries (Requisition and Acquisition) Act, 1965. Pondicherry  • The Indian Fisheries (Pondicherry Amendment), Act 18, 1965. Andaman and Nicobar • Andaman and Nicobar Islands Fisheries Regulation 1 of 1938.  The states with no Marine Fishing Regulation Acts (MFRAs) are following ad hoc decisions to prevent or tackle conflicts between the artisanal and mechanized sector (James, 1992b). The demarcation of zones between non-mechanized and mechanized fishing vessels13 under MFRAs for selected states are given in Table 2. It is noteworthy that ‘traditional’ vessels can fish anywhere in the sea, while limits exists for other categories of vessels. All these laws (MFRAs) are enacted in response to local issues, and lack uniformity. Based on complaints in demarcating the areas based on distance from shore and not on depth, several provisions related to depth were also added to existing regulations. For example, in MFRA of Kerala the coastline is divided into two parts, south and north. In the south Kerala, 16 m depth have been reserved exclusively for the artisanal craft, 16 m - 20 m depth zone only for the motorized crafts and, 40 m - 70 m depth zone for the small mechanized vessels (< 25 GRT) (Vivekananadan, et al., 2003; Vivekanandan, 2003).  The states on the west coast, i.e., Gujarat, Kerala and Karnataka have been implementing closures of fishing operations by mechanized vessels during the monsoon season for the past decade or two. The decision on seasonal closure is taken on a year-to-year basis, normally prior or during the onset of southwest monsoon. In 1996-1997, meetings were held among state fisheries authorities and union ministry of agriculture, where it was decided that there will be uniform closed seasons for fishing from the 10th of June to the 15th of August (65 days) along the west coast and from the 15th of April to the 31st of May on the east coast. However, the respective state governments have not implemented this decision strictly. In 1999, Andhra Pradesh observed 40 days closure, from April to May. The states of Kerala and Goa have also specified                                                  12 In July 1949, the states of Travancore and Cochin were united and are named the united State of Travancore and Cochin. 13 Mechanized vessels are classified according to size and their area/depth of operation is delineated accordingly (Srinath, 2003). Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  15 legal mesh sizes for the trawl cod ends i.e., 35 mm and 20 mm, respectively (James, 1992b; Somvanshi, 2001a). TABLE 2. Marine Fishing Regulation Act of selected states, which have demarcated fishing areas for mechanized and non-mechanized vessels (Somavanshi, 2001; Devaraj, 1999). OAL: overall length, GRT: gross tonnage.  States  Marine Fishing   Regulation Act  Reserved for traditional   vessels   Available to mechanized vessels Goa  MFRA 1980  Up to 5 km  Beyond 5 km Maharashtra  MFRA 1981  Up to 5-10 fathoms depth   Beyond 10 fathoms depth  Karnataka  MFRA 1980  Up to 6 km  < 15m OAL: 6-20 km;  >15m OAL: beyond 20 km Kerala  MFRA 1980  Up to10 km  < 25 GRT: 10-22 km;  >25 GRT: beyond 23 km Tamil Nadu  MFRA 1983  Up to 3.4 nautical miles   Beyond 3.4 nautical miles  Orissa  MFRA 1984  Up to 5 km  < 15m OAL: 5-10 km;  >15m OAL: beyond 20 km Andhra Pradesh  MFRA 1985  Up to 10 km < 20m OAL: 10-23 km;  >20m OAL: beyond 23 km Different sectors of fisheries   Marine fisheries in India are characterized by a great diversity of marine resources (fishes, crustaceans, molluscs etc.), exploited by various types of fishing vessels and gears. The marine fishing sector of India can be subdivided into four distinct groups (CMFRI, 1980; Sathiadas, et al., 1995): • Non-mechanized (artisanal) sector using country craft with traditional gears; • Mechanized sector using traditional craft with outboard motors (OBM) of less than 50 hp, most with 7-9 hp (commonly referred as motorized sector); • Mechanized sector using inboard motors (IBM) of 50-120 hp (32' to 51' OAL); • Deep sea fishing sector (boats 25 m and above or over 70' OAL) using engines of 120 hp and above. Gears of traditional design and non-mechanized vessels are concentrated in the shallow inshore coastal waters in depth range up to 50 m. Mechanized and deep sea vessels also exploit the resources of deeper off shore waters (Chandy, 1970a; Jhingran, 1991).   Non-mechanized artisanal sector  Owing to different sea conditions, different types of boats evolved on the two coasts of India, with plethora of different names applying to them. In this section, the most widely used traditional crafts on the east and the west coast are mentioned, with their categorization based on type of construction only (BOBP, 1982; 1983; 1983b; 1984; 1990; Mohapatra, 1986; Sathiadas, et al., 1995): • Catamarans; • Canoes; • Plank built boats.  The major gears deployed by artisanal vessels without any sort of mechanical device are the following: • Hooks and lines; • Gillnets; • Seines (from boat and shore); • Bag nets; • Traps.     Development of India’s fisheries   16 Mechanized units with outboard engine  Most traditional crafts mentioned above, operating from different maritime states were modified to accept outboard engines of 5 to 9 hp, in order to increase their catching efficiency. The first set of outboards motors introduced were of 3 hp only and subsequently larger OBM’s were introduced (Pillai, et al., 2000; Srivastava,  et al., 1991).     Mechanized units (small) with inboard engines The majority of the units enumerated below exploit inshore waters, down to 50 m (Sathiadas, et al., 1995; Somvanshi, 2001a): • Small trawlers (all maritime states); • Pair trawlers (Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay regions of Tamil Nadu); • Purses seiners (south west i.e., Kerala, Karnataka, Goa and southern Maharashtra); • Gillnetters (all maritime states).  Each of these categories (mechanized, motorized and non mechanized) has several subdivisions and numerous local names, specific to the respective states (BOBP, 1982; 1983b; 1984; 1990; Chandy, 1970c; Chennubhotla, et al., 1999; CMFRI, 1988; Pillai, et al., 2000; Thirumilu, et al., 1994).        Deep sea fishing sector  The major types of fishing vessels used for deep sea fishing are (Sathiadas, et al., 1995): • Deep sea trawler (25 m OAL and used for catching prawns); • Deep sea tuna long liner (34 m OAL and used for catching tuna); • Deep sea multi purpose vessels (26 m OAL and used for catching both prawns and fishes with more emphasis given to prawns because of high value return).  Progress of different sectors through time  Initially, the non-mechanized sector was the only sector in existence. Indian fishers used the age old craft and gear evolved centuries ago. However, with the advent of new technologies, a gradual shift occurred towards the mechanized sector.  No doubt, intensive efforts to develop the fisheries started after 1947. However, the Government of Bombay (now called Mumbai) made a first attempt to introduce trawling in 1900 by using a steam trawler. Subsequently, several similar experimental and exploratory surveys were conducted until Independence (Mukundan, et al., 1998; Somvanshi, 2001a; Somvanshi, 2001b). Then, in the mid and late 1950s, a few state governments, notably Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh commenced mechanization with the collaboration and assistance of FAO and the Indo-Norwegian project. Similar efforts were thereafter deployed by other states (BOBP, 1983; 1984; Kochary, et al., 1996; Pillai, et al., 2000; Thomas, 2000; Vivekanandan, 2003). Soon, experimental trawling mutated into a commercial venture at Kochi (Kerala) in early 1960s and then spread to other parts of the country (Mukundan and Radhalakshmy, 1998). Since then, trawling has become widespread all along the Indian coast and the number and size of trawlers has increased substantially. Trawling has emerged as the most important method for exploiting demersal fisheries resources (especially prawns and shrimps) (Vivekanandan, 2003). Trawlers have become the main stay of the fishing sector and 50% of the total Indian catch comes from trawlers (Devaraj, et al., 1997; Devaraj, et al., 1999). The consequent increase in the fisheries sector lead in the late 1950s to the introduction of gillnetters and use of synthetic twine, which by the 1980s, almost totally replaced cotton twine for making fish nets (BOBP, 1983; Thomas, 2000). Fibreglass reinforced plastic (FRP) boats were introduced in India in early 1970s, but did not become very popular due to high cost, lack of maintenance facilities and other problems (Sheshappa, 1998). However, during the late 1970s and 1980s, FRP canoes become very popular and largely replaced the traditional wooden canoes. Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  17 Several other major technological transformations were witnessed in the Indian fisheries before the 1980s, all resulting from successive Five Year Plans (see page 8). One of these transformations was the introduction of purse seines in the late 1970s on the west coast (This introduction occurred earlier in Goa, in 1957, but commercial operations commenced only in 1964, with just 2 purse seiners14). These sophisticated gears were deployed by mechanized vessels and soon caught the bulk of the total catch, reducing the share of traditional fishers (Subramani, 1998). For example, in Kerala about two third of marine fish landings were accounted for the artisanal sector until the late 1970s, even though mechanization started as early as mid 1960s (Balan, et al., 1989). However, the artisanal share started falling with further increase in mechanization. This lead to open and severe clashes between members of the two sectors, and the mechanized sector was blamed for the pauperization of traditional fishers (Thomas, 2000).  Efforts to motorize traditional crafts began as early as 1953 in Jaleshwar village, Gujarat (Srivastava, et al., 1991) but it did not make much headway in other parts of India (Kuriyan, 1982). However, it was not feasible for a developing country to replace large number of indigenous fishing boats with new mechanized boats, featuring inboard engines. Hence, it was decided to motorize the existing small scale craft with outboard engines (Chandy, 1970c). Motorization began in 1980s, as a program of the Seventh Five Year Plan, and the support of a financing schemes operated through the co-operative sector (Balan, et al., 1989; BOBP, 1990; GOI, 1985; Subramani, 1998). Simultaneously, India initiated deep sea fishing in 1972 with the import of two Gulf of Mexico trawlers from the USA. By the early 1980s, over 100 chartered vessels and joint venture deep sea fishing vessels were operating, mostly in the inshore grounds up to 50 m and rarely up to 100 m (Devaraj, 1995). This represented a serious challenge to the traditional sector. In 1983, because of widespread unrest, the minimum depth limitation (80 m) was enforced for offshore fishing operations and various regulations were also enacted by the states (see page no. 13). As a result, almost all chartered vessels left the country (Devaraj, 1995). The issue of large trawlers came to the limelight once again when a DSFP was announced in March 1991, stating that India would enter into joint venture agreements with foreign vessels to catch fish in “deep areas” (beyond 12 nautical miles from the coast). The Indian fisher’s organizations protested this vociferously, claiming that Indian boats could reach those areas themselves and there were no guarantees that the joint ventures boats would not poach fish further inshore (Johnson, 2002; Kocherry, 1999). These protests were so strong that the Central Government shelved the issue of licenses to foreign fishing vessels (most of which were cancelled in 1997) and launched a commission of inquiry in 1994 to review this joint venture. In a nutshell, the historical overview presented above indicates that, in the past, the expansion of fisheries to new areas (i.e., deep sea and offshore) was realised through accelerated mechanization, mainly in the 1980s. Introduction of outboard motors brought about a revolution in traditional fishing. Motorization effectively reduced search time, increased time at sea and made accessible previously untapped areas of high fish concentration (Devaraj and Vivekanandan, 1999; Sathiadas,et al., 1995). However, there have been unsuccessful efforts since 1959 to increase fish catches from deep waters under the aegis of the Union Government, with marginal success to date (Mathew, 2003). One of the reasons is the protest by other sectors (see page no. 13 and 19). However, the major cause is the lack of economic viability. Deep sea vessels require huge investments and the rate of return are less compared to those of fishing units (both mechanized and artisanal) operating in inshore waters. Even tuna long liners fetch better rates of return than other deep sea vessels, which mainly concentrate on prawns. Presently, many of the exiting deep sea vessels (Gulf of Mexico trawlers) based in Vishakapatnam harbour are believed to operate rarely, because they find very difficult the break even15. Now the priority is shifting to sustain deep sea fishing by diversification of fishing effort to other resources and reduction of fishing pressure on the penaeid shrimp (Sathiadas, et al., 1995).                                                   14 The purse seine fishery is restricted to the coast between Ratnagiri in the southern Maharashtra and Kochi in central Kerala, where shoaling pelagic fishes (clupeoids, carangids and Indian mackerel) are abundant.  15 During the 1980s a fishing voyage of 13 days was sufficient to catch about 2 t of shrimps and 18 t of good quality fish. Now a voyage of 30-90 days is required to break even, with a catch of 1-2 t of shrimp and 15-18 t of good quality fishes and 30-40 t of other fishes usually dried on deck to cover up the operating cost of Rs. 7-800, 000, (Sathiadas et al., 1995) corresponding to 15,297-17,483 US$, based on the conversion rate of Rs.45.76 = 1 US$ in November, 2004. Development of India’s fisheries   18 Present situation : problems and challenges   Today’s Indian marine fisheries face challenges and problems in achieving the kind of sustainability that will assure its long term survival. Devaraj and Vivekanandan (1999) have categorized Indian fisheries into three phases (based on the classification by Csirke (1984), namely; pre-development phase (1947-1962), growth phase (1963-1988), and full exploitation phase (1989-1997), all applying only to coastal areas. The marine fisheries of India were not controlled in their initial phase, and insufficiently managed in the subsequent phases. Given this, the transition from the current, fully exploited to the overexploited phase will occur rapidly, where it has not already occurred, and lead to collapses (Devaraj and Vivekanandan, 1999). This is something that a country like India, with an acute shortage of animal protein, (Raghavan, 1998), cannot afford. The existing situation calls for an in-depth evaluation of the current state of affairs and take immediate measures, in order to avoid further depletion of the resources. There are additional problems besetting fisheries ranging from habitat degradation, water pollution and bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants, illegal fishing, including poaching, lack of infrastructure, poor socio economic conditions of fishers and many more. Some of these are addressed briefly in the following section.         Sectoral conflicts  Primarily conflicts arise in India and elsewhere because of the incompatibility of the technology used by different sectors, and violations of the national jurisdictions in pursuit of higher catches. The sharing of common resource has intensified the existing problems.  Sometimes the resulting conflicts culminates into violence, killings and burning of boats (Balakrishnan, et al., 1984; Menon, 1996; Nair, et al., 1983). Thus, these conflicts have become a serious social, law and order problem in many coastal fishing areas. However, the magnitude and nature of the problem and losses varies from region to region. Existing conflicts among different sectors can be categorized into two types: (1) those involved in different fisheries in the same locality, for example, fishers engaged in artisanal and mechanized fishing in a common fishing ground (Balakrishnan and Algaraja, 1984; Devaraj and Vivekanandan, 1999) and; (2) those involved in same fishery at the same localities (Balakrishnan and Algaraja, 1984). For example, frequent conflicts occur between the trawlers of south Andhra Pradesh and Chennai over sharing the productive fishing grounds off the southern coast of Andhra Pradesh (Balakrishnan and Algaraja, 1984; Devaraj and Vivekanandan, 1999). In order to avoid such clashes MFRA’s (see page no. 13) were put in place to safeguard the interests of different sectors. Along with this, some other approaches were suggested and followed on regional basis. For example, in some districts of Tamil Nadu, a Peace Council was formed with the local Regional District Officer (commonly referred as ‘RDO’) as chairman and representatives from state fisheries department, mechanized and traditional craft owners that allocated fishing nights (4 for non-mechanized and 3 for mechanized). Tokens were issued after collecting nominal fee from mechanized boats and this money was added up to the associations (of mechanized boat owners) general fund. This was then used to pay compensation towards damage of any traditional gears during the nights kept exclusively for traditional crafts or for social purposes. However, nothing was purposed to regulate conflicts for daytime fishing (Balakrishnan and Algaraja, 1984). Interestingly, fishers from all sectors honoured this system of regulated fishing.           Over capitalization  The increase in the demand for seafood and the commensurate rise in prices have contributed to the recruitment of many new fishers into the industry, and the introduction of many more vessels. As a result the current catching capacity of the fishing fleets in Indian waters far exceeds that required for biologically sustainable catches from most commercial stocks at depth down to 100 m (Devaraj and Vivekanandan, 1999).  Moreover, the Indian government encouraged mechanization via its various subsidies programmes (e.g., for diesel engines, use of innovative gears and vessels etc.) and loans to fishers and their co-operative organizations (Bapat, et al., 1981; Srivastava, et al., 1991). As a result the number of boats kept increasing, while the area per fisher decreased (Vivekananadan, et al., 2003) (Table 3).  Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  19 It is therefore of grave concern that there is an ongoing policy to still expand the fisheries sector. Although the expansion plans are for deep sea sector (i.e.,waters beyond 50 m) and sustainability is emphasized (GOI, 1997; 2002), but no firm steps were purposed by the government to reduce the existing overcapacity. It is important to mention here that only the state of Orissa has determined the optimum number of mechanized vessels of various categories for the different fishing ports (James, 1992b).                            Overexploitation  Existing intra and inter fleet competition have driven the resources to over exploitation. The following manifestations of overfishing are discussed with examples in this section:  (1) growth overfishing, (2) recruitment overfishing and, (3) economic overfishing. Different sectors of fisheries in order to maximize their catches use smaller meshes. Thus, small fishes dominate catches and lots of juveniles and eggs are destroyed. Such growth overfishing, i.e., fish are caught before they had a chance to grow (Pauly, 1994b; Sparre, et al., 1989) is done by both sectors. For example, in Maharashtra, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh large quantities of juvenile fishes and prawn postlarvae are landed by vessels deploying seines (boat, ring, shore), trawls and dol nets (Bensam, et al., 1994; Luther, et al., 1993; Menon, 1996; Menon, et al., 1996; Rohit, et al., 1993; Zacharia, et al., 1995). In Vizhinjam,in Andhra Pradesh state, a seasonal ( November to May) ‘Nonnavu fishery’,  is performed using an artisanal gear with mesh size of 3-4 mm. (Menon and Pillai, 1996). It is estimated that 180 tonnes of juvenile fishes are caught in one day (Menon and Pillai, 1996). One of the reasons for juvenile exploitation is that commercially exploitable quantities of prawns/shrimps occur in habitats that are also utilized by large number of fish juveniles. For example, the area swept by trawl nets for prawns in coastal waters of western India usually yield only ≈ 16% of prawns, while the rest States Shelf          (103 km2) 1961 1973-77 1980 1990 1961 1973-77 1980 1990Gujarat164 554                      1453288                      1095177                  862136                  499843                        2214439                        1669 271                  314207                   760Maharashtra112 125                  257  62                251  54                205  37                108415                    852207                   833 181                   680124                  359Goa10 120                      3030  72                 229  33                      87  23                      94280                        7070172              534  78                 204  55                 220Karnataka25   89                   114  36               109  31                      89  37                      51189             244  78                 433  67                 190 79              109Kerala40   17                       59  16                   57  9                    44  6                   40 36              123 33              118 20                 92  13                      84Tamil Nadu41   42                       78  33                     74  24                      52  31                      53 30                        55 23                  53 17                 36  22                      38Pondicherry1   36                     82  27                      77  6                   25 24                  55 18                 51  4                    17Andhra Pradesh31   35                      84  26                     64 20                      46  11                      31 29                        69 21                  53 16                 38  9                    25Orissa32 169                 528165                317  48               147  13                      96192              599187             359  55                 166  15                   109West Bengal17 359                      1503199               599  60               234 14                       192149                         626 82              249 25                 97  6                     80Available area in ha; Inshore (0-50m) Available area in ha; Offshore (50-200m)Table 3. Continental shelf area of India’s maritime states and union territories and, available area (in hectares) per fisher (top value) and per boat (mechanized and non-mechanized; bottom value) in inshore and offshore regions. Shaded boxes represent absence of data (Sources: DAHD, 1993; 1994; Sathiadas et al ., 1995).Development of India’s fisheries   20 of catch consist of finfishes or benthic organisms, with considerable amounts of juveniles and eggs (Menon, 1996). Furthermore, there is a significant price difference between finfishes and shrimps, also called ‘pink gold’, which fetch far more profit than other resources. This maintains a strong fishing pressure on the overall stocks. So, in order to retain as much as possible, mesh sizes are further reduced. This form of fishing destabilizes multi-species resources and causes massive changes in species composition (Beddington, et al., 1982; Pauly, 1994c). Moreover, smaller mesh sizes catch larger numbers of small sized fishes. During long voyages, these fishes are often discarded because of shortage of space or ice, which are preferably devoted to shrimps (see Chapter 3). Similarly, recruitment overfishing (recruitment to a fishery is impaired because very few adults are left) (Pauly, 1994b; Sparre, et al., 1989) has been also observed in many fisheries of India (Sathiadas, et al., 1995). Such overfishing occurs when the aggregate fecundity of exploited stocks is low. For example, catfishes and sharks (Pillai, et al., 2000) have suffered heavy losses due to indiscriminate fishing. Purse seine catches from Karnataka are reported to have more than 50% of male catfishes with eggs in their mouth (Menon and Pillai, 1996). Figure 4 shows decline in catfish catches in the State of Karnataka attributed to excess fishing pressure. Likewise, bulk removal of ripe running Oil sardine and Indian mackerel is also reported from states along the west coast since the late 1970s, i.e., since the introduction of purse and ring seines (Silas, et al., 1980).  Economic overfishing, occurs when fishing effort exceeds than needed to maximize the economic rent from the fishery (Clark, 1990; Pauly, 1994b; d) has also been reported from the coastal fisheries of India (GOI, 2002; James, 1992a).             Mismatching statistics  A multiplicity of organizations and agencies with overlapping jurisdiction, controlled by the central and state governments, compound the existing problems of Indian fisheries. For data collection systems created by different institutes to gather fishery statistics documents shows wide discrepancies. The catch data for the same species, year and state do not match in the documents published by DAHD, CMFRI and MPEDA (Figure 5; only shows comparison of CMFRI and DAHD).  This uncertainty is an impediment to understanding the real status of the fisheries. Moreover, duplication of work by different institutes results in wastage of valuable resources (money, personnel, time). Attempts FIGURE 4. Catfish catches (thousand tonnes) for the Karnataka state, 1950-2000, showing decline in catch after 1988. This decline is attributed to the overfishing of incubating male catfish resulting in poor recruitment (Source: Menon and Pillai, 1996). 03060901201950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearCatch (t •106) Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  21 to overcome such problems are becoming increasingly apparent. For example, an independent Ministry for Fisheries has been proposed to ensure sustainable development in the fisheries sector (Chaudhary, 2000; Kumar, 2003) and to evolve a unified system of conducting sample survey by the maritime states, to improve and revise the existing collection and estimation methodologies (GOI, 1980; 2002).                               Condition of fishers  In India, the development in fisheries is paralleled by the spatial changes of fleets using a large technological input compared to those using almost none. In this transition, the gap between wealthy boat owners and poor fishers has increased substantially. Furthermore, the ‘middlemen’ are also blamed for appropriating the bulk of the benefits from small scale fishing (Sathiadas, et al., 1994; Sehara, et al., 1986). It is very unfortunate that most of the fishers in India live in poverty with poor housing conditions, and illiteracy rates of up to 70% (Kochary, et al., 1996). With a strength of 1 million (in 1998) full time fishers (Srinath, 2003), it is important to consider the social implications when making management decisions impacting on Indian fishers. The subsequent Chapters, i.e., 2, 3 and 4 documents the general methodology used in this study. Chapter 2 describes the groups of taxa caught that are used in further analyses, as detailed in Chapter 3 and 4. Chapter 3 discusses the data collection and estimation methods, while Chapter 4 presents the ecological indicators that are used to evaluate the status of Indian fisheries.        0.51.01.52.02.53.01950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearCatch (t •106) CMFRIDAHDFIGURE 5. Marine fisheries catch (million tonnes) trends for the whole of India, 1950-1999, showing differences between the datasets assembled by the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI) and the Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying (DAHD).  Description of taxa caught.   22 DESCRIPTION OF TAXA CAUGHT INTRODUCTION  The waters along the Indian coast, and offshore to the limits of the Indian EEZ are home to a rich ichthyofauna. Overall, FishBase reports 1702 species of marine finfishes from Indian waters (FishBase, 2004b) but all of these species are not equally important to fisheries. About 500 commercially important fish species, 250 pelagic and 250 demersal support the multi-species multi-sector fisheries (Pillai, Pillai, 2000). Along with this, there are species-specific fisheries notably on Oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps), Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) and Bombay duck (Harpadon nehereus).  Some pelagic species enjoy wide geographical distribution, while others, such as shads and Bombay duck, have restricted distributions. The diversity of the pelagic resources is much higher off the west coast than off the east coast and vice versa for the demersal resources.  Demersal fishes inhabit all kinds of bottom habitat ranging from sandy, muddy to rocky and coral grounds, and range from shallow coastal waters to the deep continental slope (Bensam, 2000). Crustaceans and molluscs also support important commercial fisheries. Overall, the prawns (penaeid and non-penaeid) fisheries are most important, surpassing all other marine resources in terms of its economic gains they generate.  All these marine resources have numerous local names. The following section lists only widely used English common names. More local names in various regional languages are available at FishBase (www.fishbase.org; Bhathal, 2003) for fishes.    FUNCTIONAL GROUPS  The catch data in Chapter 3 are presented by groups of species, here called ‘functional groups’. The species composition of each group is defined based on the lists of commercial species given in FishBase, CephBase and miscellaneous Indian and other sources, which are cited in the text where appropriate. The trophic level (TL) of each functional group (median of the estimates where several exist for a given species) as adopted here is provided in parentheses after the name of each group. The estimates were obtained from FishBase for fishes. For invertebrates; the estimates were based largely on Sea Around Us (www.seaaroundus.org) database, and the ‘ISCCAAP Table’ of FishBase 2000 (Froese, et al., 2000).   Elasmobranchs (TL = 3.7 - 4.2)  This group consists mainly of shark, skates and rays belonging to the Families Carcharhinidae, Hemiscylliidae, Rhincodontidae, Sphyrnidae, Stegostomatidae, Hemigaleidae, Ginglymostomatidae, Triakidae, Rhinobatidae, Pristidae, Myliobatidae, Dasyatidae and Gymnuridae (FishBase, 2004a). The maximum size in sharks ranges from 70 cm (Rhizoprionodon oligolinx) to 2000 cm (Rhincodon typus), in skates from 270 cm (Rhina ancylostoma) to 656 cm (Pristis microdon) and in rays from 70 cm (Dasyatis kuhlii) to 204 cm (D. zugei) (FishBase, 2004a).  Elasmobranchs are carnivores and predaceous in nature, with the exception of Rhincodon typus (Whale Shark), which is mainly a zooplankton (filter) feeder. Sharks mainly feed on pelagic teleosts, such as sardine, mackerel, Bombay-duck etc. and cephalopods (squid, octopus, cuttlefish) (Devadoss, et al., 2000; Raje, et al., 2003). Skates and rays mostly feed on benthic organisms viz. crustaceans, molluscs, polychaetes, amphipods and teleosts (Apogon spp., Nemipterus spp., sciaenids) (Raje and Joshi, 2003). Elasmobranchs have gained commercial importance in India only recently because of increasing demand for shark’s fins in the Southeast Asian countries (Anon., 1992). Sharks are caught in all the maritime states of India, mainly by shrimp trawlers (42%), followed by gill net (26%), hooks and lines (16%) and other gears (14%) (Raje and Joshi, 2003). These are high valued species as the products obtained from them are valued in international markets. The dominant and commercially important species of elasmobranchs, which support fisheries, are listed below. Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  23 Sharks (TL = 4.2) The important commercial species of sharks in Indian waters are Scoliodon laticaudus (Spadenose shark), Rhizoprionodon acutus (Milk shark), Carcharhinus sorrah (Spottail shark), C. sealei (Bull shark), C. leucas (Bignose shark), C. macloti (Hardnose shark), C. melanopterus (Blackfin reef shark), C. hemiodon (Pondicherry shark), Rhincodon typus (Whale Shark), Galeocerdo cuvieri (Tiger shark), Eusphyra blochii (Winghead shark), Sphyrna lewini, Chiloscyllium plagiosum (Whitespotted bambooshark), C. punctatum (Brownbanded bambooshark), Rhizoprionodon oligolinx (Grey sharpnose shark), Chaenogaleus macrostoma (Hooktooth shark), Hemipristis elongata (Snaggletooth shark), Loxodon macrorhinus (Sliteye shark), Nebrius ferrugineu (Tawny nurse shark), Negaprion acutidens (Sicklefin lemon shark), Mustelus mosis (Arabian smooth-hound) and Triaenodon obesus (Whitetip reef shark) (Devadoss, et al., 2000; FishBase, 2004b; Raje and Joshi, 2003).  Skates (TL = 3.9) This group includes Rhynchobatus djiddensis (White spotted shovelnose ray), Anoxypristis cuspidate (Pointed sawfish), Pristis pectinata (Smalltooth sawfish), P. microdon (Smalltooth sawfish), Rhina ancylostoma (Bowmouth angelfish), and Rhinobatus granulatus (Granulated shovelnose ray) (Devadoss, et al., 2000; FishBase, 2004b; Raje and Joshi, 2003).  Rays (TL = 3.7)  This group represents several species, including Aetobatus narinari (Spotted eagle ray), A. flagellum (Longheaded eagle ray), Aetomylaeus nichofii (Nieuhof's eagle ray), Rhinoptera javanica (Javanese cow-ray), Himantura uarnak (Marbled stingray), H. bleekeri (Whiptail stingray), H. fluviatilis (Ganges stingray), H. jenkinsii (Pointednose stingray), H. marginatus (Blackedge whipray), H. bleekeri (Bleeker's whipray), Dasyatis zugei (Pale edged stingray), D. imbricatus (Schneider's scaly sting ray), D. kuhlii (Blue spotted stingray), Pastinachus sephen (Drab stingray), Gymnura poecilura (Longtail butterfly ray), G. micrura (Shorttail butterfly ray), Mobula mobular (Devil ray), and Aetomylaeus maculatus (Bat ray) (Devadoss,  et al., 2000; FishBase, 2004b; Raje and Joshi, 2003).  Eels (TL = 4.1)  Eels in this group belong to the Families Muraenesocidae, Muraenidae, Anguillidae and Congridae. Their maximum size ranges from 80 cm (Gymnothorax pseudothyrsoideus) to 250 cm (Congresox talabonoides) (FishBase, 2004a). Eels mainly feed on nektons, zoobenthos, small fishes and crustaceans (FishBase, 2004a; Menon, et al., 1998). This group mainly consists of Congresox talabonoides (Wam), Gymnothorax pseudothyrsoidea (Black eel), Muraenosox bagio (Golden eel), M. cinereus (Daggertooth pike conger), Conger cinereus (Indian conger eel) and Anguilla bengalensis (Indian mottled eel) (FishBase, 2004b; GOG, 2004; Menon, et al., 1998). Initially, eels were considered as a poor people’s food in India, but nowadays, demand of live eels for export and other fish products is increasing rapidly, and so is their price. These high value species are mainly caught on the conventional fishing grounds of the northwest and the northeast coasts largely as a bycatch of trawl nets (70%), and non-mechanized gears (13%) (GOG, 2004; Menon,  et al., 1998).  Catfishes (TL = 3.9)   The catfishes (Families Ariidae and Plotosidae) with size range of 25 cm (Batrachocephalus mino) to 185 cm (Arius thalassinus), mainly feeds on invertebrates and small fishes (FishBase, 2004a). This group includes, Batrachocephalus mino (Frogheaded catfish), Arius sona (Dusky catfish), A. jella (Smalleye catfish), A. dussumieri (Marine catfish), A. tenuispinis (Thinspine sea catfish), A. caelatus (Engraved catfish), A. thalassinus  (Giant seacatfish), A. sagor (Sagor catfish), A. subrostratus (Sona sea catfish), A. sumatranus (Shovelnose sea catfish), A. crossocheilos (Roughback sea catfish), Osteogeneiosus militaris (Soldier catfish), Plotosus canius (Gray eel catfish) and P. lineatus (Striped eel catfish) (FishBase, 2004b; Menon, 2003; Menon, et al., 2000). Description of taxa caught.   24 Compared to many other demersal fishes, catfishes are within the affordable range of poor and middle class fish eaters. For example, in 1996, the retail price for catfishes was Rs. 36 or US$16 0.78 per kg as compared to Pomfrets at Rs. 96 or US$ 2.09 per kg (Sathiadas, et al., 2000). Catfishes are utilised fresh, frozen and in processed form, in the domestic and export markets. Presently, this resource is chiefly exploited by trawlers (37%), followed by motorized gillnetters (24%), mechanized gillnetters (26%), and other gears (6%) (Menon, 2003). Clupeoids (TL = 2.0 – 4.5) This group consists mainly of herrings, sardines, shads and anchovies, and forms one of the major pelagic fishery resources of the country. All these shoaling species show remarkably wide annual and seasonal fluctuations, one time bringing prosperity and at other times major economic setbacks to the fishers. Wolf herring (TL = 4.5) Chirocentrus dorab, commonly known as Wolf herring (Family Chirocentridae) with a maximum size of 122 cm, feeds on small schooling fishes, e.g., herrings and anchovies, and perhaps sometimes on crustaceans (FishBase, 2004a). C. dorab are more abundant on the east coast, especially in Tamil Nadu (Luther, 1973; Srivastava, 1999).  Indian oil sardine (TL = 2.5) Sardinella longiceps or Indian oil sardine (Family Clupeidae) is a small fish with a maximum size of 28 cm (FishBase, 2004a). S. longiceps is a planktivore, with diatoms, dinoflagellates and copepods as favourite food items. An abundance of diatom Fragilaria oceanica is said to indicate abundance of oil sardine in coastal waters (Pillai, et al., 2003b).  Oil sardine contribute about 15% of total marine fish catches in India. This is highly nutritive and affordable table fish, and available throughout most of the year. However, their abundance shows wide fluctuations on seasonal, annual and decadal scales. As well, small Oil sardine serves as a source for by-products, such as sardine oil used in several industries, and ‘guano’, used as fertilizer and fishmeal for cattle and poultry feed production (Jayaprakash, 2000; Pillai,  et al., 2003b).  Other sardines (TL = 2.7)  All sardines (Family Clupeidae) other than the Oil sardine were placed in this group. Their maximum size ranges from 15 cm (Sardinella jussieui) to 29 cm (Amblygaster sirm) (FishBase, 2004a). Like the Indian oil sardine, other sardines feed mainly on variety of plankton (Pillai, et al., 2003a).  This group includes Sardinella gibbosa (Goldstripe sardinella), S. jussieui (Mauritian sardinella), S. fimbriata (Fringescale sardinella), S. albella (White sardinella), S. sindensis (Sind sardinella), S. melanura (Blacktip sardinella), S. brachysoma (Deepbody sardinella), Amblygaster sirm (Spotted sardinella), and A. clupeoides (Bleeker smoothbelly sardinella) (Pillai and Rohit, 2003a; Rohit, et al., 2000).  Other sardines form a yearround fishery in different regions of the country, but the fishing seasons and catch rates vary among the regions. All these species form a cheap source of animal protein and are relished in fresh, frozen and dried forms. Shads (TL = 2.0 – 3.0)  Shads (Families Clupeidae and Pristigasteridae) have a maximum size of 21 cm (Anodontostoma chacunda) to 73 cm (Tenualosa ilisha). They feed chiefly on plankton, mainly diatoms and dinoflagellates, but also on copepods, molluscan and crustacean larvae, prawns, amphipods and polychaetes. Ilisha elongate along with planktons also feeds on Chelon macrolepis (Largescale mullet) (FishBase, 2004a).                                                   16 Indian Rupees are converted into US dollars based on the conversion rate of Rs. 45.76 equivalent to 1 US$ in November, 2004. Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  25 Tenualosa ilisha (Indian or Hilsa shad) support a lucrative fishery, especially along the Digha coast in the West Bengal. Other shads are also contributing to the fishery, such as Tenualosa toli (Toli shad), Anodontostoma chacunda (Chacunda gizzard shad), Nematalosa nasus (Bloch's gizzard shad), Ilisha elongate (Elongate ilisha), I. megaloptera (Bigeye ilisha) and Hilsa kelee (Kelee shad) (FishBase, 2004b; Jhingran, 1991). The trophic level used for Hilsa shad and other shads are 2.0 and 3.0, respectively. Anchovies (TL = 3.3 - 3.6) Anchovies (Family Engraulidae) range from 8 cm (Stolephorus baganensis) to 32 cm (Setipinna brevifilis) (FishBase, 2004a). Their food is mainly comprised of copepods, crustaceans (Acetes spp.), ostracods, amphipods, and young fishes and larvae (Jayaprakash, 2003; Khan, 2000b). This group includes Coilia dussumieri (Golden anchovy), C. ramcarati (Ramcarat grenadier anchovy), C. reynaldi (Reynald's grenadier anchovy), Setipinna brevifilis (Shorthead hairfin anchovy), S. tenuifilis (Common hairfin anchovy), Stolephorus waitei (Spotted anchovy), S. commersonii (Commerson's anchovy), S. indicus (Indian anchovy), S. baganensis (Estuarine anchovy), Encrasicholina devisi (Devil's anchovy), E. punctifer (Buccaneer anchovy), Thryssa mystax (Mustached thyrssa), T. malabarica (Malabar thryssa), T. gautamiensis (Gautama thryssa) and T. purava (Oblique-jaw thryssa) (FishBase, 2004b; Gopakumar, et al., 2000; Jayaprakash, 2003; Khan, 2000b; Khan, 2003). The trophic level used for Anchoviella (Coilia, Setipinna, Encrasicholina and Stolephorus spp.) and Thrissocles (Thryssa spp.) are 3.3 and 3.6, respectively. Consumer preferences for various species differ from place to place. For example, Encrasicholina devisi and E. punctifer are not preferred at Kochi, but are in great demand in the southern and interior parts of Kerala state (Jayaprakash, 2003). Other clupeoids (TL = 3.1)  All clupeoids (Families Clupeidae and Pristigasteridae) not identified previously were placed into this group. Their size ranges from 6 cm (Ehirava fluviatilis) to 25 cm (Opisthopterus tardoore) and feeds mainly on zooplanktons (copepods, larvae of bivalves, fish eggs, etc.), phytoplanktons and small crustaceans and fishes (FishBase, 2004a). This group includes Escualosa thoracata (White sardine), Ehirava fluviatilis (Malabar sprat), Opisthopterus tardoore (Long finned herring) and Pellona ditchela (Indian pellona) (Karbhari, 1982).  Bombay duck (TL = 4.3) Harpadon nehereus (Family Synodontidae), popularly known as Bombay duck, which attains a maximum size of 40 cm, is a piscivorous fish that feeds on various fish species, notably Coilia dussumieri, and crustaceans (Nematopalaemon tenuipes and Acetes spp.) (Kurian, 2000).  Harpadon nehereus is an important and abundant species along the northwest coast of India, especially in the states of Gujarat and Maharashtra with about 90% of the Indian landings originating from this region (Kurian, 2000; 2003). Bombay duck support one of the few single-species fisheries in India.  Lizardfishes (TL = 4.4) Lizardfishes belong to the Family Synodontidae, with size ranges from 25 cm (Saurida longimanus) to 67 cm (S. tumbil). They chiefly feed on teleost fishes, cephalopods and crustaceans (FishBase, 2004a).  This group consists of Saurida tumbil (Greater lizardfish), S. undosquamis (Brush toothed lizardfish), S. longimanus (Longfin lizardfish), S. micropectoralis (Shortfin lizardfish), Trachinocephalus myops (Blunt nose lizardfish) and Synodus englemani (Engleman's lizardfish), which forms an important component of demersal fish resources of India (FishBase, 2004a; Sivakami, et al., 2003).  Lizardfishes are reported as an important bycatch of shrimp trawlers. This group has gained significance as it is used for food both in fresh and dried form (Nair, et al., 1992; Sivakami,  et al., 2003). Description of taxa caught.   26 Halfbeaks and Fullbeaks (TL = 3.4)   Halfbeaks and fullbeaks (Families Hemiramphidae and Belonidae) attain a maximum size of 35 cm (Rhynchorhamphus malabaricus) and 49 cm (Strongylura strongylura), respectively. Their food is comprised mainly of sea grass (Cymodocea spp.) and green algae, but may also include diatoms and polychaetes. However, Strongylura strongylura, with a trophic level of 4.5 is carnivorous and feed on small fishes, especially clupeoids (FishBase, 2004a). Commercially important marine halfbeaks and fullbeaks are Rhynchorhamphus georgii (Halfbeak garfish), R. malabaricus (Malabar halfbeak), Zenarchopterus dispar (Feathered river garfish), and Strongylura strongylura (Fullbeak garfish). They are usually caught along with other fishes (FishBase, 2004b; Samuel, 1968c). Flyingfishes (TL = 3.8) Flyingfishes (Family Exocoetidae) feed mostly on small crustaceans and other planktonic animals. Their maximum size ranges from 22 cm (Hirundichthys oxycephalus) to 30 cm (Exocoetus volitans) (FishBase, 2004a).  The main flyingfish species included in this group are Cypselurus comatus (Clearwing flyingfish), Exocoetus volitans (Two-winged flyingfish), Hirundichthys coromandelensis (Coromandel flyingfish) and H. oxycephalus (Bony flyingfish) (FishBase, 2004b; Jhingran, 1991). Flyingfishes are popular for their delicate flavour and nutritious value. Almost the entire Indian catch of flyingfishes is salted and sun dried (Samuel, 1968c).  Perches (TL =3.4 - 4.1) This group is mainly comprised of groupers, snappers, pigface breams, threadfin breams and other perches, which mostly inhabit coral reef areas and rocky grounds. The maximum size of fishes within this group ranges from 18 cm (Nemipterus mesoprion) to 221 cm (Epinephelus lanceolatus).  Perches are predatory fishes, feeding on other fishes (Therapon spp., Ambassis spp., etc.) and invertebrates (crabs, prawns, stomatopods etc.). Cephalopods are also found in the diet of some perches, for example Pristipomoides typus (FishBase, 2004a; Mathew, 2003). All species mentioned below are excellent food fishes and in great demand in the export market, both in live and frozen form. They are also gaining importance for commercial mariculture in India. Many are caught as a bycatch in shrimp trawls (Mathew, 2003; Mathew, et al., 2000). Groupers (TL = 4.0)    The main species in this group (Family Serranidae) are Epinephelus tauvina (Greasy grouper), E. malabaricus (Speckled grouper), E. bleekeri (Dusky tail grouper), E. areolatus (Areolate grouper), E. diacanthus (Six banded reef cod), E. epistictus (Broken line grouper), E. fasciatus (Red banded grouper), E. flavocaeruleus (Blue and yellow reef cod), E. morrhua (Banded cheek reef cod), E. undulosus (Brown lined reef cod), E. merra (Wire netting reef cod), E. fuscoguttatus (Brown marbled grouper), E. chlorostigma (Brown spotted grouper), E. longispinis (Spotted grouper), E. lanceolatus (Giant grouper), Cephalopholis sonnerati (Red coral cod) and Cephalopholis boenack (Blue lined seabass) (James, et al., 1996; Mathew, 2003; Mathew,  et al., 2000). Snappers (TL = 4.1) This group (Family Lutjanidae) includes Lutjanus johni (John's snapper), L. argentimaculatus (Red snapper), L. gibbus (Hunced snapper), L. bohar (Two spot snapper), L. rivulatus (Blue-lined snapper), L. bengalensis (Bengal snapper), L. lutjanus (Bigeye snapper), L. fulviflammus (Black snapper), L. kasmira (Blue and yellow snapper), L. sebae (Emperor snapper), L. sanguineus (Red snapper), L. russelli (Russel's snapper), L. malabaricus (Malabar snapper) and Pristipomoides typus (Sharp tooth snapper) (James, et al., 1996; Mathew, 2003; Samuel, 1968b). Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  27 Pigface breams (TL = 3.4) This group (Family Lethrinidae) includes Lethrinus nebulosus (Starry emperor bream), L. obsoletus (Yellow banded emperor bream), L. microdon (Long face pigface bream), L. miniatus (Long nosed emperor bream), L. nebulosus (Bridle pig-face-bream), L. mahsena (Sky emperor), Lethrinus ornatus (Ornate emperor), L. semicinctus (Black blotch emperor) and L. variegatus (Slender emperor) (FishBase, 2004b; Mathew, 2003). Threadfin breams (TL = 3.8) The only commercially important species of threadfin breams (Family Nemipteridae) are Nemipterus japonicus (Japanese threadfin bream) and N. mesoprion (Red filament threadfin bream) (Murty, et al., 2003a; Murty, et al., 1992; Samuel, 1968b). Other perches (TL = 3.7) This group (Families Sparidae, Drepaneidae, Ephippidae, Centropomidae, Lobotidae, Haemulidae and Scatophagidae) represents all perches not previously mentioned. This includes: Argyrops spinifer (Long spined redbream), Acanthopagrus latus (Yellowfin seabream), A. berda (Black seabream), Crenidens crenidens (Karenteen seabream), Drepane punctata (Moon fish), Ephippus orbis (Spade fish), Lates calcarifer (Giant Sea perch), Lobotes surinamensis (Triple tail), Pomadasys maculatus (Spotted grunter), P. hasta (Lined silver grunter), and Scatophagus argus (Spotted butter fish), (FishBase, 2004b; Mathew, 2003; Mathew,  et al., 2000). Goatfishes (TL = 3.5) The Goatfishes, also called red mullets (Family Mullidae) are small sized fishes, with a maximum size of 33 cm (Upeneus taeniopterus). They feed mostly on crustaceans, especially, penaeid shrimps and crabs, and small fishes (FishBase, 2004a; Vivekanandan, et al., 2003b). The main species of fisheries interest are Upeneus sulphureus (Yellow goat fish), U. sundaicus (Ochre-banded goatfish), U. vittatus (Yellowstriped goatfish), U. tragula (Freckled goatfish), U. moluccensis (Goldband goatfish), U. taeniopterus (Finstripe goatfish) and U. bensasi (Bensasi goatfish) (Bensam, et al., 2000; Vivekanandan, et al., 2003b). Due to their small size, goatfishes fetch low price (e.g. Rs. 20 or US$ 0.43 per kg in 1996) and contribute mainly to the diet of poor people. They are also used as live baits for tuna fishing. Goatfishes are usually caught by bottom trawlers and form one of the dominant components in their bycatch (Vivekanandan, et al., 2003b).  Threadfins (TL = 4.1)  Threadfins (Family Polynemidae) attain a maximum size of 142 cm (Eleutheronema tetradactylum) to 200 cm (Leptomelanosoma indicum). They feed on benthic crustaceans, especially prawns and crabs, and fishes, e.g. members of Families Mugilidae, Engraulidae, and Sciaenidae in the food of E. tetradactylum with the occasional polychaetes (FishBase, 2004a).  Besides, Indian salmon (E. tetradactylum), this group includes Leptomelanosoma indicum (Giant threadfin) as commercially important species. Threadfins occur along the east and the west coast of India, both in inshore and offshore waters, but form a very important fishery in the offshore fishing grounds off Gujarat and Maharashtra. Stake bag nets, locally known as ‘dol’ nets, bottom set gillnets and bottom drift gillnets are the major gears used for their exploitation in these states (Jhingran, 1975b; Jhingran, 1991).  Sciaenids (TL = 4.0)  Sciaenids (Family Sciaenidae), commonly called croakers and grunters have a wide range of sizes. For example, Johnius coitor attains a maximum size of 20 cm and Otolithoides biauritus up to 195 cm. Their Description of taxa caught.   28 major food items are teleost fishes (Stolephorus spp., Saurida spp., etc.) and crustaceans (mainly Acetes spp.) (FishBase, 2004a; Mohanraj, et al., 2003). The important commercial species of croakers occurring in Indian waters are Johnieops dussumieri (Sharptooth hammer croaker), Johnius macrorhynus (Big-snout croaker), J. amblycephalus (Bearded croaker), J. glaucus (Pale spotfin croaker), J. coitor (Coitor croaker), J. belangrii (Belanger's croaker), J. carutta (Karut croaker), J. borneensis (Sharpnose hammer croaker), Pseudotolithus elongatus (Bobo croaker), Otolithes cuvieri (Lesser tiger toothed croaker), Otolithoides biauritus (Bronze croaker), O. pama (Pama croaker), Protonibea diacanthus (Spotted croaker), Nibea maculata (Blotched croaker), Kathala axillaris (Kathala croaker), Pennahia anea (Greyfin croaker), Daysciaena albida (Bengal corvine) and Dendrophysa russelii (Goatee croaker) (Apparao, et al., 1992; FishBase, 2004b; Mohanraj,  et al., 2003). Two of these species, Otolithoides biauritus (Bronze croaker) and Protonibea diacanthus (Spotted croaker) contribute substantially to the sciaenid fishery in the northwest region. These fisheries are very popular by the name of ‘Koth’ and ‘Ghol’ in Marathi (Maharashtra state) and ‘Goyani’ and ‘Ghol’ in Gujarati (Gujarat state). These larger sciaenids are filleted and processed for local and export market, whereas, smaller sciaenids are sold in fresh conditions at local markets only. Very small juveniles are used for making fish meal (Mohanraj,  et al., 2003).  Ribbonfishes (TL = 4.3)  Ribbonfishes (Family Trichiuridae), also known as hairtail and cutlass, are voracious feeders, feeding both during day and night. The most favoured food items include a variety of small and medium size fishes, prawns and shrimps. Their maximum size ranges from 50 cm (Trichiurus gangeticus) to 234 cm (T. lepturus) (FishBase, 2004a; Nair, et al., 2003).  This group is comprised of Trichiurus lepturus (Grey ribbonfish), T. russelli (Short-tailed hairtail), T. gangeticus (Ganges hairtail), Euplurogrammus muticus (Smallhead hairtail), E. glossodon (Longtooth hairtail), Lepturacanthus savala (Silver ribbonfish) and L. pantului (Coromandel hairtail) (CMFRI, 1986; FishBase, 2004b; Lazarus, et al., 1992; Nair and Prakasan, 2003).  Out of these, Trichiurus lepturus is the dominant species, forming approximately 95% of the total ribbonfish landings of India (Lazarus, et al., 1992). Three decades ago, ribbonfishes were low priced fishes, preferred by poor people but at present they are significantly important in the export market. For example, in 2001, ribbonfishes contributed up to 30% to the total marine product export of India (Nair and Prakasan, 2003). The under-sized fish are utilized in fishmeal production. Jacks and their relatives (TL = 3.6 - 4.5)  This group (Families Carangidae, Rachycentridae and Coryphaenidae) is comprised of Horse mackerel (TL = 4.4), roundscads (TL = 3.6), queenfishes (TL = 4.5), trevallies, pompanos and other carangids (TL = 4.0).  Their sizes range from 18 cm (Alepes para) to 210 cm (Coryphaena hippurus). They are piscivorous fishes preying on anchovies, sardines, silverbellies, Thrissocles spp., Apogon spp., etc., but also on cephalopods (squids and cuttlefishes) and crustaceans (prawns and crabs) (FishBase, 2004a; Kasim, 2003). For the compilation of fisheries statistics in India, this group is broadly grouped under four categories: Horse mackerel; scads; leather-jackets; and other carangids. The commercial fishery is supported mainly by 36 species: Caranx sexfasciatus (Six banded trevally), C. hippos (Black tailed trevally), C. ignobilis (Yellowfin trevally), C. melampygus (Bluefin trevally), Megalaspis cordyla (Horse mackerel), Alepes kleinii (Golden scad), A. djedaba (Shrimp scad), Decapterus ruselli (Roundscad), D. kurroides (Redtail scad), Scomberoides lysan (Port hole fish), S. commersonianus (Talang queenfish), S. tala (Deep queenfish), S. tol (Slender queenfish), Trachinotus blochii (Subnose pompano), T. baillonii (Bailon’s pompano), T. botla (Russel's pompano), Atropus atropus (Kuweh trevally), Selar crumenopthalmus (Bigeye scad), S. boops (Banded scad), Carangoides armatus (Longfin trevally), C. malabaricus (Malabar trevally), C. oblongus (Coach-whip trevally), C. chrysophrys (Longnose trevally), C. ferdau (Ferdau's cavalla), Atule mate (One finlet scad), Seriolina nigrofasciata (Black banded kingfish), Elagatis Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  29 bipinnulata (Rainbow runner), Alectis indicus (Indian threadfin trevally), A. ciliaris (Redfin trevally), Rachycentron canadum (Cobia) and  Coryphaena hippurus (Dolphin fish) (Kasim, 2003; Nair, 2000).  This group has emerged as one of the important resources especially in the mechanized sector, but are also exploited by motorized and non-mechanized sectors. Many carangid species form only a bycatch in almost all the gears except in small meshed drift gill nets, boat and shore seines, but the landings by these gears are negligible (Kasim, 2003).  Silverbellies (TL = 2.9 - 3.7) Silverbellies, also known as slipmouths or pony fishes (Family Leiognathidae), and called ‘Mullan’ in Malayalam (Kerala state), ‘Karal’ in Tamil (Tamil Nadu state) and ‘Karlu’ in Telegu (Andhra Pradesh state) are generally small, shallow water fishes usually seen in shoals. Leiognathus and Gazza species attain a maximum size of 28 cm (Leiognathus equulus) and 23 cm (Gazza minuta), respectively (FishBase, 2004a; Murty, et al., 2003b; Pauly, et al., 1981). The group includes Leiognathus splendens (Splendid ponyfish), L. dussumieri (Dussumier's ponyfish), L. brevirostris (Shortnose ponyfish), L. equulus (Common ponyfish), L. bindus (Orangefin ponyfish), Gazza minuta (Toothpony) and Secutor insidiator (Pugnose ponyfish) (Murty,  et al., 2003b; Samuel, 1968b).  Silverbellies are of little demand when fresh, but there is a considerable market for them in form of sun dried fish (silverbellies contain very little fat, so, they are easily sun dried), fishmeal and poultry feed. Silverbellies are exploited by trawl and a variety of artisanal gears. However, about 80% of landings are contributed by trawls (Murty,  et al., 2003b; Samuel, 1968b). Big jawed jumper (TL = 4.0) Lactarius lactarius, popularly known as Big jawed jumper, Whitefish or False trevally, is the only species in the Family Lactariidae which occurs all along the Indian coast. Big jawed jumper is a carnivore and mainly feed on teleost fishes (particularly anchovies) and crustaceans (Acetes spp.) (FishBase, 2004a; Vivekanandan, et al., 2003a). Though medium in size, up to a maximum of 40 cm (FishBase, 2004b), this fish fetches optimum price (Rs. 40 or US$ 0.87 per kg in 1999) due to their good taste and consumer preference. No fishery targets the Big jawed jumper; they are bycatch of the trawls and are mostly consumed in fresh condition, but also salted and dried (Bensam, et al., 2000).  Pomfrets (TL = 3.0 - 3.6) Pomfrets (Families Stromateidae and Carangidae) are one of the most delicious food fish available along Indian coast. Their maximum size ranges from 40 cm (Pampus chinensis) to 75 cm (Apolectus niger). Pomfrets mainly feed on crustaceans, zooplanktons, polychaetes and larval decapods (FishBase, 2004a; Sivakami,  et al., 2003).  The fishery is primarily comprised of three species, Apolectus niger (Black pomfret), Pampus argenteus (Silver pomfret) and Pampus chinensis (Chinese pomfret) (Kumari, et al., 1981; Sivakami,  et al., 2003) with a trophic level of 3.0, 3.1 and 3.6 (FishBase, 2004b).  They are highly appreciated table fishes for internal and export markets, fetching a very high price (Rs. 94 or US$ 2.05 per kg in 1999). Despite their high economic value, the research on their biology, fishery and population dynamics is scanty and scattered (Khan, 2000a). However, fisheries statistics are available for each of these species. Mackerels (TL = 2.7 - 3.1) Mackerels belong to the Family Scombridae with their maximum size range from 22 cm (Rastrelliger faughni) to 39 cm (R. kanagurta). This group includes Rastrelliger kanagurta (Indian mackerel), R. faughni (Island mackerel) and R. brachysoma (Short mackerel). Description of taxa caught.   30 Rastrelliger kanagurta, also called ‘Indian mackerel’, constitutes in India, the second most important species after the Indian oil sardine (Yohannan, et al., 2003). The trophic level of Indian mackerel used here is not taken from the FishBase or Sea Around Us websites (as for the other species), because the values of 3.4 and 4.4 given therein are erroneous (D. Pauly, Fisheries Centre, UBC, pers. comm. Oct. 2004)17. Therefore, the (mean weighted) trophic level (TL) was recalculated based on Equation 1:      n TLi = 1 + Σ (DCij . TLj)                           ……(1)                  j =1   where TLi is the trophic level of species i, DCij is the proportion of prey species j in the diet of species i and TLj is the trophic level of prey species j (Christensen, et al., 1992). The diet composition was taken from Rao (1967), which includes 24% Coscinodiscus (TL = 1.0), 4% foraminifera (TL = 1.0), 2% polychaetes (TL = 2.1), 36% copepods (TL = 2.1), 20% stomatopods (TL = 3.1), 12.3% other crustaceans (TL = 2.7), 1% bivalve larvae (TL = 2) and 6% fish scales (TL = 1.0 and 3.0). It was not clear if fish scales were consumed as detritus (TL = 1) or taken from live fish (mean TL ≈ 3.5). Therefore, the TL was calculated two times using the appropriate TLs. The resulting average value of TL = 3.1 was used as TL of Indian mackerel. Indian mackerel is nutritious and affordable even to the poor. Though, small quantities were exported to the Middle East, the bulk of the catch is still consumed within India (Yohannan, et al., 2002). All mackerel species are usually exploited by the large seines, mainly the purse seines (Noble, et al., 1992; Yohannan, et al., 2000). Seerfishes (TL = 4.2 – 4.5)   Seerfishes or Spanish mackerels (Family Scombridae) are one of the commercially important marine pelagic finfish resources of India. Their size ranges from 85 cm (Scomberomorus guttatus) to 267 cm (S. commerson). Seerfishes are mainly piscivorous, but occasionally feed on prawns, squids and cuttlefishes. Their main food items are sardines, carangids, silverbellies, croakers, etc. (FishBase, 2004a; Muthiah, et al., 2003). The fishery is sustained mainly by four species, Scomberomorus commerson (King seer), S. guttatus (Spotted seer), S. lineolatus (Streaked seer) and Acanthocybium solandri (Wahoo) with TL of 4.2, 4.3, 4.5 and 4.4, respectively. There is a low seasonal catch trend along the east coast as compared to the west coast (Muthiah, et al., 2003). Seerfishes are in great demand all over the country and fetch very high price, ranging from Rs. 80–150 per kg (Rs.96 or US$ 2.09 per kg in 1999), on par with Pomfrets (Rs. 94 or US$ 2.05 per kg in 1999). They are consumed mostly in fresh form (Jhingran, 1991; Muthiah, et al., 2003; Sathiadas, et al., 2002).  Tunas (TL = 4.1 – 4.5) Tunas are fishes of the Family Scombridae, with size ranging from 56 cm (Auxis rochei) to 267 cm (Thunnus albacares). Their major food items include crustaceans, especially shrimp and crabs, cephalopods and small pelagic fishes (FishBase, 2004a; Pillai, et al., 2003).  The commonly occurring tuna species in the fisheries are Euthynnus affinis (Little tuna/ Kawakawa), Katsuwonus pelamis (Skipjack tuna), Thunnus tonggol (Longtail tuna), Auxis species such as, A. thazard (Frigate tuna) and A. rochei (Bullet tuna) and other tunnies, including, Thunnus albacares (Yellowfin tuna) and Sarda orientalis (Striped bonito) (Ganga, et al., 2002). Trophic levels of E. affinis, Auxis spp., K. pelamis, T. tonggol and other tunnies are 4.5, 4.3, 4.4, 4.1 and 4.3, respectively (FishBase, 2004b).                                                  17 Because the original trophic level (TL) estimate was not based on diet composition data (as shown in section ‘Mackerels’), but from the mean TL of individual prey items +1, with more animal prey being distinguished taxonomically than plants, thus biasing the estimated TL upward. Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  31 Tunas constitute one of the economically important marine fisheries resources of India, but are caught mainly by small-scale sector. The catches of the industrial sector are very low. About 75% of the landings are marketed fresh for human consumption.  The remainder is salt dried (3%), utilized for Masmin18 production (10%), export (9%) and canning (4%) (Antony, et al., 2002; Pillai and Gopakumar, 2003).  Billfishes (TL = 4.5) Billfishes (Families Istiophoridae and Xiphiidae) are large sized fishes, which attain maximum size of 506 cm (Xiphias gladius). They feed mainly on fishes, crustaceans and cephalopods (FishBase, 2004a).  Billfish catches in India are comprised mainly of two species, Istiophorus gladius (Indian sail fish) and Xiphias gladius (Swordfish). Being highly valued table fishes, they are of great importance in the scombroid fishery of India (James, et al., 1992; Jhingran, 1991). Barracudas (TL = 4.5)  Barracudas (Family Sphyraenidae) are important food and sport fishes in tropical waters. Their maximum size ranges from 55 cm (Sphyraena obtusata) to 200 cm (S. barracuda). Barracudas feed mainly on fishes but also take squid (FishBase, 2004a). Four species, Sphyraena jello (Banded Barracuda), S. obtusata (Great barracuda), S. barracuda (Great barracuda) and S. forsteri (Bigeye barracuda) are contributing to commercial barracuda fishery in Indian waters. The entire catch is sold fresh in the local markets of India.  The smaller species are auctioned at Rs.10-25 or US$ 0.21-0.54 per kg and the larger species fetch Rs. 25-45 or US$ 0.54-0.98 per kg in the landing centres (Jhingran, 1991; Kasim, 2000). Mullets (TL = 2.1) Mullets (Family Mugilidae) are coastal species that usually enters into estuaries, lagoon and backwaters and feeds mainly on sedimented detritus. Their size ranges from 16 cm (Liza parsia) to 147 cm (Mugil cephalus) (FishBase, 2004a). Grey mullets are represented by such important species as Mugil cephalus (Flathead mullet), Chelon macrolepis (Largescale mullet), Valamugil seheli (Bluespot mullet), V. cunnesius (Longarm mullet), Liza parsia (Goldspot mullet), L. tade (Tade mullet) and L. vaigiensis (Squaretail mullet) (FishBase, 2004b; Jhingran, 1991). Unicorn cod (TL = 3.3) Bregmaceros mcclellendii, also known as Unicorn cod (Family Bregmacerotidae) is a small fish growing to about a maximum of 12 cm total length. They mainly feed on planktonic crustaceans (FishBase, 2004b). Unicorn cod supports a seasonal fishery mainly around Mumbai (Maharashtra), and in Gujarat (Jhingran, 1991).  Flatfishes (TL = 3.5 - 3.9)  This group is comprised mainly of halibut, flounders and soles. Their size ranges from 12 cm (Pseudorhombus natalensis) to 65 cm (Psettodes erumei). Their main food items are benthic invertebrates, fishes and cephalopods (Bensam, et al., 2000; FishBase, 2004a; Vivekanandan, et al., 2003c). The dominant and commercially important species of flatfishes, which support fisheries, are listed below. Large sized flat fishes, such as Psettodes erumei fetches a good price in the market compared to small sized soles, which sell for around Rs. 15 or US$ 0.32 per kg. About 90% of the flatfishes are salted and                                                  18 ‘Masmin’ is the traditional cured, dried and smoked tuna product from Lakshadweep Islands, which commands a good market in throughout India and overseas, e.g., in Sri Lanka, Singapore and Malaysia  (Antony et al., 2002). Description of taxa caught.   32 sundried and sold outside the peak fishing season at price of about Rs. 30 or US$ 0.65 per kg (Vivekanandan, et al., 2003c). Halibut (TL = 3.9) This group (Families Psettodidae and Soleidae) includes Psettodes erumei (Indian halibut) and Synaptura commersonnii (Commerson's sole) (Bensam, et al., 2000; Mathew, et al., 1992; Vivekanandan,  et al., 2003c). Flounders  (TL = 3.5) The important commercial species of flounders (Families Paralichthyidae and Bothidae) in Indian waters are Pseudorhombus arsius (Large tooth flounder), P. elevatus (Deep flounder), P. javanicus (Javan flounder), P. malayanus (Malayan flounder), P. natalensis (Natal flounders), P. triocellatus (Three spotted flounder), Bothus pantherinus (Leopard flounder), B. myriaster (Indo-Pacific oval flounder) and Chascanopsetta lugubris (Pelican flounder) (Bensam, et al., 2000; Mathew, et al., 1992; Vivekanandan,  et al., 2003c). Soles  (TL = 3.5) This group (Families Cynoglossidae and Soleidae) is composed of Cynoglossus dubius (Tongue sole), C. bilineatus (Malabar tongue sole), C. arel (Largescale tonguesole), C. pucticeps (Speckled tonguesole), C. carpenteri (Hooked tonguesole), C. dispar (Roundhead toungesole), C. macrolepidotus, C. macrostomus (Malabar tonguesole), Paraplagusia bilineata (Doublelined tonguesole), Brachirus orientalis (Oriental sole), Solea elongata (Elongate sole), Zebrias quagga (Zebra sole) and Z. synapturoides (Indian zebra sole) (Bensam, et al., 2000; Mathew, et al., 1992; Vivekanandan,  et al., 2003c). Crustaceans (TL = 2.7 - 3.1) The crustaceans group is comprised mainly of penaeid prawns, non-penaeid prawns, lobsters, crabs and stomatopods (mantis shrimp). India is one of the major contributors of marine crustaceans in the world market (Anon., 1982). Crustaceans also fetch a very high price of Rs. 200 or US$ 4.3 per kg in the domestic market (Sathiadas and Hassan, 2002).  Penaeid prawns (TL = 2.7) Penaeid prawns (Family Penaeidae) feeds mainly on small crustaceans, gastropods, bivalves and detritus (Kurian, et al., 1976c).  Some of the important penaeid prawns that support commercial fisheries along the Indian coasts are Penaeus indicus (Indian white prawn), P. semisulcatus (Green tiger prawn), P. monodon (Giant tiger prawn), P. merguiensis (Banana prawn), P. japonicus (Kuruma prawn), P. penicillatus (Redtail prawn), Penaeopsis jerryi, Metapenaeus dobsoni (Flowertail prawn), M. monoceros (Speckled prawn), M. affinis (Jinga prawn), M. kutchensis (Ginger shrimp), M. brevicornis (Yellow prawn), Metapenaeopsis stridulans (Fiddler shrimp), M. andamanensis (Rice velvet shrimp), Parapenaeopsis stylifera (Kiddi prawn), P. hardwickii (Spear prawn), P. sculptilis (Rainbow prawn), P. maxillipedo (Torpedo prawn), P. uncta (Uncta prawn), Parapenaeus longiceps (Flaming prawn), Trachypenaeus curvirostris (Rough prawn), Solenocera crassicornis (Coastal mud prawn), S. choprai (Coastal mud prawn), S. hextii (deep sea mud shrimp), and Aristeus alcocki (Arabian red shrimp) (Kurian, et al., 1976b; Nandakumar, et al., 2003; Suseelan, et al., 1992). The penaeid prawn fishery constitutes the backbone of the seafood export industry, being the major foreign exchange earner as well as source of livelihood for millions of fish workers. Frozen shrimp contributes about 70% (Rs. 44,800,000 corresponding to US$ 978,807) of India’s total seafood export value and the share of capture fisheries is 59% by volume (Nandakumar and Maheswarudu, 2003).  Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  33 Non-penaeid prawns (TL = 2.7) The non-penaeid prawn resources of the country are primarily composed of Nematopalaemon tenuipes (Spider prawn) and Exhippolysmata ensirostris (Hunter shrimp), which constitute one of the important fisheries resources of the northwest coast.  Acetes indicus and A. johni, commonly known as Paste shrimps (Family Sergestidae) feeds mainly on detritus, diatoms, foraminifers, polychaetes and other planktonic crustaceans (Deshmukh, 2003; Kurian and Sebastian, 1976b; c).   Lobsters (TL = 2.7) Lobsters (Family Palinuridae) are widely distributed all along the Indian coast. They feed on smaller crustaceans, molluscs and polychaetes (Radhakrishnan, et al., 2003). This group includes Panulirus polyphagus (Mud spiny lobster), P. homarus (Scalloped spiny lobster), P. ornatus (Ornate spiny lobster) P. versicolor (Tropical rock lobster), Thenus orientalis (Shovelnosed lobster), Puerulus sewelli (Indian ocean lobster), and Linupurus somniosus (Kurian, et al., 1976a; Radhakrishnan and Manisseri, 2003).  Lobsters are one of the most valuable and highly priced seafood. Among them, the spiny lobsters (rock lobsters), especially the live ones, fetch the highest price. Heavy demand and attractive price in international market have resulted in increased exploitation of lobsters in recent years (Radhakrishnan and Manisseri, 2003). Trawlers targeting shrimps land 75% of the lobster catch. Trap fishing also catches significant amounts (40%) of lobsters in south west coast of India (Rajan and Meenakumari, 1995). Crabs (TL = 2.9) Marine crabs (Family Portunidae) generally feed on detritus, smaller crustaceans, fishes and molluscs (Manisseri and Radhakrishnan 2003). The important crabs found in the Indian waters are Portunus sanguinolentus (Spotted crab), P. pelagicus (Reticulate crab), Charybdis feriatus (Cross crab), C. annulata and C. natator.  Out of these, Portunus sanguinolentus, P. pelagicus and Charybdis feriatus are the dominant species of edible marine crabs; they are landed mainly as a bycatch of the trawlers. Marine crabs are also one of the valuable seafood items of great demand both in the domestic and export market of India (Manisseri, et al., 2003; Radhakrishnan, 2000).  Stomatopods (TL = 3.1) Stomatopods (Family Squillidae) grow to about 14 cm in length and are predatory. Oratosquilla nepa (mantis shrimp) is the species that contributes to most of the catch (Okey, 2001; Shanbhogue, 1973).  There is no fishery targeting stomatopods in India and the catches are incidental and landed along with prawns and fishes by the shrimp trawlers. Mantis shrimp catches are either thrown back to sea to accommodate the commercially important fish or sold cheaply in certain localities to be used in poultry feed and as fertilizers. Unlike Philippines and Japan, the stomatopods are not consumed as food in India (Rajeswary, et al., 1998; Shanbhogue, 1973).  Molluscs excluding cephalopods (TL = 2.0) This group consists mainly of gastropods and marine bivalves (clams, mussels, edible oysters and pearl oysters) that mainly feed on dead and decayed matter, algae, polychaetes and phytoplankton (Kripa, et al., 2003; Ramadoss, 2003). However, the helmet shells, the hairy tritons, the murex shells and the frog shells are also reported to be feeding on animals such as sea urchins and small clams (Ramadoss, 2003). The most important shells and marine bivalves of commercial value are Xancus pyrum (Sacred chank), Turbo marmoratus (Turban shell), T. intercostals (Ribbed turban), Trochus niloticus, T. radiatus (Top Description of taxa caught.   34 shells), Umbonium vestiarium (Button shell), Lambis chiragra (Spider shell), L. lambis (Scorpion shells), Cypraena monita (Cowries), Cellana radiate, Strombus canarium (Winged shells), Thais rudolphi, T. bufo, Oliva gibbosa, Babylonia spirata, B. zeylanica, Cassis cornuta (Helmet shells), Chicoreus ramosus , Pleuroplaa trapezium (Murex shells), Villorita cyprinoides (Black clam), Paphia malabarica (Short neck clam), Meretrix casta, M. meretrix (Yellow clams), Marcia opima (Baby clam), Mesodesma glabaratum, Sunetta scripta (Marine clam), Donax spp. (Wedge clam), Geloina bengalnesis (Big black clam), Anandra granosa (Cockle), Placenta placenta (Windowpane oyster), Hippopus hippopus (Giant clam), Perna viridis (Green mussel), P. indica (Brown mussel), Pinctada fucata (Indian pearl oyster), P. margaritifera (Black lip pearl oyster), Crassostrea madrasensis (Indian backwater oyster) and Saccostrea cucullata (Rock oyster) (Appukuttan, et al., 2000; Chellam, et al., 2000; Kripa and Appukuttan, 2003; Ramadoss, 2003). In the earlier days, after sorting bycatch on deck, the shell bycatch was thrown out into the sea as discard. Once the shell-craft industries got established and flourished, however, these molluscs were brought ashore and sold. Presently, these molluscs occupy an important place in the commercial shell-craft industry (Ramadoss, 2003). Umbonium vestiarium is the only gastropod species that is sold in the local market as food. The clam landings are used as a major ingredient of prepared shrimp feed or are fed directly to shrimp, while their shells are used by ornamental shell-craft industry and for manufacture of cement, calcium carbide, sand-lime bricks and lime (Kripa and Appukuttan, 2003). Cephalopods (TL = 3.6) This group includes squids, cuttlefishes and octopuses (Families Loliginidae, Sepiidae and Octopodidae). They are carnivorous and their food consists of teleost fishes, crustaceans and cephalopods. Cannibalism is also common among them (CephBase, 2004; Meiyappan, et al., 2003).  Commercially important species are Loligo uyii (Little squid), L. duvauceli (Indian squid), Doryteuthis sibogae (Siboga squid), D. singhalensis (Needle squid), Loliolus investigatoris, Sepioteuthis lessoniana (Palk-bay squid), Sepia pharaonis (Pharaoh cuttlefish), S. aculeata (Needle cuttlefish), S. elliptica (Golden cuttlefish), S. prashadi (Hooded cuttlefish), S. brevimana (Shotclub cuttlefish), Sepiella inermis (Spineless cuttlefish), Octopus dollfusi (Marbled octopus), O. membranaceous (Webfoot octopus), O. lobensis (Lobed octopus), O. vulgaris (Common octopus) and Cistopus indicus (Old woman octopus).  These were once thrown overboard as discards but the demand from export trade in the mid-1970s induced the fishers to save these catches. The bulk of the catches are now exported and very little is used for local consumption. Cephalopods are exported as frozen and dried products. The main markets for export of Indian cephalopods are Europe, Japan and China (CephBase, 2004; Meiyappan and Mohamed, 2003; Meiyappan, et al., 2002). Miscellaneous The catch data reported under this group does not identify the species composition. It is assumed that this group mainly contains so called ‘low value fish’, which are of smaller size and low consumer preference. Sujatha (1996) has shown that the trawl fishery off Vishakapatnam (Andhra Pradesh) contains 67% to 94% juveniles of larger fishes. Based on this and similar information from other sources, this group was reduced to zero by distributing its catch among all other groups. For a detailed account, see Chapter 3; see page no. 39.   Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  35 HISTORICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF INDIAN CATCHES: 1950 - 2000 INTRODUCTION Institutes and departments falling under both federal and state governments estimate and collect the official fisheries statistics in India. The Fishery Survey of India (FSI) conducts exploratory surveys to estimate maximum sustainable yield and the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI) as well as the state fisheries departments monitor and estimate the annual fish catch (Somvanshi, 2001a; for information on other fisheries related institutes, see Chapter 1, page 9 and 10).  As per the latest estimates of FSI, the potential yield of the Indian EEZ is 3.9 million t. Out of this, 2.2 million t would be available from coastal waters19 and 1.7 million t from the offshore and deep sea waters20 (Nair, 1998; Pillai and Pillai, 2000).  The CMFRI started collecting catch data for whole India since its inception in year 1947, but soon the need for estimates by region was felt for state planning and development. As a result, the state governments also started collecting data on marine fish landings. However, the sampling design and methods used for collection of marine fish catch statistics differs from the state to state (CMFRI, 1985).  The federal government made an effort, in 1985, to standardise the sampling method and streamline the process of collection of marine fish landings in India, by arranging for training workshops to be held by CMFRI for the officials of state departments and union territories, with focus on the collection method of statistics. These workshops, however, did not appear to have had much success. State reports provide taxonomically highly aggregated landings statistics (e.g., only 26 groups in Gujarat state), with the bulk of the landings grouped under the ‘miscellaneous category’ with little or no information on species caught. For example, in reports from Gujarat state, the percentage of the ‘miscellaneous’ group in total landings is as high as 39% (GOG, 2000). Moreover, no details are given on the methodology used for arriving at the catch figures. On the other hand, landing data published by the CMFRI divide the catch into 68 groups and the statistical reports describe the methods used to derive estimates. CMFRI statistics also have a miscellaneous group, as in state reports, but their percentage is quite low ranging from 2% in 1957 to 11% in 1950 (Here, the miscellaneous group was further reduced; see page 39 ).  CMFRI adopted a multistage stratified random sampling design to collect the information required for estimation of marine fish landings with a stratification that is both temporal (days) and spatial (zones) (Srinath, 2003). Under this approach, all maritime states are divided into contiguous and compact ‘fishery zones’21, consisting of several landing centres. For example, the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat were divided into 8 and 6 zones, respectively, taking into consideration the topography and fishing intensity along the coasts (Kumari and Dharmaraja, 1981).  In order to ensure homogeneity among landing centres, a further stratification is preferred, if required, within a zone, to reduce sampling variance (Algaraja, 1998). Also, important landing centres, such as major fisheries harbour are treated as a single zone. In total, samples are collected from 2251 fish landing centres and the frequency of observations are up to 18 days per month (Vivekanandan, 2003).  Catch samples are obtained from fishing unit’s landings (within a time interval) in a randomly selected landing centre. The total catch estimates for the month are obtained from these samples, using appropriate raising factors. The precision of the estimate is based on the sample size of sampling units (Kumari and Dharmaraja, 1981). All field data are processed at the headquarters of the CMFRI at Kochi,                                                  19 The portion of the sea adjoining coastline and falling within the 50 m depth line 20 Beyond coastal waters, the water within the 100 m is called offshore waters and an area beyond this stretching up to the EEZ limit        is called the deep sea or oceanic waters. 21 Each zone is comprised of 20 to 30 landing centers with similar landings levels (Algaraja, 1998; Silas, 1977).   Historical reconstruction of Indian catches : 1950-2000.   36 Kerala. The estimation error is thought to lie between 4% to 5% of annual total landings of India (Jhingran, 1991). I present in the following, the precedences developed by me to ensure consistency of the CMFRI data. MATERIALS AND METHODS For each maritime state and union territory the catch data (which always pertain to weight in tonnes) were compiled. This included both landings reported in CMFRI and discards to estimate total catch (landings + discards) over the period of 1950 to 2000. The various techniques used in these calculations are presented below. Compilation and encoding Compliation Landings data are compiled from published sources of the CMFRI, state reports and other sources (Table 4). The bulk of the data used in this catch reconstruction originate from CMFRI publications, as reports published by other institutes or departments were largely inaccessible, even during on site visits (pers. obsv. (July), 2003).  Illegal fishing is reported in Indian waters by Dan (1982) and Rajan (2003), mainly by trawlers from Thailand, Myanmar and Indonesia. In 1980s, 30-100 Thai trawlers were found operating in the northern part of the Bay of Bengal, i.e., near Sandheads area, to mainly catch shrimps (Dan, 1982). From 1990-2000, 136 boats belonging to Thailand, Myanmar and Indonesia were apprehended from Andaman waters (Rajan, 2003). These poachers are reported to be discarding large quantities of fish (Dan, 1982), and even conducting blast fishing (Rajan, 2003), but there is no quantifiable information on amount of catches or discards. Similarly, information is missing on bycatch of mammals and turtles, which are often reported as strangled by fishing gears (CMFRI, 1983; 1987b; c). Thus, in the absence of any quantifiable information illegal fishing is not further considered in this study. Overall, data from union territories were more problematic than those from states.  For example, CMFRI data do not include species wise landings for Lakshadweep, Goa and Andaman and Nicobar Islands, especially from 1950 to 1960s (CMFRI, 1969a; Nair, et al., 1965). In order to resolve these issues, various methods were employed that are discussed in detail in the following sections. Encoding  As all data listed above were available in only paper format, it was encoded using Microsoft Excel. The landings data thus assembled were aggregated into 29 broad taxonomic categories (see Chapter 2) with further subdivisions into subgroups at Family, Genus and Species level. In total, 65 statistical categories were used in all analyses through common template applied to all Indian states and union territories and which roughly corresponds to CMFRI’s published format for landing statistics. Recorded landings Ratio divisions of trawler catches Nair and Banerji (1965) have reported aggregated annual trawler catch by species from 1950 to 1962 but this pertains to all of India, i.e., it is not distributed by states or species; CMFRI (1969) on the other hand, divided trawler catches from 1960 onwards among states. Therefore, Nair and Banerji’s trawler catches from 1950 to 1959 were divided among states of West Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka and Maharashtra, based on CMFRI for 1960. Then, the calculated values of all states were assigned to the demersal groups in proportion to their presence, the main assumption were being that trawlers near exclusively catch demersal taxa.   Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  37 TABLE 4. List of sources used to compile marine landings and price data from 1950 to 2000. These sources do not include data on discards and Industrial fleet catches (except prawns). A & N Islands: Andaman and Nicobar Islands; D & D: Daman and Diu. Source Data type Years covered  Remarks Nair and Banerji (1965) Landings  1950-1962 Data unavailable for Pondicherry (1950-1962), A & N Islands (1950-1955), Lakshadweep (1950-1960), Goa (1950-1956, 1962) and Daman and Diu (1950-1962) CMFRI (1969a)  Landings  1956-1968 Only totals given for Goa (except 1956-1957, 1962-1964), Lakshadweep (except 1956-1959), and A & N Islands.  CMFRI (1969b) Landings  1963-1968 Species wise landings; unavailable for Goa and union territories (except Pondicherry) LDOF (1990)  Landings  1963-1968  Available only for Lakshadweep  CMFRI (1979) Landings  1969-1978  Unavailable for Daman and Diu  Algaraja (1987) Landings  1975-1984  Data only for Lakshadweep and A & N Islands Alagaraja et al. (1987)  Landings  1975-1984  Available only for Andhra Pradesh Balan et al. (1987)  Landings  1975-1984  Available only for Gujarat Dharmaraja et al. (1987) Landings  1975-1984  Available only for Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry Jacob et al. (1987)  Landings  1975-1984  Available only for Kerala Kurup et al. (1987)  Landings  1975-1984  Available only for Karnataka and Goa Philipose et al. (1987)  Landings  1975-1984  Available only for West Bengal Scariah et al. (1987)  Landings  1975-1984  Available only for Orissa Srinath et al. (1987) Landings  1975-1984  Available only for Maharashtra Devaraj (1995) Prawn landings 1978  Industrial vessels only CMFRI (1980) Landings  1979  Unavailable for Daman and Diu  CMFRI (1982) Landings  1980-1981  Unavailable for Daman and Diu  Sudarsan (1992a) Prawn landings 1981-1991  Industrial vessels only Verghese (1998) Prawn landings 1982-1992  Industrial vessels only GOK (1991) Price 1982-1989  Landing price in Kerala Rao (1988) Prawn landings 1983-1987  Industrial vessels only CMFRI (1995)  Landings  1985-1993  Data unavailable for Lakshadweep, A & N  Islands, D & D  CMFRI (1989) Landings  1985  Data used for Andaman & Nicobar Islands  Scariah et al. (2000b)  Landings  1985-1995  Only totals available for Orissa Varghese (1991) Landings  1986  Available only for Lakshadweep  Raghavan and Shanmughnam (1993)  Landings  1987-1990  Available only for Lakshadweep  DAHD (1994) Landings  1991-1992  Data used for Andaman & Nicobar Islands  Scariah et al. (2000a)  Landings  1994-1995  Available only for Gujarat DAHD (2001)  Landings  1994-1997  All maritime states and union territories GOG (2000) Landings  1996-1997  Available only for Gujarat Sathiadhas (1999) Price 1996-1997  Landing price for India as a whole MPEDA (2001)  Landings  1998-2000  All maritime states and union territories Sathiadas and Hassan (2002) Price 1999-2000  Landing price for India as a whole  Ratio divisions at species level  Assuming that total catches were correct, an effort was made to deal with incomplete or incoherent subsets of the data. For example, from 1950 to 1979 combined totals were available for elasmobranchs but were not divided into sharks, skates and rays. Therefore, while keeping the totals unaltered, elasmobranchs were divided into sharks, skates and rays based on their first available ratio. In this case the ratio of year 1980 was applied to elasmobranchs from 1950 to 1979. Here, the basic assumption is that the ratio of the subcategories has remained unchanged for years before 1980. This method was applied to groups that included pomfrets, tunas, seer fishes, perches and elasmobranchs in almost all states, but for different periods. Though, such inferences tend to deny the chances of serial depletion, gear transition or taxonomic changes etc., but, in absence of any other information, this was the only option to estimate the missing values.  Historical reconstruction of Indian catches : 1950-2000.   38 Ratio divisions at state level Combined landings statistics were available for the states of West Bengal and Orissa, Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry and Gujarat and Daman and Diu from 1950 to 1974, 195422 to 1974 and 1950 to 1993, respectively. In order to disaggregate specieswise landings among individual states, ratios for each group in a year were estimated using data from the first year for which separate data were available for the combined states. These calculated ratios were then applied to all previous years.  Daman and Diu was the part of Goa until 1987 and became a separate union territory after statehood was conferred to Goa in May 1987 (GOI, 2004c). In CMFRI publications, the landings of Daman and Diu were always added to Gujarat instead of Goa because fishing vessels based in Daman and Diu generally operate in Gujarat waters (CMFRI, 1983; Srinath, CMFRI, pers. comm. April, 2004).  Estimation of missing values Pauly (1998) pointed out that reconstruction of series of catches and their composition may require interpolations and other bold assumptions, justified by the unacceptability of the alternative, i.e., “accepting catches as zero, or otherwise known to be incompatible with empirical data and historic records” (Pauly, 1998). Therefore, estimates for missing years were interpolated23 and occasionally extrapolated24. Various other adjustments were also made based on information in the literature, as detailed in the appropriate sections. First inter and extrapolations: total landings The missing annual landings of the following states were estimated by interpolations and extrapolations: • Andaman and Nicobar Islands: Species wise data from 1950 to 1955, 1963 to 1968 and, 1986 to 1990 were unavailable. It was assumed that the fisheries remained unchanged over the period of 1950 to 1955, and that the composition of the landings of the year 1956 (Nair and Banerji, 1965) could be extrapolated backwards. The CMFRI (1969) provided only total landings from 1963 to 1968, with no information on species caught. In order to distribute landings among the groups, the values were interpolated between given group landings for 1962 (Nair and Banerji, 1965) and 1969 (CMFRI, 1979). Then, all the interpolated values were adjusted to match the published totals. Annual landings for 1986 to 1990 were interpolated between 1985 (CMFRI, 1989) and 1991 (DAHD, 1992), as totals were unavailable for these years.  • Goa:  No landings data were available from 1950 to 1957. Thus, it was assumed that the fisheries remained unchanged during this period, i.e., the landings of 1958 (Nair and Banerji, 1965) were extrapolated backward. Again data were unavailable from 1962-1968, so, the values were interpolated between 1961 and 1969. However, the totals (i.e., without species breakdown) were available from 1965 to 1968 (CMFRI, 1969b), and the interpolated values were adjusted accordingly.  • Lakshadweep: The Lakshadweep fisheries department came in existence in 1960, so no data were available from 1950 to 1959. Ragahavan and Shanmughnam (1993) pointed out that before 1960, fishing in Lakshadweep relied only on small scale methods. Thus, annual reported landings before the year 1960 (Nair and Banerji, 1965) could only have been low; therefore, the low 1960 figure was extrapolated backward to fill in the years 1950 to 1959.   • Pondicherry: The union territory of Pondicherry was incorporated into India in 1954 (GOI, 2004b), and thus data were not available from 1950 to 1953. It was assumed that landings remained unchanged over the period of 1950 to 1953, i.e., the landings of 1954 were extrapolated backward.                                                  22 Pondicherry was incorporated into India in 1954. For the year 1950-1953, the catch values for Pondicherry were extrapolated based on estimated values of year 1954 .   23 Estimating a value between two given values. 24 Estimating a value by extending known values backward or forward. Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  39  Second inter and extrapolations: group landings In a few cases, landings of the species (e.g., Chirocentrus dorab) or groups (e.g., the scads) were missing for few years. In such cases the values were interpolated between the landings for years for which the information was available. If the total was given for a group, then interpolated or extrapolated values for subcategories were adjusted, so that the total of all groups matched the given total or subtotal. For example, in Andhra Pradesh, a subtotal is given for elasmobranchs from 1994 to 1997. Here, the values were interpolated between 1993 and 1998 for each subgroup (sharks, skates and rays) and then adjusted to available subtotal. Similarly, landings that were missing for earlier years or later years were replaced by extrapolation of the first or last available value. However, when the number of extrapolated years exceeded 10, a value of 1 t was assigned to the values still missing based on the observation that CMFRI assigns zeroes when catches are low (CMFRI, 1969). Furthermore, if zero or near zero landings for a single year are bracketed by high catches then the zero estimates were replaced by an interpolated value. The logic here is that near zero catches are unlikely when the previous and following year shows substantial amount of species landed. All interpolated and extrapolated values were extracted from the miscellaneous group and similarly few erroneous values were replaced by interpolated values and the difference was added back in to miscellaneous.  Miscellaneous Along other taxonomically disaggregated groups, India reports 2% (1957) to 24% (1995) of its annual landings under the ‘miscellaneous group’. In total, India has reported approximately 5 million t of marine landings this way since 1950, with total marine landings of approximately 71 million t.  Because the miscellaneous group represents considerable amount of landings, they were not excluded from the total landings, rather an attempt was made to disaggregate this group into the better defined groups. George et al. (1981) mentioned that the miscellaneous group contains several species of ‘trash fish’, which are of smaller size and low consumer preference. Sujatha (1996) has shown that the low value fish catch of the trawl fishery off Vishakapatnam (Andhra Pradesh) contains 67% to 94% juveniles. Similarly, Puthra et al. (1998) found that trawlers operating from 1988 to 1993 off the Veraval coast in Gujarat caught up to 52% of juveniles.  Based on this and similar information from other sources (Gordon, 1991; Puthra, et al., 1996; Rohit,  et al., 1993; Salgrama, 1999; Sivasubramaniam, 1990), the miscellaneous group was reduced to zero by following a two-step approach. In the first step, this group was treated as a ‘reservoir’ with all interpolated and extrapolated catches taken out, and few erroneous catches added to this group (see page 38). Once this first step was completed, the remaining miscellaneous landings at state level were assigned to specific fish, crustacean and mollusc taxa in proportion to their value in the total.  Unreported catches Industrial catches The industrial or commercial vessels that operate mostly from Vishakapatnam, Andhra Pradesh do not report their landings regularly to the designated institutes. Even, CMFRI has failed to obtain data from them (Srinath, CMFRI, pers. comm. April, 2004). However, the DAHD reports landings of the deep sea sector (assumed to consist of industrial vessels) of 30,000 t per year from 1994 to 1997, but without information on species composition (DAHD, 2001). These data are suspicious; the landings remain at 30,000 t from 1994 to 1997 despite a decrease in number of vessels from 117 to 67. Therefore, these data were not included in the recorded landings from 1950 to 2000. Instead, industrial catches were calculated using different methods (see sections below). Historical reconstruction of Indian catches : 1950-2000.   40 Industrial landings  The first commercial trawlers to operate in India were imported from the Gulf of Mexico in 1972 to initiate deep sea fishing (Devaraj, 1995; also see chapter 1). The data on total number of vessels were available only for years 1972, 1978 (Devaraj, 1995) and, 1981 to 1991, when 168 units were recorded (Rao, 1988; Sudarsan, 1992a; Verghese, 1996). The majority of these vessels operate on the east coast of India, though most are based at Vishakapatnam, Andhra Pradesh (Devaraj, 1995; Srinath, CMFRI, pers. comm. April, 2004). Therefore, for year 1998, it was assumed that 50 Vishakapatnam commercial trawlers (Salgrama, 1998) correspond  to the total number of industrial vessels presently  operating in  Indian waters. Other values for the total number of vessels also exist. For example, according to Verghese (1996), 155 large industrial vessels trawled for prawn and fish in 1991-1992, while Sudarsan (1992) reported 180 fishing vessels. In such cases, the mean of the values were considered, i.e., 168 in the above example. The total number of vessels from 1973 to 1977, 1979 to 1980 and 1992 to 1997 were estimated by interpolating between 1972 and 1978, 1978 and 1981 and 1991 to 1998, respectively. For 1999 and 2000, the values for 1998 were extrapolated forward. Data on prawn catches by industrial vessels were available for 1978 (Devaraj, 1995) and 1981 to 1991 (Rao, 1988; Sudarsan, 1992a; Verghese, 1996). For 1972, total catches were estimated based on the average shrimp catch per vessel for year 1981, i.e., 28 t per vessel (Devaraj, 1995). The mean fish catch per vessel was calculated by dividing the estimated total fish catch (based on a 1:9 shrimp to fish ratio; see below) by the total number of vessels. Similarly, the average shrimp catch per vessel and average fish catch per vessel were calculated for 1996 and 1997. Their average was then used to derive the total shrimp and fish catch for 1998. For the other years, estimates were obtained by interpolation and extrapolation as explained above in conjunction with the total number of vessels. Catches also suffered from the same uncertainty, and thus means were taken where possible. Gordon (1991) used (head off) shrimp to fish ratio of 1:15, corresponding to 1:9 (with shrimp heads on). The latter ratio was used to estimate fish catches from prawn landings. Industrial discards Fishes are major non-target species (bycatch) of shrimp trawlers. By catch and discards have been described differently by different authors in various parts of the world (Clucas, 1997). In India, ‘bycatch’ is generally taken to refer only to the bycatch that is landed. Here, however, bycatch refers to landed bycatch plus discards (i.e., the bycatch which is thrown back to the sea). Various reasons have been presented by different authors to explain discarding (Clucas, 1997); saving space in order to retain large amount of highly priced prawns seems to be the major one.  It is assumed that, from 1972 to 2000 only 30% of the fishes caught by trawlers are retained and 70% are discarded, though, some reports indicate that discards have decreased since the 1990s due to declining abundances of shrimps and prawns (Kungsuwan, 1999; Salgrama, 1999).  However, my estimates of discards are conservative. For example, Gordon (1991) estimated 40,000 to 60,000 t annual discards in 1988 by industrial trawlers (over 20 m) as compared to my estimate of 6,665 t. Similarly, in 1998; Salgarama (1999) reported 15,000 t of discards by commercial vessels as compared to my estimate of 3,311 t. Division of catch among states The reported and estimated catches of prawn and fishes for India as a whole were divided among states of Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and West Bengal from 1972 to 2000, because these industrial vessels generally operate on the east coast (Devaraj, 1995; Srinath, CMFRI, pers. comm. April, 2004). This division was based in proportion to the states value in India’s total landings for respective years. Some of these commercial vessels were reported fishing for lobster as far as Kerala (Sudarsan, 1992b). However, deep sea lobster fishing started in 1988 due to declining shrimp catches in the upper Bay of Bengal (Sivaprakasam, 1992). Thus, from 1987 to 2000, the states of Kerala and Karnataka were also included and likewise, catches were divided in proportion to their value in India’s total. Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  41 Species composition of catches  An analysis of the literature shows that trawlers catch large number of species as bycatch (George, et al., 1981; Gordon, 1991; Kurup, et al., 2003; Sivasubramaniam, 1990) with huge amount of juveniles. Most of these species, however, are represented in the groups of reconstructed landings data (also see section miscellaneous).   Based on the assumption that the taxa that are commercially valuable are landed ashore while remainder are thrown overboard (Sivasubramaniam, 1990), the  price data were used to rank the demersal groups from high to low priced. Pomfrets for example are one of the highly valued group (see Chapter 2). Others are cephalopods, eels, big-jawed jumper, elasmobranchs and mullets. The retained bycatch (30%) was assumed to consist of the highest priced species. The retained catch values were distributed among species on basis of their proportion in total landings of each state. Once the retained bycatch was distributed, the discards (70%) were distributed among the remaining demersal groups based on their proportion in the total catch. This procedure was performed independently for each year. Other discards  Along with the industrial fleet, other mechanised vessels also discard unwanted species (Gordon, 1991). To quantify their discards, it was assumed that 2% of India’s total marine landings are discarded from 1970 onwards. The year of 1970 was chosen because several technological advances were introduced then and thereafter (also see page 16).  The discard figure is based on the study by George et al. (1981) on bycatch of shrimp fisheries, in which he reported that, in 1979, discards by mechanised vessels (except industrial trawlers) were very low (i.e., 2%) and most of the bycatch were utilised. These estimated discards were then assigned to all states and union territories based on their proportion in India’s total. The discards in each state were then assigned proportionally among all other groups.                        Measuring the impacts of fishing.   42 MEASURING THE IMPACTS OF FISHING  INTRODUCTION The evolution of fishing gears from hand held devices to industrial vessels had a huge effect on the abundance and biodiversity of the world’s fish stocks. Fisheries are impacting ecosystems because the fish that are killed and removed function as parts of the food webs, both as consumers and prey (Parsons, 1996). For clarity, before moving on with this chapter, it is important to define the key terms of this analysis: ecosystems and the trophic level. An Ecosystem is “an area where a set of species interact in characteristic fashion, and generate among them biomass flows that are stronger than those linking that area to adjacent one” (Pauly and Froese, 2001a) and trophic level is “a number indicating the position of a species within an ecosystem through the number of steps linking it to the plants” (Pauly and Froese, 2001; Lindeman, 1942 and see page 43). Fisheries target specific fish species, valuable in terms of their market value, but they do it at the expense of other species because the target species are embedded within an ecosystem (Alverson, et al., 1994; Pauly, et al., 2001b).  Though concerns about sustainability has been raised globally, and ecosystem-based approaches have been proposed to manage fisheries (Jennings, et al., 1998; Kirkwood, et al., 1994), concepts such as ‘ecosystem health’ are difficult to translate into operational objectives that can be directly used when policy making (Larkin, 1996). Therefore, there is a need for predictive indicators (Murawski, 2000), which can be easily parameterised using easily accessible statistics (Christensen, 2000) while communicating with a single number a variety of complex processes occurring within an ecosystem (Pauly and Watson, 2004).  Pauly et al. (1998a; 2001b) and Pauly and Watson (2004) have proposed two such indicators of fisheries sustainability: ‘the Marine Trophic Index’ (MTI) and the ‘Fishing in Balance’ (FiB) index. Mean Trophic Index is name given by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) for the mean trophic level (TL) of fisheries catches (Pauly and Watson, 2004). This was used by Pauly et al. (1998a) to demonstrate the global declining trend of mean TL of catches from 1950 to 1994 based on the FAO dataset. The proposed explanation for this phenomenon, now widely known as ‘fishing down marine food webs’ is that the fisheries catches are shifting from large, high-TL species to the small, low-TL species in response to their relative abundance in the ecosystem. Fishing down marine food web effect has also been shown in Thailand (Christensen, 1998), Canada (Pauly, et al., 2001), Greece (Stergiou, et al., 2000), Iceland (Valtỳsson and Pauly, 2003), North Sea (Furness, 2002) and many others (Pauly and Watson, 2004). This phenomenon is widespread because the high-TL species (e.g., large piscivorous fishes such as sharks etc.), which are long-lived species with low reproductive rate are less resilient to overfishing, and tend to be depleted quickly as compared to low-TL species, which are short lived and fast growing (Kirkwood,  et al., 1994).  Caddy et al. (1998) and Caddy and Garibaldi (2000) have suggested alternative explanations for observed trends in mean TL. They agreed that a general decline in mean TL of marine landings has occurred in many regions of the world. While they conceded that the decline in landings of larger fishes are due to overfishing, they suggest that the decline in global TLs is due to cascading and bottom-up effect, i.e., is not necessarily only because of top-down effect. For example, in the Baltic Sea, ‘bottom-up’ effects are caused by increased nutrification, which is primarily responsible for observations of increased landings of species of lower TL and hence declines of mean TL (Caddy, et al., 2000).  Moreover, they suggest, the apparent changes in trophic composition of catches could be due to changes in market demand, capture technology, or to changes in environmental conditions, rather than just a release of predator pressure. Other criticisms were related to the over aggregation of the FAO data used by Pauly et al. (1998a), ontogenic changes of TL, and the composition of landings not necessarily reflecting relative abundances in the underlying ecosystem. Pauly et al. (1998b), gave a response addressing these various points. Pauly and Palomares (2000; 2001), Pauly et al. (2001) showed that disaggregation of statistics, Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  43 and explicit consideration of ontogenic TL changes further strengthens the fishing down effect. Thus, these effects were not generating the effect, but rather masking it. With the fishing down effect now being well established, Pauly and Watson (2004) went on to refining the approach used to document it, that the mean TL used to document fisheries impacts on marine ecosystems should be computed after excluding low-TL species from the analysis whose ‘bottom-up’ driven fluctuations tend to mask the (top-down) effect of fishing (for more details see section ‘Marine Trophic index’).  Further, to evaluate the success of ‘fishing down’ as a deliberate choice, Fishing in Balance (FiB) index was proposed by Pauly et al. (2000). This index is based on the notion that biological production increases by about one order of magnitude as one moves down one trophic level in a typical marine ecosystem (Pauly and Christensen, 1995). Thus, the FiB index is conceived such that it remains constant when a change in TL is matched by a corresponding change in catch. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Catch statistics The landings data used for the east and the west coast of India cover the period 1950 to 2000. The catch data for India’s EEZ were reconstructed and estimated based on the reports and other miscellaneous sources by Indian authorities and research institutes. This data set comprises 65 statistical categories that range from species (15) to genera (7) and higher groups (43). Key features of this dataset and methods used in its compilation are provided in Chapters 2 and 3. Trophic levels The trophic levels (TL) estimates used are based on their diet composition data and on the equation 2.      n TLi = 1 + Σ (DCij • TLj)                                                                                                      …(2)                 j=1   where TLi is the trophic level of species i, DCij is the proportion of prey species j in the diet of species i and TLj is the trophic level of prey species j (Christensen and Pauly, 1992). The primary producers (i.e., plants) and detritus, both are assigned definitional TL of 1. Thus, a consumer eating 40% plants (TL = 1) and 60% herbivores (TL = 2) will have a trophic level of 1+[(0.4 · 1) + (0.6 · 2)] = 2.6 (Christensen and Pauly, 1992). The TLs used are fractional trophic levels (Christensen and Pauly, 1992; Odum, 1975) obtained mainly from FishBase (www.fishbase.org) for fishes. For invertebrates; the estimates were based largely on Sea Around Us (www.seaaroundus.org) database, and the ‘ISCCAAP Table’ of FishBase 2000 (Froese and Pauly, 2000). If more than one TL estimate was available for any species (or of species group), then the median of all available was used. In total, 415 different species of fishes, molluscs and crustaceans aggregated into groups were considered in this analysis and group TLs are given in Chapter 2. Details of TL estimates (diet composition and prey items) for fish species are documented in FishBase. In absence of any other available source, the trophic level of 3.1 for the stomatopods were obtained from an Ecopath model of Middle Atlantic Bight (Okey, 2001). Similarly, the trophic level of Rastrelliger kanagurta (Indian mackerel) was re-estimated based on their diet composition given in local sources, because the given trophic levels at both the FishBase and Sea Around Us websites were erroneous (D. Pauly, Fisheries Centre, UBC, pers. comm. Oct. 2004; also see page 30).  Mean Trophic Index (MTI) Mean Trophic Index is the name given by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD, 2004) for the mean trophic level of fisheries catches, which are calculated for each year by weighting trophic levels of each species weighted by their catches, as described in equation 3:   Measuring the impacts of fishing.   44                         m                 m MTI = TL k = Σ Yik TLi / Σ Yik                                                                                        …(3)                          i=1              i=1  where Yik is the catches (consisting of landings and discards) of species (groups) i  in year k and TLi  is its trophic level (Pauly,  et al., 1998). Here, mean TLs of catches were computed in two different subsets of the data (see Chapter 5). At first, mean TL were computed using all neritic (= shelf) i.e., excluding only tuna and billfishes. These oceanic fishes were excluded in the analysis because they originate from an ecosystem (the high seas) other than rest of the catches considered here (shelf waters).  Secondly, mean TLs were computed excluding not only the tuna and billfishes, but also species with TL below 3.25, the cutoff TL value proposed by Pauly and Watson (2004). The resulting mean TL values thus correspond to the 3.25MTI of Pauly and Watson (2004), which emphasizes changes in the relative abundance of medium and high-TL species. The cutoff of 3.25 which they proposes has the effect of removing most of the small planktivorous fish species whose fluctuations can potentially mask the fishing down effect. Regression lines were then fitted to TL and/or MTI time series starting from different starting points for different states. These points are selected to represent the start of the fishing down trend (SOFT). Different SOFT points are used for the different states because: (1) the fishing down effect will be detectable only after fishing pressure has reached some critical level, varying between states and (2) in earlier decades (dataset starts from 1950) the fisheries statistics were not very good (or insufficiently detailed). Moreover, although shown (as open dots) in the graphs of Chapter 5, the data from 1994 to 2000 were also not included in regression analysis, for three reasons; (1) they were based on sampling methods different from those used by CMFRI; (2) the data collecting system in India have deteriorated in the last decade of the 20th century (Herrere, et al., 2002), and (3) the data clearly deviate, on most plots from the trends suggested by the earlier years. Provisions were not made to include ontogenic TL changes in this study. As discussed in Chapter 1 (page 19), overfishing is reported in Indian waters, and fishing tends to reduce the mean size of the species. Thus, the explicit consideration of TL change with size would have only accentuated the fishing down effects (see Chapter 5) in India. Thus, a length based model applied to the Northeastern Atlantic (Pauly and Palomares, 2001) and Eastern Canada (Pauly et al., 2001) increased the fishing down effect, though not to a large amount. Fishing in Balance (FiB) index FiB index enables us to assess whether a fishery is balanced in ecological terms or not and for each year i in a series it is defined as: FiBk = log [Yk • (1/TE) TLk )] - log [Y0 • (1/TE) TL0 )]                                                        …(4)  where Y is the catch in year k, TL the mean trophic level in the catch, TE the mean transfer efficiency between trophic levels, and 0 refers to any year used as a baseline to normalize the index (Pauly, et al., 2000). Here TE is set at 10% or 0.1, as was estimated by Pauly and Christensen, (1995) on the basis of 48 published ecosystem models. The FiB index is designed such that its value does not change when a change in TL is matched by a corresponding (in signed value) change in catch. Thus, when TL decreases, catch is expected to increase, and conversely when increases. Moreover, given a TE of 0.1 and equation (4), a decline of one TL should correspond to a ten fold increase of catch, and conversely for a TL increase. In this analysis the baseline year differs for different states and is based on the same SOFT points used for the TL/MTI series, and which are shown in graphs of Chapter 5. Unlike, the TL/MTI graphs, the FiB index is shown for all shelf species only, because (1) the trends are roughly similar and, (2) the proposal of 3.25MTI is relatively recent. Thus, such differences will be analysed and discussed in future. Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  45 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION   RESULTS   The main objective of this study is to determine if the marine fisheries as presently conducted are ecologically sustainable or not. Such analysis could be conducted either by analyzing data for India as a whole, or by looking at each of its component states and union territories. Available data on India as whole may not reflect the true extent of fisheries impacts on marine ecosystems, because a decreasing trend in one area may be masked by an increasing trend in another. Hence, to better understand the underlying trends, finer spatial analyses are required in which all maritime states and union territories are examined individually. This is the reason why total marine catches were reconstructed for all maritime states and union territories within the Indian EEZ over the period of 1950 to 2000, then evaluated on the basis of two ecological indicators, the MTI and the FiB index (see Chapter 3 and 4).  The following sections show the results, along with interpretative comments, starting with India and progressing geographically from the northwest to the northeast states and union territories. Note that all mean TL and MTI trends25 presented below omit tuna and billfishes and are thus limited to shelf (= neritic) species. India  Reconstructed Indian marine catches (Figure 6) indicate a gradual increase between 1950 and 2000 from 0.6 to 3.3 million t. Indian mackerel, Oil sardine, Bombay duck, sciaenids and penaeid and non-penaeid prawns jointly contribute about half of the overall catch. Out of these, Indian mackerel and Oil sardine show huge fluctuations over the five decades considered here. There are biological limits beyond which fisheries cease to be sustainable. When a multi-species stock is overexploited, the top predators will be the first to decline (Pauly, 2000). This is evident in Figure 7, which illustrates a decline in the mean marine trophic level of species with TL >3.25 (3.25MTI) from 1964 onwards (i.e., from the start of the fishing down trend, or SOFT point in Figure 7). However, the mean trophic levels of catches show no clear trend when shelf species with TL <3.25 are included. This indicates that the fishing down effect is masked by the fluctuating catches of low-TL species i.e., Oil sardine and Indian mackerel, as mentioned above. Hence, the use of the 3.25MTI (see Chapter 4).  Figure 8 illustrates a time series of the FiB index in the Indian EEZ. From 1964 onwards, the index shows an upward trend suggestive of geographic expansion, from shallow to deep waters, also corresponding to the trend of introduction of new technologies in the Indian fisheries from the early 1960s on (also see Chapter 1; page 16), which allowed expanding fishing activities beyond coastal waters. As might be seen in the example below, FiB plots and plots of TL vs. log catch essentially convey the same information; this is the reason why both plots are presented only for Gujarat. Gujarat The marine catches from Gujarat state constitute 16% of India’s total catch. The reconstructed catches (Figure 9) fluctuate sharply, though generally increasing over the 5 decades considered here.  From 1961 onwards (i.e., from the start of the fishing down trend, or SOFT point in Figure 10), there was marked decline in 3.25MTI from mean TL = 4.2 to TL = 4.0, i.e., about 0.008 year-1. Unlike for India as a whole, the downward trend is visible even when all shelf species are included because the bulk of the landings are from group >3.25 TL (see Figure 9). Moreover, this trend indicates a steep rate of decline, i.e., 0.01 TL year-1, due to wider range of TLs considered.  Furthermore, the time series of the FiB index (Figure 11) shows a more or less flat sequence of points from 1961 (SOFT) to the late 1980, corresponding to an inverse relationship between TL and log catches for the                                                  25 In the figures showing trend of MTI, coefficient of correlation (r) with single * shows 5% level of significance and ** shows 1% level of significance. Results and Discussion.   46 same period (Figure 12). However, from the 1990 onwards there is an increase in the FiB index, demonstrating a strong expansion of the fisheries range.  Daman and Diu Daman and Diu contributes only 0.5% in total marine catch of India. Overall, the catches (Figure 13) increased gradually until 1990, followed by a sharp increase towards 2000. The 3.25MTI shows a decline from 1960 (i.e., SOFT point in Figure 14) at the rate of 0.004 year-1, mainly due to the decline of Harpadon nehereus (Bombay duck). Furthermore, inclusion of small pelagic species mask this declining trend (Figure 14) due to their highly fluctuating catches. The time series of the FiB index (Figure 15) shows a decrease from 1960 (SOFT point) to 1972, followed by a gradual increase in the following decades. The initial decrease was due to limitation of fishing operations up to coastal areas (Balan, et al., 1987). However, in mid 1970s, the Government of Goa, Daman and Diu focussed on expansion of fisheries to the deep sea (IDBI, 1974a, b). A fisheries federation was established at Panaji, Goa to encourage mechanisation to increase the catches (Gupta, et al., 1984a). This expansion since mid 1970s is clearly visible in the FiB index (Figure 15), though it was not sufficient to offset the declining TL trend.  Goa Goa contributes 3% in total marine catches of India. Reconstructed catches (Figure 16) show a steady increase until 1980s, with a sharp increase thereafter. The species with TL <3.25 contributes more than 50% in total catch with major landings of Indian mackerel, Oil sardine and other sardines.  Trends in the mean TL of landings in Goa for five decades are illustrated in Figure 17. There was a marked decline in 3.25MTI for last three decades from TL = 4.0 to TL = 3.8 i.e., at the rate of 0.01 year-1.  Goa was thought to be good location for deep sea fishing industry (IDBI, 1974) and, its fisheries experienced technological improvements in the mid-1970s (Gupta, et al., 1984a). As a result, the fisheries expanded to offshore areas; this expansion is visible in the trend of FiB index (Figure 18), which has increased gradually from 1973 onwards. Maharashtra The state of Maharashtra ranks second among India’s maritime states and contribute 18% on average in total marine fishery of the country. The reconstructed catches (Figure 19) indicate a steady increase between 1950 and 2000 from 99 thousand t to 478 thousand t. As in other northwest states, species with TL <3.25 predominate the Maharashtra catches.  The fishing down effect is visible from 1955 onwards for 3.25MTI, with a rate of 0.004 year-1 (Figure 20). No clear trend is visible when all shelf species are included.  After Independence in 1947, the fisheries of Maharashtra were encouraged, but the increasing fishing effort were mainly concentrated in coastal areas, leading to catch declines as early as the mid-1950s (Figure 19). However, from the early 1960s, owing to increase in the mechanization in Maharashtra (Srinath, et al., 1987), marine catches increased steadily as fisheries expanded to offshore and deep sea waters, as confirmed by the FiB index series (Figure 21).            Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  47                                                        -0.10.00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.91950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearFiB indexSOFT 1964FIGURE 6. Trends of catch (million tonnes) in India from 1950 to 2000. 3.13.23.33.43.53.63.73.83.94.04.14.21950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearMean trophic levelSOFT (1964)r = -0.926**;  b = -0.00580;  n = 303.25MTIAll shelf speciesFIGURE 7. Trends in mean trophic level of landings in India from 1950 to 2000 (open squares and circles represent data points not included in the analysis).  FIGURE 8. Trend of FiB index in India from 1950 to 2000 (open squares and circles represent data points not included in the analysis).   05001,0001,5002,0002,5003,0003,5004,0001 11 21 31 41 51YearAll Indian catch (t•103)≥4.0 TL>3.25 TL to <4.0 TL≤3.25 TLOil sardine, Indian mackerel, etc.950     1960 1970 200019901980Tunas & BillfishesResults and Discussion.   48                                                            FIGURE 9. Trends of catch (thousand tonnes) in Gujarat state from 1950 to 2000. 3.23.43.63.84.04.24.41950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearMean trophic levelSOFT (1961)r = -0.917**;  b = -0.00750;  n = 33 b = -0.01153.25MTIAll shelf speciesFIGURE 10. Trends in mean trophic level of landings in Gujarat from 1950 to 2000 (open squares and circles represent data points not included in the analysis).  -1.2-0.9-0.6-0.30.00.30.60.91950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearFiB indexSOFT 1961FIGURE 11. Trend of FiB index in Gujarat from 1950 to 2000 (open squares and circles represent data points not included in the analysis).   3.13.33.53.73.94.14.5 5.0 5.5 6.0log CatchMean TL of catchSOFT 1961FIGURE 12. The plot of marine trophic levels of landings versus catch (thousand tones) for Gujarat. 0501001502002503003501 11 21 31 41 51YearAll Indian catch (t•103)≥4.0 TL>3.25 TL to <4.0 TL≤3.25 TLOil sardine, Indian mackerel, etc.1950     1960 1970 200019901980Tunas & BillfishesHistorical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  49                                                           3.13.33.53.73.94.14.31950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearMean trophic levelSOFT (1960)3.25MTIAll shelf speciesr = -0.657**;  b = -0.00430;  n = 34-1.1-0.9-0.7-0.5-0.3-0.10.10.30.50.70.91950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearFiB indexSOFT 1960FIGURE 13. Trends of catch (thousand tonnes) in Daman & Diu from 1950 to 2000. FIGURE 14. Trends in mean trophic level of landings in Daman & Diu from 1950 to 2000 (open squares and circles represent data points not included in the analysis).  FIGURE 15. Trend of FiB index in Daman & Diu from 1950 to 2000 (open squares and circles represent data points not included in the analysis). 051015202530351 11 21 31 41 51YearAll Indian catch (t•103)>3.25 TL to <4.0 TL≤3.25 TLTunas & BillfishesOil sardine, Indian mackerel, etc.≥4.0 TL1950     1960 1970 200019901980Results and Discussion.   50                                                           2.93.13.33.53.73.94.14.31950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearMean trophic levelSOFT (1973)r = -0.801**;  b = -0.00910;  n = 21  b = -0.002403.25MTIAll shelf species-2.0-1.5-1.0-0.50.00.51.01.51950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearFiB indexSOFT 1973FIGURE 16. Trends of catch (thousand tonnes) in Goa from 1950 to 2000. FIGURE 17. Trends in mean trophic level of landings in Goa from 1950 to 2000 (open squares and circles represent data points not included in the analysis). FIGURE 18. Trend of FiB index in Goa from 1950 to 2000 (open squares and circles represent data points not included in the analysis).0204060801001201401601 11 21 31 41 51YearAll Indian catch (t•103)≥4.0 TL>3.25 TL to <4.0 TL≤3.25 TLTunas & BillfishesOil sardine, Indian mackerel, etc.1950     1960 1970 200019901980Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  51                                                        3.23.43.63.84.04.21950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearMean trophic levelSOFT (1955)3.25MTIAll shelf speciesr = -0.793**;  b = -0.00440;  n = 39-0.7-0.5-0.3-0.10.10.31950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearFiB indexSOFT 1955FIGURE 19. Trends of catch (thousand tonnes) in Maharashtra from 1950 to 2000. FIGURE 20. Trends in mean trophic level of landings in Maharashtra from 1950 to 2000 (open squares and circles represent data points not included in the FIGURE 21. Trend of FiB index in Maharashtra from 1950 to 2000 (open squares and circles represent data points not included in the analysis).  01002003004005006001 11 21 31 41 51YearAll Indian catch (t•103)>3.25 TL to <4.0 TL≤3.25 TLTunas & BillfishesOil sardine, Indian mackerel, etc.≥4.0 TL1950     1960 1970 200019901980Results and Discussion.   52 Karnataka Karnataka contributes 8% of India’s total catch. The reconstructed catches show huge fluctuations, mainly due to Oil sardine and Indian mackerel, which forms bulk of the catches. Overall, catches increased between 1950 and 2000 from 47 thousand t to 139 thousand t (Figure 22).  Figure 23 illustrates a decline in 3.25MTI, which proceeds at a rate of 0.009 year-1, while no clear trend is visible when all shelf species are considered. This is due to the masking effect of highly fluctuating catches of Oil sardine and Indian mackerel. Their removal from the analysis shows a decline in mean marine TL of landings at the rate of 0.002 year-1 (not shown here). The time series of the FiB index (Figure 24) shows a decrease from 1962 to 1966; it then increases steadily until 1988, suggestive of expansion in fisheries. This trend corresponds with the growth of fishery sectors in Karnataka. The first demonstration of mechanised fishing was held in 1957 at Mangalore (Gupta, et al., 1984b), but until early 1960s no concerted efforts were made to develop the fisheries, and fishing remained  confined to inshore areas, irrespective of increasing effort. Then, it was realised that the inshore waters were heavily exploited (Kurup, et al., 1987). Thus, the fisheries shifted towards unexploited offshore and deep sea areas, thereby relying on large number of newly introduced mechanised vessels26: the number of mechanised boats increased between 1958 and 1978 from 9 to 1,685 (Gupta,  et al., 1984b) . Kerala Kerala occupies the foremost position in India’s total marine catches by contributing ≈ 26% over the five decades. However, the catches show huge fluctuations corresponding to catches of Indian mackerel and Oil sardine (Figure 25), as in the state of Karnataka.  The fishing down effect is visible in Kerala (Figure 26) from 1964 onwards for 3.25MTI, with a decline of 0.008 year-1. However, no clear trend is apparent when all shelf species are included. This is again because of fluctuations by the small pelagics, i.e., mainly Oil sardine, other sardines and Indian mackerel (see Chapter 4). The FiB index (Figure 27) increases gradually from 1964 onwards, indicating a geographical expansion of fisheries to previously unexploited areas. Kerala was the first state of India where mechanization began, in the late-1950s. Individual entrepreneurs invested in fishing in the mid-1960s, mainly trawling for prawn in coastal areas (Jacob, et al., 1987). This was soon followed by various technological developments, enabling offshore expansion of the trawlers’ areas of operation. The number of mechanized vessels increased from 23 in 1954 (Gupta, et al., 1984c) to 4,206 by 1999 (DAHD, 2001).  At present, the focus is to expand the fisheries into even deeper waters. Lakshadweep The Lakshadweep (= Laccadive) Islands contribute only 0.3% of India’s total marine catch. The reconstructed catches indicate a gradual increase from 1950s to 1980s, followed by a sharp increase to 12 thousand t (Figure 28) by 2000. Tunas and billfishes are the major fisheries, contributing about 70% of catches over the five decades.  From 1965 onwards, a decline is evident (Figure 29) in both 3.25MTI and for the mean TL of all shelf species, at the rate of 0.006 year-1.  However, the time series of the FiB index (Figure 30) shows continuous and steady increase from 1965 on. This is suggestive of geographical expansion of fisheries from coastal to deep sea waters. However, this expansion is relatively slow: even in the 1980s, most fishing was still confined to nearshore waters with pole and line as major gear (Algaraja, 1987). It is believed that the fisheries have not expanded to their fullest, due to shortage of skilled fishers in the Lakshadweep Islands (Raghavan, et al., 1993).                                                  26 Motorisation of existing traditional crafts was not successful in state of Karnataka due to some technical problems (Gupta et al., 1984). Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  53                                                        2.62.83.03.23.43.63.84.04.21950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearMean trophic levelSOFT (1962)3.25MTIAll shelf speciesr = -0.905**;  b = -0.00850;  n = 32-0.20.00.20.40.60.81.01950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearFiB indexSOFT 1962FIGURE 22. Trends of catch (thousand tonnes) in Karnataka from 1950 to 2000.  FIGURE 24. Trend of FiB index in Karnataka from 1950 to 2000 (open squares and circles represent data points not included in the analysis).  FIGURE 23. Trends in mean trophic level of landings in Karnataka from 1950 to 2000 (open squares and circles represent data points not included in the analysis).  0501001502002503003501 11 21 31 41 51YearAll Indian catch (t .103)1950                       1960                            1970                           1980                             1990                         2000Oil sardine, Indian mackerel, etc. ≤3.25 T>3.25 TL<4.0 TL≥4.0 TLTunas &Billfishes Tunas & Billfishes   .0 TL  >3.25 TL to <4.0 TL  ≤3.25 TL  Results and Discussion.   54                                                             2.62.83.03.23.43.63.84.04.21950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearMean trophic level SOFT (1964)3.25MTIAll shelf speciesr = -0.744**;  b = -0.00800;  n = 30-0.20.00.20.40.60.81.01950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearFiB indexSOFT 1964FIGURE 25. Trends of catch (thousand tonnes) in Kerala from 1950 to 2000. FIGURE 26. Trends in mean trophic level of landings in Kerala from 1950 to 2000 (open squares and circles represent data points not included in the analysis).  FIGURE 27. Trend of FiB index in Kerala from 1950 to 2000 (open squares and circles represent data points not included in the analysis).  01002003004005006007008009001 11 21 31 41 51YearAll Indian catch (t•103) ≥4.0 TL>3.25 TL to <4.0 TL≤3.25 TLOil sardine, Indian mackerel, etc.1950     1960 1970 200019901980Tunas & BillfishesHistorical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  55                                                        3.73.83.94.04.14.21950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearMean trophic levelAll shelf species3.25MTIr = -0.841**;  b = -0.00550;  n = 29 b =  -0.00550SOFT (1965)-1.2-1.0-0.8-0.6-0.4-0.20.00.20.40.60.81.01.21.41950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearFiB indexSOFT 1965FIGURE 28. Trends of catch (thousand tonnes) in Lakshadweep from 1950 to 2000. FIGURE 29. Trends in mean trophic level of landings in Lakshadweep from 1950 to 2000 (open squares and circles represent data points not included in the analysis).  FIGURE 30. Trend of FiB index in Lakshadweep from 1950 to 2000 (open squares and circles represent data points not included in the analysis).  024681012141618201 11 21 31 41 51YearAll Indian catch (t•103)≥4.0 TL>3.25 TL to <4.0 TL≤3.25 TL1950     960 970 200019901980Tunas & BillfishesResults and Discussion.   56 Tamil Nadu Among the various maritime states of India, Tamil Nadu, with 15% ranks third in the contribution to marine catches. The reconstructed catches show a gradual increase over the five decades considered here (Figure 31). Species with TL <3.25 contribute about half of the overall catch. Out of these, various sardines and Leiognathus species dominate the catches.  From 1956 onwards, there is marked decline in 3.25MTI, of about 0.006 year-1 (Figure 32). The downward trend is also visible in all shelf species with a steeper rate of decline, i.e., 0.013 year-1.  Overall, the FiB index (Figure 33) shows a steady increase from 1956 onwards, suggestive of geographic expansion of fisheries from shallow to deep waters. This expansion has happened with improvement in technologies through time. The state’s mechanisation program started in 1954, enabling mechanised vessels to be used for the operation of gill nets. After 1964, the emphasis shifted towards trawling (Gupta, et al., 1984d). The total number of mechanised vessels in the state have increased from 50 in 1960 (Gupta,  et al., 1984d) to 9,896 in 1999 (DAHD, 2001). Pondicherry Pondicherry contributes about 1% in India’s total marine catch. The reconstructed catches increased slowly between 1950 and 1993, followed by a dramatic increase (Figure 34). This clearly illustrates that there is some problem with the different dataset used from 1994 on. That is why the data points from 1994 to 2000 were excluded from the analysis even in the states where they seems to fit (also see Chapter 4; page 43). The species with TL < 3.25 contributes about half of the overall catch, with major landings of various sardines and anchovies. Figure 35 illustrates the fishing down effect from 1955 onwards, for all shelf species and using 3.25MTI. The slope of decline is steeper when all shelf species are included because a wider range of TLs is available, compared to 3.25MTI.  The time series of the FiB index (Figure 36) is rather steady until 1994, when a sharp increase is observed. The steady values of the index suggest that the motorization and mechanization of the fishery (Dharmaraja, et al., 1987; Gupta, et al., 1984e) led to TL declines that were largely matched by the catch increases. However, the sharp increase after 1993 seems to be the artefact of data, as the source of catches data has changed from CMFRI (1950-1993) to DAHD and MPEDA reports (1994-2000). Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh contributes 7% of India’s total marine catch. The reconstructed catches (Figure 37) fluctuate sharply, though generally increasing over the 5 decades considered here. Species with TL < 3.25 TL contribute about half of the overall catch. The fishing down effect is visible in Andhra Pradesh from 1968 onwards Figure 38). There was a marked decline in both 3.25MTI and all shelf species, at rates of 0.003 year-1 and 0.004 year-1, respectively.  Again, the FiB index (Figure 39) shows a steady increase from 1968 onwards indicative of geographical expansion of fisheries from shallow to deep waters.  Historical account of fisheries development in Andhra Pradesh supports this trend.  Initially, the fishing effort of non-mechanized vessels, few small trawlers and gillnetters was mainly concentrated in inshore waters where prawns were known to be abundant (Alagaraja, et al., 1987; Gupta, et al., 1984f). However, due to dwindling catches from inshore areas and drastic changes brought in by mechanization, the fisheries moved towards deep sea waters via its industrial vessels. At present, most of these industrial vessels operate from Vishakapatnam harbour (Sujatha, 1996).    Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  57                                                           3.03.23.43.63.84.04.21950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearMean trophic level SOFT (1956)All shelf species3.25MTIr = -0.904**;  b = -0.00550;  n = 38 b = -0.0128-0.3-0.2-0.10.00.10.20.30.41950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearFiB index SOFT 1956FIGURE 31. Trends of catch (thousand tonnes) in Tamil Nadu from 1950 to 2000. FIGURE 32. Trends in mean trophic level of landings in Tamil Nadu from 1950 to 2000 (open squares and circles represent data points not included in the analysis).  FIGURE 33. Trend of FiB index in Tamil Nadu from 1950 to 2000 (open squares and circles represent data points not included in the analysis).  0501001502002503003504004505001 11 21 31 41 51YearAll Indian catch (t•103)>3.25 TL to <4.0 TL≤3.25 TLTunas & BillfishesOil sardine, Indian mackerel, etc.≥4.0 TL1950     1960 1970 200019901980Results and Discussion.   58                                                           2.93.13.33.53.73.94.11950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearMean trophic levelSOFT (1955)3.25MTIAll shelf speciesr = -0.441**;  b = -0.00240;  n = 39 b = -0.0123-0.2-0.10.00.10.20.30.40.50.60.71950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearFiB indexSOFT 1955FIGURE 36. Trend of FiB index in Pondicherry from 1950 to 2000 (open squares and circles represent data points not included in the analysis). FIGURE 34. Trends of catch (thousand tonnes) in Pondicherry from 1950 to 2000. FIGURE 35. Trends in mean trophic level of landings in Pondicherry from 1950 to 2000 (open squares and circles represent data points not included in the analysis). 051015202530354045501 11 21 31 41 51YearAll Indian catch (t•103)>3.25 TL to <4.0 TL≤3.25 TLTunas & BillfishesOil sardine, Indian mackerel, etc.≥4.0 TL950     1960 1970 200019901980Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  59                                                       3.23.33.43.53.63.73.83.94.04.11950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearMean trophic level3.25MTIAll shelf speciesr = -0.576**;  b = -0.00280;  n = 26 b = -0.00360SOFT (1968)-0.6-0.4-0.20.00.20.41950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearFiB indexSOFT 1968FIGURE 39. Trend of FiB index in Andhra Pradesh from 1950 to 2000 (open squares and circles represent data points not included in the analysis). FIGURE 38. Trends in mean trophic level of landings in Andhra Pradesh from 1950 to 2000 (open squares and circles represent data points not included in the analysis).  FIGURE 37. Trends of catch (thousand tonnes) in Andhra Pradesh from 1950 to 2000. 0501001502002501 11 21 31 41 51YearAll Indian catch (t•103)>3.25 TL to <4.0 TL≤3.25 TLTunas & BillfishesOil sardine, Indian mackerel, etc.≥4.0 TL1950     1960 1970 200019901980Results and Discussion.   60 Orissa Orissa contributes 3% of India’s total marine catch. Overall, the reconstructed catches (Figure 40) indicate a gradual increase until 1992, followed by a sharp increase. The species with TL <3.25, notably various sardines contribute significantly to overall catch.  Figure 41 illustrates a small decline of 0.003 year-1 in 3.25MTI but no clear trend is visible when all shelf species are included.  The time series of FiB index (Figure 42) shows an increase from 1967 onwards, which again suggests that fisheries are expanding in Orissa state. However, the development of marine fisheries sector was very slow and steady in this state (BOBP, 1984). Even until the late 1970s, 97% of total fishing fleet (including inland) consisted of non-mechanized vessels (Gupta, et al., 1984g), with little or no commercial exploitation beyond 50 m depth (Scariah, et al., 1987).  West Bengal West Bengal contributes 3% of the total marine catch of India. The reconstructed catches (Figure 43) show a gradual increase over the first four decades covered here, but thereafter, the catches increased sharply. The species with TL < 3.25 contribute about 40% of the total catch with major landings of prawns, sciaenids and other clupeoids. From 1967 onwards (Figure 44), there is a decline in 3.25MTI at the rate of 0.004 year-1. A less steep downward trend (slope = -0.003) occurs with inclusion of all shelf species. In West Bengal, inland fisheries are more developed than the marine fisheries, due to consumer preference for fresh water fish, which fetch higher prices than marine fishes. In mid-1980s it was realized that a good potential exists for the expansion of the small scale marine fish industry (Philipose, et al., 1987). This geographic expansion of marine fisheries is also illustrated in the time series of the FiB index (Figure 45). Andaman and Nicobar Islands  The Andaman and Nicobar Islands contributes only 1% to the total marine catch of India. Overall, the catches indicate gradual increase over decades and thereafter, followed by a sharp increase (Figure 46). From 1950 (Figure 47) onwards, a decline is visible in both 3.25MTI and the mean TL of all shelf species, at the rates of 0.001 year-1 and 0.008 year-1, respectively (The slope of decline is steeper when all shelf species are included because a wider range of TLs is available).  The time series of the FiB index (Figure 48) shows steady increase from 1950 onwards. However, fishing was until recently confined to near shore waters with little or no exploitation of offshore and deep sea areas (Rajan, 2003), owing to  small number of skilled fishers27 and limited investments, due to limited  information on resource availability (Algaraja, 1987; Kumaran, 1973).                                                               27 There are no traditional fishers in these islands. Fishing is mainly done by the fishers who settled here, and originated mainly from Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry (Alagaraja, 1987). Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  61                                                            2.83.03.23.43.63.84.04.21950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearMean trophic levelSOFT (1967)3.25MTIAll shelf speciesr = -0.548**;  b = -0.00320;  n = 27-0.40.00.40.81.21.62.01950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearFiB indexSOFT 1967FIGURE 40. Trends of catch (thousand tonnes) in Orissa from 1950 to 2000. FIGURE 41. Trends in mean trophic level of landings in Orissa from 1950 to 2000 (open squares and circles represent data points not included in the analysis).  FIGURE 42. Trend of FiB index in Orissa from 1950 to 2000 (open squares and circles represent data points not included in the analysis).0204060801001201401601802001 11 21 31 41 51YearAll Indian catch (t•103)>3.25 TL to <4.0 TL≤3.25 TLTunas & BillfishesOil sardine, Indian mackerel, etc.≥4.0 TL1950     1960 1970 200019901980Results and Discussion.   62                                                            3.13.33.53.73.94.14.31950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearMean trophic levelSOFT (1967)3.25MTIAll shelf speciesr = -0.581**;  b = -0.00390;  n = 27  b = -0.00310-1.5-1.0-0.50.00.51.01.52.01950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearFiB indexSOFT 1967FIGURE 45. Trend of FiB index in West Bengal from 1950 to 2000 (open squares and circles represent data points not included in the analysis).  FIGURE 44. Trends in mean trophic level of landings in West Bengal from 1950 to 2000 (open squares and circles represent data points not included in the analysis).  FIGURE 43. Trends of catch (thousand tonnes) in West Bengal from 1950 to 2000. 0501001502002501 11 21 31 41 51YearAll Indian catch (t•103)>3.25 TL to <4.0 TL≤3.25 TLTunas & BillfishesOil sardine, Indian mackerel, etc.≥4.0 TL1950     1960 1970 200019901980Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  63                                                           2.52.72.93.13.33.53.73.94.11950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearMean trophic levelAll shelf species3.25MTISOFT (1950) r = -0.367*; b = -0.00110; n = 44b= -0.007600.00.51.01.52.02.53.01950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearFiB indexSOFT 1950FIGURE 46. Trends of catch (thousand tonnes) in Andaman & Nicobar Islands from 1950 to 2000. FIGURE 48. Trend of FiB index in Andaman & Nicobar Islands from 1950 to 2000 (open squares and circles represent data points not included in the analysis). FIGURE 47. Trends in mean trophic level of landings in Andaman & Nicobar Islands from 1950 to 2000 (open squares and circles represent data points not included in the analysis).05101520253035401 11 21 31 41 51YearAll Indian catch (t•103)>3.25 TL to <4.0 TL≤3.25 TLTunas & BillfishesOil sardine, Indian mackerel, etc.≥4.0 TL1950     1960 1970 200019901980Summary and Conclusions   64 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  The results presented in Chapter 5 indicate that Indian marine fisheries are unsustainable at the ecosystem level. In summary, the time series of Indian catches illustrates that the catches have increased gradually from 1950s, with the rate of increase accelerating since the late 1980s and early 1990s. This increase, however, is limited to only mechanized and motorized sector because they can fish farther offshore. Conversely, the catches of the non-mechanized sector, mainly from coastal areas are declining since 1970s (Srinath, 2003: Figure 49). This has lead to frequent conflicts among different sectors (see Chapter 1; page 18).  One of the major reason for these conflicts is the occurrence of Malthusian overfishing (Pauly, 1994a) in Indian waters. My preliminary analysis of two fishing sectors (mechanised and non-mechanised) for all of India from 1950 to 2000 shows similar results as presented by Pauly (1994) for 5 Indian states from 1969-1977. The redistribution illustrated in the Figure 49. with an overall ceiling on catches agrees with the Pauly’s model of fishery development, which suggests that increasing competition results in transfer of catch from one sector to another. This also clearly indicates that the coastal systems cannot continue to absorb excess labour and generate ever increasing catches (Pauly, 1994a).              Existing intra-fleet and interfleet competition in India is one cause of fisheries overexploitation. Along with Malthusian overfishing, growth overfishing, recruitment overfishing and, economic overfishing are also reported in Indian waters (GOI, 2002; James, 1992a; Luther and Sastry, 1993; Menon and Pillai, 1996; Pillai and Parakal, 2000; Sathiadas, et al., 1995; Silas,  et al., 1980) (see Chapter 1; page 19). Overfishing in combination with other factors, such as water pollution, habitat degradation etc., have pushed India’s coastal resources into downward spiral, with no reversal in sight (other than finding new offshore areas for exploitation, as shown for India in the following section on the FiB index). The existing situation calls for an in-depth evaluation of the current state of affairs and for taking immediate measures, such as reducing effort, increasing enforcement, increasing mesh sizes used in trawl nets etc., in order to avoid further depletion of the resources. In this study two indicators, i.e., Marine Trophic Index (MTI) and Fishing in Balance (FiB) index are used. The results indicate that the deployment of the mechanized fleet increased the catches, but had a strong FIGURE 49. Marine fisheries catch (million tonnes) trends for the whole of India, 1950-2000, showing total catches that have ceased to increase (squares), and the transfer of an increasingly larger fraction of the catch from the non-mechanized (open dots) to the mechanized sector (closed dots). 01231950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000YearCatch (t •106)MechanisedNon-mechanisedTotal catchHistorical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  65 negative impact on the mean trophic level of the landings, i.e., on the MTI. The fishing down marine food web phenomenon is happening all over India, i.e., in each state and union territory. This trend was generally not visible when the small pelagics, i.e., mainly Indian mackerel and Oil sardine are included, i.e., their variability masked the fishing down phenomenon when the MTI was based on the mean trophic level of all shelf species (Pauly and Watson, 2004). On the other hand, application of a cutoff trophic level of 3.25 (i.e. excluding small pelagics and most invertebrates) revealed the fishing down effect for all states and union territories, (more pronounced on the west coast, which contributes 72% of India’s total landings) while revealing the unsustainable state of India’s ecosystems.  This analysis thus confirms the potential usefulness of the MTI, recently adopted by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) as one of the 8 indicators of biodiversity (CBD, 2004). It also confirms that the use of MTI, jointly with a cutoff point that excludes small pelagic fishes (e.g., 3.25MTI) better reveals underlying trends than overall the mean TL. The regression analyses tend to show high coefficients of correlation (r) between MTI and time (shown in graphs of Chapter 5). It must be noted, however, that this is due in part because the points used in the analyses are not really independent, as some of the underlying catch data were interpolated. As well, the straightness of line was used to identify which points to include in the regression. Overall, however, it is evident that there was a strong decline in mean marine TL of landings occurring in India, as in rest of the world (Table 5), whatever statistical test may be applied.  Table 5. Comparison of rate of TL decline per decade of India’s maritime states and union territories with declines in other parts of the world.  Location Years covered TL decline Source Goa 1973-1993 0.024  This study West Bengal 1967-1993 0.031  This study Andhra Pradesh 1968-1993 0.036  This study Lakshadweep 1965-1993 0.055  This study Andaman & Nicobar Islands 1950-1993 0.076  This study Gujarat State 1961-1993 0.120  This study Pondicherry 1955-1993 0.123  This study Tamil Nadu 1956-1993 0.128  This study       Iceland 1990-1999 0.004  Valtỳsson & Pauly (2000) West coast of Canada 1895-1995 0.032  Pauly et al. (2001) Gulf of Thailand 1963-1982 0.100  Christensen (1998) East coast of Canada 1950-1995 0.100  Pauly et al. (2001) Greece 1964-1997 0.100  Stergiou & Koulouris (2000)  Time series of the FiB index show an overall increase in overall of India, suggesting that fisheries expanded geographically. However, a closer examination of individual states illustrates a decline in earlier years, i.e., generally before 1970s, in spite of the poor quality of the underlying data. As mentioned above, seaworthy crafts capable of going offshore were not available before 1970s and thus, in the 1950s and 1960s, fishing effort was concentrated in coastal areas, where the resources were rapidly depleted. Subsequent geographic expansion masked the decline of coastal resources. Moreover, in later years, a stagnation or decline in FiB index is visible in almost all areas. This indicates a serious problem, presumably the end of the expansion phase of Indian marine fisheries. However, the last years data are not reliable and hence, this issue remains uncertain. As illustrated in Table 5, India, though a developing country is not behaving any differently than the rest of the world. The historical review clearly indicates that Indian marine fisheries have also suffered from sequential depletions. Indeed, a forward extrapolation of current the fishing down trend in India would imply the disappearance of large fishes from the ecosystems and an increase in low-TL organisms, perhaps even jellyfish as reported from other parts of the world (Pauly and Palomares, 2001). Summary and Conclusions   66 Thus, based on present study, there is an immediate need to curb the existing overcapacity. The remaining effort must be redistributed across trophic levels from large predators to small prey species as suggested for other parts of the world (Pauly, et al., 2003b). Since millions of people depend upon fisheries, thus implementation of any measure demands thorough evaluation of social as well as economic factors. Ecosystem models can nowadays also be used to search for suitable policy options. For example, Christensen and Walters (2004) have shown, for the Gulf of Thailand, that how ecosystem modelling can be used to explore policy scenarios, while incorporating possible tradeoffs among social, economic and ecological objectives.  So far, the main focus of Indian fisheries policy is to reduce conflicts among sectors, promote development (still ongoing), and generate food and foreign exchange, rather than controlling fishing effort, which was not perceived as a threat until recently.  Thus, the CMFRI and other research institutes in India have recommended the creation of an independent fisheries department at the national level (Srinath, et al., 2003) to be responsible for all fisheries management in India. Also, a need was expressed to introduce more regulations. However, promulgation of new regulations will not by itself bring any dramatic transformation in the existing condition of resources. Thus, monitoring and implementation of existing regulations is also required, as an expression of the political will to implement change.  In order to promote sustainable fisheries in India, various other factors need attention, such as community level involvement in the management processes, increasing the understanding of how people operate and on the factors that induce them to operate in a particular way, with emphasis on education (presently, the illiteracy rate is 70% among fishers (Kochary, et al., 1996)). As well, there is a need to increase awareness about the advantages of sustainable use, to study the placement potential and effectiveness of no take zones and many other measures, which can be addressed in future studies.  In conclusion, given the long time series of mean trophic levels and FiB index and their overall trend, Indian fisheries appear to be unsustainable at the ecosystem level. This will undoubtedly have serious social and economic implications, especially in terms of food security in India, where fish is one of the cheap sources of protein and employment, with fisheries providing full time employment to 1 million (in 1998) fishers. Sustainability of fisheries is given some importance in the latest (Tenth) Five Year Plan, but the concept of sustainable fisheries is just emerging in India. I hope that my research will bring some focus towards a problem that was not apparent before and hence lead to more thorough analysis of this issue.                   Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  67 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First, I would like to thank my guru and supervisor Dr. Daniel Pauly who persistently guided me throughout this study, via his innovative ideas, unfailing encouragement and patience. I am indebted to him for dragging me out from a ‘no (wo)man’s land’ to the  Fisheries Centre, and giving me an opportunity to do this research. I am equally thankful to my other committee members: Dr. Amanda Vincent, Dr. Jackie Alder, and Dr. Rashid Sumaila for their invaluable inputs and great help. I am also greatly thankful to Dr. Deng Palomares for her help in formatting this report. I enormously appreciate the help extended by Dr. Pushpam Kumar of the Delhi University in the data collection. My thanks to Dr. Mohan Joseph Modayil and others of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, for responding to my data related queries. I am also greatful to Dr. Derek Johnson for providing Gujarat data and information. I also thank Mr. Edwin Joseph of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Dr. E. Venkataraman, Dr. Rema Devi and Mr. M. Nithyanandan of the Zoological Survey of India, Mr. Naveen Rajashekhar, Mr. Rajeev Raghavan and many others for their assistance in locating and making accessible the required statistics.  I extend my thanks to the staff and students at the UBC Fisheries Centre and the UBC Department of Zoology for their great support and valuable ideas. I am also thankful for the financial support made available by the Sea Around Us project during my research. I express my gratitude to Dr. Bikkar Singh Lalli, Convocation Senator of UBC, for helping in the realization of my dreams. I am greatly appreciative of Dr. Mukti Gill of Khalsa College for Women, Ludhiana, India for her enormous help.  I am deeply thankful to my loving parents, darling brother Aseem Malhi, relatives and friends for their support, love and encouragement. Finally, I am beholden to my wonderful husband, Harjeet Bhathal, who was always beside me through his indescribable support, help, patience and never-ending love. 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LIST OF THE FREQUENTLY USED ACRONYMS  CMFRI Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Kochi DAHD Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying, New Delhi DSFP Deep Sea Fishing Policy EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FiB Fishing in Balance Index ICAR Indian Council of Agriculture Research, New Delhi MFRAs Marine Fisheries Regulation Acts MPEDA Marine Products Export Development Authority, Kochi MTI Marine Trophic Index 3.25MTI Marine Trophic Index with cutoff point at TL = 3.25 SOFT Start Of the Fishing down Trend TL Trophic Level                         Appendices  80 APPENDIX 2. CATCH DATA FOR INDIA AND ITS INDIVIDUAL STATES AND UNION TERRITORIES  In the tables with the catches for States and Union Territories, bold values (except for total) represent interpolated and extrapolated data (see text for procedure). The tables add up to the all Indian catches in the first table, for India as a whole. The Indian catches differ from the official (CMFRI) data because (1) the latter do not include all catches for Union Territories (see page 36); (2) the “miscellaneous fishes” in this official statistics have been distributed among the functional groups; (3) the statistics presented here include discarded bycatch and the catches of industrial vessels, omitted by CMFRI (see page 39) and; (4) various published sources have been used to fill in years with missing data.                        Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  81 Table A : Marine fisheries catch (thousand tonnes) data for India, 1950-2000. Species 1950 1 95 1 1 9 5 2 1 9 5 3 1 9 5 4 1 9 5 5 1 9 5 6 1 9 5 7 1 9 5 8 1 9 5 9 1 9 6 0 1 9 6 1 1 9 6 2 1 9 6 3 1 9 6 4 1 9 6 5 1 9 6 6 1 9 6 71 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 9851 15965 17916 6622 7717 11714 13389 13900 14049 13432 19475 17305 21854 25349 19464 15620 19259 16815b Skates 510 816 828 397 330 474 548 606 569 546 1187 1064 1613 1434 1218 952 1064 858c Rays 8150 12564 18155 8195 7474 8515 9112 8440 9114 9186 14020 14867 17250 17781 15050 15550 16893 118752 Eels 8516 8442 9071 11946 11286 12351 2943 5781 8969 5909 6038 11794 9254 8828 2286 2550 2637 25953 Catfishes 13708 17279 19040 22718 20972 18756 25597 27766 30102 20553 25277 10815 19290 18116 23005 17977 22293 243224 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 8500 3290 2202 2263 5154 4495 7058 5888 5459 5325 5260 6778 9179 8072 7781 7556 8016 9244b Oil sardine 36048 18028 15251 50960 33414 31568 9655 193056 125360 70033 193088 169392 112299 66114 281534 265038 251141 261486c Other sardines 69669 52073 46388 20923 19492 42927 39562 45855 39813 41578 32111 19726 19613 28098 41518 43467 59409 32794d Hilsa shad 2435 2348 2265 2111 1968 2349 943 1099 972 789 3342 1110 1683 2832 3539 1415 1077 890e Other shads 1241 1212 1201 1092 1043 1085 1092 1361 2521 2649 8186 6294 8929 5472 6692 7875 8745 7075f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 22035 42317 29676 18908 21371 19373 21076 12256 29023 24375 35870 22325 19376 29759 25729 24507 27130 29564ii Thrissocles 7066 17950 12243 10925 9428 6895 7995 4478 3875 8132 7449 4983 5993 5857 6791 4990 9048 9511g Other clupeids 24751 13218 21491 19537 24897 19765 35215 30712 15121 21083 20841 15208 12355 15063 17261 19256 23821 227545 Bombay duck 13574 6940 23982 47505 33941 102588 125489 118179 66970 53406 107289 93726 85355 93831 82379 75636 79109 760886 Lizard fishes 600 189 489 872 889 1364 1148 383 370 719 603 1002 1448 760 1641 599 2269 18017 Half beaks and Full 651 594 622 636 606 641 628 449 397 423 247 521 165 1219 1626 1182 1465 12958 Flying fishes 2565 2584 1781 937 2271 4897 4033 2067 1251 2401 7159 1632 4559 1124 1043 515 3910 33319 Perches 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 23 19 24 32 32 30 41 44 53 126 129a Rock cods 1925 325 641 402 314 294 508 365 651 579 554 1013 488 543 635 463 770 531b Snappers 1925 319 672 476 348 405 448 402 549 570 553 1064 548 610 775 541 859 561c Pig face breams 2491 188 540 399 386 385 513 406 624 663 608 1151 426 576 543 513 844 626d Threadfin breams 9042 4791 7144 3205 1766 2003 4429 2773 6181 3855 4218 6638 4860 4201 6733 3692 5552 3517e Other perches 10844 2184 4067 2300 1857 2900 2832 2420 3551 3253 3461 5598 2756 3107 4154 3497 4300 33081 0 Goatfishes 1686 1876 1107 1186 1301 2281 11389 4024 2177 1724 2716 2404 1779 2527 5237 2153 4768 14221 1 Threadfins 15799 15226 14818 15712 14487 14400 9028 14747 5851 7466 6411 5873 2825 4476 2215 1716 4674 26661 2 Croakers 32076 32279 24299 36262 71883 51432 59031 29373 24451 19596 23901 30124 32613 23348 25821 24044 26467 259201 3 Ribbon fishes 19498 18600 34954 57320 29739 28413 25894 38819 41890 31831 17498 19697 21176 17342 26471 41898 45494 296041 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 7180 10051 9764 7251 11624 11901 20027 10893 18139 9903 21841 23224 7588 18537 27556 18195 20039 24911b Scads 4456 3483 3365 3407 3263 3745 3376 3173 3035 3137 3279 3299 3385 3398 3499 3409 3478 3469c Leather-jackets 9909 9523 9468 9234 9347 9791 10732 3282 2993 2658 4207 3559 3564 3352 2543 3190 3569 2975i Trachynotus 83 80 82 79 81 84 83 83 81 23 24 23 25 25 72 41 30 72d Other Carangids 315 285 291 274 273 291 283 277 271 271 280 295 729 180 206 191 201 301i Coryphaena 347 337 331 325 330 346 375 143 253 206 253 145 176 30 92 99 207 341ii Elacate 427 410 435 399 400 413 459 293 576 279 258 216 262 175 231 243 152 1681 5 Silverbellies 151 433 283 135 29 24 18 16 13 9 8 6 3 4 4 5 6 6a Leiognathus 8743 10992 7867 4756 11784 6552 18432 16681 12986 13379 15920 16208 18886 18531 29264 26689 38057 44367b Gazza 446 385 449 347 643 512 1082 921 324 291 608 218 229 140 121 111 91 1091 6 Big jawed jumper 7173 8450 6033 4261 7584 5982 10964 8884 17715 15673 16397 10259 8489 9091 6726 6011 6019 89291 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 3028 4597 2611 6759 5803 4092 5243 4941 5332 6583 6457 5222 10830 5890 6440 5266 5050 8033b Silver pomfret 2332 4527 3248 14063 12029 9655 8091 11326 11234 16696 15336 11668 15287 11682 13337 12756 13015 19792c Chinese pomfrets 41 153 32 140 134 38 98 40 66 55 52 45 253 70 73 44 43 751 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 90565 102745 83697 69814 27416 22652 18490 89626 124023 62967 134152 35139 33726 88130 36628 56743 45779 38642b Other mackerels 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 8 7 6 8 7 7 8 9 91 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 3029 2635 2368 2441 3743 2997 7571 5673 5060 4100 4785 6730 6185 5018 6317 4967 5699 5614b S. guttatus 5787 4307 3741 1927 2272 3194 4905 3203 2623 2586 3696 4702 4756 4298 5007 4596 4490 4436c S. lineolatus 35 80 43 18 64 55 242 84 116 71 119 53 50 63 64 40 41 54d Acanthocybium spp. 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 52 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 3710 625 638 656 1744 2631 3059 2200 2154 2153 3649 5125 1473 2804 3626 2440 1855 2007b Auxis spp. 592 110 121 115 273 369 507 300 388 499 873 1009 188 541 381 431 291 342c K. pelamis 393 384 383 382 384 387 390 391 389 381 386 661 123 475 410 267 191 277d T. tonggol 44 35 36 35 38 39 42 38 40 42 50 68 20 48 40 33 25 32e Other tunnies 636 194 171 195 341 508 604 688 813 339 720 1027 648 740 1143 613 776 11862 1 Bill fishes 285 228 222 224 215 243 222 210 202 208 217 216 220 222 228 222 227 2272 2 Barracudas 244 239 1486 336 4013 507 3858 660 985 1131 2099 1442 1182 1356 1727 1999 1097 45172 3 Mullets 116 116 377 259 165 227 287 1079 747 592 965 843 1034 1647 3086 1490 1563 32222 4 Unicorn cod 2180 4733 3191 15559 9388 3196 1325 1152 3912 3387 6114 3945 3312 5517 3822 5731 2771 22032 5 Flatfishesa Halibut 23 20 19 19 19 20 19 18 18 18 20 19 19 19 21 22 24 21b Flounders 347 272 263 266 255 292 264 249 239 247 258 262 269 265 273 266 271 270c Soles 31205 1976 6431 4563 1635 5609 11046 3743 13114 12194 14652 7992 18186 9170 6427 9086 6980 58682 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 33630 33434 31091 33458 48568 40318 71968 76259 29579 34957 32543 39790 49482 42752 64934 38412 56430 63497b Non-Penaeid prawns 44147 43030 45750 62972 100238 66831 95014 62754 57222 37325 38722 25409 38653 41296 32291 43010 35791 31730c Lobsters 24 23 20 18 15 17 19 42 102 143 192 111 58 134 218 136 193 183d Crabs 169 222 157 107 108 149 168 652 1134 1597 1983 1812 941 1805 4403 2377 3494 4194e Stomatopods 234 457 269 105 104 202 103 92 180 283 348 179 93 228 184 57 149 1422 7 Molluscs 7 7 7 6 6 6 7 6 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 7 62 8 Cephalopods 346 336 324 315 324 338 415 351 347 392 502 109 109 289 494 307 985 560Total 5875 60 5 4 1 5 3 7 5 3 5 9 3 7 5 8 9 0 5 7 5 8 9 0 1 4 5 9 6 5 1 2 7 1 9 3 7 2 8 7 6 0 6 6 7 5 6 3 0 6 5 8 4 8 9 3 8 7 9 3 8 0 6 8 3 1 8 7 6 4 8 1 6 5 6 6 4 4 2 0 8 7 3 0 8 9 8 3 2 7 7 2 8 9 0 2 3 9 8 6 3 3 7 8  Appendices  82 Table A : Continued. Species 196 8 19 6 9 19 7 0 1 97 1 1 97 2 1 9 73 19 7 4 1 97 5 19 7 6 1 97 7 1 97 8 1 9 79 1 9 80 19 8 1 1 98 2 1 98 3 1 98 41 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 17141 18679 34433 35941 42422 37687 51881 52566 45149 52906 56186 48946 49556 51758 59521 58309 50412b Skates 1109 951 1840 1768 2127 2082 3351 3178 2595 3005 3089 2257 2700 2698 4849 5876 4477c Rays 13442 16678 31812 30471 27839 28325 44175 42261 37631 38658 37012 30712 34576 31049 31491 39558 326882 Eels 3466 3127 9909 5632 6202 5376 6259 8369 12039 18297 12927 10746 17492 7104 10279 11435 99253 Catfishes 24244 27717 84813 79845 66163 70429 97225 100676 72662 83636 61996 80701 65042 93838 103201 90429 857824 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 10853 9586 9409 9625 9773 11692 9863 12434 10990 12636 11857 11052 13503 12054 15722 17318 17641b Oil sardine 308307 182495 235680 215297 136652 150956 134493 172571 181682 164604 182323 160420 116832 230995 217650 188092 192562c Other sardines 33833 53498 55701 62396 46259 112988 88552 118947 104556 69896 56255 71714 69696 64304 57497 80598 69773d Hilsa shad 851 833 1098 1769 688 463 4049 9505 8463 4408 10298 12888 7198 5615 3305 4006 6084e Other shads 7999 8040 9639 10473 12355 12445 8422 7884 8900 15513 13980 9592 9758 18309 13837 16643 21407f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 18681 32512 24927 20171 19604 26702 43734 33792 33293 38056 44527 31689 39078 58423 63314 108591 102562ii Thrissocles 8119 9325 14695 11417 11858 13958 12345 10354 18098 10526 15141 17242 19952 14257 20259 20689 21696g Other clupeids 25992 26947 27905 24795 29226 37628 47532 56024 60922 44255 40381 36356 39871 28328 27620 35398 403105 Bombay duck 83793 77204 79276 72168 52486 67112 68414 105592 94002 90138 136029 139737 100589 139951 88696 104367 1220446 Lizard fishes 2276 3589 5614 8038 7374 5978 18652 22289 7769 13901 16931 17503 16876 17917 19380 22747 231917 Half beaks and Full 1113 1026 1855 1047 723 1187 4779 2108 1229 2507 1898 1645 1715 1964 2755 2721 17838 Flying fishes 4073 4302 3011 9693 1596 6880 1205 2171 1744 855 1954 2859 1442 3506 2221 1702 29729 Perches 139 120 194 185 252 357 430 510 476 571 1511 652 897 714 977 1308 1439a Rock cods 598 862 1183 1138 1253 1498 2543 2367 1293 2377 3570 2529 2403 2630 3464 3788 5176b Snappers 638 861 1070 1079 1258 1373 1956 2305 1515 2279 2754 1818 2384 2138 3636 5371 6568c Pig face breams 700 983 1097 1144 1272 1148 1866 1868 1268 1800 2385 1544 1690 1598 3820 3959 3064d Threadfin breams 3809 5795 11561 10609 11493 18743 33004 30197 13980 30008 48539 36058 33477 25862 37035 41829 59246e Other perches 3382 4643 6429 7456 8042 9116 14815 16875 10203 14399 19758 15026 17151 16850 21438 28527 3587910 Goatfishes 1874 3583 3204 6599 9473 5884 10288 4525 9148 3788 4838 4887 4060 5344 8520 9597 680111 Threadfins 2491 3547 10345 11309 10206 13331 16606 20192 21286 5901 8095 8688 9071 6145 9884 8499 1125412 Croakers 26715 35851 64812 58639 61254 126986 121442 170095 134580 148711 150132 145868 133938 120206 126569 144353 16031813 Ribbon fishes 26170 32151 27621 45991 37653 55236 66231 61162 67898 44580 83165 74730 65289 42494 50344 40100 5482814 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 16549 22057 18975 21544 28829 27192 20464 21779 23422 29139 17328 23759 10596 2941 3612 3231 3885b Scads 3518 3464 3427 3459 3467 3732 3810 3618 3648 3543 3606 3535 3617 6897 7366 11287 13595c Leather-jackets 3231 2506 2183 2299 3112 2977 4032 3623 3464 4397 3541 3515 4423 5077 5884 10415 9427i Trachynotus 130 303 342 246 290 333 159 76 59 46 41 34 264 568 851 1002 1232d Other Carangids 221 624 1124 332 354 319 485 8003 9925 8154 4789 13475 14921 23833 24581 29301 33612i Coryphaena 228 252 264 69 235 239 304 464 293 302 167 184 163 187 216 261 294ii Elacate 194 335 549 474 441 377 252 493 493 501 433 624 1315 2174 3017 3750 455215 Silverbellies 7 8 13 128 85 40 3 1 8 14 24 33 35 38 45 52 645a Leiognathus 37198 45409 77752 55320 49857 74801 75338 61305 67673 54616 68310 86060 83614 106304 111111 139915 90949b Gazza 146 143 276 249 378 406 485 500 430 378 393 716 502 414 348 1066 107716 Big jawed jumper 5550 4879 8210 10523 12609 22201 13999 17720 17818 15875 12579 7151 11225 12347 20117 28434 2120217 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 8604 7087 8192 10648 9399 11397 10563 12704 15342 13934 15052 14843 14162 14718 19586 17345 23797b Silver pomfret 19657 17424 18435 21919 18257 20980 23165 23599 39782 36700 47973 45719 41314 53849 52396 58815 48548c Chinese pomfrets 155 65 92 210 164 186 131 149 131 185 194 120 106 905 535 425 79418 Mackerela Indian mackerel 32926 93357 144172 212320 117783 87253 40394 48408 68838 67901 95405 75609 55572 51292 29419 32016 43529b Other mackerels 8 9 10 9 14 25 15 29 21 27 83 21 31 34 45 49 6219 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 6703 5833 6643 9750 11242 9869 10989 9604 10346 12471 10807 14364 13519 12994 20654 18587 19010b S. guttatus 6204 5798 6785 8764 10476 10737 9888 10222 10787 9793 11601 16384 13329 15057 14146 17812 18084c S. lineolatus 97 94 170 265 291 175 216 124 190 232 219 278 247 303 297 482 491d Acanthocybium spp. 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 67 7920 Tunniesa E. affinis 2378 2126 1709 3951 3852 3119 7378 7426 14157 9552 8049 17656 13520 12008 12262 9752 12159b Auxis spp. 441 280 316 715 841 647 1382 1493 2975 1649 1588 3567 2485 1384 2122 1903 2076c K. pelamis 422 591 515 697 496 928 1147 1662 1204 1095 1773 2396 1557 1895 2532 2946 3710d T. tonggol 42 49 46 64 55 79 107 140 141 113 164 288 177 166 209 200 440e Other tunnies 635 579 600 892 912 1237 1504 1565 2222 1719 3310 3720 3427 3092 4447 1895 257721 Bill fishes 229 229 227 229 230 245 250 238 241 234 240 233 1310 615 2127 1090 128522 Barracudas 1609 2086 1656 1397 2486 3559 5059 2286 2498 2841 4152 2701 1799 2600 3763 3929 389723 Mullets 3230 2784 3794 6138 2438 4639 7158 5277 3912 3366 4565 2264 2573 3102 3543 4805 494224 Unicorn cod 1937 1797 2320 4476 5682 4450 2011 1253 618 260 294 804 1094 571 570 570 307025 Flatfishesa Halibut 22 24 36 37 42 33 36 33 34 38 40 55 65 747 2097 2513 1971b Flounders 274 270 426 414 396 428 449 415 440 403 415 402 457 1780 141 504 660c Soles 11444 12272 23575 22615 17191 22290 28732 18520 16662 17777 22797 19567 19706 22558 36020 39279 6093626 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 70636 74352 149097 127745 127098 211980 173973 217287 185668 151038 204217 172444 164422 130670 166270 175934 193091b Non-Penaeid prawns 32525 34705 44251 101880 112599 92029 76595 111729 110951 103876 71768 87959 83318 86452 69799 67097 85891c Lobsters 138 192 351 467 568 674 821 4275 3681 1760 2480 1689 1001 2254 2501 1915 4640d Crabs 3509 5690 14967 12572 16365 17225 21173 26968 29382 29856 20499 27259 25926 42004 37063 28927 43433e Stomatopods 112 182 284 3572 957 1992 3160 5024 1885 1958 2606 7086 26738 28043 43831 32919 4448527 Molluscs 6 6 12 17 12 11 10 25 30 33 27 35 37 21 32 66 6728 Cephalopods 1561 799 1809 2550 1591 2096 5413 12176 17750 16451 25599 23824 16739 14686 23321 26485 30402Total 904 2 9 0 9 1 35 7 0 13 0 27 4 3 13 9 3 65 7 1 17 6 61 0 1 4 66 4 65 1 4 6 51 6 4 17 1 1 03 6 16 3 0 50 0 1 52 0 44 4 1 69 4 66 7 1 65 8 2 36 1 5 11 5 4 9 1 6 7 06 3 8 17 3 4 16 4 1 87 2 84 9 1 98 4 47 5  Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  83 Table A : Continued.  Species 198 5 19 8 6 19 8 7 1 98 8 1 98 9 1 9 90 1 9 9 1 19 9 2 19 9 3 1 99 4 1 99 5 1 9 96 1 9 9 7 19 9 8 19 9 9 2 00 01 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 49767 50204 43962 53234 44414 36118 47145 67549 68499 82325 84006 75707 74820 67014 70166 60609b Skates 4999 4954 5926 3487 3402 2439 1826 2972 2251 7906 6965 8734 8547 14623 10891 8624c Rays 24113 24356 33341 27321 31443 36683 27749 25186 28780 38926 39763 38600 38886 44482 44976 386902 Eels 11596 11136 8640 5996 7216 7224 9697 8662 9577 14324 11168 16190 17892 25989 55982 180663 Catfishes 64825 78270 60550 91569 78762 56381 57816 53627 62159 103579 95781 107167 114783 108077 101789 1126054 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 18244 15153 17011 13593 15992 13904 16708 18360 18112 26621 24250 26352 27986 31332 24015 19027b Oil sardine 122826 80787 101314 131646 265780 266131 186537 109761 100924 96574 110142 119940 192213 128280 186986 262580c Other sardines 62533 72097 98891 80308 85457 79841 91423 101068 91858 95694 100560 103442 110515 126111 116029 129398d Hilsa shad 9003 3980 4858 2603 15502 15797 29894 26458 33501 37657 45424 53015 51617 47207 37896 40606e Other shads 12283 15706 18121 11550 7830 6796 13676 11044 9540 12413 12631 11470 13123 14956 12198 14778f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 84414 102153 75927 126461 104853 98123 133631 116983 107817 91779 95505 78198 71147 83235 81576 66085ii Thrissocles 29061 28043 32883 37205 24056 23771 36137 52085 33827 24863 25689 21108 22879 27387 22021 17329g Other clupeids 36705 39979 41992 46680 58200 52500 58025 65894 47891 53748 54748 76297 73314 59952 50711 602975 Bombay duck 115271 94376 77163 69504 125666 135268 140754 126233 100868 159900 149253 195192 226464 180261 177967 1641196 Lizard fishes 21356 22263 24498 38523 34543 38525 43629 45000 38860 31282 37763 31670 23049 23792 22925 214667 Half beaks and Full 2196 2018 2104 4000 2648 2831 2944 2724 2616 4130 9291 7270 6720 6383 6790 92258 Flying fishes 1400 1744 1365 4437 14408 1751 6810 5836 2202 3203 2698 2168 2567 1369 956 31539 Perches 1361 1888 2583 2899 3145 3760 4108 4514 4322 3794 3315 3233 3439 3129 5222 8180a Rock cods 5054 4017 6865 7453 8566 6965 9617 12953 16192 13489 11937 9645 7899 13126 6678 6608b Snappers 6348 4143 5746 6286 6100 4463 3672 4531 4984 6197 6457 8570 9083 12068 10163 10900c Pig face breams 3686 4466 3184 4816 3203 6143 8536 7080 10613 7899 7910 7235 7600 16533 14293 19394d Threadfin breams 60869 91262 69799 79841 114506 131589 101656 106047 135053 115937 117031 114577 87838 76940 82809 90110e Other perches 34614 37742 45963 38222 36547 39644 39734 46814 58972 50242 48288 45777 38504 70467 71437 7304510 Goatfishes 8940 12342 16768 43239 35663 34495 54975 27950 21494 35880 36644 35879 34688 36710 36241 3785711 Threadfins 13138 10391 12180 6944 11911 11554 11905 13127 8826 16227 15821 17268 18176 20959 33820 3337712 Croakers 145577 154812 154100 141405 155333 179705 212855 241106 225426 268755 254020 411008 444424 350954 379367 38198713 Ribbon fishes 86698 99029 84339 70151 68155 76734 98838 119663 94096 105319 95872 158104 148950 97830 132854 13126714 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 3740 10279 7596 21451 15758 22449 19705 11538 23494 66712 77186 78393 63193 38258 60152 53585b Scads 8047 43013 16921 39863 63622 69230 89378 102178 61668 44378 38267 28758 36350 59574 55146 52046c Leather-jackets 8996 3917 5804 5166 3577 3380 4520 5572 4258 5322 5947 5224 5703 5509 6484 7515i Trachynotus 1459 1796 1953 2173 2409 2607 2812 3030 3208 3414 8581 7042 4965 4988 4848 3877d Other Carangids 35022 71235 50904 60506 46914 49302 44713 49213 49954 44735 43619 42216 39730 32102 30908 28280i Coryphaena 254 306 235 248 407 281 263 260 283 283 300 296 297 324 428 281ii Elacate 4942 6004 6191 6892 8252 8369 8966 9680 10294 12747 12546 12967 16286 18362 17120 1429215 Silverbellies 499 81 219 1553 1904 1842 3951 4106 1711 1698 1713 1767 1740 1581 1593 1664a Leiognathus 84416 115638 100292 95520 78067 83125 80648 78709 93747 91085 96259 104147 102448 85738 85292 85297b Gazza 703 340 436 405 160 132 283 213 204 2178 2154 2302 2496 2483 3016 146916 Big jawed jumper 36145 22751 18322 17917 10845 13396 14535 9894 6323 13890 16609 20187 20902 22287 18718 1675817 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 15282 15628 20119 21319 20682 20228 21298 15389 18225 25509 26681 27090 28859 30021 33668 32187b Silver pomfret 32184 28552 31026 38738 44381 37679 40319 33989 40993 59074 61534 61752 65733 71100 65730 59734c Chinese pomfrets 208 489 493 519 779 640 211 404 1456 1992 2599 3168 3118 3449 3271 238618 Mackerela Indian mackerel 62375 84020 80720 105659 295986 185027 116761 141902 252565 196990 194826 270313 195643 188377 188377 132606b Other mackerels 68 76 82 86 89 116 108 94 102 141 175 196 206 816 1506 127819 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 16938 24119 18817 21352 22371 16693 17886 25735 21278 35354 38835 31715 33148 35860 31381 32335b S. guttatus 17838 9981 13093 15627 19136 13691 20328 17760 21649 23150 32695 28553 20066 18240 17540 16544c S. lineolatus 512 836 957 1634 1422 1560 1929 2234 2166 4675 4875 4974 5121 4261 3225 2063d Acanthocybium spp. 46 101 159 216 271 181 95 11 12 15 15 15 15 892 430 69220 Tunniesa E. affinis 16962 18761 14590 16105 27297 33954 18884 24773 17957 22232 26620 28992 28070 19768 25383 22876b Auxis spp. 3359 8963 4967 6503 8015 7531 4968 6895 5402 7344 11990 15622 12637 11479 12195 11239c K. pelamis 3429 4276 5761 5071 6022 5799 6317 7302 14990 14378 15530 15666 14938 18834 17543 15595d T. tonggol 1420 495 783 1575 1213 1174 3981 2954 4295 3869 5210 5465 5659 5602 5559 5603e Other tunnies 7159 2663 5441 2929 4422 6141 4303 3016 8431 9970 13092 14093 17038 20546 20261 2066321 Bill fishes 1222 1175 931 946 1205 1288 1001 1573 1958 2069 1964 1811 1762 1705 2505 213122 Barracudas 3436 4629 5819 7945 9373 11826 14177 13208 12131 10427 12943 13559 13688 22086 14799 1385123 Mullets 7724 5176 8059 11644 13724 6663 10833 8303 8141 18401 16605 21853 26723 39605 37969 2918824 Unicorn cod 1049 838 1226 1164 854 472 1716 1410 1141 1073 1025 1351 1498 1795 1352 142625 Flatfishesa Halibut 2653 1750 2562 2471 2535 4315 3770 2922 2598 3752 4565 5930 8368 9843 11615 12496b Flounders 1131 1483 1824 1767 2513 3062 3278 3723 2832 4324 3537 4100 3975 4633 3555 3028c Soles 42420 40891 39906 37312 53211 41608 53042 91132 67117 64743 59385 58501 62814 61805 69574 6784726 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 177985 201056 226512 223229 233016 245821 284469 278055 250832 279780 233923 234923 251630 296449 275400 286404b Non-Penaeid prawns 92314 97060 42228 66544 111025 112105 139949 125796 96366 178602 171352 192816 155889 167732 148101 162725c Lobsters 5752 4287 3667 2258 2385 2672 3307 3086 2418 37341 36016 38563 36484 34055 33471 24937d Crabs 33494 32229 34234 26270 25989 37078 44240 41551 41133 61516 42582 19416 28281 48945 43201 48379e Stomatopods 48477 70755 143634 103249 119560 102685 97981 115541 129509 105636 96061 86695 77060 62312 73531 7070327 Molluscs 51 199 76 69 108 35 163 266 1115 3052 2724 9136 7836 3297 3203 301928 Cephalopods 46217 61683 45747 55673 87446 85389 98719 134345 140741 164771 166389 173730 206553 130368 123511 124642Total 1862 8 0 5 2 0 6 48 3 7 20 1 23 8 0 2 17 8 94 0 2 71 0 24 3 2 6 08 6 79 2 7 34 1 0 4 2 8 0 09 8 9 27 6 19 5 8 3 13 5 28 8 3 08 9 86 1 3 4 57 1 14 3 4 84 0 4 5 3 2 7 42 4 4 33 4 83 1 6 3 31 1 02 2  Appendices  84 Table B : Marine fisheries catch (thousand tonnes) data for the state of Gujarat, 1950-2000.  Species 1950 1 95 1 1 9 5 2 1 9 5 3 1 9 5 4 1 9 5 5 1 9 5 6 1 9 5 7 1 9 5 8 1 9 5 9 1 9 6 0 1 9 6 1 1 9 6 2 1 9 6 3 1 9 6 4 1 9 6 5 1 9 6 6 1 9 6 71 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 2 6 27 142 75 654 683 1151 1835 951 645 4956 1544 9224 4647 5372 2311 2629 1938b Skates 3 3 11 5 53 56 94 151 78 53 408 128 758 382 441 190 216 160c Rays 8 8 46 24 212 221 373 594 308 209 1606 500 2988 1505 1740 748 851 6282 Eels 5 2 3 9 5 5 5 1 5 2 1 0 4 4 0 8 3 9 9 1 4033 731 1929 2940 1003 2398 193 345 661 554 80 51 473 Catfishes 147 76 116 635 718 1148 1378 1273 1991 494 3323 1158 8070 4739 4971 2325 2641 18354 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 8 3 8 8 83 27 89 230 815 502 226 375 228 115 215 368 309 597 632 440b Oil sardine 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c Other sardines 5 9 6 2 58 4 3 3 3 2 9 23 3 2 1 2 3 10 2 7 5 2 3d Hilsa shad 1 2 5 8 1 3 3 3 1 2 5 1 1 0 5 8 958 1099 279 422 476 372 2702 469 1113 2040 1199 662 226 469e Other shads 5 4 0 5 7 2 5 3 7 4 5 4 4 1 1 4 1 6 425 632 1328 1319 4129 2337 3304 1452 2138 1228 2123 2608f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 6 0 64 42 334 50 44 58 4 8 3 7 2 3 1 8 8 8 1 2 3 4 5ii Thrissocles 1 3 8 146 95 774 114 102 133 109 76 33 34 17 27 63 147 229 244 50g Other clupeids 5806 2971 5367 5108 3010 3013 6234 7758 2337 2579 1818 1087 873 1962 1323 5412 6513 52435 Bombay duck 4444 2461 7876 22065 17922 34809 50433 57637 26135 23465 75703 64816 53764 66303 59205 49390 45850 445486 Lizard fishes 46 26 81 227 184 358 185 1 6 7 1 4 7 1 1 0 1 1 6 1 0 2 8 5 7 1 5 2 3 7 19 27 Half beaks and Full 9 9 9 8 7 7 7 6 5 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 18 Flying fishes 4 1 4 3 4 1 3 4 3 1 3 1 32 1 7 1 7 1 7 2 5 3 3 4 1 4 8 5 7 6 5 7 39 Perchesa Rock cods 10 3 52 2 7 9 5 3 5 15 2 4 6 4 2 2 2 5 5b Snappers 13 4 69 3 5 11 7 4 7 20 2 5 8 5 3 3 2 7 7c Pig face breams 10 3 52 2 7 9 5 4 5 15 2 4 6 4 2 2 2 5 5d Threadfin breams 162 38 810 3 132 80 55 85 227 37 56 91 58 28 33 24 86 86e Other perches 129 31 643 2 105 62 43 67 181 29 44 72 46 22 26 19 67 681 0 Goatfishes 94 1 3 1 151 60 147 2 0 8 273 2 2 7 180 1 3 4 1 4 4 1 2 7 1 0 9 9 0 7 0 5 1 32 291 1 Threadfins 9 2 97 72 69 205 3104 2043 5299 1631 2001 4414 3154 720 227 400 136 399 2341 2 Croakers 4067 4773 2064 6979 13887 6996 7827 4974 3095 1444 2248 1327 4388 2516 2461 1635 1566 14211 3 Ribbon fishes 1970 862 957 8007 3526 1820 2253 1898 1867 406 197 538 279 475 336 647 1183 14491 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 9 9 9 21 52 48 210 28 33 10 14 77 72 125 112 931 922 876b Scads 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c Leather-jackets 3 8 6 4 0 9 3 8 4 3 2 4 2 9 4 2 9 7 3 0 3 301 95 83 452 251 137 206 158 37 2 9 2 2i Trachynotus 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1d Other Carangids 2 0 2 2 2 0 1 7 1 6 1 6 1 6 1 6 1 6 1 3 1 6 1 6 1 6 16 13 2 7 4 4 5 8i Coryphaena 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1ii Elacate 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 5 Silverbellies 151 433 2 8 3 1 3 5 29 2 4 18 1 6 1 3 9 8 6 3 4 4 5 6 6a Leiognathusb Gazza1 6 Big jawed jumper 38 108 7 1 3 4 7 7 6 7 2 9 1 4 2 1 1777 1 6 1 2 1 0 8 9 5 5 1 3 2 12 7 1 1 3 01 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 54 7 108 480 425 536 253 656 525 834 1484 748 681 911 888 834 760 703b Silver pomfret 286 41 585 2611 2306 2909 1374 3561 2854 4526 8060 4058 3700 4953 4820 4529 4130 3819c Chinese pomfrets 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 7 9 8 4 7 9 6 7 6 0 6 1 62 6 0 5 6 45 4 8 4 3 3 7 3 2 2 5 1 9 1 3 7b Other mackerels 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 1 1 1 1 7 9 19 11 11 13 20 15 8 19 9 21 29 30b S. guttatus 22 23 46 33 211 255 554 309 289 366 593 433 237 572 270 624 842 866c S. lineolatusd Acanthocybium spp. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 5 5 5 6 8 11 13 5 9 11 19 24 8 32 13 3 2 2b Auxis spp. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c K. pelamis 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1d T. tonggol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1e Other tunnies 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 2 4 5 8 9 3 12 5 1 1 12 1 Bill fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 2 Barracudas 8 8 8 2 8 4 5 6 6 8 6 1 0 6 1 2 4 120 7 3 1 3 8 3 3 3 12 3 Mullets 5 1 5 4 5 1 4 3 39 177 194 526 424 518 636 529 484 459 302 390 663 10242 4 Unicorn cod 738 1716 1068 4106 2489 823 346 55 699 12 1 8 21 2 7 9 1 8 1 52 5 Flatfishesa Halibut 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1b Floundersc Soles 6 9 73 452 32 20 58 105 100 38 1401 6 4 8 8 24 42 86 982 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 5831 6146 6147 7276 10878 6982 10238 16912 5030 8431 4803 2979 1494 1721 1331 3983 4138 3662b Non-Penaeid prawns 13682 14425 14426 17075 25526 16382 24056 18461 16851 7 1 8 3 358 189 851 2005 838 515 455 419c Lobsters 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 1 8 19 10 3 5 2 2 4 0 57 11d Crabs 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1e Stomatopods 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 7 Molluscs 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 8 Cephalopods 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1Total 459 08 42 9 7 5 4 9 6 0 4 8 2 8 0 4 8 8 8 9 9 8 7 2 4 8 1 1 2 7 3 6 1 2 7 5 2 1 7 2 7 7 6 6 0 1 3 0 1 2 2 8 3 9 8 8 3 4 8 9 4 7 4 7 9 8 7 1 9 8 9 7 1 1 7 7 8 2 7 7 7 6 9 3 7 3 1 2 1  Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  85 Table B : Continued. Species 196 8 1 9 6 9 1 9 7 0 1 9 7 1 1 9 7 2 1 9 7 3 1 9 7 4 1 9 7 5 1 9 7 6 1 9 7 7 1 9 7 8 1 9 7 9 1 9 8 0 1 9 8 1 1 9 8 2 1 9 8 3 1 9 8 41 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 2321 2553 6472 6781 7103 3821 11525 11770 7724 17003 12616 5895 14936 12748 14666 9390 9466b Skates 191 210 533 557 584 314 948 969 636 1399 1037 485 1229 1049 1206 766 605c Rays 752 827 2096 2196 2301 1238 3734 3813 2502 5508 4087 1910 4838 4128 4749 5625 52142 Eels 400 153 1552 1242 1746 1920 3961 3540 4616 11773 2970 4510 12390 2971 3806 6186 43113 Catfishes 2233 2426 6384 5487 5977 2805 8856 3513 2965 12283 6457 9019 7608 13939 17025 13980 129764 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 423 565 861 2237 2342 1282 1966 2354 2135 3311 1994 2226 3967 2861 3457 3308 2873b Oil sardine 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3c Other sardines 1 5 9 11 96 7 5 5 9 2 7 2 4 7 8 1 0 1 1 1 3 16 75d Hilsa shad 451 433 616 580 156 47 289 3376 1069 321 52 257 57 16 147 809 71e Other shads 2689 3004 4321 5114 5322 6433 3756 3890 3333 5517 6081 4332 4146 9848 4874 3641 4867f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 5 6 7 8 9 5 1 1 0 8 138 8 9 2 1 6 5 5 2 5 9 0 3 6 0 5 4 1 3 9 4 5 2 1 5358 6240 6980ii Thrissocles 91 133 613 214 113 179 283 123 277 109 674 806 994 1269 4873 3859 2586g Other clupeids 5594 5037 4674 3297 3958 2041 13630 13791 11357 9722 14637 6478 9228 6995 3938 2876 50735 Bombay duck 53085 48867 42992 34958 28885 28355 35065 46669 35885 33255 59481 74809 39712 53668 38371 51053 581446 Lizard fishes 2 3 6 4 7 1 1 1 3 1 1 4 6 0 1816 774 2505 1797 3934 58 129 10 125 150 1101 874 22917 Half beaks and Full 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 10 1 6 21 1 1 1 1 28 Flying fishes 8 0 8 8 9 6 1 0 3 1 1 2 1 2 4 153 1 2 8 1 1 9 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 2 9 7 8 2 7 6 7 1 6 49 Perchesa Rock cods 8 8 26 19 68 103 125 145 204 53 206 52 114 206 151 463 957b Snappers 11 11 34 25 90 138 167 193 273 71 276 71 152 276 202 983 885c Pig face breams 8 8 26 19 68 105 126 146 207 53 208 53 115 209 1 9 0 1 7 6 158d Threadfin breams 132 131 395 293 1067 1629 1967 2281 3218 831 3241 826 1785 3248 2387 1657 6005e Other perches 105 104 314 232 847 1290 1557 1806 2548 660 2568 654 1413 2574 1892 3715 40891 0 Goatfishes 1 8 6 8 6 3 1 2 3 8 3 757 8 5 9 3 10 1 7 7 318 4 3 7 568 3561 1 Threadfins 128 157 1603 3657 2477 4003 8468 12283 8592 366 523 1242 965 2120 4781 4848 53331 2 Croakers 1498 2211 6403 5335 5891 55245 39182 64695 40212 55416 53321 48399 46474 47903 36660 41187 449171 3 Ribbon fishes 1515 1419 1612 1108 1423 950 2158 1135 12497 14423 7572 5185 11612 8156 9465 6377 81911 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 880 730 367 759 229 249 1267 1065 1690 1036 300 599 501 754 335 468 1026b Scads 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 76 3 9c Leather-jackets 1 5 7 204 1 0 5 6 212 92 4 8 11 340 292 449 912 2260 2183 1066 2266i Trachynotus 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1d Other Carangids 7 1 8 6 1 0 1 116 196 1 3 9 8 8 14 2 3 3 1 4 4 5 6 6 2 65 157 427 620i Coryphaena 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1ii Elacate 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 21 5 Silverbellies 7 8 13 128 8 5 4 0 3 1 8 1 4 2 4 3 3 3 5 3 8 4 5 52 645a Leiognathusb Gazza1 6 Big jawed jumper 1 8 8 2 4 7 4 9 0 5 6 6 654 1052 1599 7629 10921 10227 5294 1347 3717 5142 8756 16122 103481 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 714 673 1577 1298 808 716 1597 977 366 1567 2929 1969 2279 3210 2216 3059 3430b Silver pomfret 3873 3658 8569 7051 4384 3896 8671 5306 1984 8511 15902 10690 12377 17433 12034 10179 8941c Chinese pomfrets 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 1 3 1 7 9 1581 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 7 4 2 1 1 3 5 5 6 8 1 0 12 35 2 8 2 5 2 0 16b Other mackerels 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 27 34 35 83 95 141 28 66 56 69 138 105 152 183 2 0 7 2 2 8 134b S. guttatus 809 987 997 2398 2751 4085 785 1909 1625 2020 3998 3041 4389 5324 2706 3891 3890c S. lineolatusd Acanthocybium spp. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 2 1 1 1 1 139 345 288 379 173 251 260 152 799 176 267 928b Auxis spp. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c K. pelamis 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1d T. tonggol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1e Other tunnies 1 1 1 1 8 3 5 54 133 112 147 66 97 100 58 309 81 12 5922 1 Bill fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 653 87 142 2 Barracudas 7 1 3 1 9 2 5 30 26 55 23 8 136 2 0 6 2 8 3 3 2 1 3 4 9 411 408 582 3 Mullets 1468 1007 1793 2604 1311 1530 2085 848 1539 1248 1985 1289 1521 1521 1679 3179 33622 4 Unicorn cod 2 3 3 0 3 7 4 4 5 3 6 1 79 9 6 1 2 0 1 4 5 183 430 833 455 3 9 2 3 2 3 2 5 42 5 Flatfishesa Halibut 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 516 513 584b Floundersc Soles 96 81 124 80 575 1977 2224 4000 3938 956 399 668 3421 4997 3357 1549 84492 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 3211 2610 4241 4446 3103 14390 9594 18847 16040 12233 12406 14690 21188 14867 16567 13775 15219b Non-Penaeid prawns 501 651 1521 220 337 96 241 3376 10912 1749 4867 5746 6046 6455 5647 12042 12048c Lobsters 1 5 1 8 2 3 3 1 3 4 4 9 2 2 7 5 1598 450 406 277 229 817 502 512 1728d Crabs 1 1 3 5 611 1030 8 14 315 3437 920 1347 7323 22568 10420 3874 20428e Stomatopods 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 7016 3066 58132 7 Molluscs 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 12 8 Cephalopods 1 1 3 3 5 1 1 1 8 6 7 3215 2003 3087 9206 5118 3742 4126 5537 3270Total 8389 5 7 9 6 8 4 1 0 2 9 1 3 9 4 9 3 0 8 7 7 7 8 1 4 2 8 1 3 1 6 9 5 7 2 2 2 6 7 4 7 2 0 0 8 8 2 2 2 1 2 1 3 2 3 4 6 1 8 2 2 3 5 9 4 2 3 6 9 7 4 2 7 0 6 0 6 2 4 0 0 5 2 2 4 9 4 9 3 2 9 0 7 6 6  Appendices  86 Table B : Continued. Species 198 5 1 98 6 1 9 8 7 19 8 8 1 9 8 9 19 9 0 1 9 91 1 9 9 2 1 99 3 1 9 9 4 1 99 5 1 9 9 6 19 9 7 1 9 98 1 9 9 9 2 0 001 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 14527 9817 10026 12903 10538 10099 18322 21860 29855 23082 32655 22029 30408 18990 21584 20542b Skates 1122 1196 1188 566 419 414 119 224 428 404 641 6 6 1 6 5 1 5 92 5 9 6 6 23c Rays 3130 2678 3110 2308 3263 9358 4307 3876 2827 2714 4705 4 8 4 7 47 6 7 4 3 27 4353 4 5 502 Eels 4938 5502 2369 1919 3194 2983 4662 3782 3651 4 0 2 4 4 46 4 5021 7035 4377 31911 35083 Catfishes 14977 16072 13747 13283 13575 16899 15078 16155 17816 20168 19106 25749 30014 27268 28 0 7 4 299724 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 7241 4746 6353 3808 4654 3659 5346 5726 5223 5902 4792 2708 3036 3 3 91 3 6 4 6 3 1 30b Oil sardine 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2c Other sardines 128 20 148 19 10 2 5 7 5 23 20 13 15 14 1 4 15d Hilsa shad 364 247 425 675 748 116 1346 1069 175 1185 1893 2774 2732 1 5 07 1 7 1 5 2 2 94e Other shads 5363 5340 3357 2133 3027 3240 3592 3903 3715 4520 3974 2448 3017 2 8 05 2 8 3 0 2 9 81f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 11355 12540 9760 10051 15701 19817 26339 16356 16038 20161 19084 20664 16175 1 0 5 82 12 0 2 1 8 9 42ii Thrissocles 8400 3384 5853 5572 5108 5040 8079 6825 6045 6652 5479 3148 3599 4 1 16 4 6 7 5 3 4 77g Other clupeids 7697 4442 4348 3903 4943 4714 4809 4581 5097 7221 7419 5230 7258 1 0 0 07 12 7 6 7 1 1 7 545 Bombay duck 41624 48563 43813 36385 91774 80404 79106 84114 62526 89794 63892 113229 122614 8 9 9 41 88 4 0 3 8 6 7 636 Lizard fishes 1765 333 454 985 917 3509 4486 1687 2053 2 0 3 7 2 05 6 2 1 2 1 20 8 9 1 8 97 1 9 1 1 1 9 977 Half beaks and Full 3 4 4 4 4 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 48 Flying fishes 5 7 4 9 1 1 1 13 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 29 Perchesa Rock cods 568 330 1323 226 957 520 855 914 1340 1890 1935 761 766 6 96 7 0 1 7 33b Snappers 1080 348 395 366 673 513 120 187 454 734 750 295 297 2 70 2 7 2 2 84c Pig face breams 64 66 58 84 71 110 60 370 401 566 578 228 229 2 08 2 0 9 2 19d Threadfin breams 6262 8408 2935 3903 3592 4987 7016 5737 8169 11552 11820 4648 4682 4 2 53 4 2 8 5 4 4 78e Other perches 6345 4484 3646 2932 4702 3555 4947 5467 6646 9459 9657 3789 3808 6144 9311 103981 0 Goatfishes 549 121 442 626 2156 655 372 1226 2147 2 1 3 0 2 15 0 2 2 1 8 21 8 4 1 9 84 1 9 9 8 2 0 891 1 Threadfins 6933 4522 3380 3010 3820 3790 4409 5375 3722 3 7 9 6 3 93 5 4166 4700 2762 2520 33181 2 Croakers 49848 42161 39498 33950 50673 57246 98768 118054 98019 145321 121056 275774 320151 240387 291990 2897891 3 Ribbon fishes 18798 29336 19664 15599 24689 25494 29933 43531 39899 46648 36171 96641 84198 2 9 5 10 59 7 7 6 3 4 9 921 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 629 1665 1033 1339 2355 2188 3960 2342 3286 6459 6940 6 9 9 0 69 9 8 6 5 07 6 5 6 5 6 9 15b Scads 1 1 3 1 25 6 19 10 1 20 21 2 1 2 1 20 2 0 21c Leather-jackets 1639 1349 1288 1105 819 639 1433 752 797 1885 2002 975 1252 9 57 2 2 1 3 2 8 68i Trachynotus 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 6 6 6 6 6 6d Other Carangids 896 416 1090 836 976 899 811 1292 1278 2743 2947 2 9 6 8 29 7 2 2 7 63 2 7 8 7 2 9 36i Coryphaena 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2ii Elacate 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 28 31 3 1 3 1 29 2 9 311 5 Silverbellies 499 81 219 1553 1904 1842 3951 4106 1711 1 6 9 8 1 71 3 1 7 6 7 17 4 0 1 5 81 1 5 9 3 1 6 64a Leiognathusb Gazza1 6 Big jawed jumper 25433 9356 10524 6424 4513 3926 5042 3958 1855 3 6 1 3 4 93 4 7452 7628 6 9 30 6 9 8 0 7 2 951 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 2397 3681 2931 2645 1196 842 2230 1800 1802 2183 2321 3252 4753 2439 4540 4566b Silver pomfret 11208 8021 7303 9222 9754 6784 8788 8499 10245 10736 10709 14165 15778 11783 14485 13107c Chinese pomfrets 75 180 51 10 12 1 1 11 1 1 11 10 8 9 9 8 8 81 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 12 13 5 24 40 7 49 119 83 8 3 8 5 8 5 8 6 80 8 0 84b Other mackerels 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 1305 3840 2327 1476 2661 2070 2620 2694 3419 3939 5847 2862 2393 1 9 22 2 2 0 3 2 6 74b S. guttatus 5349 1874 3342 2112 3438 1827 4241 5229 8600 8849 13136 6430 5376 4 3 17 4 9 4 8 6 0 08c S. lineolatusd Acanthocybium spp. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 2768 579 549 414 283 169 1089 283 611 6 9 5 1 03 7 1 0 4 4 10 4 5 9 72 9 8 1 1 0 33b Auxis spp. 2 217 5 70 215 259 166 152 126 1 9 2 28 6 2 8 8 2 8 9 2 68 2 7 1 2 85c K. pelamis 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1d T. tonggol 52 3 6 21 2 1 1 8 1 8 12 2031 2924 2 3 2 8 3 47 4 3 4 9 9 35 0 3 3 2 57 3 2 8 6 3 4 61e Other tunnies 4718 441 2877 641 1804 2612 1812 432 5096 3 7 4 3 5 58 4 5 6 2 4 56 3 1 5 2 36 5 2 8 2 5 5 642 1 Bill fishes 25 16 146 4 20 74 62 179 154 1 5 4 15 7 1 5 8 1 5 8 1 47 1 4 8 1 562 2 Barracudas 84 23 34 198 557 429 1068 562 373 1 3 4 6 2 36 6 3 3 8 2 43 8 8 5 0 10 5 3 9 1 57742 3 Mullets 4544 3044 4364 7595 11064 3920 4200 3206 2709 3187 4072 6973 9938 9 0 29 9 0 9 5 9 5 052 4 Unicorn cod 1 7 6 10 2 31 58 15 4 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 5 Flatfishesa Halibut 1132 308 273 392 495 352 729 446 724 7 1 8 72 5 7 4 8 7 3 6 6 69 6 7 4 7 04b Floundersc Soles 3893 1623 3852 2071 2408 3112 6843 5381 3811 3 7 8 2 3 81 7 3 9 3 8 38 7 7 3 5 22 3 5 4 8 3 7 082 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 17521 20362 23161 22261 21353 28226 36597 41199 27937 54179 48340 31339 31894 65390 73438 76127b Non-Penaeid prawns 9945 14183 9861 11245 47713 57367 72388 74472 50933 69657 74541 41828 37522 3 4 0 88 34 3 3 7 3 5 8 85c Lobsters 1029 665 1162 906 1061 589 983 973 1022 9 2 6 84 7 783 680 6 33 6 5 3 699d Crabs 13206 6505 6428 5637 5062 11396 10443 7525 3329 9815 14380 2026 2427 1556 2 1 5 7 2 4 99e Stomatopods 5268 4831 6141 3488 3062 2717 5511 6869 2907 2 8 8 5 2 91 2 3 0 0 3 29 5 7 2 6 87 2 7 0 6 2 8 282 7 Molluscs 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 571 665 6 952 8 Cephalopods 6360 9744 9851 4060 10792 7803 18558 18569 20305 34577 24232 29291 34296 23573 30476 34573Total 333 3 2 0 2 9 7 87 7 27 5 1 8 2 2 4 10 1 2 3 8 2 8 17 3 9 72 3 7 5 1 7 5 10 5 44 1 3 4 4 7 2 31 4 64 0 4 3 6 5 9 5 72 3 78 0 1 1 8 8 4 28 2 6 6 6 1 9 92 8 05 1 4 1 7 5 8 54 3  Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  87 Table C : Marine fisheries catch (thousand tonnes) data for the state of Goa, 1950-2000. Species 1950 1 9 5 1 1 9 5 2 1 9 5 3 1 9 5 4 19 5 5 19 5 6 1 95 7 1 95 8 1 9 59 1 9 6 0 1 9 6 1 1 9 6 2 1 9 6 3 1 9 6 4 1 9 6 5 1 9 6 6 1 9 6 71 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 6 13 1 0 3 7 5 4 7 1 88 120 59b Skates 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 3 1c Rays 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 7 1 0 1 3 17 23 112 Eels 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 13 Catfishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 14 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1b Oil sardine 1 6 1 6 1 6 1 6 1 6 1 6 1 6 1 6 1 6 23 1 75 1 4 3 1 3 2 3 3 33 39 16c Other sardines 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 20 1 55 1 3 2 7 2 8 2 9 29 34 14d Hilsa shad 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 7 2 4 4 4 4 5 2e Other shads 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 2 1ii Thrissocles 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 13 1 2 3 3 3 3 1g Other clupeids 7 6 7 6 7 6 7 6 7 6 7 6 7 6 7 6 76 276 841 81 1 5 8 1 5 3 1 4 0 127 130 485 Bombay duck 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 16 Lizard fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 17 Half beaks and Full 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 18 Flying fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 19 Perchesa Rock cods 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1b Snappers 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1c Pig face breams 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1d Threadfin breams 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1e Other perches 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 11 0 Goatfishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 11 1 Threadfins 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 11 2 Croakers 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 11 3 Ribbon fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 11 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1b Scads 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1c Leather-jackets 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1i Trachynotusd Other Carangids 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1i Coryphaenaii Elacate1 5 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1b Gazza 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 11 6 Big jawed jumper 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 11 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1b Silver pomfret 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1c Chinese pomfrets 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 11 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 6 4 0 7 4 8 0 9 4 1 2 1 3 2 16168 23264 11811b Other mackerels1 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1b S. guttatus 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1c S. lineolatus 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1d Acanthocybium spp.2 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1b Auxis spp. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1c K. pelamis 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1d T. tonggol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1e Other tunnies 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 12 1 Bill fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 12 2 Barracudas 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 12 3 Mullets 1 9 1 9 1 9 1 9 1 9 1 9 1 9 1 9 19 1 38 47 8 7 8 0 6 9 57 51 152 4 Unicorn cod 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 12 5 Flatfishesa Halibut 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 3 4 6 3b Flounders 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1c Soles 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 1 11 1 4 4 9 3 1 4 1 191 275 1402 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 8 64 5 9 6 1 9 0 2 8 4 378 545 277b Non-Penaeid prawns 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 9 1 3 1 7 21 28 14c Lobsters 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1d Crabs 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1e Stomatopods 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 4 4 4 5 22 7 Molluscs 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 12 8 Cephalopods 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 11 1 1 3 3 3 3 2Total 220 2 2 0 2 2 0 2 2 0 2 2 0 2 2 0 2 2 0 22 0 22 0 3 94 1 4 3 9 4 5 0 4 6 3 5 8 8 1 9 1 3 0 0 3 1 7 1 8 6 2 4 6 0 0 1 2 4 6 0  Appendices  88 Table C : Continued. Species 1968 1 9 69 1 9 7 0 1 9 7 1 1 9 7 2 1 9 7 3 1 9 7 4 1 9 7 5 1 9 7 6 1 9 7 7 1 9 7 8 1 9 7 9 1 9 8 0 1 9 8 1 1 9 8 2 1 9 8 3 1 9 8 41 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 88 109 506 1615 934 436 571 797 1349 810 1085 1646 1041 1295 653 897 729b Skates 2 2 11 34 19 8 11 15 27 16 21 31 20 2 5 2 4 2 4 2 4c Rays 17 21 97 308 178 82 109 152 256 153 207 314 199 247 242 59 2942 Eels 1 1 4 9 4 3 2 108 9 6 9 1 84 54 8 28 22 6 403 Catfishes 1 110 318 718 1062 612 621 2302 1311 1438 2063 1316 1621 3246 2791 2173 18264 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 1 3 11 13 22 35 83 32 54 32 80 124 124 187 78 80 163b Oil sardine 21 1 4 4 0 1152 2023 3899 3479 2229 7539 1389 819 1435 3080 2374 7877 5781 6091 1831c Other sardines 19 1283 2737 73 2226 1292 1241 3921 11132 4126 5286 2512 1803 2377 1009 721 2668d Hilsa shad 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 8 2 2 2 2e Other shads 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 14 14 27 1 7 5 1f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 1 33 35 45 126 148 9 4 31 2 0 9 5 1 2 9 250 112 24 477 376ii Thrissocles 2 1 0 5 8 4 1 6 2 1 2 3 6 4 86 123 291 297 1342 926 781 614 2240 1119 1589g Other clupeids 52 48 37 264 1 9 5 122 292 420 669 528 662 384 303 353 284 402 5485 Bombay duck 1 1 2 2 4 6 8 10 46 20 28 9 12 1 7 13 1 26 Lizard fishes 1 4 4 9 4 3 2 254 39 374 425 162 280 1038 579 771 10577 Half beaks and Full 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 13 57 13 6 2 10 32 48 Flying fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 19 Perchesa Rock cods 1 1 4 9 4 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 4 7 6 597b Snappers 1 1 4 9 4 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 4 7 3 1c Pig face breams 1 1 4 9 4 3 2 2 9 16 23 6 7 1 3 1 7 2 3 2 7d Threadfin breams 1 2 1 9 7 7 45 5 7 35 226 368 554 148 176 825 628 1799 1525e Other perches 1 2 2 2 8 5 49 5 9 39 248 404 606 162 193 903 663 327 2311 0 Goatfishes 1 1 4 2 6 1 5 16 61 130 1 0 2 8 1 6 1 4 2 21 88 7 6 6 4 5 51 1 Threadfins 1 1 15 128 49 35 79 106 5 0 2 2 9 14 21 1 4 7 11 2 Croakers 1 82 363 906 1059 455 1576 5133 4151 4353 4954 2321 2155 2364 3304 3850 24071 3 Ribbon fishes 1 128 61 23 12 49 117 356 1126 456 517 557 1092 708 1084 1163 5231 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 1 2 1 9 5 3 8 8 5 8 8 7 7 4 1008 1080 796 1166 1850 1365 7 3 0 117 9 8 82 405b Scads 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 7 8 152c Leather-jackets 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 4 103 45 57 142 71 46 63 18 3 7i Trachynotusd Other Carangids 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 53 193 1077 585 1433 1035 1619i Coryphaenaii Elacate1 5 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 1 450 1244 1333 1085 404 2535 1017 1409 717 1071 1371 2424 3035 1448 1907 2384b Gazza 1 1 4 9 4 3 2 2 5 5 5 5 8 12 6 9 111 6 Big jawed jumper 1 7 52 43 427 452 666 318 531 587 674 453 865 1204 1389 2274 11281 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 1 6 45 162 95 51 137 138 126 371 447 171 290 153 414 213 162b Silver pomfret 1 2 11 43 23 13 34 34 31 92 111 44 72 28 96 223 296c Chinese pomfrets 1 1 4 9 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 391 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 17965 22806 14818 35770 20560 7734 8368 6791 6466 7774 3460 4464 2453 4078 2731 241 2933b Other mackerels1 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 1 23 25 76 48 47 201 154 349 150 493 778 512 463 118 282 44b S. guttatus 1 8 9 28 17 17 74 57 129 56 182 288 190 171 547 510 352c S. lineolatus 1 2 2 5 3 3 14 11 24 10 34 54 35 32 1 0 1 1 7 8 2 4 8d Acanthocybium spp.2 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 17 81 231 566 268 146 5 21 123b Auxis spp. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 17 49 121 57 31 1 4 26c K. pelamis 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1d T. tonggol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 10 28 68 32 18 1 2 15e Other tunnies 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 1 Bill fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 7 9 1 5 8 2342 2 Barracudas 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 171 39 29 7 262 3 Mullets 12 4 3 4 1 1 1 68 3 2 9 209 6 72 49 22 15 302 92 24 1342 4 Unicorn cod 1 7 6 1 1 8 4 5 8 9 7 7 7 7 9 9 1 1 1 12 5 Flatfishesa Halibut 4 6 7 9 1 5 5 7 5 5 1 1 1 2 2 8 3 7 2 2 1 7 24 7 3b Flounders 1 1 4 9 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 3 3 3c Soles 214 271 446 547 836 253 350 27 215 525 634 1389 1847 1067 887 1209 33202 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 420 534 2349 2384 2121 2088 2585 2967 7300 2249 2506 2480 2610 3285 5019 11055 6967b Non-Penaeid prawns 21 2 6 7 5 3 3 3 1 1 0 4 0 3 4 4 7 5 3 38 40 5 1 5 8 7 0 8 1 9 0 1 0 0c Lobsters 1 1 4 9 4 3 2 10 5 11 20 9 25 13 35 11 9d Crabs 1 1 7 26 8 16 46 115 458 299 242 644 856 772 1300 1052 1586e Stomatopods 3 3 15 68 19 37 107 268 1069 699 566 1501 1866 3186 5038 3800 66452 7 Molluscs 1 1 4 9 4 3 2 17 22 25 18 26 30 13 24 59 592 8 Cephalopods 3 3 1 1 3 4 1 5 2 1 23 145 201 232 170 243 266 125 214 527 527Total 188 88 27 5 5 9 2 4 8 8 3 4 7 9 7 6 3 6 1 2 5 1 8 8 8 8 2 3 4 4 1 3 5 0 0 4 4 1 9 6 2 2 9 6 7 7 3 2 5 3 3 3 0 4 6 6 2 9 3 8 8 4 1 3 9 8 4 0 8 4 9 4 5 2 2 6 4 6 2 0 6  Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  89 Table C : Continued. Species 198 5 19 8 6 1 9 87 1 98 8 19 8 9 1 9 90 1 99 1 19 9 2 19 9 3 1 9 9 4 1 99 5 19 9 6 19 9 7 1 9 98 19 9 9 2 0 001 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 302 925 193 417 87 235 203 270 557 285 56 3 675 1462 1044 846 1778b Skates 2 5 2 3 24 39 4 9 51 5 0 5 2 3 4 15 2 4 25 48 30 68 11c Rays 184 91 43 49 66 22 13 70 2 6 1 9 31 81 66 79 532 Eels 6 7 17 13 1 0 4 4 5 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 43 Catfishes 2442 534 1957 6146 10955 2952 1378 288 1250 1021 2188 202 1103 1164 1436 12254 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 457 342 198 335 102 104 236 511 231 2 3 3 19 7 2 0 3 2 5 2 2 37 2 3 5 2 34b Oil sardine 4309 551 9869 16672 13515 12537 27581 4728 884 214 68 1331 6205 9860 17942 18571c Other sardines 985 2388 7025 3677 1312 4708 8317 15279 2096 3 5 2 9 4 18 0 55 4 6 83 9 9 9356 3887 1675d Hilsa shad 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1e Other shads 2 1 4 4 4 4 5 6 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 165 829 68 23 427 31 239 50 75 8 3 7 8 88 446 5 18 26ii Thrissocles 3020 4379 953 7588 385 324 3828 16280 222 2 2 8 19 5 205 1039 13 43 58g Other clupeids 803 1008 365 1430 1562 191 802 1580 328 5346 1359 2212 17 2 2 663 523 10105 Bombay duck 1 0 8 7 6 4 3 4 6 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 66 Lizard fishes 651 335 1351 644 1292 295 427 832 238 223 19 2 2 0 1 2 4 2 2 69 2 9 8 2 727 Half beaks and Full 129 118 22 35 10 32 75 48 2 2 10 10 2 2 0 0 3 6 6 4 56 5 6 2 6698 Flying fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 19 Perchesa Rock cods 297 3 1 3 6 9 4 5 3 4 3 25 5 4 4 4b Snappers 113 5 7 7 1 7 3 5 51 6 3 8 2 6 6 92 74 751 168 1 27 1 5 3 150c Pig face breams 33 5 8 89 6 6 4 5 2 2 2 2 1 1 12 3 2 2 2d Threadfin breams 1042 1758 2697 61 39 7 26 19 8 190 267 3598 966 8 38 11 1 2 1184e Other perches 454 318 746 852 1500 405 610 1327 1107 1116 650 4492 624 2 36 44 710 Goatfishes 4 5 3 1 23 3 3 52 42 2 8 1 6 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 211 Threadfins 7 54 53 5 5 66 86 10 1 1 2 2 9 6 9 8 9 3 1 0 6 139 1547 802 49512 Croakers 3308 5205 3553 3110 2672 1289 2408 1995 1043 1804 1287 2026 6689 6318 5885 537013 Ribbon fishes 1485 1545 2293 3738 421 364 620 4196 1431 1 6 8 2 1 62 2 18 8 1 25 8 6 2679 149 146014 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 154 173 420 3985 32 9 8 2234 1386 9 9 2 285 2 6 7 115 192 308 162 64 1435b Scads 1282 289 144 5033 35 3 2 1633 1 36 9 7 9 1 13 3 4 25 63 143 1 15 1 3 4 134c Leather-jackets 55 40 36 68 4 0 7 301 348 7 1 0 6 14 30 23 28 219i Trachynotusd Other Carangids 1601 3148 745 2331 20 3 9 1513 4364 6747 1523 2674 1877 3408 4093 1 5 67 15 4 9 1 5 42i Coryphaenaii Elacate15 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 1098 1951 1214 2588 830 435 1360 947 70 226 161 1581 7347 2204 1372 2777b Gazza 6 11 7 17 6 4 13 12 2 4 4 4 5 2 2 216 Big jawed jumper 3100 4007 939 1630 525 512 846 713 191 1 9 5 183 192 529 5 87 6 5 1 5 9417 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 752 232 960 1608 1978 1551 431 349 248 3 3 9 67 5 0 8 650 9 49 12 0 4 1234b Silver pomfret 315 60 128 243 157 174 96 145 118 2 4 2 55 4 6 1 619 938 737 6 72c Chinese pomfrets 17 1 5 13 11 1 0 7 2 9 11 1 0 1 9 10 11 1 2 1118 Mackerela Indian mackerel 5957 605 6189 12263 66768 30222 3966 10980 72711 38902 36758 39299 23898 20390 19721 16932b Other mackerels19 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 16 144 384 236 121 602 1064 2228 111 1489 391 464 838 1319 665 1013b S. guttatus 971 706 507 295 163 114 159 148 272 1173 183 155 218 1 74 141 215c S. lineolatus 30 9 3 7 7 4 39 48 9 5 8 5 6 15 85 0 10 6 3 8 2 1 895 215 144 201 1 61 131 199d Acanthocybium spp.20 Tunniesa E. affinis 200 77 62 29 48 1 23 25 1 3 9 9 3 6 3 4 4 7 44 5 5 2 9 7 4 3 7 82 8 5 3 930b Auxis spp. 43 49 355 481 42 45 8 1 1 2 2 107 247 20 9 2 1 6 2 6 7 2 52 2 4 9 2 48c K. pelamis 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1d T. tonggol 2 3 2 3 23 36 3 4 28 15 20 81 8 1 6 9 7 1 8 8 83 8 2 82e Other tunnies 1 1 1 1 8 3 7 53 8 7 124 8 8 8 9 7 5 7 7 9 6 90 8 9 8921 Bill fishes 11 8 7 7 7 7 7 9 1 0 7 7 6 6 8 7 7 722 Barracudas 29 93 1 1 5 3 1 42 70 61 42 46 4 0 41 3 9 26 14 1423 Mullets 155 65 50 23 43 33 13 38 5 6 4 20 11 29 58 7424 Unicorn cod 1 4 1 6 19 2 5 3 4 18 2 5 3 7 3 3 2 8 1 9 2 2 2 8 19 1 8 1825 Flatfishesa Halibut 123 29 3 3 4 4 4 5 3 4 4 2 5 4 4 4b Flounders 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 3 4 4 2 5 4 4 4c Soles 4289 3516 2369 1893 1374 904 1684 2089 5048 6252 4470 1775 4567 3246 2604 369226 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 5057 6260 8230 6206 9515 4148 7067 7028 3565 6471 6646 6149 6728 4746 3221 4140b Non-Penaeid prawns 11 3 115 1 21 13 3 1 7 5 1 87 18 6 1 9 9 1 3 8 1 2 6 10 9 1 1 4 1 3 7 1 52 1 6 9 1 54c Lobsters 33 5 109 13 12 11 9 2 6 2952 2110 47 932 4 4 4d Crabs 2588 3900 3302 778 674 1251 951 778 1441 1 2 9 6 1 09 3 11 2 0 13 1 7 1430 846 1459e Stomatopods 9481 16878 19785 23313 16149 9304 15503 28865 38311 28 4 5 4 1 8 73 2 1 35 7 6 90 4 3 1962 21 7 7 1 9 8627 Molluscs 43 191 68 61 99 26 155 258 1107 1337 1417 7396 5756 387 9 5 1 5028 Cephalopods 396 1722 618 550 882 244 1395 2312 9958 12029 9556 9801 8316 3484 858 1352Total 5862 0 6 52 8 1 7 8 8 12 1 0 9 40 2 1 4 38 3 9 79 8 06 9 0 74 8 1 1 56 0 0 1 4 63 9 8 1 22 5 3 6 9 8 22 8 1 1 12 8 5 1 0 95 3 2 8 0 2 37 7 18 7 0 75 6 58  Appendices  90 Table D : Marine fisheries catch (thousand tonnes) data for the Union Territory of Daman and Diu, 1950-2000. Species 1950 1 9 5 1 1 9 5 2 1 9 5 3 1 9 5 4 19 5 5 19 5 6 1 95 7 1 95 8 1 9 59 1 9 6 0 1 9 6 1 1 9 6 2 1 9 6 3 1 9 6 4 1 9 6 5 1 9 6 6 1 9 6 71 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 1 1 1 1 8 9 14 23 12 10 63 19 115 57 67 28 32 24b Skates 1 1 1 1 6 7 11 17 9 7 47 14 86 42 50 21 24 18c Rays 1 1 1 1 6 7 11 18 9 8 48 15 88 44 51 22 25 182 Eels 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 13 Catfishes 2 1 1 9 11 18 21 19 31 9 51 17 120 69 74 34 39 274 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 3 3 3 1 5 12 42 26 12 24 12 6 11 19 16 30 32 22b Oil sardine 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 12 326 26 1 1 96 1 31 6 7 2 1 1 1 3 2 6 38c Other sardines 1 2 9 1 2 9 130 1 1 4 9 9 8 2 66 10 5 1 4 8 30 6 19 13 4 10d Hilsa shad 6 8 6 8 6 8 6 9 69 78 19 30 34 32 193 33 78 140 83 46 16 33e Other shads 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 22 33 71 85 220 123 172 74 111 63 109 134f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1ii Thrissocles 1 1 1 8 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 1g Other clupeids 82 39 76 87 57 56 113 142 44 58 34 20 16 35 24 97 117 955 Bombay duck 56 30 100 332 299 574 813 938 434 466 1247 1056 868 1051 951 787 729 7146 Lizard fishes7 Half beaks and Full 6 3 6 3 6 4 6 4 6 4 6 4 64 5 5 4 6 37 28 1 9 1 0 1 4 5 5 58 Flying fishes9 Perchesa Rock codsb Snappers 2 1 8 5 2 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c Pig face breamsd Threadfin breams 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1e Other perches 1 1 6 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 0 Goatfishes 20 2 5 31 15 40 5 6 72 6 0 48 43 38 3 3 2 8 2 3 1 8 1 3 8 81 1 Threadfins 1 1 1 1 4 63 40 105 33 49 89 63 14 4 8 3 8 51 2 Croakers 12 13 6 24 53 26 29 19 12 7 8 5 16 9 9 6 6 51 3 Ribbon fishes 44 18 22 216 105 54 65 55 56 14 6 16 8 13 10 18 34 421 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 11 11 11b Scads 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c Leather-jackets 6 9 6 9 6 9 7 0 7 0 7 0 7 0 70 22 24 107 59 32 47 36 8 7 5i Trachynotus 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5d Other Carangids 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 3 4 6i Coryphaenaii Elacate 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 5 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1b Gazza1 6 Big jawed jumper1 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 14 2 29 155 151 189 88 228 187 355 524 260 235 310 305 285 259 241b Silver pomfret 56 7 115 609 595 743 343 898 734 1394 2058 1021 923 1216 1199 1117 1017 948c Chinese pomfrets1 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 1 4 9 1 4 9 1 5 0 1 5 0 1 5 0 1 5 1 150 14 6 14 0 135 1 21 1 0 6 9 1 7 6 6 1 4 6 3 1 16b Other mackerels 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 3 2 1 3 1 3 4 4b S. guttatus 1 1 1 1 2 2 5 3 3 4 5 4 2 5 2 6 7 8c S. lineolatusd Acanthocybium spp.2 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 2 2 2 3 5 6 8 3 6 9 11 14 5 19 8 2 2 1b Auxis spp. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c K. pelamis 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1d T. tonggol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1e Other tunnies 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 1 Bill fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 2 Barracudas 1 1 1 5 9 1 2 1 6 2 0 2 3 27 14 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 3 Mullets 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 32 4 Unicorn cod2 5 Flatfishesa Halibut 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1b Floundersc Soles 3 3 22 2 1 4 6 6 2 104 1 1 1 1 1 3 5 62 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 36 36 39 55 90 57 83 137 42 84 39 24 12 14 11 32 33 29b Non-Penaeid prawns 26 25 27 38 63 40 57 44 41 21 1 1 2 5 2 1 1 1c Lobsters 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 6 3 1 1 7 1 2 18 3d Crabs 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1e Stomatopods2 7 Molluscs 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 8 Cephalopods 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1Total 905 7 5 1 1 0 3 7 2 0 9 6 2 0 2 5 24 4 3 22 7 3 3 46 1 2 35 0 3 2 36 5 1 3 6 3 0 3 8 2 9 9 4 3 3 1 4 3 1 5 7 2 7 5 4 2 6 3 9 2 5 0 3  Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  91 Table D : Continued. Species 1968 1 9 6 9 1 9 7 0 1 9 7 1 1 9 7 2 1 9 7 3 1 9 7 4 1 9 7 5 1 9 7 6 1 9 7 7 1 9 7 8 1 9 7 9 1 9 8 0 1 9 8 1 1 9 8 2 1 9 8 3 1 9 8 41 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 29 32 67 73 82 49 119 141 100 207 133 61 170 157 182 117 118b Skates 21 24 49 55 62 37 88 104 74 154 100 45 126 117 136 86 69c Rays 22 24 52 57 63 38 91 108 77 158 103 46 130 121 140 167 1532 Eels 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 4 1 1 3 13 Catfishes 33 36 79 71 84 44 109 50 46 178 81 111 103 205 253 209 1934 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 22 29 45 116 120 64 85 114 106 164 92 97 187 147 174 165 141b Oil sardine 38 23 6 3 1 0 3 1 4 3 1 8 3 2 2 3 2 6 3 3 0 3 3 4 2 3 8 3 4 2 3 4 6 3 5 0 3 5 4 3 5 8 2 6 2 3c Other sardines 2 16 24 32 272 2 0 5 1 3 9 7 3 6 1 1 1 6 2 2 2 7 3 2 3 7 42 203d Hilsa shad 32 30 43 41 11 3 17 223 72 22 3 15 4 1 10 55 5e Other shads 139 156 225 268 275 323 164 192 168 276 284 191 198 512 249 183 241f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 6 8 1 1 1 3 1 6 19 21 23ii Thrissocles 1 2 7 2 1 2 3 1 3 1 7 8 10 15 55 43 28g Other clupeids 102 92 85 61 71 36 207 237 199 170 238 100 153 127 70 51 885 Bombay duck 855 789 696 569 462 442 474 712 560 517 862 1023 587 866 607 797 8946 Lizard fishes7 Half beaks and Full 2 1 2 1 5 2 5 3 91 94 1 3 1 167 5 4 1 8 148 Flying fishes9 Perchesa Rock codsb Snappers 2 2 4 3 13 21 20 27 41 9 33 8 20 39 30 143 128c Pig face breamsd Threadfin breams 1 1 1 1 3 4 4 5 9 3 8 1 4 9 7 4 17e Other perches 1 1 3 3 9 15 15 20 30 7 25 6 15 29 22 43 461 0 Goatfishes 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 9 6 206 219 1 3 4 1 82 1 1 4 149 941 1 Threadfins 3 3 27 63 46 82 139 233 176 7 9 20 17 42 95 96 1051 2 Croakers 6 8 20 18 20 210 120 229 154 200 168 146 156 174 136 153 1651 3 Ribbon fishes 44 41 47 32 41 26 52 31 348 400 196 127 307 235 267 178 2251 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 11 9 5 9 3 3 13 12 20 12 3 6 6 9 4 6 12b Scads 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 24 840 4 2 4c Leather-jackets 3 2 48 2 5 1 47 18 1 0 3 76 60 88 193 522 494 238 498i Trachynotus 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3d Other Carangids 8 9 1 1 12 20 1 4 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 16 43 62i Coryphaenaii Elacate 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 12 1 2 1 2 1 21 5 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1b Gazza1 6 Big jawed jumper1 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 246 233 455 391 261 256 458 325 131 530 862 560 719 1097 766 1064 1183b Silver pomfret 967 914 1788 1536 1025 1003 1800 1274 515 2082 3385 2203 2826 4314 3010 2561 2232c Chinese pomfrets1 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 16 11 6 1 4 7 1 0 1 3 1 6 1 9 2 2 25 80 6 9 5 8 4 8 37b Other mackerels 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 4 4 4 11 12 18 3 8 7 9 16 12 18 24 2 6 2 9 17b S. guttatus 7 9 9 22 25 35 6 16 14 17 32 23 36 48 24 34 33c S. lineolatusd Acanthocybium spp.2 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 1 1 1 1 1 81 176 166 223 101 137 135 84 487 105 158 540b Auxis spp. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c K. pelamis 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1d T. tonggol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1e Other tunnies 1 1 1 1 1 2 5 4 6 3 4 4 2 13 3 1 242 1 Bill fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 254 33 52 2 Barracudas 1 2 3 4 6 4 8 4 1 24 3 4 4 4 5 3 6 3 73 72 102 3 Mullets 4 3 4 7 4 4 5 3 4 4 5 3 4 4 5 10 102 4 Unicorn cod2 5 Flatfishesa Halibut 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 53 53 60b Floundersc Soles 6 5 7 4 32 122 111 231 245 57 20 32 187 297 202 93 5072 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 26 21 28 31 23 120 64 145 134 96 85 97 155 118 133 111 122b Non-Penaeid prawns 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 8 28 4 9 11 13 15 14 29 28c Lobsters 1 2 4 7 9 1 1 12 678 515 137 108 70 66 251 156 160 535d Crabs 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 9 4 1 8e Stomatopods2 7 Molluscs 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 8 Cephalopods 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1Total 2681 2 5 5 7 . 1 3 9 3 7 3 6 5 2 . 7 3 2 3 1 3 5 3 3 . 8 4 7 9 1 5 7 7 7 . 8 4 6 6 5 6 3 4 9 7 6 9 5 5 9 7 8 . 2 7 2 1 7 1 0 8 0 5 8 5 9 2 8 9 0 2 . 6 9 9 4 4  Appendices  92 Table D : Continued. Species 1985 1 9 8 6 1 9 8 7 1 9 8 8 1 9 8 9 1 9 9 0 1 9 9 1 1 9 9 2 1 9 9 3 1 9 9 4 1 9 9 5 1 9 9 6 1 9 9 7 1 9 9 8 1 9 9 9 2 0 0 01 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 192 127 126 157 132 129 241 288 382 300 631 5330 5861 1901 1911 1883b Skates 134 140 137 62 47 48 15 26 50 48 102 857 942 9 9 3 236 240c Rays 97 82 94 66 97 284 134 121 86 84 177 1492 1642 1060 412 4172 Eels 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 27 2 225 200 2013 Catfishes 237 249 209 193 202 259 238 255 274 314 241 393 204 2469 2476 24274 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 362 238 311 188 231 182 265 286 260 2 6 9 2 6 9 240 2 0 0 315 126 401b Oil sardine 6 6 3 7 0 3 743 4 9 6 2 4 9 2 2 2 2 1 7 5 3 3 3 428 2 7 3 2 8 8 104 16c Other sardines 357 54 403 53 2 9 5 1 3 21 14 2 2 2 8 3 2 3 3 6 3 56 60d Hilsa shad 25 17 28 45 50 8 91 72 12 79 587 379 375 838 664 844e Other shads 271 272 167 106 152 163 180 197 187 1 9 3 1 9 1 1 7 0 1 5 0 2 5 2 203 216f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 39 43 33 34 54 68 90 56 55 68 46 67 29 188 280 287ii Thrissocles 94 38 64 61 57 56 90 76 67 6 7 6 6 5 8 5 1 8 3 66 71g Other clupeids 136 79 75 68 87 83 84 81 90 126 153 362 486 1907 372 3965 Bombay duck 653 766 674 563 1433 1254 1232 1318 979 1394 1533 1228 892 2172 1515 9536 Lizard fishes7 Half beaks and Full 28 33 41 34 35 31 23 22 33 1 3 5 2 2 7 279 2 0 1 2 6 3 156 1678 Flying fishes9 Perchesa Rock codsb Snappers 167 52 59 51 98 76 19 29 67 8 2 9 9 87 8 4 1 7 0 147 149c Pig face breamsd Threadfin breams 18 24 9 11 10 15 21 16 23 2 6 3 1 26 2 5 5 0 44 45e Other perches 78 53 43 33 54 42 60 67 79 9 1 1 0 5 89 8 6 1 7 1 148 1501 0 Goatfishes 153 34 118 160 566 177 103 340 579 6 3 4 7 0 2 578 4 8 2 8 5 8 6 6 3 6 7 41 1 Threadfins 145 93 68 58 76 76 93 112 76 79 65 153 139 1 7 6 8 3 291 2 Croakers 195 162 148 123 188 217 386 461 372 560 615 131 630 7 7 1 325 15351 3 Ribbon fishes 527 827 541 431 689 710 833 1218 1116 1 1 4 4 1 1 3 0 1 0 0 2 8 8 9 1487 484 5191 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 8 20 12 16 28 26 47 28 39 76 1049 24 211 211 62 67b Scads 7 14 36 7 277 63 206 110 9 4 4 7 5 9 3 1 0 4 2 0 9 194 208c Leather-jackets 368 304 284 245 183 143 320 169 178 2 2 5 2 6 2 2 6 5 2 6 2 481 376 521i Trachynotus 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 0 2 1 9 2 246 2 1 2 3 4 4 2 6 8 2 8 8d Other Carangids 91 42 108 83 98 91 82 131 129 1 5 3 1 6 9 1 6 5 1 6 0 2 8 7 246 264i Coryphaenaii Elacate 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 12 6 6 1 1 6 144 1 2 4 2 0 2 1 5 7 1 6 91 5 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 421 340 114 212 3 5 8 2 6 0 248b Gazza1 6 Big jawed jumper1 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 880 1323 1033 896 416 300 817 660 643 789 640 279 281 818 8 404b Silver pomfret 2977 2086 1863 2258 2451 1748 2330 2255 2644 2809 2278 991 1001 2909 597 1645c Chinese pomfrets1 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 29 31 12 58 94 17 115 284 198 3 5 6 4 9 4 557 269 9 2 1 314 336b Other mackerels 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 5 8 1 1 0 3 1 1 7 2 3 6 84 921 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 164 485 286 183 332 258 326 338 428 4 3 6 4 2 7 3 7 5 3 3 1 5 4 9 438 470b S. guttatus 47 16 29 18 30 16 37 46 75 7 5 7 2 63 5 4 8 8 6 8 7 3c S. lineolatusd Acanthocybium spp.2 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 1641 345 319 242 167 99 641 168 361 3 7 5 3 7 4 335 3 5 9 6 9 8 633 678b Auxis spp. 3 244 6 77 238 286 185 169 141 1 5 2 1 5 7 1 4 4 1 3 3 2 3 0 190 204c K. pelamis 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 5 1 2 1 156 1 1 7 1 6 0 101 109d T. tonggol 6 5 3 1 1 2 226 254 366 3 4 4 3 1 1 2 5 3 204 3 3 2 2 5 9 2 7 7e Other tunnies 194 18 116 26 74 106 74 18 208 1 8 9 1 6 2 125 1 0 7 1 7 4 1 3 6 1 4 62 1 Bill fishes 10 7 56 1 7 28 23 69 59 6 6 7 1 68 5 8 9 5 7 4 7 92 2 Barracudas 15 4 6 34 98 76 188 99 66 6 7 6 6 5 9 5 2 8 7 69 742 3 Mullets 15 9 13 22 34 12 13 10 9 10 6 15 3 1 8 7 93 952 4 Unicorn cod2 5 Flatfishesa Halibut 124 32 28 40 51 37 79 48 76 7 8 8 1 6 3 5 4 9 6 7 5 78b Flounders 56 196 20 327 5 8 3 4 5 0 4 5 8c Soles 248 102 237 121 145 192 436 343 236 2 4 1 2 5 0 1 9 3 1 6 3 294 1 2 7 262 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 149 169 189 175 173 233 312 352 232 455 482 116 177 529 132 310b Non-Penaeid prawns 25 35 24 26 114 141 183 187 125 173 257 2 1 1 1 8 8 356 104 751c Lobsters 339 215 367 275 330 188 324 320 327 3 3 7 3 5 3 2 7 7 2 3 6 430 62 100d Crabs 6 3 3 3 1 4 4 3 1 4 2 6 4 3 3 49e Stomatopods2 7 Molluscs 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 8 1 5 7 180 1 7 3 3 5 1 3 0 2 3412 8 Cephalopods 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 4 4 5 4 7 5 5Total 119 39 9 6 1 7 . 8 9 1 4 0 7 8 2 2 . 6 9 9 0 0 7 9 7 5 1 1 2 0 4 1 1 1 4 9 1 1 3 8 1 1 4 1 8 3 1 6 5 7 8 1 9 0 5 0 1 9 3 9 9 2 8 8 2 5 . 5 1 6 5 6 0 2 0 2 4 7  Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  93 Table E : Marine fisheries catch (thousand tonnes) data for the state of Maharashtra, 1950-2000. Species 1950 1 9 5 1 1 9 5 2 1 9 5 3 1 9 5 4 1 9 5 5 1 9 5 6 1 9 5 7 1 9 5 8 1 9 5 9 1 9 6 0 1 9 6 1 1 9 6 2 1 9 6 3 1 9 6 4 1 9 6 5 1 9 6 6 1 9 6 71 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 37 370 511 163 483 1869 2338 5389 3343 3832 2209 2075 1970 3158 2841 1957 3260 4490b Skates 1 10 14 4 13 48 60 140 87 100 58 54 51 82 74 51 84 117c Rays 10 101 140 44 132 510 637 1470 911 1045 602 566 538 861 775 534 889 12252 Eels 3045 2682 3651 7334 7093 8102 2089 3700 5777 4602 3317 10543 7947 7071 1488 2038 2169 19753 Catfishes 486 1265 1216 2548 1973 3996 3751 10387 9184 4647 4139 2109 2285 4546 2235 2531 5122 51424 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 1 8 17 186 79 139 309 2395 1344 1352 1253 678 914 779 778 1003 807 1049 1733b Oil sardine 4068 91 1049 1333 75 850 417 9188 4196 2961 1 6 2 7 464 5211 1688 8 8 0 67 65 361c Other sardines 1115 2018 1191 125 34 566 590 4486 3723 10380 663 269 720 234 490 1123 961 931d Hilsa shad 2 1 6 2 0 6 2 1 8 2 6 0 234 279 154 1 8 7 222 119 229 176 185 160 16 148 97 69e Other shads 4 0 3 8 4 0 4 8 4 3 4 5 45 85 86 133 980 291 186 311 757 1727 391 298f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 1 0 9 7 64 10 9 12 12 167 55 1 3 8 225 350 148 79 3 1 0 535 174ii Thrissocles 4 5 6 436 348 3154 484 433 603 654 509 690 570 937 638 951 1435 723 750 647g Other clupeids 11499 5377 10920 6677 8466 8206 17280 14084 4746 8133 7250 6762 4100 5342 7832 7360 6563 87375 Bombay duck 8788 4396 15859 24906 15568 67026 74037 59086 39968 28883 29562 27149 30079 24795 21489 24798 31790 287976 Lizard fishes 91 46 163 254 158 678 540 4 2 23 5 1 6 27 24 503 28 1453 567 Half beaks and Full 2 0 1 1 9 2 2 0 3 2 4 2 2 1 7 2 2 8 229 266 56 32 37 141 13 120 9 56 65 1548 Flying fishes 173 166 1 5 7 1 6 4 1 2 6 1 1 2 91 63 16 5 2 26 2 7 1 1 1 7 2 2 2 69 Perchesa Rock cods 30 8 6 149 1 0 2 26 12 14 21 18 16 27 141 147 96 208 46 112 18b Snappers 35 1 0 0 173 1 1 8 30 14 16 24 20 18 30 163 169 111 240 52 131 22c Pig face breams 2 6 10 6 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 10 10 6 14 3 7 1d Threadfin breams 545 1 5 7 8 2731 1 8 7 8 466 228 264 374 323 275 481 2580 2687 1758 3805 828 2063 341e Other perches 50 1 4 5 252 1 7 3 43 21 25 34 29 26 44 238 248 162 351 77 190 321 0 Goatfishes 240 188 382 214 515 7 5 7 987 7 0 3 419 224 268 367 368 229 4273 1222 1492 1981 1 Threadfins 1 0 2 0 4 9786 9 4 0 0 1 0 2 4 4 8 3 6 4 7933 5858 8866 3327 4668 771 1490 722 2041 369 208 2838 10931 2 Croakers 9039 8 4 1 2 8456 18235 38926 20149 22943 11003 8198 5134 4963 10860 9239 8093 9073 8345 8083 77631 3 Ribbon fishes 4055 2 8 6 4 1959 2 2 9 9 1 9556 5223 5354 6479 5236 1874 1769 2457 1853 2420 8962 7044 5130 52701 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 143 9 3 52 69 257 218 277 294 321 253 433 533 118 416 1876 734 417 743b Scads 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c Leather-jackets 5 6 8 5 4 3 5 7 6 6 8 5 6 1 6 6 4 7 648 640 619 418 262 414 149 133 88 189 270 120i Trachynotus 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 6 3 3d Other Carangids 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 46i Coryphaena 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1ii Elacate 1 1 1 1 1 1 35 114 172 65 21 24 22 2 2 7 11 121 5 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 226 584 128 124 93 19 125 151 793 245 47 223 144 225 271 830 480 3243b Gazza 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 6 Big jawed jumper 245 632 138 134 101 20 136 13 140 10 95 148 93 62 125 115 71 1911 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 173 30 359 1732 1338 1206 868 1364 1359 2251 827 1254 886 792 1224 1365 1608 3077b Silver pomfret 692 121 1434 6927 5348 4822 3468 5459 5438 9002 3307 5014 3546 3166 4893 5459 6433 12306c Chinese pomfrets 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 1023 7125 10132 13470 4076 3544 1647 4608 1728 7067 12175 358 2056 4735 2109 792 180 3 2 7b Other mackerels1 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 127 122 88 60 102 201 1238 435 351 401 233 296 287 382 1218 1018 738 626b S. guttatus 85 81 58 40 67 134 824 290 235 268 155 198 191 255 812 679 492 417c S. lineolatusd Acanthocybium spp. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 2 1 1 1 1 7 7 21 39 4 26 23 11 9 13 7 24 62b Auxis spp. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c K. pelamis 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 6 1 4 3 2 1 2 1 3 9d T. tonggol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1e Other tunnies 25 3 15 15 10 97 87 272 512 60 338 310 145 115 177 92 310 8222 1 Bill fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 2 Barracudas 1 1 28 1 7 1 7 54 5 9 5 22 21 1 6 8 5 12 119 17402 3 Mullets 1 1 24 1 9 1 1 3 3 2 125 4 142 54 115 25 109 499 188 2312 4 Unicorn cod 1435 3011 2116 11447 6892 2366 973 1091 3207 3369 6089 3916 3298 5496 3795 5708 2736 21582 5 Flatfishesa Halibut 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1b Flounders 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c Soles 88 237 1077 168 68 197 546 301 34 261 129 66 28 18 18 87 345 322 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 10799 10392 11415 16906 27807 18549 25961 33128 6685 6375 9946 8798 8936 5288 14620 10170 10148 8331b Non-Penaeid prawns 28659 27580 30294 44865 73795 49226 68901 42056 37082 28625 37097 23427 37313 38207 29978 41956 34273 29057c Lobsters 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1d Crabs 12 11 13 18 31 20 33 163 23 18 51 50 2 14 18 60 139 36e Stomatopods 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 7 Molluscs2 8 Cephalopods 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 47 13 57 59 28 22 7 27 2Total 987 7 3 9 1 1 7 0 1 1 7 3 4 8 1 9 8 0 7 5 2 1 3 8 0 6 2 0 8 9 0 4 2 4 6 5 7 8 2 2 8 4 7 3 1 5 0 8 1 3 1 3 7 8 9 4 1 3 1 8 4 8 1 1 6 2 2 5 1 2 7 9 5 6 1 2 4 5 8 7 1 3 0 6 0 3 1 3 1 9 0 7 1 3 4 3 3 9 1 3 3 3 0 2  Appendices  94 Table E : Continued. Species 1968 1 9 6 9 1 9 7 0 1 97 1 1 9 7 2 1 9 7 3 1 9 7 4 1 9 7 5 1 9 7 6 1 9 7 7 19 7 8 1 9 79 1 9 8 0 1 9 8 1 1 9 8 2 1 9 8 3 1 9 8 41 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 3505 5382 4612 4497 5964 7993 6852 8714 7793 8341 10873 12986 8310 10474 11940 11046 9855b Skates 92 140 119 116 155 207 178 226 203 217 282 337 216 247 1493 2945 2347c Rays 956 1467 1258 1227 1627 2180 1869 2376 2126 2275 2965 3541 2266 2843 3193 3864 33852 Eels 2525 2392 7389 3742 4162 2759 917 1526 5950 5383 7549 5435 4391 3211 5163 4063 38853 Catfishes 4651 6929 14813 23585 16729 12563 9855 11412 13592 11633 15537 14059 12047 15485 14670 16146 181754 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 1196 1693 732 1215 1287 2209 1169 3045 2635 2791 3212 1763 2088 2978 4454 5421 6316b Oil sardine 227 408 305 410 3646 2548 1115 1762 2600 114 6 5 16 679 635 359 112 1310c Other sardines 1160 1251 3462 1876 2919 3158 1275 3218 2147 1085 911 950 1396 429 486 546 259d Hilsa shad 58 35 2 8 22 13 91 4 17 168 373 1636 1097 1042 541 442 826 566e Other shads 448 1035 1568 1128 1420 871 824 1195 723 1036 489 440 622 2246 1360 1645 2571f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 108 70 492 997 212 588 280 553 229 285 357 391 8 0 17572 10733 10795 13442ii Thrissocles 573 715 758 1584 1254 3087 895 961 1396 1779 1912 2902 1302 963 2011 2352 2069g Other clupeids 8259 8531 6604 8839 9623 15413 14304 21957 18533 24144 14287 16060 17305 3215 3049 4381 55325 Bombay duck 26444 25740 34308 34219 21558 35079 30878 53560 54108 53840 72213 61134 58778 83820 46167 46448 594326 Lizard fishes 120 289 226 193 753 1344 867 302 1555 1587 2545 3199 1472 1834 1558 4361 29397 Half beaks and Full 84 257 439 128 110 120 34 54 33 34 54 129 43 47 160 206 478 Flying fishes 31 1 6 1 49 13 1 2 2 3 4 5 1 1 2 2 2 29 Perchesa Rock cods 32 78 129 50 81 196 129 155 94 187 439 195 232 165 449 81 279b Snappers 37 90 148 57 94 226 150 179 108 217 506 226 269 189 58 512 477c Pig face breams 2 5 8 4 5 14 8 10 6 13 29 13 15 11 9 11 11d Threadfin breams 580 1428 2351 918 1482 3585 2367 2836 1717 3427 8031 3580 4259 3023 5925 7844 6342e Other perches 53 132 216 85 137 331 218 262 158 316 740 330 393 280 1239 2662 8141 0 Goatfishes 444 690 367 672 1478 1344 954 143 709 239 482 1158 642 1377 2311 1938 12411 1 Threadfins 395 625 4501 1290 2837 3177 2446 2256 5888 1206 2677 2156 2751 997 648 663 6771 2 Croakers 7347 10976 17673 17428 14743 19498 23758 28510 28237 23896 24119 28791 19429 24500 21397 24582 305921 3 Ribbon fishes 5810 4902 5053 6606 8669 13715 9869 9785 10995 6717 10919 11253 11829 8213 12630 11161 118241 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 629 3987 4458 2295 1391 825 2610 1 9 2 6 1290 1237 1994 2371 1347 138 200 392 521b Scads 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 21 1 7 1 4c Leather-jackets 92 896 281 88 174 457 184 150 132 244 315 426 366 367 637 1291 1039i Trachynotus 6 0 8 6 1 1 3 13 8 1 6 5 194 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5d Other Carangids 9 4 4 9 883 135 29 86 2 8 4 4 3 1 642 3 3 5 47 398 354 920 1637 2747 3569i Coryphaena 2 2 3 3 4 4 9 1 5 22 1 2 2 13 12 31 55 92 120ii Elacate 2 1 202 10 4 6 129 22 3 8 58 3 0 4 36 32 83 147 247 3211 5 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 120 926 331 302 350 1300 644 394 3 2 8 253 216 439 241 73 87 461 484b Gazza 1 1 101 165 2 3 7 3 2 3 399 290 2 8 1 248 237 535 324 108 140 791 8931 6 Big jawed jumper 221 541 801 376 420 1035 587 597 918 345 1172 579 626 701 3384 4240 33521 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 2158 2613 1153 1512 1790 2236 1820 2314 5133 4838 3660 4026 2807 4157 3621 4199 3677b Silver pomfret 8636 10452 4612 6049 7158 8942 7277 9257 20531 19351 14638 16107 11228 19878 18980 26152 22318c Chinese pomfrets 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 24 1 31 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 476 21153 17493 4681 5588 2430 2664 1929 2126 927 826 1491 295 295 264 428 1003b Other mackerels1 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 657 1577 913 911 1271 1089 886 1151 1389 2047 1836 2475 1978 1752 2364 2546 1691b S. guttatus 438 1051 608 608 848 727 591 767 925 1365 1224 1651 1319 1119 1229 4823 3152c S. lineolatusd Acanthocybium spp. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 11 9 19 20 21 53 21 20 35 23 143 127 120 95 250 1612 2698b Auxis spp. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 0 1 7c K. pelamis 2 1 3 3 3 7 3 3 5 3 20 18 17 7 8 9 1 0d T. tonggol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1e Other tunnies 151 116 260 271 274 702 271 261 466 304 1873 1670 1577 1172 3008 182 1552 1 Bill fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 73 195 101 1872 2 Barracudas 10 28 3 7 4 5 55 22 22 18 55 2 3 2 407 84 34 16 192 285 2192 3 Mullets 227 292 101 94 72 89 30 42 273 67 143 51 33 49 36 210 802 4 Unicorn cod 1878 1722 2234 4374 5569 4324 1860 1082 416 32 22 283 163 13 71 134 26982 5 Flatfishesa Halibut 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 48 570 1079 750b Flounders 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 109 7 8 4 1 6 1c Soles 63 419 1972 1181 722 3727 683 675 2217 1741 2350 3105 2502 2344 3425 3644 61282 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 11621 14874 39603 24790 26322 23004 20026 34160 58201 37307 57614 61498 32623 30447 45563 48550 59509b Non-Penaeid prawns 31184 31941 38925 97514 109544 86405 68096 95624 90933 93674 62050 75741 65863 74103 54827 43304 53137c Lobsters 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 339 598 607 851 672 313 544 977 443 1304d Crabs 14 147 7703 1279 635 935 1324 762 73 130 208 699 413 157 637 443 1070e Stomatopods 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 538 3220 1539 24902 7 Molluscs2 8 Cephalopods 104 150 446 481 368 682 406 668 3552 834 6389 5335 1658 2461 6423 8912 10362Total 123 9 1 6 1 6 8 7 2 1 2 30 8 3 3 2 5 8 36 6 2 6 4 0 0 2 2 7 2 0 3 5 2 2 1 9 5 3 3 0 7 9 4 3 3 5 2 3 2 1 31 7 3 4 2 3 4 10 9 3 3 5 1 9 91 2 7 8 1 1 6 3 2 7 1 0 6 3 0 4 1 1 4 3 2 3 5 8 7 3 6 7 5 3 0  Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  95 Table E : Continued. Species 198 5 1 9 8 6 1 9 8 7 1 9 8 8 1 9 8 9 1 9 9 0 1 9 9 1 1 9 9 2 1 9 9 3 1 9 9 4 1 9 9 5 1 9 9 6 1 9 9 7 1 9 9 8 1 9 9 9 2 0 0 01 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 8770 8717 10702 12143 10478 9349 11377 10592 8593 8769 7860 9671 8220 9600 8878 6420b Skates 2616 2138 1639 1672 1723 870 523 618 881 924 828 1018 865 1010 935 676c Rays 3518 3520 2175 1847 2026 1506 1121 1482 1772 1846 1655 2036 1731 2021 1869 13512 Eels 4775 3770 4760 2089 1822 1774 1997 1643 2026 4 0 7 9 2 1 6 6 3 7 7 4 3 0 5 8 2625 2095 31993 Catfishes 14921 15599 15277 27892 19451 12401 16343 11161 14505 9690 7806 10894 12828 16844 14519 127114 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 4089 2667 1992 1578 1260 1853 2819 3073 2709 3281 2978 4338 5550 5249 2927 2394b Oil sardine 1876 836 1289 4202 2 5 5 4 637 1020 213 228 56 28 900 2133 4722 5137 9332c Other sardines 344 463 2970 311 1852 3525 3969 3781 7011 7 3 7 9 6 9 2 1 7 3 7 6 7 5 5 9 7135 4829 2990d Hilsa shad 454 507 623 90 90 217 301 241 307 815 352 813 548 325 159 644e Other shads 1320 1550 3049 1450 1027 481 752 192 109 1 8 1 2 3 2 3 1 3 3 8 7 427 368 362f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 13522 10934 7797 8192 12951 12694 12668 8487 8754 13456 13245 15500 14313 17779 15786 17436ii Thrissocles 2555 2963 4593 5250 2340 3184 3712 5137 4503 4 9 3 2 4 8 0 5 5 3 1 0 5 6 3 4 5499 5380 3661g Other clupeids 2900 1904 3852 6862 11657 6299 6831 4697 1602 4388 3484 1756 4172 6762 3175 14825 Bombay duck 71054 43120 30430 31052 26974 39189 48864 18831 15048 57332 58377 54428 77111 52662 55550 454326 Lizard fishes 2559 3814 1969 4612 6119 4256 3602 4472 3412 6804 9101 5306 2877 2273 1779 17377 Half beaks and Full 282 80 76 72 102 8 10 85 66 118 73 605 335 179 764 4308 Flying fishes 2 1 5 2 8 4 1 5 6 6 6 7 8 9 1 103 1 0 8 1 0 1 1 0 7 1 0 9 1 0 3 1 0 0 1 0 09 Perchesa Rock cods 373 846 1022 2171 3489 2630 1954 2713 2827 2 5 8 4 2 0 7 5 1 7 6 3 1 4 1 5 9 0 2 4 9 4 94b Snappers 311 1196 1219 1425 1024 287 708 854 545 8 4 6 1 0 6 4 1 3 8 8 1 7 4 2 1 8 7 1 2115 2 1 7 5c Pig face breams 19 1 4 5 3 8 6 9 1 0 0 128 25 2 7 2 5 2 7 2 8 2 6 2 6 2 7d Threadfin breams 3602 5981 7099 16331 14303 14421 14892 18106 15665 1 6 6 2 0 1 5 8 8 9 1 6 6 9 6 1 7 5 6 5 1 6 2 3 1 1 6 1 0 7 1 6 5 6 0e Other perches 943 2411 2906 3115 3959 771 1169 994 1062 1 0 7 4 9 7 6 9 7 3 9 6 7 842 1 0 2 3 12451 0 Goatfishes 863 2558 1621 3745 2777 1645 982 663 532 13429 14899 13787 8876 9114 9225 117451 1 Threadfins 2073 2704 5328 874 2642 1975 1709 1583 590 1472 847 677 363 391 880 16421 2 Croakers 29591 33190 29787 31451 30952 30723 31120 33695 31965 33484 26304 28887 28914 27818 29067 251651 3 Ribbon fishes 19381 16553 13717 23800 20483 22754 30884 31237 23246 2 4 2 2 7 2 2 5 0 0 2 3 7 4 7 2 4 0 9 5 22522 28020 486291 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 1190 4327 860 6588 5924 1959 3119 2529 4085 5077 4115 4209 5224 3292 2688 2016b Scads 10 2359 2460 4446 10153 8910 3961 6031 3482 3 6 5 0 3 4 0 9 3 6 1 9 3 6 9 3 3 4 7 2 3 3 7 3 3 3 9 2c Leather-jackets 1410 525 1302 256 542 141 73 421 291 3 2 3 3 1 9 3 5 6 3 8 2 3 7 6 382 421i Trachynotus 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5d Other Carangids 2655 3987 2238 2452 6579 3057 2389 2216 3005 2 6 8 1 2 0 6 7 1 7 3 1 1 2 9 2 770 7 4 8 7 5 2i Coryphaena 90 134 76 83 221 103 80 75 101 9 0 6 9 5 9 4 4 26 2 5 2 6ii Elacate 239 358 201 221 591 274 215 199 270 2 4 1 1 8 6 1 5 6 1 1 6 70 6 8 6 81 5 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 265 61 90 107 19 3 58 22 12 613 829 938 843 982 1198 557b Gazza 523 130 202 254 47 8 162 67 36 1 9 5 1 1 9 3 9 2 1 1 5 2 3 0 7 2291 2796 12981 6 Big jawed jumper 2721 3017 1226 1930 1007 1311 3715 1245 841 1721 2326 1586 3615 3789 1407 15051 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 3667 3020 6897 11232 7644 5884 6308 2879 5286 4853 7800 5220 4323 3069 1457 1578b Silver pomfret 10913 7913 11030 15806 15429 11664 15703 7758 7041 8619 18052 15573 16562 15180 14394 11577c Chinese pomfrets 4 33 104 16 20 13 5 16 30 17 31 23 22 2 1 2 0 2 11 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 901 1269 4660 1409 23906 17913 11875 11624 29425 2597 19603 30498 28611 32088 35225 44363b Other mackerels1 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 2648 6055 3560 2065 1097 1424 1350 982 1777 3108 4066 5551 6924 7694 8625 7364b S. guttatus 3102 2454 3394 6300 8693 5820 9107 3995 4300 1431 6664 9371 1970 3302 3 2 0 7 3 2 2 5c S. lineolatusd Acanthocybium spp. 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 62 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 1859 1734 974 1296 3474 1672 2170 1201 2836 3 1 3 6 3 0 8 0 3 4 3 2 3 6 6 7 3 6 0 3 3 6 5 0 3822b Auxis spp. 2 3 3 0 3 6 4 3 51 182 5 5 0 9 1 7 1 2 8 0 1725 4227 8655 6407 5 2 0 7 4264 4 2 8 8c K. pelamis 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 5 15 24 1 8 2 1 2 6 2 8 3 4 4 0 4 1 4 5 5 0d T. tonggol 1 1 35 2 9 2 7 2 0 1 6 11 170 1 7 8 1 6 6 1 7 7 1 8 0 1 6 9 1 6 5 1 6 5e Other tunnies 51 105 233 32 29 123 79 57 129 8 1 2 1 3 9 0 2 1 4 6 2 8 7 4 3345 3 2 5 0 3 2 6 82 1 Bill fishes 179 162 104 180 606 570 442 276 473 4 9 6 4 6 3 4 9 2 5 0 2 4 7 2 4 5 8 4 6 12 2 Barracudas 149 70 88 137 373 236 817 979 969 1 0 1 5 9 4 8 1 0 0 7 1 0 2 7 9 6 6 9 3 8 9 4 32 3 Mullets 250 443 258 38 154 35 43 50 34 536 220 410 372 265 380 8532 4 Unicorn cod 748 420 897 826 581 241 1513 1196 936 798 762 987 1041 1122 449 11062 5 Flatfishesa Halibut 543 764 1030 754 1046 1221 1069 1008 585 1235 1479 1703 3879 4 8 9 1 6149 5901b Flounders 2 3 9 3 0 8 390 3 0 7 2 4 9 1 5 8 8 1 3 3 3 1 1 3 3 3 3c Soles 5120 5501 7131 3890 4733 4310 7590 8045 8552 7092 5269 4388 7815 8697 8 6 3 0 8 8 7 32 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 70299 61324 63123 39957 53291 75004 78325 76501 74643 63994 48014 76900 58730 49893 41509 39451b Non-Penaeid prawns 74896 75941 28887 49668 58469 48378 59492 44032 37319 71452 61933 102933 73358 90057 75921 74865c Lobsters 3399 2688 945 631 550 1060 993 597 314 3 5 1 3 5 3 3 9 1 4 3 0 415 446 657d Crabs 671 478 523 279 278 558 862 888 1359 1544 966 1811 1983 775 627 897e Stomatopods 3745 8138 31047 17117 26222 27988 24095 18380 25276 23198 22178 23305 24517 22655 22481 231152 7 Molluscs2 8 Cephalopods 17735 16455 12310 17654 20619 21025 25197 34237 36623 16617 23767 20308 22333 27823 12454 13167Total 4029 7 1 3 7 8 2 6 2 3 4 2 2 5 0 3 7 8 2 9 3 4 3 4 7 9 6 4 1 4 8 6 9 4 6 0 9 9 4 3 9 3 2 3 4 3 9 9 6 0 4 4 4 9 1 1 2 4 5 1 3 2 0 5 4 2 1 8 5 5 1 6 4 9 6 5 1 1 7 6 3 4 6 8 6 4 9 4 7 7 6 9 8  Appendices  96 Table F : Marine fisheries catch (thousand tonnes) data for the state of Karnataka, 1950-2000.  Species 1950 1 9 5 1 1 9 5 2 1 9 5 3 1 9 5 4 1 9 5 5 1 9 5 6 1 9 5 7 1 9 5 8 1 9 5 9 1 9 6 0 1 9 6 1 1 9 6 2 1 9 6 3 1 9 6 4 1 9 6 5 1 9 6 6 1 9 6 71 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 693 1761 1137 332 1546 2671 1978 1758 2608 1875 1832 1067 1838 3109 859 1113 1568 863b Skates 2 4 2 1 4 6 5 4 6 4 4 2 4 7 2 2 3 2c Rays 24 61 40 12 53 93 69 61 91 65 63 37 63 107 30 39 54 302 Eels 2 7 2 6 3 1 2 5 2 5 25 3 6 27 12 1 1 1 0 9 7 5 4 2 13 Catfishes 1053 4380 4403 2436 1955 3653 3175 1690 2277 6681 2353 506 527 546 617 535 641 17994 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 6 9 66 65 5 71 105 124 22 70 376 205 82 88 212 137 59 97 91b Oil sardine 16781 1957 5267 8376 3098 4179 1359 5817 472 3328 2785 1428 14233 3231 86506 41079 45470 22076c Other sardines 4475 8992 3855 510 289 2109 1036 1580 1027 1740 1681 296 239 1415 2119 819 1143 402d Hilsa shad 2 8 2 7 3 2 2 6 26 30 21 2 2 22 3 0 3 8 4 5 54 139 589 3 5 1 100 5 4e Other shads 1 3 7 1 3 1 1 5 8 1 2 8 1 2 7 1 2 6 1 3 0 1 3 2 132 109 12 40 48 265 11 5 6 98 45f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 17 19 18 19 16 16 17 17 1 531 1412 95 87 272 24 108 106 362ii Thrissocles 379 422 404 423 371 382 388 386 296 1225 576 725 210 574 396 282 1492 165g Other clupeids 2 6 4 253 410 161 211 190 119 743 270 273 359 399 292 945 457 245 765 3835 Bombay duck 1 1 2 3 4 6 5 5 5 5 1 7 1 2 19 1 1 2 36 Lizard fishes 9 9 7 4 1 1 38 2 1 1 1 5 7 10 29 6 20 1 97 Half beaks and Full 1 1 4 1 0 9 1 3 1 1 0 7 1 0 6 1 0 5 108 22 22 2 41 69 20 88 42 69 27 1348 Flying fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 19 Perchesa Rock cods 3 3 1 1 3 2 4 5 6 7 5 2 4 6 7 5 8 2b Snappers 18 16 4 5 16 12 24 29 32 38 25 13 21 36 38 26 42 13c Pig face breams 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1d Threadfin breams 85 75 16 25 73 54 114 139 157 186 124 60 99 174 187 129 203 63e Other perches 26 23 5 8 22 16 35 43 48 57 38 19 30 54 58 40 63 191 0 Goatfishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 14 1 0 7 4 11 1 Threadfins 3 1 30 42 2 4 15 19 14 14 8 2 19 14 71 122 65 25 25 51 2 Croakers 3306 4138 3 0 1 9 863 2291 1008 1772 2345 1444 2074 1621 3143 6856 1272 1277 1355 1549 5301 3 Ribbon fishes 1030 325 65 68 114 205 252 46 42 77 152 59 675 182 21 140 333 3701 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 605 937 298 121 939 534 503 122 102 124 661 310 213 627 388 538 289 1107b Scads 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c Leather-jackets 7 9 4 7 6 1 9 1 6 7 4 4 7 3 7 7 3 4 755 196 351 46 89 11 18 55 13 26 434 233i Trachynotus 7 7 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 5 3 1 1 1 8 2 3d Other Carangids 5 9 5 7 6 9 5 6 5 5 5 5 5 7 5 7 5 7 5 7 57 5 4 5 0 5 0 4 5 4 3 3 8 3 7i Coryphaena 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1ii Elacate 1 4 7 1 4 1 1 7 0 1 3 8 1 3 7 1 3 6 140 60 207 41 35 3 0 24 16 1 2 8 5 11 5 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 329 765 562 324 438 96 227 1901 371 861 522 368 4080 1643 433 442 820 639b Gazza 3 6 5 3 4 1 2 2 3 3 3 5 4 4 4 5 5 51 6 Big jawed jumper 497 1158 850 490 663 144 421 357 572 753 1090 129 254 529 38 303 226 2141 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 7 94 18 64 80 10 25 3 6 15 42 16 19 41 38 12 20 25b Silver pomfret 48 634 123 426 538 68 168 23 39 103 283 113 127 282 255 81 132 166c Chinese pomfrets 1 14 2 10 12 2 4 1 1 2 6 2 3 6 5 2 3 31 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 11196 33749 48348 42074 15331 11745 3154 56116 65759 29391 82134 7335 11555 20341 7498 19074 7297 16222b Other mackerels1 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 40 379 132 7 301 226 1426 402 630 351 633 137 129 251 241 94 102 168b S. guttatus 27 258 90 5 205 153 971 273 429 238 431 94 88 171 164 64 69 114c S. lineolatus 6 58 20 1 46 34 216 61 96 53 96 21 19 38 36 15 15 26d Acanthocybium spp. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 99 10 12 11 35 333 86 24 211 109 205 230 155 85 26 73 11 114b Auxis spp. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c K. pelamis 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1d T. tonggol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1e Other tunnies 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 1 Bill fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 2 Barracudas 3 3 49 2 6 12 25 180 10 26 4 5 20 1 19 21 4 3 12 3 Mullets 1 1 107 6 1 3 5 9 1 4 3 1 7 15 3 20 53 5 28 372 4 Unicorn cod 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 5 Flatfishesa Halibut 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1b Flounders 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c Soles 3306 474 957 620 101 398 719 173 1619 265 391 357 223 587 334 335 491 12082 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 763 1618 928 315 334 688 303 1351 655 1607 423 633 2591 1518 1074 819 1743 1358b Non-Penaeid prawns 2 5 4 1 1 2 1 1 7 8 9 12 1 0 7 6 5 4 2c Lobsters 2 6 4 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 5d Crabs 66 139 79 27 29 59 26 10 4 19 17 16 9 11 4 2 12 4e Stomatopods 207 439 252 85 91 186 83 32 12 59 54 51 28 32 13 5 40 152 7 Molluscs 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 8 Cephalopods 1 6 1 5 1 8 1 5 1 5 1 4 1 5 1 5 1 5 15 14 1 8 14 7 1 1 8Total 46 81 9 6 4 5 7 2 7 3 1 5 5 5 9 2 0 9 3 0 5 9 7 3 0 6 8 7 2 0 2 9 4 7 6 1 1 0 8 0 2 6 4 5 2 8 4 7 1 0 0 5 9 1 1 8 1 0 8 4 5 1 2 8 3 9 1 7 6 1 0 4 2 1 8 6 8 4 7 6 6 5 6 3 0 4 9 1 8 5  Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  97 Table F : Continued. Species 196 8 19 6 9 1 9 70 1 97 1 19 7 2 19 7 3 1 9 74 1 97 5 19 7 6 1 9 77 1 97 8 19 7 9 1 9 80 1 98 1 19 8 2 1 98 3 1 9 8 41 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 1562 1206 2815 6397 8872 3371 3315 3545 2808 6485 4657 5034 4520 8145 8503 5440 2340b Skates 3 2 6 14 20 8 7 9 6 15 12 12 10 1 9 1 6 13 52c Rays 54 42 97 222 307 116 115 124 98 224 162 175 156 282 626 265 2332 Eels 11 9 16 1 9 16 17 14 172 8 2 6 19 2 5 1 0 13 1 33 Catfishes 4717 4266 19003 3207 6386 4906 3443 6861 8367 10718 6665 20457 8625 15554 18507 10410 61024 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 252 167 131 189 407 259 802 422 193 811 288 279 163 129 440 221 493b Oil sardine 56676 37143 35686 12693 18507 18314 24363 53988 43513 35245 54437 35796 40797 71948 61619 21550 35746c Other sardines 1313 4382 2145 527 1853 1376 267 794 673 204 2998 5143 3948 5842 3522 6044 5358d Hilsa shad 2 1 22 19 4 0 59 30 1 2 4 50 10 11 8 1 15 2 15e Other shads 41 32 99 15 6 39 1 10 31 128 35 56 24 3 8 50 16 1f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 145 261 150 104 147 278 60 10 57 197 516 1862 5367 6535 13823 10895 11306ii Thrissocles 329 209 1064 193 682 311 1265 352 945 940 1071 477 812 325 1044 1558 1103g Other clupeids 624 1080 1019 391 828 816 1122 582 480 1898 1016 2465 1039 1042 674 3101 51035 Bombay duck 4 22 56 11 1 20 6 2 7 5 5 5 14 9 1 11 26 Lizard fishes 17 2 155 846 36 2 3 5 160 366 799 217 320 818 307 451 1952 9697 Half beaks and Full 155 178 192 41 32 21 6 37 91 65 48 53 172 25 2 312 96 968 Flying fishes 1 1 1 1 1 9 18 2 2 2 9 40 4 9 5 2 53 4 6 3 1 1 5 19 Perchesa Rock cods 5 1 4 7 8 6 9 38 22 77 9 10 43 21 32 36 69b Snappers 25 8 19 43 48 33 46 207 117 411 54 49 229 110 1 0 1 84 7 7c Pig face breams 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 8 7 6 5 2 1 3 1 9 31d Threadfin breams 123 37 89 205 229 161 223 992 569 1983 264 239 1105 531 534 5488 2500e Other perches 38 11 27 63 70 50 68 307 176 613 80 74 342 164 368 730 107410 Goatfishes 2 1 9 64 22 130 6 5 6 284 39 73 62 61 4 1 2 24 211 Threadfins 91 22 41 10 8 138 17 27 6 6 6 7 4 3 6 5 23 2112 Croakers 866 1313 3885 3164 4240 2095 5493 3946 6289 5735 4068 4842 5638 4758 4198 5821 328713 Ribbon fishes 260 159 295 354 887 163 355 224 612 268 471 1291 1431 258 1187 2250 72114 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 1377 1753 907 472 612 1449 904 764 689 860 235 1194 1 0 04 1095 425 430 282b Scads 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 14 51 24 1506c Leather-jackets 26 28 16 5 339 14 84 56 84 573 15 64 64 162 419 1367 1423i Trachynotus 3 7 5 3 65 8 0 1 0 4 1 2 1 135 50 3 6 20 3 14 2 43 54 6 8 2 7 97 6 1 2 0 6d Other Carangids 3 3 3 0 25 2 3 2 1 1 7 13 94 7 0 46 50 25 8 9 4528 2663 2085 2508 4204i Coryphaena 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 24 2 4 26 2 7 2 5 22 2 5 2 6 2 3 2 3ii Elacate 5 10 12 9 4 3 4 63 32 34 50 64 37 4 37 96 6 14 5 9 1 71 6 2 1 1 815 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 1542 2112 2749 3183 1594 5499 3524 2640 7990 3387 9985 3227 7579 3389 4357 10041 5494b Gazza 5 7 12 1 4 1 2 1 2 12 1 5 1 4 15 1 9 1 6 13 6 5 13 716 Big jawed jumper 287 323 1158 1173 1803 3599 2647 1054 422 210 466 893 1608 1068 1498 1620 139717 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 523 48 93 265 156 302 65 57 110 66 586 66 142 110 3572 1861 1936b Silver pomfret 3515 322 622 1783 1059 2037 443 388 731 442 3934 441 957 742 1944 789 890c Chinese pomfrets 78 7 14 39 24 45 10 9 16 10 87 10 21 17 36 6 8718 Mackerela Indian mackerel 6051 14659 48874 68686 38234 41920 11366 12773 23572 29665 59096 43375 18747 21674 6160 2167 12141b Other mackerels19 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 430 435 893 1467 1616 847 980 433 768 1131 930 972 1011 1356 5475 3317 4083b S. guttatus 292 295 608 998 1100 577 667 295 523 770 633 661 688 923 2151 687 759c S. lineolatus 65 66 136 223 245 129 149 66 117 172 141 147 154 206 4 36 1d Acanthocybium spp. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 120 Tunniesa E. affinis 105 121 4 551 159 147 461 217 604 703 714 1855 907 2759 2493 1347 782b Auxis spp. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 35 406 126c K. pelamis 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 27 5 2d T. tonggol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 28e Other tunnies 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 8 4 15921 Bill fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 80 3 53 43 622 Barracudas 1 6 14 23 38 154 30 14 9 3 2 6 44 37 82 74 99 1223 Mullets 65 71 78 6 0 24 68 36 17 12 8 2 2 2 2 14 16 6924 Unicorn cod 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 125 Flatfishesa Halibut 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 13 11 2b Flounders 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 97 3 8 4c Soles 290 359 1294 1581 3197 1295 4070 794 1246 2045 4285 1802 1260 1130 2478 3554 988926 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 5723 4402 15536 10650 16161 17031 21737 6546 5072 6925 19829 9597 4991 8545 13895 11283 9035b Non-Penaeid prawns 1 1 2 2 2 34 2 2 1 1 2 0 29 42 12 206 8 5 1 7 4 1 2 5c Lobsters 6 8 16 2 2 2 0 2 1 19 26 16 8 92 31 177 16 6 88 3 7 5d Crabs 4 7 16 1024 166 465 717 1303 74 104 419 1361 4454 1347 1810 763 780e Stomatopods 13 22 54 3224 527 1466 2265 4106 231 326 1326 4289 13 4 59 18073 17924 11022 1612927 Molluscs 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 228 Cephalopods 14 63 23 17 50 39 34 373 5997 2004 3169 140 197 551 276 1401 546Total 8782 2 7 57 9 3 1 40 3 23 12 4 46 9 1 1 12 1 1 1 0 97 8 1 91 5 16 10 4 99 3 1 1 43 4 0 1 16 5 82 1 8 3 43 2 1 5 16 6 1 1 38 3 87 18 4 01 9 1 8 58 0 3 13 3 91 8 1 52 3 9 5  Appendices  98 Table F : Continued. Species 198 5 19 8 6 1 9 8 7 1 9 8 8 1 9 8 9 1 9 9 0 1 9 9 1 1 9 9 2 1 9 9 3 1 9 9 4 1 9 9 5 1 9 9 6 1 9 9 7 1 9 9 8 1 9 9 9 2 0 0 01 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 2460 3205 2177 2770 2417 1254 1599 1265 894 1929 4629 3056 3148 1767 1878 869b Skates 17 29 6 26 181 450 44 120 18 30 61 35 30 2 8 2 8 1 9c Rays 366 681 304 749 1023 849 411 533 323 786 2029 1407 1500 865 853 7632 Eels 2 13 27 6 70 13 14 17 46 1 1 3 2 3 2 3 1 9 3 7 5 428 95 113 Catfishes 2417 13240 4264 13697 5614 2352 1620 420 72 349 896 1208 747 6 0 0 489 5934 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 765 468 556 403 322 328 237 252 442 4 2 6 5 0 1 4 9 2 4 6 4 248 156 97b Oil sardine 30063 27658 41797 44788 39585 28529 12697 7687 4633 10612 21016 12976 18526 9955 14780 11247c Other sardines 4220 4942 5737 3125 5061 6106 6072 12195 3882 4 2 3 8 5 5 7 3 6 0 4 5 6 2 4 8 6355 4383 1938d Hilsa shad 3 5 6 6 355 35 166 157 64 6 2 7 3 7 1 6 7 6 3 6 2 4 3e Other shads 6 30 110 196 96 461 10 129 19 1 8 2 1 2 1 2 0 1 8 1 8 1 3f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 5600 14643 7646 18263 7356 9877 10921 5141 7033 3430 8545 4011 5286 2462 4091 2462ii Thrissocles 994 2291 2535 3529 2132 3304 2878 3624 2000 857 2137 1003 1322 615 1023 615g Other clupeids 1019 5251 2532 3559 2546 3343 2083 3027 2804 5067 10389 8763 3878 3273 2992 14105 Bombay duck 1 6 30 2 3 1 8 1 2 7 1 8 14 1 3 1 6 1 6 1 5 1 4 1 4 96 Lizard fishes 731 1524 3586 4609 4668 1893 2871 1924 916 1246 3158 2907 2422 2 2 6 3 2 2 1 0 1 5 3 17 Half beaks and Full 130 242 186 278 286 156 189 123 316 3 0 5 3 5 9 3 5 2 3 3 2 3 1 1 3 0 6 2 1 38 Flying fishes 10 20 1 5 1 0 6 6 6 6 6 5 6 6 6 5 5 49 Perchesa Rock cods 101 34 704 1303 290 331 349 527 1158 9 8 3 986 900 744 6 9 5 6 7 9 4 7 0b Snappers 59 5 28 2 8 2 8 3 8 8 19 63 5 4 53 50 41 3 9 3 8 2 6c Pig face breams 2 1 8 6 5 4 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 1 1 1 1d Threadfin breams 2100 4806 7193 9219 5708 2486 3669 3217 4612 3 9 1 5 3925 3585 2965 2 7 7 1 2 7 0 6 1 8 7 4e Other perches 819 2731 6362 4941 2835 1744 3969 1999 2387 2 0 7 9 2140 2004 1698 2369 1594 1 1 0 41 0 Goatfishes 2 5 2 4 6 6 643 1454 825 288 52 199 191 3 2 3 9 3 9 6 0 3 9 1 2 3 5 7 6 3 3 4 2 3 2 6 3 2 2 6 01 1 Threadfins 5 8 4 3 2 7 9 1 3 16 1 4 1 7 1 7 1 5 1 4 1 4 1 01 2 Croakers 2405 3793 6267 6185 6315 7953 7222 6633 4767 7797 13179 9655 11135 7085 4854 3 3 6 21 3 Ribbon fishes 1381 7689 8374 4339 2112 3908 2950 4689 2343 2 2 9 5 2 7 4 6 2 7 4 0 2 6 2 7 2497 3079 70191 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 549 1693 2359 3773 1545 3653 5917 2094 1294 1 2 4 7 1 4 6 8 1 4 4 1 1 3 6 0 1 2 7 3 1 2 5 3 8 7 3b Scads 673 1 5 4 0 2253 7918 7295 6420 14850 16693 4491 4 7 3 8 6 0 5 9 6 4 2 2 6 5 1 0 6 5 1 2 6 8 2 3 5038c Leather-jackets 1262 235 406 549 482 258 180 926 468 4 5 1 5 3 1 5 2 1 4 9 2 4 6 0 4 5 3 3 1 6i Trachynotus 1 4 3 1 1 7 6 8 1 9 2 2 2 1 4 1 2 3 7 6 2 5 7 2 2 7 7 6 2 9 9 3 3 1 7 0 3272 7139 5598 3615 3 3 8 3 3 3 3 1 2 3 1 9d Other Carangids 6901 16382 18143 12265 6821 6191 7241 7041 5460 5 0 6 9 5 7 4 0 5 4 1 2 4 8 9 9 4390 5361 2326i Coryphaena 2 2 2 4 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 4ii Elacate 2 5 1 2 3 1 0 1 3 3 6 9 3 7 5 2 4 1 6 2 4 5 0 5 4 8 6 1 5 2 4 0 5 5 4 9 5726 4467 5136 6662 6 2 3 6 6 1 4 0 4 2 7 51 5 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 4361 18547 3425 4060 4817 5012 3192 2307 2319 5279 3371 5811 3105 2 0 9 7 3 0 8 6 2 1 4 4b Gazza 5 19 3 3 4 5 3 2 2 1 3 3 3 3 4 31 6 Big jawed jumper 1451 2502 2324 4551 1652 1921 2558 1196 782 1960 3168 4401 3438 3 2 1 3 3 1 3 8 2 1 7 31 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 3030 2012 2485 2116 2381 2638 4241 2512 2176 2260 2 7 6 3 2 7 2 9 2 4 9 5 2 3 3 1 2 2 7 7 1 5 7 7b Silver pomfret 278 493 625 601 987 1092 231 595 765 1287 2 0 1 8 2 4 3 1 2 6 2 4 2 8 2 7 3 1 2 6 2419c Chinese pomfrets 4 7 2 21 22 226 167 78 81 344 999 1 8 0 8 2 3 6 5 2 6 9 0 3009 2848 1 9 7 31 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 24421 21894 25781 22165 99230 43330 21026 14370 42354 25211 29313 52381 26113 26537 18667 7522b Other mackerels1 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 2630 3602 1975 1683 2378 1285 1149 1530 1386 2507 3036 2328 1899 1487 1308 1630b S. guttatus 474 238 349 412 899 415 316 200 135 244 295 227 185 145 127 159c S. lineolatus 4 1 5 9 1 3 1 5 1 9 2 2 25 406 929 1046 1126 1096 1152 957d Acanthocybium spp. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 12 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 2019 3979 1416 1565 4288 2125 486 6063 327 1636 2397 2170 1293 1493 2670 2462b Auxis spp. 168 2604 858 596 384 132 11 741 92 462 676 612 365 421 753 694c K. pelamis 7 7 109 1 0 1 1 0 0 97 1 7 7 2 5 5 3 3 3 4 0 6 466 683 618 369 426 760 701d T. tonggol 626 45 69 888 594 710 1055 2 5 23 34 31 19 21 38 35e Other tunnies 79 83 43 302 79 84 4 161 1 4 6 6 4 5 7 72 1 Bill fishes 20 63 150 100 5 11 10 71 20 2 0 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 0 2 0 1 42 2 Barracudas 91 155 170 631 529 287 440 428 227 2 1 9 2 5 7 2 5 3 2 3 9 2 2 3 2 2 0 1 5 32 3 Mullets 10 19 64 22 13 41 11 57 47 166 324 316 413 374 290 2192 4 Unicorn cod 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 5 Flatfishesa Halibut 50 27 207 130 21 30 81 46 87 771 990 1667 1766 1 6 5 0 1 6 1 2 1888b Flounders 6 9 6 9 1 0 1 0 8 8 1 3 9 8 2 0 0 8 2 0 4 0 2 1 3 9 2 2 3 8 2 5 4 3 4059 3085 3858 3343 3295 2259 1 5 6 5c Soles 6736 10941 7257 5648 4776 4829 6962 25943 11466 16171 10923 12214 9504 8440 6396 56282 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 7779 8054 13621 13432 15888 11048 13793 15305 6702 8191 12781 10245 9005 6065 8712 4797b Non-Penaeid prawns 174 432 270 39 4 213 200 156 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2c Lobsters 40 32 6 2 4 3 3 1 1 19 31749 30975 35306 32120 3 0 0 1 9 2 9 3 1 6 2 0 3 0 6d Crabs 1032 2999 3816 1184 1452 1569 1805 2957 1723 1 5 9 9 2 1 2 0 2 2 6 0 2 2 1 5 2211 2171 2014e Stomatopods 16359 25295 66924 38214 46780 32259 30007 36582 26802 2 1 7 1 9 2 5 2 9 5 2 3 7 4 2 2 0 5 6 5 18158 22991 1 5 9 2 52 7 Molluscs 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1005 1081 1001 964 841 886 6 1 42 8 Cephalopods 415 3465 4252 3034 4619 3785 5289 3031 13025 11936 12996 11195 12241 6506 11491 7 9 5 9Total 142 38 5 22 7 0 7 7 2 6 6 8 7 2 2 5 6 8 1 1 3 0 6 6 5 9 2 1 4 5 6 0 1 9 1 6 4 3 2 0 5 8 7 5 1 7 3 2 6 0 2 1 0 7 4 7 2 6 3 4 3 4 2 6 9 3 5 0 2 2 8 8 7 5 1 9 3 2 7 7 1 9 9 3 2 4 1 3 8 6 7 1  Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  99 Table G : Marine fisheries catch (thousand tonnes) data for the state of Kerala, 1950-2000.  Species 1950 1 9 5 1 1 9 5 2 1 9 5 3 1 9 5 4 1 9 5 5 1 9 5 6 1 9 5 7 1 9 5 8 1 9 5 9 1 9 6 0 1 9 6 1 1 9 6 2 1 9 6 3 1 9 6 4 1 9 6 5 1 9 6 6 1 9 6 71 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 6099 8951 11068 2958 3043 3940 5726 2761 4610 4579 5593 6358 2481 7972 5410 4488 6032 5482b Skates 202 296 366 98 100 131 189 91 153 152 185 210 82 263 179 149 200 182c Rays 1975 2897 3583 958 986 1276 1854 893 1492 1482 1810 2058 803 2580 1751 1453 1953 17752 Eels 2 9 2 8 2 6 2 6 2 7 28 8 3 31 9 6 2 3 6 5 3 1 3 9 2753 Catfishes 3791 2917 4113 4700 8505 4346 11718 9522 10722 5289 11636 3196 1746 2066 2286 3637 5868 76474 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 3769 1 8 5 3 31 6 124 330 370 250 472 447 288 281 181 506 717 461 433 342b Oil sardine 12888 14867 6194 38687 27816 20284 6253 176332 119336 62461 187449 166675 92200 60676 193619 223606 205438 238887c Other sardines 21960 17162 15507 4586 5016 13701 16618 26447 23906 18538 14623 5234 3932 9583 14041 19346 8793 9171d Hilsa shad 4 4 4 3 4 1 4 1 42 50 17 2 7 41 14 20 1 5 1 1 6 2 2 2 2e Other shads 1 9 1 9 1 8 1 7 1 8 1 9 23 71 5 82 12 123 64 319 257 10 6 8 125f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 5655 18143 11524 6417 8679 6001 8306 2052 6056 9228 14280 6137 5288 12438 10638 2773 8931 11777ii Thrissocles 2423 7775 4939 2751 3720 2572 3559 818 1275 4051 2385 633 1148 1128 768 866 2780 2826g Other clupeids 2 6 6 259 132 227 1823 1612 1089 3258 3323 5267 5405 352 1256 1865 1364 1848 2205 26005 Bombay duck 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 16 Lizard fishes 7 7 7 7 7 2 6 1 1 212 17 5 348 80 63 203 175 1957 Half beaks and Full 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 12 80 28 21 129 16 145 20 36 192 1028 Flying fishes 1 6 6 1 6 2 1 5 4 1 5 2 157 1364 1 4 8 1 1 0 3 2 8 6 0 6 9 1 5 1 9 3 4 5 1 7 4 1 1 2 2 29 Perchesa Rock cods 126 1 1 9 108 7 9 2 146 49 213 96 99 52 37 34 33 43 52 70b Snappers 32 3 0 27 2 2 1 6 36 12 53 24 25 13 9 8 8 11 13 17c Pig face breams 32 3 0 27 2 2 1 6 36 12 53 24 25 13 9 8 8 11 13 17d Threadfin breams 2427 2 2 9 2 2085 128 165 35 2830 958 4104 1853 1895 1014 705 659 619 830 1003 1342e Other perches 536 5 0 6 461 28 36 8 625 212 906 409 419 224 156 145 136 184 222 2961 0 Goatfishes 71 31 2 3 1 6 10 102 4267 765 458 12 5 232 540 573 192 311 2818 1661 1 Threadfins 4 9 5 9 4 8 5 8 4 5 8 8 4 5 3 3 4637 2793 8 5 38 49 12 22 38 247 115 74 154 501 2 Croakers 5326 5748 2899 883 5978 10442 9466 2208 4173 3305 4660 2568 1259 1723 3709 3333 4985 43741 3 Ribbon fishes 5479 7653 13444 11939 7149 5677 4995 14728 8258 6444 638 4063 643 1316 172 14106 21376 69421 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 2147 4629 3857 2306 2 8 3 9 3 4 5 3 4 8 8 3 4450 7916 2668 10428 4407 1241 4471 15280 4039 7943 9784b Scads 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c Leather-jackets 4 4 2 0 4 3 0 7 4 1 1 0 4 0 4 4 4 1 7 3 4 3 7 0 5422 535 1022 871 679 887 210 495 251 66 144 545i Trachynotus 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 5 6 7 4d Other Carangids 1 0 1 0 9 9 1 0 1 0 1 2 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 10 9 9 8 7 101i Coryphaena 1 4 4 1 4 0 1 3 4 1 3 2 1 3 6 1 4 2 177 55 117 69 125 26 40 14 15 5 20 65ii Elacate 6 1 6 0 5 7 5 6 5 8 6 1 75 24 50 30 53 13 11 54 25 55 22 111 5 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 5086 7596 3814 1425 6776 2280 10210 4914 5929 5743 6048 6222 5419 4681 9254 10093 13139 12164b Gazza 104 155 78 29 139 47 208 85 1 3 4 6 7 9 1 0 1 2 1 3 1 51 6 Big jawed jumper 2224 3322 1668 623 2963 997 4029 3772 2831 3068 6573 1454 1440 2232 1007 1359 2424 48951 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 240 2706 159 2449 2446 286 1525 260 837 616 169 309 4508 592 503 204 262 775b Silver pomfret 272 3059 180 2769 2765 323 1722 295 947 697 192 349 5095 670 569 231 296 877c Chinese pomfrets 10 117 7 107 106 12 66 11 37 27 7 13 196 26 22 9 11 331 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 71343 58169 23157 12777 7118 5318 11093 26259 55646 24858 35775 20125 12068 50349 9820 18413 10887 4566b Other mackerels 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 392 349 77 66 312 401 1099 997 614 670 1038 1373 735 774 918 732 607 650b S. guttatus 434 386 84 74 345 444 1215 1101 678 740 1148 1517 812 856 1016 809 671 719c S. lineolatus 2 2 1 1 1 2 5 4 3 3 4 6 3 3 4 3 3 3d Acanthocybium spp. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 1878 253 293 269 795 1123 1604 853 1232 1667 3018 3345 541 1742 1010 1382 898 1085b Auxis spp. 517 70 80 74 219 309 442 236 340 460 832 923 149 480 279 382 247 299c K. pelamis 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1d T. tonggol 10 1 2 2 5 6 9 5 7 9 16 18 3 9 5 7 5 6e Other tunnies 132 18 21 18 56 79 112 60 86 117 212 235 38 122 71 97 63 762 1 Bill fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 2 Barracudas 1 0 3 100 721 14 1963 149 1970 209 342 478 1330 235 55 210 590 920 270 11462 3 Mullets 1 3 13 86 5 8 3 1 3 28 439 11 13 4 26 51 140 471 68 113 2892 4 Unicorn cod 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 5 Flatfishesa Halibut 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1b Flounders 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c Soles 27532 1019 3654 3691 1056 4150 9530 2800 11210 9689 13237 6039 16612 7704 4397 7460 4798 32482 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 7415 8753 5946 1986 4651 6520 17631 20840 14320 14542 13100 20937 29981 22879 35815 14617 28486 27565b Non-Penaeid prawns 7 9 6 2 5 7 3 5 51 863 517 24 44 6 2 78 8 1 86 262 89c Lobsters 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1d Crabs 14 17 11 4 9 13 14 75 37 116 175 104 22 89 70 128 542 57e Stomatopods 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 1 5 7 4 1 4 3 5 22 22 7 Molluscs 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 8 Cephalopods 2 9 4 2 8 8 2 7 2 2 6 9 2 7 5 2 8 7 3 6 0 2 9 6 2 9 5 298 434 29 16 185 346 178 723 380Total 2031 0 3 1 9 2 2 1 4 1 2 9 8 6 4 1 1 2 4 4 1 1 1 7 3 1 9 1 0 5 5 5 4 1 5 3 1 2 6 3 1 1 1 7 2 2 9 6 0 1 6 1 9 2 7 4 3 3 4 6 6 8 4 2 6 8 6 2 4 1 9 2 4 7 0 2 0 3 2 4 2 3 1 7 9 7 3 3 3 9 1 7 3 3 4 6 7 4 4 3 6 4 1 2 9  Appendices  100 Table G : Continued. Species 196 8 1 9 69 1 9 7 0 1 9 7 1 19 7 2 1 9 73 1 9 7 4 1 9 7 5 19 7 6 1 97 7 1 9 7 8 1 9 7 9 19 8 0 1 98 1 1 9 8 2 1 9 8 3 1 9 8 41 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 3124 4339 9975 7314 8914 10081 11286 11943 10400 7224 11099 8646 7344 6460 7499 13323 9991b Skates 104 144 331 242 294 334 373 395 344 238 367 287 243 214 606 58 19c Rays 1011 1405 3229 2369 2886 3263 3655 3867 3367 2339 3592 2799 2377 2091 2668 1274 21612 Eels 2 9 2 63 9 5 73 19 19 10 62 17 9 5 32 53 303 Catfishes 4237 6385 29599 30832 21875 26945 49664 51337 24605 13439 14773 19110 20412 17206 16191 26319 184594 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 396 315 907 476 419 559 890 675 867 592 1359 1151 1031 988 1092 1108 1398b Oil sardine 250830 143127 198204 199911 110167 126211 105726 108423 133078 127005 125589 119571 71660 149240 147546 157444 149962c Other sardines 7841 9698 6348 11692 7163 64164 32437 37544 36835 22460 12265 16287 11332 7746 7611 5403 6138d Hilsa shad 1 4 6 9 20 16 1 3 11 13 39 191 6 14 8 40 170 202e Other shads 86 50 13 6 3 40 34 4 4 4 9 15 72 37 22 15 20 2 4 2 9f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 5739 11090 8218 11116 11259 9190 20147 12754 10724 10936 22202 6706 7994 4359 14008 55954 42301ii Thrissocles 1313 1192 4767 2408 2111 1709 1367 1827 2934 1784 1987 1831 2305 644 998 1191 1417g Other clupeids 1034 1625 1619 1710 1420 1190 1370 1113 1261 554 1019 690 590 958 3189 6838 54535 Bombay duck 1 1 1 1 45 46 19 2 1 2 1 2 2 22 1 1 1 1 1 16 Lizard fishes 590 558 1926 2832 2469 1755 13094 17783 191 8741 10112 8985 10370 10240 9308 9366 100047 Half beaks and Full 116 85 31 99 93 190 343 310 151 304 294 263 371 574 1035 491 3218 Flying fishes 4 4 3 2 2 1 2 2 1 4 7 1 0 1 3 16 1 2 39 Perchesa Rock cods 67 96 313 298 274 536 1243 929 237 955 1619 1366 1044 1321 484 659 770b Snappers 16 24 78 75 68 134 311 231 60 238 405 341 261 137 572 158 244c Pig face breams 16 24 78 75 68 134 311 231 60 238 405 341 261 164 194 173 69d Threadfin breams 1289 1842 6034 5726 5251 10308 23919 17873 4563 18387 31152 26290 20091 11592 15545 12471 32575e Other perches 284 407 1332 1265 1160 2276 5281 3946 1008 4060 6877 5805 4435 2170 2193 3560 91861 0 Goatfishes 503 1583 504 3193 5124 2375 5749 36 4976 406 277 214 1 59 414 261 1201 1 Threadfins 81 145 40 1155 42 881 4 165 236 117 57 49 12 85 200 302 7221 2 Croakers 3686 3267 10466 8414 10624 18114 13658 26471 13429 20234 21119 8835 9028 5659 6083 10490 154371 3 Ribbon fishes 1007 7613 5089 17820 11034 24564 31254 16930 8254 8052 25348 26321 13307 7174 11368 1130 65881 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 4901 3622 2650 5077 15664 14682 5445 8022 11251 16962 7536 12628 3525 56 949 403 192b Scads 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1714 2139 5307 5808c Leather-jackets 82 56 80 50 862 49 75 151 285 584 155 131 127 323 550 495 229i Trachynotus 19 6 6 6 2 3 5 7 8 8 20 1 1 1 1 1 1d Other Carangids 5 3 4 39 3 38 37 76 95 6 84 75 1 0 6 8 1147 3035 9437 10597 7705i Coryphaena 12 1 1 1 97 157 97 68 60 30 20 49 2 8 2 7 28 2 7 2 8ii Elacate 30 52 122 307 80 53 36 69 114 171 174 123 6 8 6 7 68 6 7 6 71 5 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 7208 14334 29214 17475 8729 28413 25950 8205 5266 13035 4922 6068 6076 5085 14829 16315 6233b Gazza 1 6 18 3 4 43 26 6 7 8 8 8 7 9 8 9 81 6 Big jawed jumper 1798 1330 2608 6071 5252 10296 4302 1548 904 1392 2482 427 1261 1582 2733 1887 26221 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 455 553 576 2255 1539 1286 1022 855 711 2888 1201 1348 611 1105 3302 1674 1127b Silver pomfret 514 626 651 2550 1740 1454 1155 967 801 3264 1358 1523 691 1348 3886 1552 1090c Chinese pomfrets 19 25 25 97 68 56 44 38 31 125 52 59 26 18 22 203 3541 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 3654 30654 56518 97572 36414 20332 10698 16657 21452 21610 27138 19020 19003 16448 11041 12893 11971b Other mackerels 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 1821 490 848 1361 693 823 2409 2150 3022 1668 1665 3044 1835 1604 3731 4518 3246b S. guttatus 2013 541 938 1504 766 911 2662 2376 3339 1843 1840 3365 2028 1771 2017 2518 3033c S. lineolatus 8 2 3 6 3 3 10 9 13 8 7 13 8 6 39 24 13d Acanthocybium spp. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 55 2 92 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 1391 740 938 2309 2831 2053 4540 4825 10234 5370 5074 11656 8077 4139 5424 3867 4275b Auxis spp. 384 204 259 637 781 566 1252 1330 2822 1480 1399 3214 2227 1141 1523 848 1424c K. pelamis 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 52 2 5d T. tonggol 7 4 5 12 16 11 25 26 56 29 27 63 43 22 44 10 35e Other tunnies 97 52 66 162 199 144 319 339 719 378 356 819 568 291 458 1118 5472 1 Bill fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 131 261 97 3262 2 Barracudas 502 347 82 178 1187 2398 4001 442 530 382 755 488 339 824 676 1157 11302 3 Mullets 189 65 278 1114 158 159 1415 117 50 64 2 66 221 216 56 199 1102 4 Unicorn cod 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 5 Flatfishesa Halibut 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 284 307 275 94b Flounders 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 77 3c Soles 9640 10264 18453 17877 10593 13213 18918 10915 6887 9771 11779 7570 6436 8774 19401 22518 282812 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 25744 35105 66751 63524 62090 130987 88607 121570 66573 67897 72907 49804 77092 40069 45365 51076 56624b Non-Penaeid prawns 36 35 25 3083 1231 1516 1502 1189 106 294 638 127 2552 288 110 180 1176c Lobsters 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 49 97 68 62 44 26 90 160 117 84d Crabs 173 427 965 1019 263 2642 4105 2716 2439 7502 3382 12378 477 302 589 814 747e Stomatopods 7 17 40 43 10 110 170 113 102 313 141 516 10194 5092 6833 10885 113012 7 Molluscs 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 22 8 Cephalopods 1139 168 155 960 606 524 3222 5262 1684 8410 10549 5021 6216 4275 6006 2970 8641Total 3453 0 1 2 9 4 7 87 4 7 1 4 5 6 53 4 4 1 6 3 5 47 4 2 5 3 7 92 3 5 0 4 3 0 8 50 5 0 0 3 3 9 72 5 6 4 1 4 04 4 4 4 8 0 0 7 39 6 6 1 1 3 3 54 5 2 3 2 9 27 4 3 9 0 9 5 4 46 2 9 8 0 4 7 21 6 5  Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  101 Table G : Continued. Species 198 5 1 9 8 6 1 9 8 7 1 9 8 8 1 9 8 9 1 9 9 0 1 9 9 1 1 9 9 2 1 9 9 3 1 9 9 4 1 9 9 5 1 9 9 6 1 9 9 7 1 9 9 8 1 9 9 9 2 0 0 01 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 7761 6923 4551 7822 3291 4639 3114 3858 4844 5321 3977 4379 4030 3034 3964 2992b Skates 19 25 10 53 261 27 114 98 60 106 80 87 80 838 79 59c Rays 1603 2037 1976 2392 4525 6553 2463 1304 2042 2244 1677 1846 1699 2579 1672 12622 Eels 5 6 19 23 2 50 23 19 74 1 7 1 3 4 0 4 6 7 4 3 6 468 277 2 5 73 Catfishes 8123 12798 6811 15124 7071 4410 2884 1629 936 650 6 2 1 557 285 334 385 1504 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 630 719 821 750 1404 732 716 990 1768 1286 1 3 4 3 1285 1328 1381 3 5 6 2 3 0b Oil sardine 80918 41278 45724 61676 186985 181171 107762 55983 52133 15886 12610 28530 90108 80189 134180 208878c Other sardines 2526 9080 8893 12946 13909 13036 24065 17552 23948 1 9 5 8 3 2 0 4 8 0 1 9 6 3 2 1 9 7 0 4 20501 27267 2 6 1 2 0d Hilsa shad 20 15 8 16 54 323 2 0 1 79 89 73 6 2 4 7 32 3 4 3 1 3 0e Other shads 33 2 2 33 2 0 8 96 486 261 1 8 9 1 7 2 1 3 8 1 1 1 83 10 1 0f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 37001 27603 16973 46895 45641 27164 45912 49879 51925 4 0 4 3 4 4 0 0 5 6 23430 20756 32602 30183 18335ii Thrissocles 1231 3185 3411 5891 2849 2384 3680 7941 5447 5 1 3 4 6 1 1 9 4295 4567 8642 2590 1814g Other clupeids 4368 7023 8883 8244 11082 8339 15876 26414 13666 11573 9258 31079 29835 10985 7566 169325 Bombay duck 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 16 Lizard fishes 9898 9457 7618 20370 13703 18466 18851 22360 21678 15721 17557 15451 11207 13496 1 3 3 6 0 1 2 4 3 47 Half beaks and Full 678 567 765 1294 643 638 821 421 418 402 3381 437 678 659 660 5508 Flying fishes 3 3 3 3 2 6 5 0 73 1440 10 5 4 15 8 6 4 49 Perchesa Rock cods 756 499 1383 1364 2171 1607 1197 4792 5728 4 4 1 1 4 3 4 8 4062 2776 8431 2548 2949b Snappers 215 191 585 1338 1793 1863 306 193 475 5 7 2 8 0 2 1016 694 2263 637 738c Pig face breams 317 429 108 623 333 365 380 139 212 4 2 6 7 2 4 1016 694 1472 637 738d Threadfin breams 37943 57092 34064 37978 73743 87138 53551 58239 86314 7 1 6 4 1 7 6 5 9 4 78205 53433 43763 49043 56752e Other perches 8922 10296 7901 7750 6503 17478 12578 16035 24513 1 8 8 4 1 1 8 5 2 9 17266 11797 10576 10827 125291 0 Goatfishes 157 317 1000 14935 10385 11140 31133 12003 3901 1 5 0 9 243 3 3 5 4 4 1 562 5 5 6 5 1 81 1 Threadfins 245 40 54 153 735 8 7 3 1088 51 171 117 8 8 5 1 13 504 238 541 2 Croakers 13549 19013 11928 12861 19678 17499 14581 24698 22969 2 0 4 2 8 2 3 3 0 3 25292 14768 21082 11820 1 1 0 0 11 3 Ribbon fishes 25679 12074 15640 9125 7261 9854 2198 6374 7651 8 0 5 7 1 0 4 1 3 1 1 9 9 0 1 4 1 6 6 17089 15505 1 4 8 5 31 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 90 1479 1292 4541 674 11044 3335 1805 5276 38323 4 2 5 3 3 43252 26820 5600 29697 18066b Scads 4321 35974 7102 19772 37028 41211 65301 72602 48223 3 1 4 4 2 2 4 0 7 3 14162 21557 44225 4 0 2 1 6 3 8 5 2 5c Leather-jackets 265 394 482 263 149 735 133 210 616 4 9 1 5 0 0 4 6 5 4 5 1 454 396 3 7 9i Trachynotus 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1d Other Carangids 8438 34908 14408 23402 12941 16809 11067 13439 21750 1 7 4 3 8 1 7 8 5 4 1 6 7 2 7 1 6 3 7 7 16586 12346 1 1 8 2 7i Coryphaena 2 8 2 7 2 8 2 8 2 7 2 7 2 7 2 8 2 8 2 4 2 6 2 5 2 6 2 8 2 5 2 4ii Elacate 6 7 6 7 6 7 6 7 6 7 6 7 6 7 6 8 6 9 5 8 6 2 6 2 6 4 6 8 6 2 5 91 5 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 5369 8945 8809 9859 9240 9975 9333 7092 10121 5512 5589 6474 7022 8033 7 9 5 3 7 4 0 1b Gazza 8 7 7 8 9 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 8 8 71 6 Big jawed jumper 1636 2141 903 1247 2278 3768 1030 1068 1421 1479 783 3152 2658 4734 2556 21271 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 1094 2000 2517 1242 1534 2501 1720 1817 1172 1263 1661 2642 1539 2907 2887 2687b Silver pomfret 286 712 582 1143 1434 1626 334 2170 2139 1648 1626 1994 910 1356 1332 1239c Chinese pomfrets 19 55 4 52 33 56 2 130 848 601 532 565 209 223 222 2071 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 18488 22234 10290 44786 86243 79163 54739 39216 62099 98542 74233 119698 79323 63391 77301 30479b Other mackerels 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 4586 4298 4618 8283 7319 4842 4588 8548 6445 4905 5268 4334 3928 4853 2291 3730b S. guttatus 4053 638 680 2075 549 587 77 486 321 223 215 154 116 111 52 85c S. lineolatus 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 4 11 11 10 11 1 1 1 0 1 0d Acanthocybium spp. 1 6 4 1 2 8 1 9 1 252 1 6 8 8 5 1 1 2 2 2 2 879 417 6792 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 6065 9375 6132 7835 15041 25514 8965 12235 10003 1 0 8 5 8 1 4 3 1 1 16707 15415 5246 7304 6338b Auxis spp. 2841 5011 3091 4515 5746 5819 2826 3636 2890 3 8 1 6 5591 4 8 1 5 4 2 5 4 3790 5312 4609c K. pelamis 45 38 226 65 585 110 83 31 1 3 3 6 9 1 0 3 1 4 0 188 332 288d T. tonggol 396 65 283 70 237 94 553 76 66 7 0 9 0 1 0 3 1 2 2 147 166 144e Other tunnies 713 540 1118 677 934 1423 869 801 953 1 0 7 5 1 4 5 0 1 7 2 0 2 0 7 7 2546 3486 30252 1 Bill fishes 158 189 155 176 173 248 114 248 256 2 4 2 2 8 9 3 1 3 3 5 2 409 3 7 2 3 5 62 2 Barracudas 917 1334 950 1922 2168 3883 4270 4185 3167 2498 4425 3853 3364 10082 2645 2 5 3 42 3 Mullets 1125 547 1229 29 135 63 170 104 306 864 978 555 276 182 190 1 7 62 4 Unicorn cod 1 1 1 1 1 12 9 6 6 5 6 6 6 6 6 52 5 Flatfishesa Halibut 30 28 162 352 104 783 155 548 33 2 3 2 1 1 6 1 2 8 8 7b Flounders 6 36 247 15 217 702 855 1263 144 1 0 7 1 0 0 8 7 7 6 64 6 4 5 9c Soles 17768 13986 14494 19319 34623 23355 22965 43216 32134 2 5 7 2 6 2 6 4 9 1 2 6 0 1 0 2 5 9 1 2 26215 39520 367802 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 41924 55378 76056 100962 88983 72967 96043 79077 74016 92200 59826 65358 82674 92567 65160 83783b Non-Penaeid prawns 317 155 373 244 30 3 439 98 202 132 252 193 635 82 3979 15660c Lobsters 148 74 203 170 128 198 323 326 63 5 9 7 0 7 7 8 8 102 797 9 2 7d Crabs 1529 2085 3742 3266 4598 7574 7140 7699 8795 32326 18979 160 393 11104 7515 8710e Stomatopods 12281 13554 16403 17537 22975 27417 16657 20151 30003 2 2 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 8 1 8 7 3 7 1 6 5 0 3 14490 20231 2 3 5 3 62 7 Molluscs 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 14 2 22 8 Cephalopods 13014 22318 11013 23012 40537 38974 32199 48477 44618 49872 61321 67445 95919 50717 49539 44693Total 3906 4 3 4 5 9 3 4 9 3 6 6 9 4 4 5 6 6 8 0 2 7 9 1 0 7 7 7 9 7 5 4 8 6 9 0 1 6 5 6 8 3 8 6 2 6 9 9 4 4 3 6 8 8 9 8 7 6 4 3 1 4 7 6 9 0 8 9 7 6 9 2 8 9 1 6 5 3 0 0 5 6 9 8 7 9 9 7 3 9 3 5 7  Appendices  102 Table H : Marine fisheries catch (thousand tonnes) data for the Union Territory of Lakshawdeep, 1950-2000.  Species 1950 1 9 5 1 1 9 5 2 1 9 5 3 1 9 5 4 19 5 5 19 5 6 1 95 7 1 95 8 1 9 59 1 9 6 0 1 9 6 1 1 9 6 2 1 9 6 3 1 9 6 4 1 9 6 5 1 9 6 6 1 9 6 71 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 22 20 27 27 64 94 149b Skatesc Rays 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 8 11 162 Eels3 Catfishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 14 Clupeidsa Wolf herring b Oil sardinec Other sardines 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3d Hilsa shade Other shads f Anchoviesi Anchoviella ii Thrissoclesg Other clupeids5 Bombay duck6 Lizard fishes7 Half beaks and Full 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 17 14 1 12 78 Flying fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 20 16 14 22 219 Perches 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 13 18 15 70 60a Rock codsb Snappers 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 8 7 30 26c Pig face breamsd Threadfin breamse Other perches 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 0 Goatfishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 18 2 31 1 Threadfins1 2 Croakers1 3 Ribbon fishes1 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 5 2 4 2 37 35b Scadsc Leather-jacketsi Trachynotusd Other Carangidsi Coryphaenaii Elacate1 5 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1b Gazza1 6 Big jawed jumper1 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfretb Silver pomfretc Chinese pomfrets1 8 Mackerela Indian mackerelb Other mackerels1 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 9 23 25b S. guttatus 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 6 6 13 35 39c S. lineolatusd Acanthocybium spp.2 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 8 1 6 5 3 2 3b Auxis spp. 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 24 24 41 6 29 23 16 11 16c K. pelamis 3 6 9 3 6 9 3 6 9 3 6 9 3 6 9 3 6 9 3 6 9 36 9 36 9 36 9 369 636 89 448 365 243 161 247d T. tonggol 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 24 24 41 6 29 23 16 11 16e Other tunnies 5 2 5 2 5 2 5 2 5 2 5 2 5 2 5 2 5 2 52 52 90 13 63 52 34 22 342 1 Bill fishes 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 18 18 16 1 5 1 7 1 7 1 6 1 7 1 72 2 Barracudas 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 4 1 4 82 3 Mullets2 4 Unicorn cod2 5 Flatfishesa Halibutb Floundersc Soles2 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawnsb Non-Penaeid prawnsc Lobstersd Crabse Stomatopods2 7 Molluscs2 8 Cephalopods 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 13 7 9 12 5Total 509 5 0 9 5 0 9 5 0 9 5 0 9 5 0 9 5 0 9 50 9 50 9 5 09 5 09 8 7 2 1 8 0 7 1 3 6 0 0 4 7 6 5 9 6 7 5 6  Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  103 Table H : Continued. Species 1968 1 96 9 1 9 7 0 1 9 7 1 1 9 7 2 1 9 7 3 1 9 7 4 1 9 7 5 1 9 7 6 1 9 7 7 1 9 7 8 1 9 7 9 1 9 8 0 1 9 8 1 1 9 8 2 1 9 8 3 1 9 8 41 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 128 134 349 256 276 333 478 616 619 509 429 757 484 408 513 582 586b Skatesc Rays 15 15 38 28 31 37 52 69 68 57 48 83 53 47 44 182 2632 Eels3 Catfishes 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 34 Clupeidsa Wolf herring b Oil sardinec Other sardines 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4d Hilsa shade Other shads f Anchoviesi Anchoviella ii Thrissoclesg Other clupeids5 Bombay duck6 Lizard fishes7 Half beaks and Full 14 16 18 10 22 112 30 31 38 66 154 107 105 118 91 202 658 Flying fishes 24 26 22 15 20 47 49 32 47 34 35 17 31 17 26 26 169 Perches 83 52 90 71 111 194 230 269 258 279 270 323 489 479 536 593 340a Rock codsb Snappers 36 23 40 31 49 84 101 118 112 121 118 141 213 203 292 211 204c Pig face breamsd Threadfin breamse Other perches 1 1 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 5 5 8 50 63 46 651 0 Goatfishes 2 8 37 60 19 23 78 67 71 112 56 65 62 51 54 63 74 711 1 Threadfins1 2 Croakers1 3 Ribbon fishes1 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 58 50 35 22 35 71 69 66 108 73 64 61 85 110 225 154 47b Scadsc Leather-jacketsi Trachynotusd Other Carangidsi Coryphaenaii Elacate1 5 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 11 1 0 1 0 1 2 1 2 9 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 5b Gazza1 6 Big jawed jumper1 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfretb Silver pomfretc Chinese pomfrets1 8 Mackerela Indian mackerelb Other mackerels1 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 30 27 25 21 23 14 41 28 40 18 17 11 9 21 42 25 25b S. guttatus 45 41 39 32 36 19 62 43 60 28 27 15 14 31 62 37 37c S. lineolatusd Acanthocybium spp.2 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 5 8 7 9 6 11 15 20 15 14 20 30 19 23 32 34 43b Auxis spp. 25 36 32 43 30 57 71 104 75 66 100 148 94 117 156 172 216c K. pelamis 394 566 491 665 465 897 1104 1619 1157 1027 1560 2302 1462 1829 2431 2691 3372d T. tonggol 25 36 32 43 30 57 71 104 75 66 100 148 94 117 156 172 216e Other tunnies 56 80 70 94 66 126 156 229 163 145 220 324 207 258 343 379 4762 1 Bill fishes 1 7 1 9 1 9 1 9 2 0 1 9 1 9 1 8 2 0 1 9 1 8 1 8 1 8 18 44 34 442 2 Barracudas 12 8 7 8 9 12 20 18 23 17 19 12 15 13 11 20 152 3 Mullets2 4 Unicorn cod2 5 Flatfishesa Halibutb Floundersc Soles2 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawnsb Non-Penaeid prawnsc Lobstersd Crabse Stomatopods2 7 Molluscs2 8 Cephalopods 11 11 16 31 33 43 31 40 78 44 48 35 25 30 51 37 41Total 1011 1 19 3 1 3 9 8 1 4 2 8 1 2 9 6 2 2 2 4 2 6 7 8 3 5 1 7 3 0 8 6 2 6 5 8 3 3 3 6 4 6 1 5 3 4 9 1 3 9 6 1 5 1 9 8 5 6 8 8 6 1 6 4  Appendices  104 Table H : Continued. Species 198 5 1 9 86 1 9 87 1 9 88 1 98 9 1 99 0 19 9 1 19 9 2 19 9 3 1 9 9 4 1 9 95 1 9 96 1 9 97 1 99 8 1 99 9 20 0 01 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 540 444 119 667 917 593 7 7 3 8 40 9 08 1269 1603 1205 950 1011 1039 822b Skatesc Rays 244 167 172 310 218 185 2 3 1 2 47 2 56 345 415 304 228 232 112 1082 Eels3 Catfishes 3 5 7 4 4 4 6 6 7 5 6 1 1 5 8 7 64 Clupeidsa Wolf herring b Oil sardinec Other sardines 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 6 5d Hilsa shade Other shads f Anchoviesi Anchoviella ii Thrissoclesg Other clupeids5 Bombay duck6 Lizard fishes7 Half beaks and Full 41 45 33 71 72 86 1 1 5 1 45 1 75 212 219 132 176 354 417 3 3 78 Flying fishes 6 14 15 19 37 38 46 55 63 72 95 28 103 62 153 1379 Perches 220 326 602 501 330 528 3 3 3 3 21 3 09 212 92 45 440 6 1 0 6 8 8 6 2 9a Rock codsb Snappers 155 167 265 166 206 189 1 9 7 2 72 3 36 292 242 270 525 811 6 5 8 368c Pig face breamsd Threadfin breamse Other perches 24 63 172 105 179 236 1 4 7 1 42 1 41 96 63 68 106 1 4 7 157 1 4 710 Goatfishes 96 208 258 97 78 167 2 3 1 2 59 2 96 239 231 135 287 432 4 3 3 34011 Threadfins12 Croakers13 Ribbon fishes14 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 53 53 61 50 47 57 60 63 65 69 73 43 163 107 138 1 1 2b Scadsc Leather-jacketsi Trachynotusd Other Carangidsi Coryphaenaii Elacate15 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 1 7 2 3 3 3 1 8 1 9 2 1 28 31 34 2 7 2 9 5 6 2 7 3 9 3 7 2 8b Gazza16 Big jawed jumper17 Pomfretsa Black pomfretb Silver pomfretc Chinese pomfrets18 Mackerela Indian mackerelb Other mackerels19 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 26 16 21 32 24 23 33 43 54 67 61 23 29 44 68 98b S. guttatus 35 23 33 48 35 33 49 65 82 102 91 35 44 65 104 146c S. lineolatusd Acanthocybium spp.20 Tunniesa E. affinis 41 128 251 288 375 440 5 3 1 6 27 7 24 751 867 834 865 1328 1184 886b Auxis spp. 197 269 378 357 407 434 4 9 3 5 52 6 13 601 695 741 765 1130 969 724c K. pelamis 3104 3904 5138 4611 5043 5197 5 7 4 8 6 2 92 6 8 35 6528 7342 7316 6731 9683 8068 6037d T. tonggol 199 235 291 248 258 255 2 7 3 2 89 3 05 279 348 370 345 568 537 403e Other tunnies 437 501 605 502 511 491 4 5 3 4 73 4 91 489 480 437 448 672 586 47221 Bill fishes 78 47 38 31 23 31 35 40 44 49 68 40 76 7 3 1 0 0 8 122 Barracudas 8 8 6 7 5 20 19 18 17 15 18 24 104 57 100 9923 Mullets24 Unicorn cod25 Flatfishesa Halibutb Floundersc Soles26 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawnsb Non-Penaeid prawnsc Lobstersd Crabse Stomatopods27 Molluscs28 Cephalopods 38 50 60 36 51 77 99 1 07 1 14 8 8 9 3 17 7 8 2 116 135 113Total 556 9 6 6 99 8 5 62 8 1 72 8 84 3 9 11 0 99 0 3 1 08 9 2 1 18 7 4 11 8 1 4 13 1 36 12 3 00 1 2 5 04 1 7 55 1 1 5 69 6 1 2 09 8  Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  105 Table I : Marine fisheries catch (thousand tonnes) data for the state of Tamil Nadu, 1950-2000.  Species 1950 19 51 1 95 2 1 95 3 1 95 4 19 55 19 56 1 95 7 1 95 8 19 59 19 60 1 96 1 1 962 19 63 1 96 4 1 96 5 19 66 19 671 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 977 1479 2623 1214 1084 1070 1072 898 1043 1065 1504 1690 1939 1893 1687 2037 2117 1271b Skates 54 82 145 67 63 61 62 52 61 61 87 97 111 109 97 117 122 73c Rays 4726 7151 12683 5870 5494 5430 5434 4556 5288 5396 7625 8567 9834 9600 8551 10332 10734 64422 Eels 41 40 4 0 3 9 4 1 43 46 52 9 5 141 121 75 164 140 76 23 45 583 Catfishes 813 2585 4250 10159 6751 3660 4224 3550 4653 2406 2005 2158 3722 3587 3731 4088 5278 39454 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 3289 550 1135 1448 2504 1248 2511 3078 2449 1958 2319 3136 6263 4580 3521 3800 3974 4349b Oil sardine 916 15 1680 1 49 0 1394 5078 560 402 147 1 00 50 1 1 1 141 34 38 33c Other sardines 19510 11543 13344 7053 5611 11156 12289 9023 7199 7631 7817 6105 5642 8206 15603 9934 13268 11092d Hilsa shad 61 59 5 9 5 8 61 72 11 6 51 23 36 52 195 86 1320 13 17 15e Other shads 11 11 1 1 1 0 1 1 11 11 40 34 156 243 550 984 1649 2881 4632 5680 3447f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 4564 19530 13031 6812 8761 4994 4944 2715 16143 9596 10756 9514 6927 9227 7090 7071 11115 6729ii Thrissocles 1955 8370 5585 2919 3999 2280 2256 1403 770 1428 1785 1487 2382 993 1689 1838 2137 3865g Other clupeids 5 86 573 711 2325 1958 1849 2685 1495 1717 2446 2545 3436 3047 2089 2914 1447 3961 18115 Bombay duck 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 16 29 1 3 5 1 8 78 66 Lizard fishes 9 9 18 72 310 106 203 136 106 313 327 580 823 352 636 291 544 5657 Half beaks and Full 63 61 6 1 6 0 6 3 66 64 71 134 251 82 101 87 7 77 1397 801 1065 7518 Flying fishes 1692 1169 575 314 1783 3174 2287 895 321 1599 6249 1154 4089 988 896 154 3430 30169 Perchesa Rock cods 1743 101 317 256 262 255 332 273 391 449 406 795 284 393 364 349 579 425b Snappers 1763 102 321 258 267 259 337 277 396 455 412 807 288 400 369 354 587 431c Pig face breams 2440 142 444 358 366 356 465 381 549 629 569 1113 396 553 510 489 811 595d Threadfin breams 5351 312 975 784 768 747 975 800 1148 1316 1192 2332 832 1157 1069 1024 1700 1248e Other perches 9207 536 1677 1349 1342 1303 1700 1397 2004 2298 2080 4070 1453 2018 1864 1788 2966 217710 Goatfishes 276 81 82 284 508 227 2994 1381 806 1045 1078 1347 196 433 298 413 313 68811 Threadfins 79 77 45 423 845 223 341 289 540 494 652 723 847 757 930 824 863 56112 Croakers 4269 5164 3588 4349 7964 5001 9096 4643 4562 4794 5362 7320 5815 4977 5560 4396 6087 745913 Ribbon fishes 3068 4984 16548 12043 7254 11330 8249 10691 22356 18249 11016 7904 12924 8533 8085 7445 10843 676814 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 1435 1634 3900 3548 6660 5635 10870 5177 8611 6296 9081 15816 5061 10049 7118 9084 8028 8650b Scads 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c Leather-jackets 27 73 27 16 2 71 8 2 66 2 2 78 1 29 06 2835 1409 696 1042 1914 1479 1871 1726 1551 1829 1528 1905Trachynotus 59 57 5 7 5 6 5 9 61 60 6 1 60 2 4 5 7 8 53 20 1 4d Other Carangids 96 94 9 4 9 2 9 7 1 01 98 10 0 9 8 99 99 118 553 4 37 12 8 5Coryphaena 1 82 1 78 17 8 17 4 17 6 1 84 180 76 119 123 104 94 62 3 21 60 174 258Elacate 1 82 1 78 17 8 17 4 17 6 1 84 180 77 119 123 105 104 143 54 167 145 82 10815 SilverbelliesLeiognathus 2050 1084 2863 2382 4047 3089 6733 4514 5037 4962 6055 6461 6512 7475 16644 10845 20027 20134Gazza 228 121 318 265 461 352 766 252 147 141 41 89 152 57 4 6 38 34 5616 Big jawed jumper 1519 804 2121 1764 2856 2181 4147 3343 11486 9065 5590 6007 5162 4341 4315 2077 2124 185117 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 1393 1040 1049 994 974 947 1504 1340 1202 1653 1725 1544 1900 1614 1163 921 831 1442b Silver pomfret 380 284 286 271 268 260 413 369 331 454 474 425 522 443 320 253 228 396c Chinese pomfrets 8 6 6 6 6 6 9 8 7 10 10 9 12 10 7 5 5 918 Mackerela Indian mackerel 5345 2039 1064 297 484 862 1032 1144 314 785 944 4638 2584 2690 2432 435 1618 2780b Other mackerels 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 119 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 222 268 739 1640 2586 1394 3396 3484 3172 2364 2430 4068 3714 2675 2939 2285 3324 3393b S. guttatus 24 28 78 172 255 137 335 344 313 233 240 402 367 264 291 225 328 336c S. lineolatus 1 1 2 6 8 4 11 11 10 8 8 14 12 9 9 7 10 12d Acanthocybium spp. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 120 Tunniesa E. affinis 1628 276 308 333 866 1106 1242 1257 628 308 312 1369 220 515 2017 671 604 581b Auxis spp. 41 7 8 9 22 28 31 32 16 8 8 35 5 13 50 17 16 15c K. pelamis 10 2 2 2 5 7 8 8 4 2 2 8 1 3 13 4 4 3d T. tonggol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1e Other tunnies 352 60 66 71 185 237 267 270 135 65 67 294 47 110 433 144 129 12421 Bill fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 122 Barracudas 1 03 101 650 211 1945 216 1506 280 398 459 622 1130 1016 973 1057 1030 600 127023 Mullets 1 1 72 4 8 2 4 1 26 62 43 34 50 76 232 609 1856 334 242 117724 Unicorn cod 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 125 Flatfishesa Halibut 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1b Flounders 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c Soles 10 10 237 10 339 750 121 153 114 329 641 1096 942 428 1107 673 755 81326 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 418 1961 2668 1895 2217 3656 7801 1446 933 1499 1725 1712 2384 3232 3736 2505 5738 6604b Non-Penaeid prawns 13 60 82 58 76 125 265 334 901 186 281 1051 10 111 152 87 127 157c Lobsters 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 8 17 24 27 44 25 37 133 73 90 131d Crabs 2 11 15 10 14 22 47 227 509 715 777 1263 730 1071 3850 2104 2598 3779e Stomatopods 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 9 12 13 22 13 19 66 36 45 6527 Molluscs28 Cephalopods 17 17 1 7 1 6 1 7 18 17 1 8 1 7 17 17 5 2 30 71 80 186 135Total 859 66 7 77 78 99 73 6 77 19 3 87 07 4 8 44 81 10 70 57 74 32 6 1 08 41 9 9 53 46 9 97 23 1 14 50 1 1 035 20 10 20 85 1 22 94 2 99 71 0 13 78 45 12 40 21  Appendices  106 Table I : Continued. Species 196 8 1 96 9 1 9 7 0 1 9 7 1 1 9 7 2 1 9 7 3 1 9 7 4 1 9 7 5 1 9 7 6 1 9 7 7 1 9 7 8 1 9 7 9 1 9 8 0 1 9 8 1 1 9 8 2 1 9 8 3 1 9 8 41 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 1421 2299 4474 4281 3243 3266 5484 5240 4856 4804 3955 3254 4026 3378 4330 4715 3947b Skates 82 127 247 236 178 180 303 289 267 266 219 179 223 186 671 1172 246c Rays 7203 11116 21634 20700 15682 15795 26517 25343 23483 23229 19122 15734 19470 16332 15649 24578 154602 Eels 59 273 304 219 69 181 415 165 932 358 501 184 131 140 232 323 4753 Catfishes 3690 4184 9943 10764 7891 14773 14481 11186 7562 23478 8091 8688 6216 5698 9062 7060 69174 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 4557 4105 3745 3086 2429 3354 1692 1905 2125 2680 1881 1966 2876 1920 2823 2960 2872b Oil sardine 430 19 48 47 153 47 2 2 1 4 0 0 5 6 5 773 39 1081 341 206 1148 1442 1299c Other sardines 10546 18271 17558 24634 22042 27499 16071 37452 25986 28437 22806 35591 31947 25787 24666 40552 28516d Hilsa shad 3 121 16 200 178 11 15 127 23 371 174 44 39 55 184 615 1226e Other shads 3234 2670 2418 2932 2186 1424 709 1218 2407 6264 4514 2952 3291 3709 4248 6660 5643f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 5379 12461 7997 5397 4584 9608 11191 11435 8124 14498 8068 11826 14006 9329 10471 11320 16578ii Thrissocles 3318 3528 4330 5194 5526 5087 4838 3289 8633 3257 5113 5925 5386 6819 5202 5899 8396g Other clupeids 2759 2491 2404 2293 3253 3911 2932 5686 16365 2872 3297 3810 1956 5314 5867 7817 61625 Bombay duck 4 103 2 14 50 248 1 2 3 1 8 15 9 1 6 3 2 7 46 Lizard fishes 759 1700 1685 2080 1361 1305 1678 1537 1237 883 1695 2317 1725 2186 2895 2796 35997 Half beaks and Full 586 443 842 514 422 712 4113 1559 740 1705 822 667 799 864 874 1450 10028 Flying fishes 3699 3916 2177 8756 1351 6565 756 1743 1272 570 1183 1710 1180 2595 1712 1145 23469 Perchesa Rock cods 477 670 692 728 796 626 1005 1038 682 1039 1209 778 899 825 1939 2505 2429b Snappers 483 679 700 737 805 634 1017 1050 690 1052 1225 787 909 831 1797 1626 1190c Pig face breams 667 938 968 1018 1114 876 1407 1453 956 1455 1695 1089 1258 1158 3380 3464 2727d Threadfin breams 1397 2059 2124 2235 2443 1922 3085 3187 2095 3192 3716 2390 2760 2530 5599 5278 4746e Other perches 2439 3542 3653 3845 4203 3305 5307 5483 3603 5489 6392 4111 4749 4351 5860 8947 83601 0 Goatfishes 591 985 1617 1891 1933 1513 2748 2345 941 1285 3024 2240 1657 1677 2183 3700 28971 1 Threadfins 943 1612 2668 2408 1336 2706 1230 2005 2921 2458 1088 546 966 355 568 592 7831 2 Croakers 8105 8923 13953 8193 9171 15891 13950 15121 15870 21240 21937 29306 30023 19743 33008 20081 209411 3 Ribbon fishes 9064 6755 7073 11393 10992 10157 8716 18702 19672 4975 31056 22495 8389 8021 6741 5840 129441 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 5051 8981 6770 8872 7444 5935 5403 4 6 7 9 3 8 3 0 3 2 1 7 2 4 1 9 1 5 9 7 8 0 6 17 161 61 80b Scads 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1334 681 853 2839c Leather-jackets 2273 1132 1261 1404 1094 890 1605 1146 667 1587 1052 902 1185 641 745 3795 1743i Trachynotus 5 149 148 12 8 5 2 3 4 6 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 3 1 4 1 5d Other Carangids 1 3 25 25 30 9 2 6 7 1 5 8610 7042 3918 8338 6317 13432 6519 7685 11291i Coryphaena 191 229 184 43 25 34 80 8 1 7 9 8 3 8 3 8 2 8 2 8 1 8 2 8 4 8 4ii Elacate 115 227 175 32 293 79 105 1 0 7 1 0 6 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 8 1 1 91 5 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 23836 23684 37603 28200 31789 33158 33539 30176 44533 27512 46765 66569 58675 76471 78710 94908 65718b Gazza 99 98 103 7 91 51 39 34 48 29 48 65 55 71 70 83 561 6 Big jawed jumper 1968 1068 1357 954 1987 4229 1013 2729 1164 1143 1294 2046 1441 1229 1017 546 13741 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 1481 1339 1940 972 532 1997 790 1526 966 758 951 1061 1568 787 1137 964 1180b Silver pomfret 407 365 529 265 144 545 216 416 263 207 259 289 429 215 787 985 580c Chinese pomfrets 9 7 11 6 3 12 4 9 6 5 6 6 9 5 109 23 21 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 1982 1967 2112 3119 8207 9332 2749 6127 10828 6145 1574 3765 7714 4130 4710 6422 7112b Other mackerels 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 2838 2307 2733 4746 5677 5486 4865 3890 3525 6276 4594 5042 6910 5168 4634 4414 6308b S. guttatus 280 242 287 499 597 576 511 409 371 660 483 530 727 543 545 338 420c S. lineolatus 9 7 8 16 18 18 16 13 11 21 15 16 22 17 86 186 179d Acanthocybium spp. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9 482 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 597 1139 654 875 552 528 1411 1504 2418 2810 1015 2751 3619 3230 2670 1655 1850b Auxis spp. 15 29 17 22 14 14 35 38 61 70 26 69 92 81 393 443 235c K. pelamis 4 7 4 5 3 3 8 9 15 17 7 17 22 20 5 37 60d T. tonggol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 140e Other tunnies 128 246 142 189 119 114 305 325 523 608 220 594 783 698 336 48 5002 1 Bill fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 994 156 273 135 2682 2 Barracudas 859 1502 1432 915 1044 905 833 1584 1604 1843 2326 1564 616 1000 1893 1541 20042 3 Mullets 885 977 1068 1218 392 2171 366 2345 428 1425 1277 354 4 9 0 615 766 690 6972 4 Unicorn cod 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 5 Flatfishesa Halibut 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 307 520 401 183b Flounders 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 44 10 20 54c Soles 784 688 933 1027 764 1023 1749 1176 1366 1402 2434 3615 3216 1800 4359 4250 25872 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 5290 5743 6562 5423 7212 6782 11348 17121 13372 12755 20345 15826 14019 20168 21162 20703 24319b Non-Penaeid prawns 414 299 750 92 219 1935 65 856 255 247 380 1389 1460 1048 565 423 2332c Lobsters 107 1 6 0 2 8 6 3 8 5 4 5 7 5 4 1 5 7 9 696 789 442 901 526 138 358 467 543 933d Crabs 3097 4866 6002 8833 13718 11306 13377 20812 24661 17013 14313 9099 9483 13775 18981 15557 14149e Stomatopods 53 111 138 201 313 258 304 3 4 7 3 7 0 4 0 1 4 2 2 4 4 7 4 6 5 476 3141 1343 10782 7 Molluscs2 8 Cephalopods 181 305 107 580 366 638 1340 4423 2180 2123 1605 2943 2261 2535 4852 5930 6088Total 124 86 2 15 1 8 7 6 1 8 6 6 1 9 1 9 2 7 4 3 1 8 6 5 1 2 2 2 0 1 7 7 2 1 2 6 7 8 2 6 8 2 6 6 2 7 5 0 8 0 2 5 2 6 1 2 2 6 1 6 9 3 2 8 9 3 0 7 2 6 8 9 5 8 2 7 4 5 8 9 3 1 1 6 3 0 3 4 7 7 5 7 3 1 8 3 2 9  Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  107 Table I : Continued. Species 1985 19 86 19 87 19 88 19 89 19 90 19 91 19 92 19 93 19 94 19 95 19 9 6 19 9 7 19 9 8 19 9 9 20 0 01 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 2673 5880 7693 6524 7589 1417 4373 12059 8495 7462 6590 4889 4555 4463 3325 34 2 0b Skates 281 104 1375 161 89 77 209 714 145 142 141 120 132 144 1 3 7 1 4 1c Rays 10955 11191 20757 15405 12227 10875 14290 12553 15862 16777 17977 16377 19077 24180 2 39 8 4 2 46 6 82 Eels 244 245 340 152 245 186 398 457 401 97 264 283 829 1260 1172 8473 Catfishes 3321 2780 3543 3184 3031 2392 3936 3707 3753 2189 2308 3438 5489 5532 5020 41564 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 2214 3295 3816 3935 4035 2710 3269 4015 3679 7816 6456 9123 8134 11436 10704 8542b Oil sardine 3176 6540 943 2233 13857 35630 34237 33606 38518 50794 51412 50727 50839 380 297 3 0 3c Other sardines 22969 32395 49929 36598 28475 22050 34712 37220 36649 3 65 98 3 90 6 8 4 22 0 4 4 52 9 4 55596 53956 5 50 6 0d Hilsa shad 275 330 293 223 24 22 14 33 180 1404 1668 2145 1022 2264 1958 1867e Other shads 2576 2243 4685 2363 1013 1308 906 1860 2119 19 84 19 93 20 3 3 20 6 7 22 9 6 22 7 5 23 2 2f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 9488 15386 16069 31139 16352 14156 20552 20191 8973 4405 4620 6415 6019 9940 9508 9725ii Thrissocles 7389 5780 11069 5077 6377 5386 8845 5347 6776 2817 2425 2639 1800 1863 1445 1479g Other clupeids 5515 4453 11383 12187 13992 14716 13668 11440 7496 1513 1307 1812 3019 3389 2980 39335 Bombay duck 8 10 13 15 210 52 7 41 48 2 37 4 3 1 6 3 6 8 4 7 1162 1139 606 Lizard fishes 3172 3040 6262 4848 5902 8159 12159 12031 8019 2414 2571 2699 2013 19 1 8 17 0 9 15597 Half beaks and Full 780 718 663 1781 1038 1237 1112 1372 1090 2115 4257 4439 3930 3569 3365 52958 Flying fishes 663 1353 1065 3311 12498 884 5613 3553 1513 1241 1158 1361 1100 228 168 22539 Perchesa Rock cods 2885 2214 2302 2330 1534 1554 5111 3852 4465 2771 2419 1810 1828 19 1 8 19 0 2 19 5 7b Snappers 1513 801 2102 1440 905 914 1273 1493 1828 1135 990 740 748 7 8 5 7 7 8 8 0 1c Pig face breams 3153 3868 2901 3939 2669 5575 7953 6373 9946 6502 5960 4678 4943 12967 12550 17871d Threadfin breams 4498 6640 10327 7680 12343 17755 16896 13493 13201 8192 7148 5351 5406 56 7 2 56 2 6 57 8 6e Other perches 7507 8091 10512 10136 10739 8964 10082 14127 14719 11777 12586 11148 13009 37065 35208 3074410 Goatfishes 3509 3606 5785 17055 14117 15565 16006 9646 10336 8759 6978 9137 11413 1 19 7 5 1 18 7 8 1 22 1 611 Threadfins 642 771 1076 668 960 1367 1153 874 468 1647 1595 2519 2205 4234 3889 365512 Croakers 12670 11899 17818 17797 19484 19418 21814 19268 17047 15723 18884 20699 18658 19776 19118 1655813 Ribbon fishes 8655 21855 10450 3094 2958 3460 14714 15593 3805 28 91 22 29 15 8 7 9 1 3 237 201 114514 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 109 89 12 3 40 673 40 173 21 60 88 11379 16425 16082 15891 14483 13266 17517b Scads 261 598 2826 2023 3576 8871 2856 2887 2721 28 43 28 35 28 0 0 26 5 7 29 4 7 29 2 1 29 8 0c Leather-jackets 3067 633 1481 1833 744 776 1437 1681 1154 12 66 14 56 16 3 4 17 2 1 1565 1494 15 2 4i Trachynotus 16 17 19 21 22 24 24 26 27 26 1237 1184 11 2 4 12 4 7 12 3 6 12 6 1d Other Carangids 11178 7850 9722 14046 13734 16355 15307 14496 11971 1 02 15 89 69 74 2 0 54 0 8 1081 1003 3704i Coryphaena 84 82 83 83 84 87 85 84 82 86 85 8 5 8 0 8 9 8 8 9 0ii Elacate 1 20 1 18 1 20 1 21 1 22 1 27 1 26 1 25 1 23 116 240 2 3 8 2 2 5 2 5 0 2 4 8 2 5 315 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 60403 73776 70486 71165 55943 59580 58383 56703 67428 61130 67642 72705 67549 56769 54752 60262b Gazza 50 60 55 55 41 44 41 39 46 42 40 3 8 3 6 35 34 3716 Big jawed jumper 987 780 502 1085 370 995 329 601 267 577 1043 635 1180 2229 1899 155617 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 299 957 271 191 402 621 555 210 589 1344 769 104 73 7 7 7 6 7 8b Silver pomfret 244 430 1770 1852 1896 1453 2299 1613 1983 4871 2990 432 320 2823 2489 2952c Chinese pomfrets 3 159 154 169 9 6 3 3 11 25 15 2 1 2 2 218 Mackerela Indian mackerel 6668 10990 14313 9680 10485 7820 16676 34000 13397 12523 14059 11057 11337 20864 20564 17403b Other mackerels 1 1 1 1 1 26 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 119 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 2768 2896 3127 3793 3428 3274 3909 5440 4146 7307 8250 8188 8124 9563 8952 10027b S. guttatus 837 358 448 495 429 251 338 302 324 570 644 639 634 746 698 783c S. lineolatus 24 44 57 555 74 2 43 15 48 85 95 95 94 111 104 116d Acanthocybium spp. 42 34 28 23 16 10 3 2 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 520 Tunniesa E. affinis 859 1366 3309 2823 2336 2595 3538 3154 1705 15 96 16 04 16 3 6 16 6 3 18 4 7 18 3 1 18 6 8b Auxis spp. 52 515 224 354 924 372 650 603 145 1 36 1 3 7 1 3 9 1 4 2 1 5 7 1 5 6 1 5 9c K. pelamis 14 26 38 50 1 61 9 328 7425 69 51 69 83 71 2 4 72 4 3 80 4 2 79 7 1 81 3 4d T. tonggol 1 13 81 54 296 17 11 4 80 64 60 60 6 1 6 2 6 9 6 9 7 0e Other tunnies 541 552 210 4 29 652 932 545 303 90 15 16 1772 1649 3200 2520 39 9 6 560621 Bill fishes 286 165 111 243 76 89 116 224 202 1 89 1 9 0 1 9 4 1 9 7 2 1 9 2 1 7 2 2 122 Barracudas 1435 2276 3372 3885 4631 5278 6267 5560 5806 2507 2624 3243 3090 4284 4016 327223 Mullets 693 385 870 626 512 478 1458 957 729 242 608 704 476 13163 12667 134724 Unicorn cod 1 138 1 12 85 58 31 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 225 Flatfishesa Halibut 478 290 527 564 650 1736 1401 501 659 814 1101 1610 1790 23 3 1 27 6 2 3301b Flounders 34 23 14 6 11 91 100 84 41 33 34 39 36 3 8 3 7 3 8c Soles 1970 2218 2288 2894 3749 3671 4288 3497 2871 2728 3159 4160 4293 5675 5318 54 6 926 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 18071 25154 27625 24945 26470 30005 30061 32507 30096 21322 19083 5984 20485 29540 28057 32385b Non-Penaeid prawns 264 325 52 655 82 107 1035 279 290 10147 11087 10825 8052 8348 7969 7344c Lobsters 714 537 817 200 259 574 597 811 627 8 87 11 91 15 2 1 18 1 1 2214 2119 21 7 9d Crabs 10626 9745 11891 10692 9238 10741 16387 14301 16388 1914 1985 90 9 7 1 60 6 3 24169 23584 25223e Stomatopods 464 790 1030 1523 531 228 224 373 349 3 32 3 3 6 3 4 5 3 4 3 3 5 9 3 5 6 3 6 727 Molluscs28 Cephalopods 7177 6477 6174 6392 8753 11691 14754 25859 13360 33336 28773 28028 27820 12097 11532 14202Total 2516 83 3 0 64 22 3 6 73 63 3 5 74 66 3 4 36 62 3 6 48 82 4 3 73 43 4 5 25 91 41 07 92 39 85 24 41 09 63 40 87 1 6 42 85 1 4 45 42 1 1 43 67 8 4 44 81 0 3  Appendices  108 Table J : Marine fisheries catch (thousand tonnes) data for the Union Territory of Pondicherry, 1950-2000. Species 1950 1 9 5 1 1 9 5 2 1 9 5 3 1 9 5 4 19 5 5 19 5 6 1 95 7 1 95 8 1 9 59 1 9 6 0 1 9 6 1 1 9 6 2 1 9 6 3 1 9 6 4 1 9 6 5 1 9 6 6 1 9 6 71 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 6 7 6 7 6 7 6 7 67 65 65 54 64 65 92 101 116 110 102 122 128 76b Skates 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1c Rays 7 1 7 1 7 1 7 1 71 68 69 57 68 68 97 107 123 116 107 128 135 802 Eels 2 9 2 9 2 9 2 9 2 9 29 3 3 35 6 7 98 84 52 112 93 52 16 30 413 Catfishes 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 233 122 144 120 159 82 68 72 125 116 125 137 178 1324 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 1 1 8 1 1 8 1 1 8 1 1 8 118 57 116 141 114 90 107 142 284 201 159 171 182 198b Oil sardine 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c Other sardines 4 8 9 4 8 9 4 8 9 4 8 9 489 942 1057 766 622 654 668 514 474 668 1314 834 1127 936d Hilsa shad 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 2 1 1 2 8 3 55 1 1 1e Other shads 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 6 10 13 8f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 1 6 7 0 1 6 7 0 1 6 7 0 1 6 7 0 1670 924 931 505 3052 1801 2012 1754 1274 1646 1307 1299 2066 1243ii Thrissocles 4 7 1 4 7 1 4 7 1 4 7 1 471 261 263 161 90 166 206 169 271 109 193 209 246 441g Other clupeids 4 1 9 4 1 9 4 1 9 4 1 9 419 384 568 312 364 516 535 712 630 419 604 298 827 3765 Bombay duck 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 16 Lizard fishes 1 9 1 9 1 9 1 9 19 6 12 8 7 19 20 34 49 21 38 17 32 337 Half beaks and Full 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 2 2 28 Flying fishes 1 0 4 1 0 4 1 0 4 1 0 4 104 179 130 50 18 91 355 65 229 53 50 8 194 1699 Perchesa Rock cods 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 4 1 2 2 2 3 2b Snappers 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c Pig face breams 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 5 2 2 2 2 3 3d Threadfin breams 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 40 37 49 40 59 67 60 116 42 56 53 51 85 62e Other perches 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 49 46 61 49 72 82 74 144 51 69 66 63 105 771 0 Goatfishes 1 9 1 9 1 9 1 9 19 8 109 49 29 38 39 49 7 15 11 14 11 241 1 Threadfins 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 15 4 6 5 9 8 11 12 14 12 15 14 14 91 2 Croakers 8 3 0 8 3 0 8 3 0 8 3 0 830 506 937 473 472 492 549 739 585 485 562 442 619 7541 3 Ribbon fishes 7 8 0 7 8 0 7 8 0 7 8 0 780 1182 876 1120 2382 1930 1161 822 1340 858 841 771 1136 7051 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 4 5 4 4 5 4 4 5 4 4 5 4 454 373 732 344 583 422 608 1044 333 641 470 597 534 572b Scads 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c Leather-jackets 6 7 6 7 6 7 6 7 6 7 6 8 67 33 16 24 45 34 44 38 36 42 35 44i Trachynotusd Other Carangids 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1i Coryphaena 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 3 4 4 4 3 2 1 1 2 6 9ii Elacate 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 4 4 3 3 4 2 5 4 3 31 5 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 99 73 162 108 122 119 145 153 153 171 393 256 477 477b Gazza1 6 Big jawed jumper 2 1 4 2 1 4 2 1 4 2 1 4 214 159 307 244 854 669 411 435 374 304 313 150 156 1351 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 77 73 117 104 94 128 134 118 145 119 89 70 65 111b Silver pomfret 1 9 1 9 1 9 1 9 19 18 29 25 23 32 33 29 35 30 22 17 16 27c Chinese pomfrets1 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 1 2 7 1 2 7 1 2 7 1 2 7 127 221 270 295 82 205 245 1186 659 665 622 111 417 712b Other mackerels1 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 20 10 26 26 24 18 18 30 27 20 21 17 25 25b S. guttatus 1 9 1 9 1 9 1 9 19 10 24 24 23 17 17 28 26 19 20 16 23 23c S. lineolatus 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1d Acanthocybium spp.2 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1b Auxis spp.c K. pelamis 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1d T. tonggol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1e Other tunnies 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 12 1 Bill fishes2 2 Barracudas 1 9 1 9 1 9 1 9 19 2 14 3 4 4 6 10 9 9 10 9 6 122 3 Mullets 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 4 11 28 88 15 11 562 4 Unicorn cod 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 5 Flatfishesa Halibut 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1b Flounders 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c Soles 1 9 1 9 1 9 1 9 19 39 6 8 6 18 34 58 50 22 58 36 40 432 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 2 4 7 2 4 7 2 4 7 2 4 7 247 395 857 156 103 164 188 184 256 336 402 269 622 712b Non-Penaeid prawns 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1c Lobsters 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1d Crabs 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 7 17 23 25 40 23 34 124 67 85 122e Stomatopods 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 7 Molluscs 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 8 Cephalopods 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 6 6 15 11Total 684 3 6 8 4 3 6 8 4 3 6 8 4 3 6 8 4 3 63 0 3 80 8 1 5 36 0 9 63 9 8 1 50 8 0 8 5 9 0 0 1 7 9 1 3 7 5 2 0 8 3 6 8 6 3 1 8 9 6 9 5 8 4 8 5  Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  109 Table J : Continued. Species 1968 1 96 9 1 9 7 0 1 9 7 1 1 9 7 2 1 9 7 3 1 9 7 4 1 9 7 5 1 9 7 6 1 9 7 7 1 9 7 8 1 9 7 9 1 9 8 0 1 9 8 1 1 9 8 2 1 9 8 3 1 9 8 41 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 85 137 369 665 403 261 205 117 140 282 154 177 354 315 167 71 466b Skates 1 2 5 11 7 3 2 2 2 5 3 3 5 5 5 5 1 5c Rays 90 138 370 669 406 262 207 117 140 284 155 177 355 317 492 444 3082 Eels 41 188 29 163 2 3 7 7 10 8 7 4 142 13 21 3 50 43 Catfishes 124 139 253 570 119 200 145 101 113 222 264 82 128 166 34 88 1244 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 208 185 271 293 154 293 60 50 67 64 112 172 101 86 121 127 82b Oil sardine 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 151 994c Other sardines 892 1533 1784 1914 728 504 1254 1044 1960 1180 1196 2059 2825 1361 1434 3665 1247d Hilsa shad 1 2 4 5 1 2 1 8 2 6 31 3 2 3 0 2 7 2 7 26 1 3 1 20 1 8e Other shads 7 6 75 168 94 158 180 277 129 44 109 12 55 131 107 357 327f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 996 2289 2526 738 442 701 721 411 190 559 526 357 296 591 398 341 652ii Thrissocles 380 401 820 358 445 624 541 336 602 413 261 442 400 527 475 415 791g Other clupeids 574 514 510 112 142 67 74 50 1 3 5 2 0 8 284 356 282 400 510 529 6295 Bombay duck 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 36 Lizard fishes 46 101 189 437 202 169 58 81 179 167 207 422 263 401 404 497 2377 Half beaks and Full 1 1 1 28 3 1 2 22 55 2 4 5 6 27 58 195 155 118 Flying fishes 208 218 258 521 42 18 115 142 176 3 485 880 3 623 181 350 4879 Perchesa Rock cods 2 3 7 11 7 10 4 9 19 8 11 23 15 21 54 3 20b Snappers 1 1 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 5 3 5 5 27 5c Pig face breams 3 4 9 14 8 11 4 13 24 11 14 29 20 28 5 81 24d Threadfin breams 70 102 188 352 201 288 127 310 571 276 333 704 477 664 890 1416 577e Other perches 86 124 227 428 244 351 156 378 694 336 405 857 581 808 1240 748 8881 0 Goatfishes 21 35 177 209 109 198 169 183 131 52 171 327 247 253 182 128 781 1 Threadfins 16 27 44 25 25 33 56 26 44 8 42 23 10 2 37 17 421 2 Croakers 821 897 821 619 905 1026 557 389 740 418 587 493 526 538 945 781 13481 3 Ribbon fishes 946 700 328 102 404 438 246 313 456 146 140 133 185 220 112 58 2321 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 335 590 237 1064 313 229 492 4 3 2 4 2 0 3 6 3 3 2 0 2 8 6 2 4 7 2 0 3 1 6 7 1 3 2 9 1b Scads 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 164 1658 81 865c Leather-jackets 53 26 3 23 1 5 9 2 2 2 5 33 28 2 32 21 33 40i Trachynotusd Other Carangids 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 609 541 503 223 555 497 1529 739 560 1008i Coryphaena 7 8 1 2 2 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5ii Elacate 4 5 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 81 5 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 565 557 1128 940 683 895 555 937 822 527 584 1202 1120 1591 907 2948 1683b Gazza1 6 Big jawed jumper 143 77 142 84 28 3 27 55 206 284 1 4 6 18 48 72 45 3 2 2 21 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 114 102 143 60 89 108 42 18 60 68 63 45 247 157 170 83 242b Silver pomfret 28 25 36 16 22 26 11 6 15 18 16 11 63 44 24 88 67c Chinese pomfrets1 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 508 501 519 689 3336 2671 2415 2255 1703 406 181 437 460 321 548 997 1027b Other mackerels1 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 21 17 43 40 13 23 35 12 15 17 21 55 44 50 72 104 305b S. guttatus 20 17 43 40 13 23 35 12 15 17 21 55 44 53 4 23 12c S. lineolatus 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1d Acanthocybium spp.2 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 22 5 64b Auxis spp.c K. pelamis 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 110 6 8d T. tonggol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1e Other tunnies 1 2 2 15 1 5 8 5 1 2 3 1 2 6 50 32 12 352 1 Bill fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 17 88 12 162 2 Barracudas 8 14 36 103 3 1 29 27 16 9 25 23 57 51 51 31 802 3 Mullets 43 4 4 79 11 25 31 2 57 7 23 41 44 81 8 7 78 52 4 Unicorn cod 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 5 Flatfishesa Halibut 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 10 10 5 67b Flounders 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 13 1 3c Soles 42 36 108 189 108 351 107 229 433 126 171 261 248 307 379 481 5152 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 571 615 763 458 294 58 66 121 171 177 382 841 781 551 541 483 1481b Non-Penaeid prawns 1 1 2 2 8 14 5 4 4 3 111 114 68 87 28 16 109c Lobsters 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 46 56 32 3 8 7 8 45 53 9d Crabs 100 156 157 282 676 318 448 477 880 480 394 390 283 385 1545 1025 1339e Stomatopods 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 10 12 92 7 Molluscs 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 22 8 Cephalopods 15 25 15 82 36 33 62 106 360 101 56 81 66 72 142 191 67Total 8213 10 5 8 6 1 2 7 4 9 1 2 5 4 5 1 0 7 9 5 1 0 4 7 9 9 3 1 7 9 8 8 3 1 2 3 1 7 7 9 2 2 8 3 9 3 1 2 3 9 4 1 1 6 1 7 1 3 3 4 5 1 5 2 7 7 1 8 1 5 2 1 8 8 6 5  Appendices  110 Table J : Continued. Species 198 5 1 9 86 1 9 87 1 9 88 1 98 9 1 99 0 19 9 1 19 9 2 19 9 3 1 9 9 4 1 9 95 1 9 96 1 9 97 1 99 8 1 99 9 20 0 01 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 348 21 88 321 83 26 23 99 75 1409 1669 1152 1555 1214 1377 1619b Skates 24 25 27 26 2 5 2 0 14 1 7 1 6 46 31 13 15 31 40 43c Rays 409 268 317 288 269 430 182 375 201 581 373 176 182 376 488 5192 Eels 5 5 9 26 2 1 1 4 7 2 1 0 5 158 149 69 33 84 70 663 Catfishes 71 1862 55 67 4 0 8 16 88 67 1588 1490 1611 1555 1236 1101 10594 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 59 118 127 122 28 63 37 42 37 285 276 227 242 163 140 109b Oil sardine 1459 1971 795 220 3141 6634 1436 3116 1143 2513 3952 3235 2846 2743 2571 2547c Other sardines 3375 1206 2472 1750 1375 869 1187 2421 855 1 0 8 7 1 2 22 1 5 11 1 5 58 1433 1376 1398d Hilsa shad 1 6 14 12 10 3 18 5 2 8 0 3 1 7 2 7 0 862 6 53 4 99 2 57 41 64 109e Other shads 101 27 2 3 2 2 2 5 8 3 3 56 90 1 08 112 41 97f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 527 855 365 377 156 205 70 168 95 3 5 1 3 46 1 54 2 39 61 0 723 59 5ii Thrissocles 691 454 681 299 337 414 710 423 260 4 0 7 2 39 73 79 1575 1680 1567g Other clupeids 812 626 721 692 583 531 750 415 114 1 8 7 247 216 458 286 397 4525 Bombay duck 3 4 5 7 7 8 9 1 0 8 10 10 8 12 37 30 676 Lizard fishes 298 444 435 119 208 256 230 335 207 4 8 2 8 01 1229 893 766 836 9627 Half beaks and Full 1 2 2 3 3 1 6 28 2 6 303 176 233 69 54 11 408 Flying fishes 571 261 213 1018 1170 134 485 231 72 1175 734 281 260 117 219 3629 Perchesa Rock cods 5 11 16 4 6 6 2 3 46 20 43 17 15 12 1 0 1 0 1 0b Snappers 25 30 73 129 59 28 18 2 6 1686 1344 1712 1831 2426 2362 2770c Pig face breams 64 20 5 83 30 8 2 7 55 10 22 9 7 6 5 5 5d Threadfin breams 1467 1001 134 809 476 446 379 459 215 586 285 287 265 319 136 177e Other perches 1037 535 1184 468 330 614 325 234 335 1429 861 977 980 1248 1078 10081 0 Goatfishes 264 139 214 300 737 691 368 168 134 1 0 2 1 01 1 11 1 00 8 2 8 3 8 21 1 Threadfins 40 62 57 34 53 50 39 25 49 667 440 321 189 15 6 15 7 15 51 2 Croakers 842 801 837 835 436 299 254 307 211 1454 1396 1643 1353 942 1062 9411 3 Ribbon fishes 40 133 119 2406 101 31 38 101 96 1 6 6 2 24 3 14 3 54 348 456 2621 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 4 8 7 5 3 1 1 1 19 2 7 2 2 1586 1450 2006 1995 1 67 4 1 67 7 16 9 0b Scads 328 119 172 23 94 103 3 2 7 9 11 15 16 15 19 20c Leather-jackets 20 33 32 20 14 1 0 5 5 1 1 3 3 2 62 4 34 5 39 565 620 695i Trachynotusd Other Carangids 840 465 510 1045 638 696 421 345 228 7 5 9 1 2 56 1 9 42 2 3 30 2390 2574 2233i Coryphaena 5 5 5 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 5 4 4 4ii Elacate 7 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 8 7 6 6 61 5 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 2473 1954 1541 663 1036 828 725 1181 935 1836 1764 3252 3105 2 55 6 2 56 6 25 4 3b Gazza1 6 Big jawed jumper 7 120 85 12 1 15 2 16 6 1 7 1 2 2 7 2 4 3 204 21 180 147 141 130 1151 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 56 2 39 60 21 53 21 23 12 1210 4 97 8 09 9 71 998 1172 1121b Silver pomfret 2 61 44 30 68 20 175 4 16 59 58 64 58 4 7 4 8 4 7c Chinese pomfrets1 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 1326 1630 2382 671 1278 1227 926 1896 3477 3 4 0 7 2 9 66 2821 2956 2566 2452 2269b Other mackerels1 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 125 115 156 86 90 67 87 123 62 7 0 72 59 47 2 3 2 5 2 0b S. guttatus 17 7 4 1 1 5 10 2 2 3512 3540 3 0 31 2 0 07 99 6 1 05 7 86 9c S. lineolatus 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1386 1435 1152 7 49 35 5 37 7 31 0d Acanthocybium spp.2 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 10 60 5 103 9 26 246 133 10 1026 719 7 94 7 41 62 1 62 3 62 8b Auxis spp.c K. pelamis 24 13 72 67 110 6 2 16 104 110 1 2 1 1 20 1 33 1 24 10 4 10 4 10 5d T. tonggol 1 1 1 1 41 3 3 25 1 8 9 3 1 2 5 0 1 6 55 898 1132 94 9 95 1 95 9e Other tunnies 16 64 41 18 2 7 3 4 42 59 2 1 9 4 2 5 6 04 8 69 9 99 996 965 8942 1 Bill fishes 35 94 5 31 15 24 15 55 27 3 0 30 33 31 2 6 2 6 2 62 2 Barracudas 84 21 45 329 60 177 49 84 110 519 85 297 253 21 2 21 2 21 42 3 Mullets 13 68 83 16 2 63 14 21 10 1574 1447 1373 1676 2814 2919 30162 4 Unicorn cod 1 48 50 47 4 1 3 5 3 0 2 5 1 7 1 4 9 41 14 1 2 1 2 1 22 5 Flatfishesa Halibut 58 55 23 24 4 22 68 36 45 3 80 87 79 6 5 6 5 6 5b Flounders 1 3 11 9 10 8 6 5 4 2 2 29 32 29 2 4 2 4 2 4c Soles 378 437 357 258 284 327 475 331 183 32 1297 1 3 73 1 1 97 951 861 10432 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 1334 966 894 781 915 1802 1137 828 299 4206 4937 3317 4165 4029 4188 4944b Non-Penaeid prawns 14 97 58 20 39 26 3 0 4 3 51 3017 2825 1448 1612 1716 1744 1926c Lobsters 22 32 28 38 19 22 36 6 8 3 9 69 1 11 1 30 165 19 2d Crabs 782 582 363 760 182 614 738 594 600 1188 1550 1437 2167 2 20 7 2 17 0 21 5 7e Stomatopods 5 2 172 2 17 1 2 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 12 7 Molluscs 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 629 66 5 57 9 40 1134 1252 12182 8 Cephalopods 78 77 119 56 237 200 368 406 67 97 545 843 1282 1 05 5 1 05 9 10 5 0Total 206 8 2 18 0 54 1 6 2 80 1 5 72 2 1 5 10 0 1 8 67 3 1 28 1 7 1 62 1 4 1 24 0 9 45 2 4 0 45 5 15 45 5 85 4 6 9 54 4 5 83 2 4 6 43 4 4 7 24 8  Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  111 Table K : Marine fisheries catch (thousand tonnes) data for the state of Andhra Pradesh, 1950-2000.  Species 1950 1 9 5 1 1 9 5 2 1 9 5 3 1 9 5 4 19 5 5 19 5 6 1 95 7 1 95 8 1 9 59 1 9 6 0 1 9 6 1 1 9 6 2 1 9 6 3 1 9 6 4 1 9 6 5 1 9 6 6 1 9 6 71 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 1904 3261 2203 1682 625 1185 835 1092 1299 1253 3004 4263 3971 4194 2796 3090 3115 2282b Skates 242 415 280 214 80 151 106 139 165 159 382 543 506 534 356 394 397 291c Rays 1315 2253 1522 1162 432 818 577 754 898 866 2076 2945 2744 2898 1932 2135 2152 15772 Eels 9 4 7 3 7 1 7 1 6 8 78 21 48 24 37 92 911 666 843 97 376 192 1883 Catfishes 7081 5730 4636 1964 822 1723 1047 1066 982 799 1545 1420 2545 2171 8536 4472 2332 35924 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 1108 558 495 517 1894 1860 455 363 581 657 1135 1860 1204 1285 1543 1235 1443 1673b Oil sardine 1 3 6 3 1 0 6 5 1 0 2 9 1 0 4 2 9 9 7 11 4 5 10 3 2 97 0 92 8 959 8 66 7 37 6 1 6 4 7 9 3 4 9 2 0 0 60 6 9c Other sardines 1 0 8 4 3 8469 8960 3241 1252 12144 6447 2925 2484 2174 5282 5501 7457 6953 5899 9178 30779 8857d Hilsa shad 6 8 3 5 3 3 5 1 5 5 2 2 500 651 3 3 2 354 92 115 97 139 26 59 199 96 564 196e Other shads 2 4 6 1 9 2 1 8 6 1 8 8 1 8 0 2 0 7 1 8 6 254 727 742 2581 2777 4147 1392 482 93 189 352f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 9080 2814 3196 3351 1993 7056 6572 6237 3181 2958 6975 4078 4841 5425 5725 10807 3758 8612ii Thrissocles 1008 313 355 372 222 784 730 729 619 504 1801 932 1248 1771 1696 602 1185 1141g Other clupeids 4387 2986 3197 4171 8739 4149 3838 2074 1507 988 1571 1624 1408 1848 2273 2051 2393 24385 Bombay duck 273 43 124 188 137 138 92 358 280 466 654 518 465 1111 320 442 516 7176 Lizard fishes 411 66 187 283 205 207 157 57 99 34 110 250 105 196 286 12 16 9247 Half beaks and Full 1 9 2 1 5 0 1 4 5 1 4 7 1 4 0 1 6 1 145 9 47 61 19 43 9 54 116 186 72 1178 Flying fishes 384 935 746 163 65 32 6 4 30 2 10 11 27 10 17 259 170 39 Perchesa Rock cods 6 7 8 6 2 14 2 6 3 2 7 8 7 6 16 14 7 6b Snappers 43 45 48 35 11 84 12 38 16 10 41 44 44 38 98 82 42 38c Pig face breams 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 1d Threadfin breams 415 440 467 334 112 811 122 367 155 100 396 428 427 364 957 798 408 371e Other perches 687 729 775 552 185 1344 201 607 256 165 657 708 707 601 1584 1320 675 6141 0 Goatfishes 959 1393 410 566 50 908 2668 831 221 202 1133 226 513 1138 359 110 58 2621 1 Threadfins 1 8 1 141 77 114 344 146 81 136 125 101 282 289 394 1060 295 424 354 6071 2 Croakers 5135 3146 3263 4093 1842 7176 6268 2980 2133 2125 4094 3835 3870 3296 2399 3574 3095 31741 3 Ribbon fishes 3039 1094 1147 1256 1162 2762 2080 2612 1125 2645 2248 3437 2851 2688 7307 11104 4917 72841 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 2273 2178 1141 696 405 16 2 2 2506 427 563 107 532 804 453 2029 2260 2207 1671 2889b Scads 4 4 4 7 3 4 7 3 3 3 5 5 3 3 9 8 3 2 5 4 37 3 5 33 6 7 31 6 4 3 02 6 3 12 8 3 2 68 3 2 9 0 3 3 7 5 3 3 8 9 3 4 9 0 3 3 9 9 3 4 6 8 3 4 6 0c Leather-jackets 8 2 8 6 4 7 6 2 5 6 3 3 6 0 6 6 9 6 627 92 163 139 646 414 1085 640 391 969 1094 62i Trachynotus 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 3 3 2 2 4 4 3 3 2 2d Other Carangids 1 2 1 9 5 9 1 9 3 8 9 1 0 2 9 2 8 6 8 2 85 89 90 9 2 9 2 9 5 9 3 95 44i Coryphaena 1 1 9 9 9 8 1 0 9 4 9 5 16 18 68 7 51 2 6 2 3ii Elacate 2 5 2 0 1 9 1 9 1 8 2 1 19 11 20 12 36 38 54 41 12 1 5 1 9 2 31 5 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 938 850 368 381 292 942 892 4823 630 1209 2940 1952 2033 3828 1839 3962 2251 5475b Gazza 104 95 41 42 32 105 99 569 156 128 543 67 19 32 3 1 29 15 1 31 6 Big jawed jumper 2430 2206 954 988 757 2444 1865 423 398 326 1020 992 610 1566 904 1963 876 15041 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 1056 627 780 797 299 816 818 920 1023 690 1502 916 2423 1456 2183 1486 1200 1526b Silver pomfret 528 313 390 399 149 407 409 460 511 345 751 458 1211 728 1092 743 600 763c Chinese pomfrets 16 10 11 13 5 13 12 14 16 11 22 14 37 22 33 22 18 241 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 1260 1258 633 823 59 744 1061 903 252 385 2655 1098 576 1119 1880 1114 2033 2025b Other mackerels1 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 2213 1482 1284 634 397 733 350 303 247 271 395 796 1266 876 949 759 827 659b S. guttatus 5044 3378 2927 1445 906 1670 797 689 562 618 902 1812 2886 1999 2163 1731 1884 1502c S. lineolatus 21 15 12 6 4 7 4 3 3 3 4 7 12 9 9 8 8 7d Acanthocybium spp.2 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 8 5 66 3 8 7 22 66 9 11 20 46 106 520 330 526 236 265 133b Auxis spp. 4 3 2 2 1 1 3 2 1 1 2 5 22 13 22 10 11 6c K. pelamis 4 3 2 2 1 1 3 2 1 1 2 5 22 13 22 10 11 6d T. tonggol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 3 1 1 1e Other tunnies 6 3 49 2 6 6 16 49 6 8 15 34 79 387 245 391 176 197 982 1 Bill fishes 2 5 7 2 0 1 1 9 4 1 9 7 1 8 8 2 1 6 1 9 5 18 3 17 5 18 1 1 89 1 90 1 9 5 1 9 6 2 0 2 1 9 7 2 0 1 2 0 02 2 Barracudas 1 1 6 1 2 1 6 2 4 27 14 7 6 8 9 76 106 32 13 82 3272 3 Mullets 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 15 26 8 45 11 6 274 123 74 215 3532 4 Unicorn cod 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 6 8 1 3 1 6 2 2 2 62 5 Flatfishesa Halibut 1 4 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 2 1 1 1 0 1 0 10 10 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1b Flounders 3 4 0 2 6 6 2 5 7 2 6 0 2 4 9 2 8 5 2 5 8 24 3 23 3 24 1 2 51 2 56 2 6 3 2 5 9 2 6 6 2 6 0 2 6 5 2 6 4c Soles 1 7 0 133 4 12 20 2 3 192 63 64 146 207 158 181 234 164 115 2662 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 7994 4249 3609 4743 1949 3169 4218 953 1311 1642 1484 2658 1274 3350 5181 3384 2952 6763b Non-Penaeid prawns 1316 700 594 781 321 522 704 782 697 776 936 655 365 846 1194 318 616 1966c Lobsters 9 5 4 6 2 4 5 23 76 100 133 47 21 82 46 1 16 27d Crabs 66 35 30 39 16 26 37 159 529 700 929 330 146 574 324 6 112 186e Stomatopods 19 10 8 11 5 7 11 45 151 200 265 94 42 164 93 2 32 532 7 Molluscs2 8 Cephalopods 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 5 10 22 1 7 13 4Total 827 5 3 5 9 2 5 2 5 1 4 1 8 42 7 0 9 32 1 4 3 6 41 2 1 5 25 4 0 4 0 55 0 2 8 9 43 2 9 5 61 5 6 8 6 6 5 4 9 6 6 6 0 5 2 1 6 4 9 1 3 7 1 7 2 7 7 6 4 7 7 8 0 0 8 7 7 6 0 5 4  Appendices  112 Table K : Continued. Species 196 8 1 9 6 9 1 9 7 0 1 9 7 1 1 97 2 1 9 7 3 1 9 7 4 1 9 7 5 19 7 6 19 7 7 1 9 7 8 1 9 79 1 98 0 1 9 8 1 1 9 8 2 19 8 3 1 9 8 41 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 4710 2141 3419 3678 5818 7131 10218 8250 5883 5185 7213 5612 4432 4482 7312 10133 10388b Skates 600 273 436 468 740 908 1301 1049 749 661 918 715 564 573 361 610 955c Rays 3254 1479 2362 2540 4020 4927 7060 5700 4064 3582 4985 3877 3062 3124 2414 2533 43812 Eels 418 91 596 158 157 419 735 2762 328 640 1630 357 481 634 828 713 10833 Catfishes 4251 3028 3612 4020 5219 6 6 2 8 7 9 7 4 8 2 8 6 9806 8275 4944 5542 3891 6639 4979 5449 85904 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 2721 1432 1418 1409 2206 2784 2460 2991 1898 1221 1288 977 1150 1125 1251 1938 2035b Oil sardine 7 9 8 6 9 5 1 0 5 11 4 132 608 134 116 1 2 9 1 4 9 1 6 2 18 3 1 9 8 2 1 4 23 0 2 4 6c Other sardines 8870 13113 18526 19535 7447 12603 33999 33798 23985 11005 7846 6184 14265 15918 13827 17585 21082d Hilsa shad 251 1 5 7 65 779 216 48 6 3 72 289 41 6 1 78 98 41 149 62 57e Other shads 1315 1063 865 753 3030 2941 2532 953 1875 1659 1377 1093 1297 1360 2490 3791 7197f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 5457 5295 4885 1304 1968 5140 10645 7208 11682 8974 7974 5892 6331 14238 6667 8249 4519ii Thrissocles 906 2737 1271 933 1090 2627 2044 1819 1821 1402 1862 3435 7502 2555 2836 3871 3436g Other clupeids 4299 4496 2605 5879 8728 9704 10997 7720 8687 2370 1832 2520 5618 5004 5009 5176 67145 Bombay duck 654 149 213 762 292 234 135 368 221 963 1122 717 626 856 1542 1080 10236 Lizard fishes 505 436 143 165 720 599 435 364 266 1279 1593 2012 1549 1600 2594 1721 19087 Half beaks and Full 144 32 313 204 17 3 209 25 14 135 61 100 99 29 48 66 1388 Flying fishes 22 28 450 242 51 111 1 0 8 9 7 9 2 84 66 71 44 1 0 7 169 74 399 Perchesa Rock cods 4 3 6 13 13 14 21 44 18 23 18 28 47 55 55 12 24b Snappers 22 20 37 80 79 84 134 272 104 148 108 168 286 328 516 1594 3344c Pig face breams 1 1 2 2 1 2 3 8 3 4 3 4 8 1 1 1 1 11 9d Threadfin breams 212 190 356 779 765 821 1299 2646 1008 1435 1055 1625 2779 3201 3845 4495 3365e Other perches 352 315 590 1290 1265 1359 2151 4380 1670 2375 1746 2691 4602 5311 6754 7228 106971 0 Goatfishes 232 189 366 549 639 341 497 1084 884 460 505 621 581 1068 2378 2162 14861 1 Threadfins 774 902 947 2317 3124 2162 3638 2761 2900 1020 1620 2060 2410 1212 3197 1853 33391 2 Croakers 2546 6741 6298 8787 10403 11757 20149 17565 17419 14880 8434 12873 15804 11007 13737 17459 126141 3 Ribbon fishes 6340 9778 6280 7278 3519 3974 12765 11986 12853 8572 5620 6341 16022 8311 6829 10700 64591 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 2729 1920 2453 2432 2380 2736 3129 3583 3147 4015 2042 3187 1 77 2 278 712 813 764b Scads 3 5 0 9 3 4 5 5 3 4 1 8 34 5 0 3 45 8 3 7 2 2 3 8 0 0 3 6 0 9 36 3 9 35 3 4 3 5 9 7 3 5 2 5 3 60 8 3568 2728 3797 1910c Leather-jackets 640 257 196 522 542 1116 1747 1834 1880 532 679 444 727 459 588 1645 1967i Trachynotus 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1d Other Carangids 4 2 3 8 35 15 1 3 1 2 9 6 5 78 89 56 75 4 1433 2438 3477 3146i Coryphaena 12 8 72 17 104 38 109 257 92 137 25 7 7 7 7 7 7ii Elacate 2 6 29 20 2 37 59 2 26 14 7 54 2 9 3 54 6 7 8 2 1 0 1 7 1 25 7 1 4 9 21 5 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 3186 2381 3912 3316 4247 4354 7875 16942 6199 8627 3276 5229 6 29 2 1 51 9 8 7 9 2 9 1 2 16 7 7 7 9 5b Gazza 1 0 8 9 5 1 5 20 152 77 7 0 7 2 7 0 8 3 1 9 8 1 0 2 15 4 9 71 6 Big jawed jumper 932 1281 1501 1241 1996 1524 3121 3778 2748 1654 1031 1378 1564 1276 1280 1691 9311 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 2831 1427 2049 3498 3930 4185 4246 5653 4315 2439 2432 1993 2418 2777 3335 3016 9987b Silver pomfret 1416 714 1025 1749 1964 2093 2123 2827 2158 1220 1216 996 1208 1392 2926 4388 5388c Chinese pomfrets 43 22 31 53 60 64 64 86 66 37 36 31 37 45 236 39 961 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 2240 1557 2028 1373 5296 2662 1870 1632 2153 1043 2573 2623 6352 3296 2986 6551 6414b Other mackerels1 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 846 880 1064 998 1739 1302 1455 1643 1071 994 807 1687 925 1096 2488 2379 2697b S. guttatus 1927 2006 2425 2275 3965 2968 3318 3746 2443 2267 1840 3847 2108 2499 3241 3755 5334c S. lineolatus 8 9 11 10 17 13 14 16 10 10 8 17 9 13 2 3 3 3 43d Acanthocybium spp.2 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 260 103 72 157 265 81 402 372 188 246 183 239 235 196 650 729 811b Auxis spp. 11 4 3 7 11 3 17 15 8 10 8 10 10 8 8 8 10c K. pelamis 11 4 3 7 11 3 17 15 8 10 8 10 10 8 8 8 8d T. tonggol 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1e Other tunnies 193 76 53 117 197 60 299 277 140 183 136 177 174 146 170 32 362 1 Bill fishes 2 0 3 2 0 0 1 9 8 2 0 0 20 0 2 1 6 2 2 0 2 0 9 2 1 1 2 0 5 2 0 8 2 0 4 20 9 207 224 356 662 2 Barracudas 183 147 8 69 86 19 20 122 193 108 44 62 90 126 287 244 1582 3 Mullets 309 282 217 801 169 396 3013 1434 1427 248 357 232 45 284 620 166 1462 4 Unicorn cod 3 1 3 4 3 9 4 3 4 8 5 6 6 3 6 4 6 9 7 1 7 8 8 0 8 7 9 0 9 4 9 8 1 0 32 5 Flatfishesa Halibut 1 1 1 1 1 7 1 6 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 7 1 8 1 6 1 7 1 6 18 72 91 151 157b Flounders 2 6 8 2 6 4 4 1 4 3 9 7 38 5 4 1 7 4 3 9 4 0 4 4 3 0 3 9 3 4 0 5 3 9 2 448 1620 116 210 42c Soles 280 101 140 117 307 290 359 459 90 994 523 890 486 1765 1127 1467 7372 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 5760 4224 7704 13160 7346 12588 15896 10669 13862 8925 11727 12270 9019 10228 14435 15368 13348b Non-Penaeid prawns 341 1723 2904 425 624 1031 4583 5255 3570 7277 2237 4398 6925 2443 6767 8506 1797c Lobsters 16 11 15 14 40 56 152 153 5 3 30 48 17 2 13 30 19d Crabs 111 78 105 98 279 395 1066 728 421 841 575 1294 2352 2362 1494 4604 2961e Stomatopods 32 22 30 28 80 113 305 182 105 210 144 324 47 9 450 462 925 9172 7 Molluscs2 8 Cephalopods 71 69 1021 168 96 95 269 227 387 596 448 763 782 800 931 784 705Total 774 2 9 7 7 5 2 6 8 9 3 5 1 1 00 8 1 2 1 0 1 55 5 1 2 0 1 48 1 9 2 2 2 9 18 8 7 4 1 1 5 97 8 5 1 23 5 2 7 10 0 9 3 6 1 1 2 5 50 1 4 3 53 0 1 44 1 1 3 14 9 5 4 8 1 8 7 65 8 18 5 2 1 7  Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  113 Table K : Continued. Species 198 5 19 8 6 1 9 8 7 1 9 8 8 1 9 8 9 1 9 9 0 1 9 9 1 1 9 9 2 1 9 9 3 1 9 9 4 1 9 9 5 1 9 9 6 1 9 9 7 1 9 9 8 1 9 9 9 2 0 0 01 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 9739 9069 6172 7348 6368 5332 3685 8755 7949 15004 15530 15076 7227 7417 6 4 0 7 9575b Skates 400 1165 976 713 475 394 673 1015 399 777 830 842 425 463 1338 1187c Rays 2478 2588 2434 2651 6052 5175 2730 2959 2705 4602 4129 3251 1097 513 5269 13242 Eels 900 721 811 1194 857 945 1244 2000 1862 777 781 2243 2373 4751 13958 66413 Catfishes 8142 6130 4998 4203 4283 3196 2910 3896 4966 10830 10890 8652 7766 10955 1 1 9 3 83304 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 1611 1274 1323 1472 949 1438 1236 1043 1226 1559 1574 1 6 0 9 1 9 1 9 2694 1472 1260b Oil sardine 262 1234 145 1298 5745 968 1791 4382 2229 7649 7721 9312 7 6 7 7 6 9 5 3 2 9 3 3 1260c Other sardines 22761 16668 12302 17160 28272 21731 8665 8889 12253 1 7 4 1 6 1 7 1 1 0 1 4 8 1 6 1 5 2 0 7 1 8 5 9 9 12498 32722d Hilsa shad 174 235 834 97 89 77 253 338 1096 1 7 2 2 1 8 6 3 1768 1827 1165 2283 1227e Other shads 2475 5966 6173 4909 1860 728 8050 3948 2904 4 2 3 8 4 2 7 8 3 8 0 9 4 0 2 2 5 0 6 6 3 5 1 0 4 2 0 9f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 2696 10768 12992 8645 3279 9824 10520 6362 6590 891 899 768 904 846 2138 625ii Thrissocles 4053 5245 3264 3371 3404 2731 3306 5136 5586 891 899 768 904 846 2138 625g Other clupeids 8174 5865 4539 4106 4520 4237 5590 6082 8533 4850 4896 6212 3365 4414 5439 62155 Bombay duck 578 1062 714 690 1106 1458 1230 602 771 1058 1068 8 9 0 8 7 5 1021 1067 15066 Lizard fishes 1956 3024 2380 1990 1278 1581 824 1146 1822 1707 1717 1155 693 311 2 3 3 3117 Half beaks and Full 38 55 91 130 62 157 30 63 42 120 122 216 242 197 331 2968 Flying fishes 78 18 14 23 505 4 8 1 4 5 8 4 4 2 4 1 9 580 585 354 966 832 292 2789 Perchesa Rock cods 33 66 77 41 98 280 104 93 511 92 92 246 299 3 6 6 2 4 8 3 0 5b Snappers 2678 985 955 1318 1286 512 569 1382 1112 200 201 535 646 7 9 2 5 3 7 6 6 0c Pig face breams 9 1 0 8 8 9 8 8 8 8 2 2 6 6 7 5 6d Threadfin breams 2215 3522 3543 1718 1734 1562 2113 3414 3135 564 567 1510 1825 2 2 3 7 1 5 1 6 1 8 6 4e Other perches 7646 7263 9309 5326 3793 2927 3980 4717 6004 1081 1087 2892 3495 9744 9352 105221 0 Goatfishes 2146 4154 6046 4108 3274 3488 5009 2729 2513 3684 3705 1086 1934 2163 2233 15051 1 Threadfins 2875 1820 1793 1790 2085 2362 1605 2061 2177 4338 4362 3 8 3 0 4 2 7 3 5319 5544 60411 2 Croakers 10535 15274 13138 10265 9163 13072 11587 13668 14709 6558 6594 3323 2111 2404 3855 20341 3 Ribbon fishes 4467 5436 7533 3547 4839 4091 11785 7324 7554 1 0 4 7 2 1 0 0 1 5 8 4 2 1 8 3 7 1 9885 13269 93421 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 526 447 1206 515 345 303 1027 989 1088 623 672 1371 927 1 1 6 7 8 0 8 9 6 9b Scads 1097 1820 1871 618 1586 1990 598 2896 2654 1539 1684 1 4 9 9 1 5 8 3 1 9 9 4 1 3 8 1 1 6 5 6c Leather-jackets 809 360 288 710 361 140 181 411 379 220 241 2 1 4 2 2 6 2 8 4 1 9 7 2 3 6i Trachynotus 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1d Other Carangids 2036 3558 3378 3417 2277 2923 1779 2154 3089 1498 1319 1 0 2 9 9 3 4 983 2248 1679i Coryphaena 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 4 4 4 4 5 4 4ii Elacate 1 7 2 7 1 9 6 5 2 2 0 3 2 4 3 7 2 6 8 2 2 9 0 8 3 1 4 3 3 4 2 8 3 6 7 2 5 7 0 9 6 1 1 8 5764 7287 9 1 7 8 6 3 5 8 7 6 2 41 5 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 8 2 4 6 9 0 5 9 1 3 0 4 8 5 2 4 7 4 3 1 2 5 0 9 4 3 9 4 8 7 2 0 7 9 3 5 0 9291 9343 5747 5120 4 3 9 5 5 6 4 6 6 1 3 9b Gazza 1 0 2 1 1 1 1 5 7 6 2 5 1 5 9 4 4 8 1 1 0 5 1 3 1 1 1 7 8 8 8 2 8 5 1 0 8 1 1 61 6 Big jawed jumper 780 813 1784 777 293 543 780 721 552 3929 3951 2 3 9 2 1 5 0 6 468 1764 11751 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 2309 1228 1221 776 2914 2558 1509 1857 2740 4 1 2 5 4 1 4 2 4 1 9 6 5 2 8 5 7310 4 9 5 2 6 0 8 9b Silver pomfret 2153 1993 1834 4014 2575 3422 3146 3515 4815 7 2 7 3 7 3 2 2 7 3 4 9 9 1 9 0 1 2 6 4 2 9494 8928c Chinese pomfrets 9 7 37 14 1 9 22 1 8 1 2 8 1 1 9 7 8 1 0 7 81 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 3625 23763 14272 13349 6568 3840 5185 26645 25841 7629 7701 4662 12040 1 2 3 1 2 6 1 3 3 4 6 8 0b Other mackerels1 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 2284 2225 1241 2704 2979 1669 1225 1544 2291 7962 8037 3584 4201 3882 4047 2784b S. guttatus 2321 2518 2897 2847 2820 2226 2860 5209 4699 2541 2565 2724 3193 2952 3077 2117c S. lineolatus 14 113 17 10 3 1 7 6 5 18 18 8 10 9 9 6d Acanthocybium spp.2 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 1400 726 1244 1289 1137 1006 752 422 939 1599 1614 1200 1921 2896 3978 3570b Auxis spp. 24 16 1 3 9 6 1 4 3 7 12 12 9 14 21 30 26c K. pelamis 2 0 31 1 7 2 2 3 4 18 2 3 3 3 4 7 9 7d T. tonggol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 5 4e Other tunnies 348 247 73 81 10 9 9 36 284 483 487 363 581 876 1202 10792 1 Bill fishes 198 297 21 36 134 6 8 3 200 507 5 9 9 4 6 2 2 8 5 1 6 7 42 890 3062 2 Barracudas 428 320 501 395 453 782 333 476 408 1127 1138 447 318 40 274 1692 3 Mullets 535 87 491 2496 641 604 301 1516 1135 2071 2083 1567 3151 5038 4729 60062 4 Unicorn cod 1 0 7 1 1 2 1 1 6 1 2 0 1 2 5 1 2 9 1 3 3 1 4 0 1 4 4 223 225 2 9 2 4 0 5 632 863 2802 5 Flatfishesa Halibut 114 216 308 212 160 130 183 285 387 104 83 33 47 130 2 6 7 548b Flounders 141 192 74 27 14 61 93 126 96 60 88 61 156 6 2 3 714 8 7 8c Soles 971 1381 860 757 878 730 1419 1868 1994 641 636 327 677 8 3 0 5 6 2 6 9 12 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 11582 18288 9993 11626 11762 12632 15979 16473 24089 14757 14877 14660 14876 21629 26894 16326b Non-Penaeid prawns 1751 3842 1412 2088 2263 2611 2840 2235 1781 11009 11099 2 4 9 1 3 20350 19388 12968 1 5 9 5 0c Lobsters 14 14 6 2 2 6 15 14 5 1 1 1 7 1 9 2 6 37 2 5 3 1d Crabs 2481 5476 3429 3205 3788 2990 5269 5866 6013 711 715 5 5 5 5 4 1 5 8 0 3 3 6 342e Stomatopods 624 593 602 597 3102 2588 4775 2933 4121 4 6 3 1 3 5 0 0 2 0 2 6 1 1 2 6 35 631 7 7 62 7 Molluscs2 8 Cephalopods 861 1185 1182 821 773 1432 682 1038 2094 1311 1318 2644 252 232 657 436Total 148 76 4 19 2 6 2 5 1 6 8 3 6 9 1 4 9 3 8 8 1 5 0 4 2 4 1 4 2 2 4 9 1 4 8 2 0 9 1 8 2 7 9 1 2 0 4 3 7 8 1 9 3 5 2 0 1 9 3 1 2 0 1 8 3 6 3 4 1 7 6 6 6 0 2 1 0 6 7 8 2 0 0 3 2 2 2 0 1 5 0 8  Appendices  114 Table L : Marine fisheries catch (thousand tonnes) data for the state of Orissa, 1950-2000.  Species 1950 1 9 5 1 1 9 5 2 1 9 5 3 1 9 5 4 19 5 5 19 5 6 1 95 7 1 95 8 1 9 59 1 9 6 0 1 9 6 1 1 9 6 2 1 9 6 3 1 9 6 4 1 9 6 5 1 9 6 6 1 9 6 71 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 36 38 149 118 186 197 174 69 98 91 189 136 125 111 204 279 135 149b Skates 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c Rays 16 17 64 50 80 84 74 30 42 39 80 59 53 48 87 119 58 642 Eels 9 9 8 8 8 9 8 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 63 Catfishes 7 4 77 56 2 9 1 62 77 78 65 97 103 106 91 163 260 130 112 1164 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 29 30 66 53 148 232 119 84 109 91 180 134 88 67 212 223 96 221b Oil sardine 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c Other sardines 11036 3181 2826 4736 6627 2169 1405 581 815 421 1193 1760 1063 982 1973 2153 3249 1328d Hilsa shad 6 7 6 9 6 9 6 8 68 79 95 41 25 75 18 162 8 180 66 83 46 4 5e Other shads 2 1 2 2 1 9 2 1 8 2 1 6 2 1 5 2 2 1 219 99 124 18 5 45 15 2 41 49 64 4 9f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 553 47 119 191 105 168 84 243 167 81 124 198 242 232 345 861 236 252ii Thrissocles 112 9 24 38 22 34 17 62 85 11 27 22 15 77 145 70 55 106g Other clupeids 520 150 85 188 50 77 670 164 199 161 140 171 143 94 79 88 81 2435 Bombay duck 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 7 6 3 2 206 Lizard fishes 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 3 8 2 4 28 2 7 47 Half beaks and Full 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 1 3 5 7 7 68 Flying fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 199 Perchesa Rock cods 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1b Snappers 15 16 18 13 6 9 13 9 4 17 9 11 6 3 6 3 1 2c Pig face breams 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1d Threadfin breams 11 11 14 10 5 6 10 7 3 13 7 9 5 2 4 2 1 2e Other perches 155 161 197 134 70 95 134 4 49 179 98 117 61 31 64 2 7 221 0 Goatfishes 1 2 3 6 7 1 1 13 2 1 0 20 5 18 7 7 2 7 11 1 91 1 Threadfins 1 8 7 194 485 2 6 5 44 86 395 16 96 67 113 69 1 2 9 3 11 661 2 Croakers 1 5 16 38 1 18 18 55 59 39 27 47 29 58 90 73 92 45 411 3 Ribbon fishes 4 4 5 6 11 18 110 76 48 18 28 29 46 61 55 47 40 571 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 1 0 3 106 43 24 7 6 33 40 1 9 69 220 79 163 35 32 158 203b Scads 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c Leather-jackets 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 6 8 12 9 14 11 1 5 2 0 25 34i Trachynotusd Other Carangidsi Coryphaena 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2ii Elacate 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 5 6 7 81 5 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 5 6 24 14 32 45 71 245 93 223 149 770 505 467 398 234 796 2087b Gazza 5 6 5 5 5 5 5 1 0 15 14 14 50 4 4 3 5 27 2 4 2 1 1 71 6 Big jawed jumper 3 3 15 10 20 27 43 1 11 2 2 3 3 43 18 26 59 51 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 12 12 28 8 9 23 32 47 76 31 38 41 26 39 34 67 33 101b Silver pomfret 43 44 102 31 34 86 120 175 283 115 144 152 96 146 127 250 123 375c Chinese pomfrets 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 39 40 2 24 5 2 17 84 38 81 45 20 14 20 38 526 23 148b Other mackerels 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 5 5 18 5 10 15 6 6 3 3 7 8 5 5 9 16 5 15b S. guttatus 120 123 417 129 243 360 155 147 80 89 184 190 122 131 232 381 114 360c S. lineolatus 1 1 4 1 2 4 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 4 1 4d Acanthocybium spp.2 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 3 3 5 17 16 13 19 14 8 14 2 3 6 49 4 47 34 19b Auxis spp. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c K. pelamis 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1d T. tonggol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1e Other tunnies 4 4 7 24 24 17 26 19 11 19 3 4 9 67 6 64 48 252 1 Bill fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 2 Barracudas 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 47 23 12 9 1 10 1 1 1 32 3 Mullets 1 7 18 11 5 1 6 5 2 54 1 23 42 2 4 3 5 20 19 92 4 Unicorn cod2 5 Flatfishesa Halibutb Floundersc Soles 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 20 58 51 144 106 112 100 86 62 122 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 46 13 40 19 146 101 1037 289 136 182 228 441 622 1009 611 559 494 2008b Non-Penaeid prawns 1 7 1 8 1 7 1 7 1 7 1 7 1 7 18 19 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c Lobsters 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1d Crabs 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 1 1 2 2 3 3 2 1 2e Stomatopods 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 7 Molluscs2 8 Cephalopods 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1Total 135 1 0 4 6 8 6 5 2 1 8 6 4 9 6 8 2 7 8 43 3 7 52 9 3 2 77 3 2 91 7 2 3 34 3 3 8 7 5 2 2 4 3 7 3 6 4 5 0 9 5 3 5 7 6 6 1 3 6 3 1 6 8 2 9 1  Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  115 Table L : Continued. Species 1968 1 96 9 1 9 7 0 1 9 7 1 1 9 7 2 1 9 7 3 1 9 7 4 1 9 7 5 1 9 7 6 1 9 7 7 1 9 7 8 1 9 7 9 1 9 8 0 1 9 8 1 1 9 8 2 1 9 8 3 1 9 8 41 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 138 294 1189 305 685 776 1567 1188 2927 1913 3460 4535 3786 3384 2927 1985 1754b Skates 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 6 20 46c Rays 59 126 510 131 293 332 671 510 1254 819 1483 1943 1623 1353 511 149 5642 Eels 6 7 1 2 13 32 65 129 6 5 1 3 4 3 1 9 35 122 20 143 Catfishes 175 119 473 308 451 518 1200 3150 2795 1706 2619 1956 3152 8980 5887 6383 86954 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 584 590 671 268 193 425 326 409 537 784 1090 1731 1487 1302 1150 1040 857b Oil sardine 1 245 1 2 4 2 2 0 38 4 6 0 1 1 5 1 7 1 2 2 1 2 8 5 3 3 1 3 8 4 4 3 5 4 8 7 547c Other sardines 3135 3881 3040 2034 1434 2025 1731 998 1720 1280 2554 2830 1926 4610 4143 5281 3358d Hilsa shad 4 5 44 268 96 34 150 3255 5101 5687 3075 7859 10500 5184 2120 1134 422 1689e Other shads 3 5 20 4 5 70 6 184 188 82 134 513 861 378 47 359 320 254 211f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 314 371 210 130 278 317 149 397 352 507 1187 532 275 247 648 2806 2076ii Thrissocles 355 78 268 74 124 53 261 1 9 2 110 206 178 311 339 327 212 116 67g Other clupeids 602 676 1759 332 203 843 525 877 802 812 1351 1507 2623 2084 1604 3081 24155 Bombay duck 38 21 13 16 14 31 21 49 90 90 319 473 385 74 182 314 3076 Lizard fishes 1 22 130 14 11 5 6 9 1 8 7 75 271 159 486 407 1867 Half beaks and Full 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 5 1 7 13 29 47 2 2 1 88 Flying fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 4 17 1 4 1 2 9 59 Perchesa Rock cods 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 3 3 2 3 3 4 1 276 8 1 7b Snappers 2 2 3 14 6 12 5 23 3 7 20 18 39 15 55 28 11c Pig face breams 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 7d Threadfin breams 2 2 3 11 4 9 3 17 3 5 15 13 29 10 1225 737 647e Other perches 21 3 41 151 55 128 47 243 37 77 215 191 416 154 1083 493 2871 0 Goatfishes 2 6 32 3 2 8 12 6 30 22 1 2 3 3 424 154 158 307 1271 1 Threadfins 37 34 295 93 82 142 329 215 343 669 1879 2230 1615 835 136 23 631 2 Croakers 161 125 439 422 336 203 257 632 468 514 7588 8004 4107 3148 5471 17995 237701 3 Ribbon fishes 80 44 112 63 40 69 42 98 135 182 341 649 945 1012 446 999 12531 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 545 372 844 91 79 132 27 3 9 5 0 6 1 69 343 459 69 233 197 311b Scads 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 99 59 213 37c Leather-jackets 40 88 80 62 65 151 186 145 246 403 828 754 631 199 98 53 145i Trachynotusd Other Carangidsi Coryphaena 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 14 9 7 4 1 6 9 12 21 26ii Elacate 9 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 14 212 145 111 3 1 98 143 191 323 4141 5 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 678 885 1437 472 1204 646 591 801 527 381 369 1641 1004 1072 1653 819 505b Gazza 1 3 1 0 1 2 6 6 6 6 8 6 3 4 16 10 10 16 8 61 6 Big jawed jumper 9 4 85 11 35 9 33 9 1 30 18 7 93 72 12 21 251 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 60 70 119 167 145 187 287 614 3184 356 1766 3201 2755 1151 662 516 415b Silver pomfret 225 260 445 622 538 697 1068 2282 11850 1322 6570 11912 10249 4285 3376 3494 2841c Chinese pomfrets 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 7 2 4 7 7 3 6 14 1 51 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 12 26 1 6 6 3 375 96 75 199 122 441 203 199 322 270 837 625 2022 419b Other mackerels 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 13 22 30 12 12 28 43 20 39 28 43 103 63 93 712 158 224b S. guttatus 323 528 714 292 284 665 1011 484 927 666 1022 2446 1492 2464 1385 834 803c S. lineolatus 3 6 8 3 3 7 11 5 9 7 11 25 15 25 40 2 2 3d Acanthocybium spp.2 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 2 1 8 16 10 17 3 7 36 17 260 14 14 107 408 28 12b Auxis spp. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 19c K. pelamis 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3d T. tonggol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1e Other tunnies 3 2 1 22 14 24 5 9 51 22 359 19 20 147 1 1 0 1 92 1 Bill fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 5 42 2 Barracudas 19 1 3 6 9 6 1 5 3 1 3 4 5 8 9 12 31 252 3 Mullets 5 7 36 20 54 16 36 39 7 7 4 33 1 3 4 6 12 4 Unicorn cod2 5 Flatfishesa Halibutb Floundersc Soles 27 40 87 11 50 33 140 12 8 119 150 187 99 69 401 460 4602 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 2805 1420 1288 562 513 1001 915 1085 992 1302 3758 4442 1616 1999 3043 2863 2990b Non-Penaeid prawns 1 1 2 3 8 15 39 93 144 28 17 51 45 83 322 27 31c Lobsters 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 4 56 4 1d Crabs 2 2 2 2 1 36 27 12 32 10 6 9 250 217 91 262 145e Stomatopods 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 265 214 169 281 662 7 Molluscs2 8 Cephalopods 1 1 2 9 1 2 2 3 38 2 6 6 21 141 84 287 168 83Total 106 32 10 5 1 8 1 6 5 3 5 7 3 5 3 7 4 6 7 1 0 1 1 2 1 5 4 1 1 2 0 3 7 8 3 6 2 8 7 1 8 4 7 8 4 8 7 6 2 6 3 7 7 8 4 8 7 1 4 4 4 2 4 1 4 2 5 1 6 5 6 2 3 7 5 9 0 3 1  Appendices  116 Table L : Continued. Species 198 5 1 9 86 1 9 87 1 9 88 1 98 9 1 99 0 19 9 1 19 9 2 19 9 3 1 9 9 4 1 9 95 1 9 96 1 9 97 1 99 8 1 99 9 20 0 01 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 1914 4483 1558 1748 2109 2282 1527 3962 1687 5477 3750 3314 3003 3324 10312 4242b Skates 76 55 471 85 49 24 27 17 32 2338 2798 3323 3645 4621 2606 1395c Rays 700 798 1296 828 424 389 407 612 1206 6406 5721 6004 6147 7458 5193 29742 Eels 711 744 278 557 983 1243 1343 722 1088 2585 2334 3512 3292 11289 5788 29013 Catfishes 7443 6222 5826 6294 6761 5839 4958 5523 9071 12766 10368 11037 12930 1 1 91 3 11037 125274 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 485 873 1173 736 1481 1441 971 1054 1058 4234 4473 4737 5514 4855 3051 1432b Oil sardine 97 10 1 55 142 13 4 38 123 6948 8631 7698 8958 8341 4703 5796c Other sardines 3934 3575 7557 2946 3106 5565 1513 948 1784 2 3 4 2 2 3 02 2 4 42 2 6 32 2711 2981 3661d Hilsa shad 585 495 634 141 865 1433 2279 572 1891 6294 5987 9178 10682 4661 4520 6657e Other shads 69 137 365 269 123 226 50 286 178 1 0 1 9 1 6 76 2 4 12 3 2 05 3858 2911 4535f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 2646 5402 1895 963 618 629 1447 2826 1494 2480 2230 723 715 2264 1008 2002ii Thrissocles 186 84 195 142 239 193 287 74 201 546 779 1054 1353 1594 713 1327g Other clupeids 3207 7108 1884 2294 2459 4008 1475 1961 2649 5214 4184 5758 6702 5480 3037 44835 Bombay duck 226 120 530 238 142 201 543 764 460 1435 2066 740 861 1207 1819 11136 Lizard fishes 324 290 441 343 454 108 177 210 513 6 4 7 6 09 5 99 6 14 59 7 58 6 66 07 Half beaks and Full 9 9 2 1 18 1 0 1 2 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 48 Flying fishes 1 1 1 1 98 6 9 3 5 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 29 Perchesa Rock cods 24 4 30 5 7 24 1 6 8 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2b Snappers 31 309 58 33 11 1 8 16 28 495 834 1725 2305 2513 2 46 6 27 7 7c Pig face breams 6 6 4 4 4 4 3 3 8 351 605 1259 1688 1844 857 525d Threadfin breams 472 712 460 695 399 330 350 151 227 289 287 451 505 487 1862 1034e Other perches 766 1378 3104 2411 1670 2850 1637 1274 1807 1830 1472 1881 1727 1 44 8 1191 375210 Goatfishes 590 374 271 352 222 118 115 92 224 1 1 4 9 1 8 95 2 6 66 3 5 54 4256 4 17 6 47 0 411 Threadfins 117 192 224 128 95 252 158 378 190 2987 3365 4415 5172 3 84 6 2 61 2 163212 Croakers 21109 21574 23095 21576 14239 27840 15431 15531 24468 25397 23701 24279 21396 4823 10870 892013 Ribbon fishes 1900 1339 2232 2185 3538 4670 2803 2266 2248 3 3 4 2 3 6 20 4 1 54 4 7 79 5198 5878 625914 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 245 179 184 151 717 785 345 466 648 581 722 626 645 62 9 63 2 69 2b Scads 66 298 54 22 55 23 215 155 67 60 75 65 67 6 5 6 6 7 2c Leather-jackets 80 29 155 47 161 460 171 215 162 146 181 157 162 15 8 15 8 17 3i Trachynotusd Other Carangidsi Coryphaena 16 24 13 18 39 29 34 39 38 5 1 84 91 1 13 149 258 116ii Elacate 255 374 209 272 607 465 533 599 591 7 9 6 1 3 19 1 4 30 1 7 70 2324 4053 180715 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 975 304 569 590 329 275 1020 527 640 4055 4424 4669 5470 5 97 5 6506 682b Gazza 10 3 5 6 3 3 11 5 6 41 45 47 56 6 0 65 716 Big jawed jumper 28 15 35 151 52 251 62 162 167 2 1 1 1 98 1 95 2 00 19 5 19 1 21 517 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 268 1033 1508 174 1333 1445 1890 1774 2160 4099 3837 4997 6307 5695 4765 2956b Silver pomfret 2161 3805 3308 2434 5110 5137 3509 3361 5932 9091 7163 8082 9022 7316 6886 4768c Chinese pomfrets 1 5 17 1 39 86 245 48 54 48 73 57 64 70 6 8 6 7 7 518 Mackerela Indian mackerel 586 1032 2051 276 182 74 572 774 971 2004 4329 3626 6031 4370 3373 3183b Other mackerels 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 485 1343 110119 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 226 256 939 599 1728 948 1281 1880 716 2996 2882 3404 3963 3947 2141 1857b S. guttatus 430 876 1115 707 860 1168 1123 795 1859 2620 3632 3848 4480 3380 2267 862c S. lineolatus 1 4 4 2 85 4 24 55 6 73 2 91 1 9 9 5 11 1 2 12 5 1 1873 2171 2517 2929 2517 1441 465d Acanthocybium spp.20 Tunniesa E. affinis 55 334 252 137 28 56 72 47 63 99 158 296 344 268 1666 650b Auxis spp. 5 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c K. pelamis 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1d T. tonggol 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2e Other tunnies 2 7 36 2 33 46 1 6 63 6 3 7 8 72 71 73 7 1 7 1 7 821 Bill fishes 2 1 7 1 1 1 3 5 68 6 8 8 4 77 77 78 7 6 7 7 8 422 Barracudas 39 94 338 8 4 76 36 28 24 2 9 27 27 27 2 7 2 7 2 923 Mullets 3 41 21 17 1 4 9 4 2 0 34 1377 2008 4816 5642 4095 3928 384424 Unicorn cod25 Flatfishesa Halibutb Floundersc Soles 950 1050 792 430 232 175 361 403 681 1990 2967 4014 4702 3831 1916 184926 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 3632 4231 2924 2300 3478 5156 2723 3634 3892 4733 4866 5418 7508 5890 9979 10102b Non-Penaeid prawns 383 318 184 186 16 46 494 451 495 4445 4252 5017 8210 7050 5089 3274c Lobsters 3 10 7 4 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2d Crabs 177 262 494 293 563 211 273 727 922 7 18 20 164 1305 805 1870e Stomatopods 241 664 1461 1457 710 149 1020 1338 1567 1 9 7 7 1 8 59 1 8 31 1 8 76 1 83 7 1 84 4 20 6 227 Molluscs28 Cephalopods 128 176 130 47 115 19 62 80 80 1990 1394 1406 1505 1318 1526 2666Total 587 8 2 72 0 58 7 0 7 71 5 5 99 0 5 7 46 1 7 7 88 6 5 44 6 8 5 80 7 8 7 57 9 4 1 42 0 9 0 1 42 5 20 16 0 1 82 18 2 8 07 16 1 70 0 1 5 1 33 1 1 3 08 6 1  Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  117 Table M : Marine fisheries catch (thousand tonnes) data for the state of West Bengal, 1950-2000.  Species 1950 1 9 5 1 1 9 5 2 1 9 5 3 1 9 5 4 19 5 5 19 5 6 1 95 7 1 95 8 1 9 59 1 9 6 0 1 9 6 1 1 9 6 2 1 9 6 3 1 9 6 4 1 9 6 5 1 9 6 6 1 9 6 71 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 2 1 7 2 13 16 26 11 11 9 18 18 15 15 26 35 17 19b Skates 2 1 4 1 8 10 16 7 6 5 11 11 9 9 15 21 11 12c Rays 1 1 3 1 5 6 11 4 4 4 7 7 6 6 10 14 6 72 Eels 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 13 Catfishes 24 12 13 3 1 25 58 57 35 46 50 71 55 107 164 81 71 744 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 12 6 18 7 61 110 108 76 70 53 105 107 64 53 160 168 72 169b Oil sardine 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2c Other sardines 31 4 6 4 20 8 9 4 4 2 5 10 5 6 11 12 17 7d Hilsa shad 3 1 2 1 3 4 9 4 2 5 1 13 1 15 5 6 3 3e Other shads 1 1 5 8 4 1 2 1 4 27 12 11 2 1 4 2 1 4 5 6 5f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 422 17 65 46 84 155 149 420 211 92 139 305 343 356 506 1255 350 374ii Thrissocles 120 5 18 13 24 44 42 152 152 16 43 47 31 168 301 142 116 221g Other clupeids 846 114 98 96 86 152 2543 605 536 384 341 563 430 307 248 276 255 7685 Bombay duck 5 3 15 4 6 3 0 1 0 3 14 7 140 99 87 174 159 537 402 204 137 12806 Lizard fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 17 Half beaks and Full 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 6 8 2 7 1 0 13 1 1 108 Flying fishes9 Perchesa Rock cods 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1b Snappers 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c Pig face breamsd Threadfin breams 4 2 4 1 2 3 8 1 2 6 4 6 3 1 3 1 1 1e Other perches 2 1 2 1 1 1 4 3 1 4 2 4 1 1 2 1 1 11 0 Goatfishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 Threadfins 49 24 91 2 2 12 27 240 10 42 25 44 36 1 1 5 2 5 341 2 Croakers 75 37 134 2 93 108 635 666 320 192 345 296 524 885 695 863 429 3971 3 Ribbon fishes 27 13 25 12 80 142 1659 1111 517 171 278 369 554 794 680 574 500 7151 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1b Scadsc Leather-jackets 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 3 5i Trachynotusd Other Carangids 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1i Coryphaenaii Elacate1 5 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 18 5 10 7 48 29 30 24 14 48 126b Gazza1 6 Big jawed jumper 1 1 1 1 2 3 9 1 2 1 1 1 1 8 3 4 10 11 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 2 1 3 1 1 4 12 16 19 7 9 13 7 13 10 19 10 30b Silver pomfret 6 3 11 1 5 16 42 60 71 25 32 47 27 44 37 72 36 110c Chinese pomfrets 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 2 3 3 1 1 1 2 33 1 10b Other mackerels1 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1b S. guttatus 7 3 15 2 13 23 20 17 7 7 14 20 12 14 24 38 12 37c S. lineolatus 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1d Acanthocybium spp.2 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 1 1 1 1 3 3 7 5 2 3 1 1 2 16 1 14 11 5b Auxis spp.c K. pelamisd T. tonggole Other tunnies2 1 Bill fishes2 2 Barracudas2 3 Mullets 7 3 3 1 1 3 5 3 37 1 14 34 1 8 2 4 16 14 62 4 Unicorn cod2 5 Flatfishesa Halibutb Floundersc Soles 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 5 5 20 14 15 13 11 8 22 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 73 10 46 9 241 194 3833 1043 358 423 541 1418 1834 3213 1868 1693 1525 6181b Non-Penaeid prawns 4 2 2 2 0 5 2 9 8 1 3 2 4 3 0 5 0 7 9 7 4 1003 757 4 11 2 2 29 19 1 9 1 9 2 1 2 1c Lobstersd Crabs 2 1 1 1 2 2 4 4 6 1 2 2 3 5 5 3 1 4e Stomatopods 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 7 Molluscs2 8 Cephalopods 3 2 2 1 3 4 8 8 6 5 5 7 12 1 5 3 1 1 0Total 217 7 4 9 2 9 1 1 3 8 7 1 2 2 8 16 3 2 1 05 9 1 5 49 7 3 35 1 1 6 28 2 1 4 5 3 7 0 0 4 2 1 2 6 6 6 6 5 2 8 5 5 6 3 1 3 7 2 5 1 0 6 6 1  Appendices  118 Table M : Continued. Species 1968 1 9 69 1 9 7 0 1 9 7 1 1 9 7 2 1 9 7 3 1 9 7 4 1 9 7 5 1 9 7 6 1 9 7 7 1 9 7 8 1 9 7 9 1 9 8 0 1 9 8 1 1 9 8 2 1 9 8 3 1 9 8 41 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 20 41 162 52 105 127 222 186 462 36 135 247 94 478 793 321 428b Skates 12 25 97 30 62 77 133 111 277 20 82 148 56 257 318 140 55c Rays 8 16 65 22 41 50 89 75 185 15 54 99 38 158 756 383 2292 Eels 1 1 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 1 8 2 8 3 8 4 0 4 5 55 16 773 Catfishes 121 82 321 259 344 422 849 2453 1468 222 325 283 1194 6691 13755 2170 35684 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 487 494 605 312 182 423 308 403 340 146 313 525 307 312 666 925 361b Oil sardine 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c Other sardines 19 23 20 18 10 15 12 7 16 1 3 6 5 4 4 4 42 25d Hilsa shad 3 3 26 13 4 16 333 543 1082 81 278 851 716 2817 1181 1021 2154e Other shads 3 2 6 11 1 26 24 11 2 0 3 5 40 49 22 46 86 43 299f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 508 602 369 296 509 612 275 771 899 326 751 272 179 743 951 1263 4016ii Thrissocles 812 177 662 235 322 145 675 1250 1001 251 399 94 37 70 117 175 58g Other clupeids 2081 2343 6584 1607 793 3481 2059 3584 2425 967 1692 1956 749 2538 2796 307 13775 Bombay duck 2704 1509 990 1615 1172 2650 1682 4197 3052 1409 1967 1561 466 652 1814 4641 22216 Lizard fishes 1 5 25 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 27 Half beaks and Full 2 3 5 3 3 1 3 1 1 1 2 1 7 16 1 0 4 1 2 2 38 Flying fishes9 Perchesa Rock cods 1 1 2 2 2 2 4 4 1 3 31 52 73 3 1 1 17 1 4 1 5b Snappers 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 2c Pig face breamsd Threadfin breams 1 1 2 11 3 8 2 14 2 102 172 241 12 2 2 9 4 5 0 6 3 9 9 4 7e Other perches 1 1 2 7 2 4 2 8 2 6 59 99 140 7 56 62 29 1421 0 Goatfishes 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 1 8 4 9 2 1 0 9 1 0 6 1 1 3 1 2 9 1 3 9 1 7 11 1 Threadfins 21 18 162 63 50 94 187 134 129 41 187 348 307 469 202 59 1151 2 Croakers 1679 1307 4489 5352 3861 2492 2740 7404 7604 1817 3811 1851 591 406 1625 1949 48011 3 Ribbon fishes 1103 611 1671 1212 631 1130 655 1600 950 389 981 375 158 170 197 202 57981 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 52b Scadsc Leather-jackets 6 14 14 13 12 28 34 27 50 10 55 86 145 65 86 415 40i Trachynotusd Other Carangids 1 1 1 2 3 3 3 35 2 3 1 7 3 92 5 4 2 7 4 6 11i Coryphaenaii Elacate1 5 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 44 58 93 37 88 50 40 59 410 23 639 194 56 4 4 36 107 153b Gazza1 6 Big jawed jumper 2 1 15 2 7 2 5 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 21 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 20 23 38 65 52 71 95 221 232 43 129 394 322 1 2 385 684 449b Silver pomfret 73 84 141 244 190 265 351 826 864 156 477 1471 1199 4166 5309 8350 3867c Chinese pomfrets 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 812 99 58 4 01 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 1 2 123 37 8 7 15 1 0 9 1 2 1 0 9 8 7 8 7 33b Other mackerels1 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 1 2 4 2 1 4 5 3 15 2 3 17 10 1130 724 516 112b S. guttatus 36 59 87 46 36 90 129 65 370 28 73 405 247 60 180 297 144c S. lineolatus 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 3 4 3 1 4 2 2 2 2 2d Acanthocybium spp.2 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 1 1 1 8 4 7 1 3 7 1 3 1 7 1 9 2 0 2 2 2 7 2 8 32b Auxis spp.c K. pelamisd T. tonggole Other tunnies2 1 Bill fishes2 2 Barracudas2 3 Mullets 3 7 30 22 50 17 31 38 4 5 4 2 2 2 114 25 182 4 Unicorn cod2 5 Flatfishesa Halibutb Floundersc Soles 3 6 11 2 9 6 20 2 1 7 4 1 52 4 9 5 6 5 54 612 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 9458 4796 4259 2301 1894 3919 3083 4013 3889 1106 1251 810 256 361 469 580 3221b Non-Penaeid prawns 2 4 2 4 42 183 4 8 2 973 2025 5264 4924 531 1371 318 81 1851 1386 2403 15005c Lobstersd Crabs 3 2 4 2 3 77 51 2 6 2 6 3 8 3 4 3 4 30 9 1 156 519 179e Stomatopods 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 1 1 18 46 372 7 Molluscs2 8 Cephalopods 21 2 6 181 12 15 9 5 9 5 6 7 7 65 3 4 7 8 9 26 68Total 193 00 12 3 5 9 2 1 1 4 6 1 4 2 8 4 1 0 9 6 0 1 7 3 2 8 1 6 1 6 6 3 3 4 5 9 3 0 9 1 9 8 2 0 1 1 5 6 7 7 1 3 2 2 6 7 5 4 3 2 4 9 4 9 3 5 0 0 1 2 8 6 1 1 5 0 3 9 1  Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  119 Table M : Continued. Species 1985 1 9 8 6 1 9 8 7 1 9 8 8 1 9 8 9 1 9 9 0 1 9 9 1 1 9 9 2 1 9 9 3 1 9 9 4 1 9 9 5 1 9 9 6 1 9 9 7 1 9 9 8 1 9 9 9 2 0 0 01 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 166 210 178 54 66 448 1610 3097 3367 10884 3572 3852 3539 11924 7 8 7 9 5168b Skates 238 5 27 38 44 27 3 4 88 2951 1321 1632 1618 5723 4744 3 9 1 1c Rays 390 185 562 292 1082 851 1210 774 1175 2185 504 418 313 3 1 1 2 7 0 2 5 82 Eels 7 119 8 15 8 8 2 11 319 2315 431 473 454 477 410 4303 Catfishes 2573 2560 3574 1131 7357 5188 7880 9890 8563 42903 38884 42499 41017 29021 35526 387654 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 279 313 192 66 1274 1084 1215 1052 1100 9 2 3 1 0 1 9 1 0 2 3 1 0 1 4 1 0 0 6 9 0 4 8 8 3b Oil sardine 1 2 4 4 7 8 6 4 1 0 3 0 1725 4370 4801 4644 4847 4336 4628c Other sardines 42 127 4 4 73 3 404 57 242 2 0 3 2 2 4 2 2 5 2 2 3 2 2 1 1 9 9 1 9 4d Hilsa shad 7007 1869 1567 675 12398 12345 23715 20420 27198 24140 30593 33620 32528 35542 26022 26502e Other shads 48 113 182 57 480 149 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 4 4f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 1052 2743 1841 1316 1681 2950 4096 6542 5631 4 7 2 7 5 2 1 6 5 2 3 4 5 1 9 2 5 1 5 0 4 6 3 0 4 5 1 8ii Thrissocles 289 55 60 204 590 507 460 955 2428 2 0 3 8 2 2 4 9 2 2 5 7 2 2 3 8 2 2 2 0 1 9 9 6 1 9 4 8g Other clupeids 605 233 918 347 1287 2067 1596 2291 1951 4 7 7 9 8739 9603 9293 9 4 3 2 8672 92565 Bombay duck 1100 692 952 530 4004 12692 9758 20538 21009 8620 21853 24012 23230 32038 28422 282086 Lizard fishes 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 17 Half beaks and Full 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 28 Flying fishes9 Perchesa Rock cods 1 4 1 1 8 6 7 5 3 2 136 709 62 61 52 1 0 3 8 9 8 5b Snappers 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 9 1 1 1 1 1 1c Pig face breamsd Threadfin breams 1 2 5 2 1 3 1 7 1 3 3 7 1 4 3 8 2 1 5 9 2 4 4 3 2 7 4 4 3 1 9 6 3 4 8 3 2363 215 220 201 3 1 7 372 3 5 5e Other perches 72 117 79 154 282 57 230 432 171 1369 161 198 207 477 1504 1 4 3 71 0 Goatfishes 2 0 0 1 9 1 1 8 1 1 8 2 2 6 2 2 8 4 3 0 9 3 4 8 370 7 3 8 1514 1652 1593 1669 1 5 1 4 15081 1 Threadfins 5 44 29 23 1199 507 1287 2255 893 5 5 6 6 6 8 6 5 8 6 4 1 1669 16500 1 5 7 7 01 2 Croakers 1487 1492 7547 2520 547 2903 7720 5016 8727 9 8 3 7 17281 18885 18231 19078 412 172291 3 Ribbon fishes 4290 2104 3600 1667 801 1091 1729 2749 4256 3 9 1 4 4 6 9 5 5 0 9 0 5 4 2 4 5 7 5 1 5505 61711 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 4 4 3 8 3 3 2 5 2 3 17 116 3 405 8 2 5 1 4 4 5 1 9 8 9 2 5 0 5 3 0 1 3 3184 3 1 0 7b Scadsc Leather-jackets 21 15 50 69 82 71 285 435 204 1 7 1 1 8 9 1 9 0 1 8 8 1 8 7 1 6 8 1 6 4i Trachynotusd Other Carangids 2 6 12 6 122 13 37 55 97 8 1 9 0 9 0 8 9 8 9 8 0 7 8i Coryphaenaii Elacate1 5 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 683 269 106 25 100 255 662 302 368 2 9 4 431 480 461 477 4 3 2 430b Gazza1 6 Big jawed jumper 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 520 83 144 208 631 1542 1488 1397 1271 2911 2058 2207 2061 2625 9656 9 2 2 9b Silver pomfret 1608 2769 2142 540 3721 3550 3402 3694 4859 11975 8824 9713 9234 11924 1 0 3 5 0 9 8 9 3c Chinese pomfrets 17 21 1 0 9 1 8 7 364 112 43 86 146 247 139 124 99 9 9 8 6 8 21 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 7 4 1 1 1 1 1 2 9 56 3977 3668 4002 3580 3715 3 4 8 8 3548b Other mackerels1 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 36 37 12 22 9 8 16 115 89 157 120 118 101 94 8 5 82b S. guttatus 87 137 137 141 1028 1022 1790 1035 653 1432 1309 1480 1446 1520 1301 1460c S. lineolatus 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1d Acanthocybium spp.2 0 Tunniesa E. affinis 4 6 6 0 7 6 8 4 1 1 1 1 2 8 144 41 15 1 3 1 4 1 4 1 4 1 4 1 3 1 2b Auxis spp.c K. pelamisd T. tonggole Other tunnies2 1 Bill fishes2 2 Barracudas2 3 Mullets 58 2 3 1 207 352 3363 846 991 5698 2157 2358 2277 2385 2064 21542 4 Unicorn cod2 5 Flatfishesa Halibutb Floundersc Soles 98 137 270 30 10 3 21 16 140 8 8 1 0 8 1 0 7 1 0 6 1 0 6 9 2 8 82 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 381 587 393 269 861 4266 2079 4777 4956 8863 13648 15006 14962 15694 13715 13639b Non-Penaeid prawns 4429 1571 896 2098 1926 2779 2349 3287 4605 7973 4549 4922 5191 5471 4758 6843c Lobstersd Crabs 359 140 170 81 43 40 214 49 256 10682 212 240 231 2623 2237 2169e Stomatopods 9 9 69 2 1 3 22 183 49 169 1 0 7 1 3 0 1 3 0 1 2 9 1 2 8 1 1 1 1 0 62 7 Molluscs2 8 Cephalopods 12 11 37 9 64 136 110 223 494 2669 2157 2358 2277 3 2 4 1 3 6 6 1 4308Total 29 54 3 2 0 4 0 0 2 7 5 1 4 1 4 5 3 0 4 4 9 3 1 5 9 9 4 0 8 2 2 9 3 9 6 0 8 5 1 1 1 9 2 4 1 8 6 0 6 4 1 8 4 8 3 3 2 0 1 9 5 1 1 9 6 6 1 7 2 2 0 3 9 3 2 0 5 3 9 8 2 2 4 6 2 8  Appendices  120 Table N : Marine fisheries catch (thousand tonnes) data for the Union Territory of Andaman & Nicobar Islands, 1950-2000.  Species 1950 1 9 5 1 1 9 5 2 1 9 5 3 1 9 5 4 19 5 5 19 5 6 1 95 7 1 95 8 1 9 59 1 9 6 0 1 9 6 1 1 9 6 2 1 9 6 3 1 9 6 4 1 9 6 5 1 9 6 6 1 9 6 71 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 6 1 0 1 2b Skates 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c Rays 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 Eels 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 13 Catfishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 5 9 1 14 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 4 5 7b Oil sardinec Other sardines 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 13 10 15 17 13 13 1 4 1 2 2 0 3 0 3 8d Hilsa shad 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1e Other shads 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 5 6 8 9 1 0 12 1 2 1 2 1 8 2 7 3 4ii Thrissocles 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 7 14 1 7 1 8 1 6 2 5 3 8 4 7g Other clupeids 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 2 2 3 4 4 7 1 1 1 45 Bombay duck6 Lizard fishes7 Half beaks and Full 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 5 58 Flying fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 19 Perches 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 15 22 18 23 31 31 29 2 9 2 5 3 8 5 6 6 9a Rock codsb Snappersc Pig face breamsd Threadfin breamse Other perches1 0 Goatfishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 Threadfins 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 2 Croakers 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 3 Ribbon fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 5 10 9 9 8 1 0 1 1 1 8 2 8 3 7b Scadsc Leather-jacketsi Trachynotusd Other Carangids 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1i Coryphaenaii Elacate1 5 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 9 8 8 7 1 2 1 7 2 1b Gazza1 6 Big jawed jumper1 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1b Silver pomfret 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3c Chinese pomfrets1 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 6 9 5 3 10 9 7 1 0 1 5 1 7b Other mackerels 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 3 4 41 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 4 4 3 7 6 5 9 1 3 1 5b S. guttatus 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 6 5 5 8 1 2 1 4c S. lineolatusd Acanthocybium spp.2 0 Tunniesa E. affinisb Auxis spp.c K. pelamis 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 4 4d T. tonggole Other tunnies 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 1 Bill fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 2 Barracudas 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 2 2 3 2 4 6 82 3 Mullets 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 6 4 2 2 5 5 1 0 1 7 2 32 4 Unicorn cod2 5 Flatfishesa Halibutb Floundersc Soles2 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 5 7b Non-Penaeid prawns 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1c Lobsters 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1d Crabs 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1e Stomatopods2 7 Molluscs2 8 Cephalopods 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1Total 75 7 5 7 5 7 5 7 5 7 5 7 5 9 4 9 0 1 22 1 28 1 3 0 1 5 5 1 5 8 1 4 7 2 2 4 3 3 1 4 1 0  Historical reconstruction of Indian marine fisheries catches, 1950-2000, as a basis for testing the ‘MTI’, B Bhathal  121 Table N : Continued. Species 1968 1 96 9 1 9 7 0 1 9 7 1 1 9 7 2 1 9 7 3 1 9 7 4 1 9 7 5 1 9 7 6 1 9 7 7 1 9 7 8 1 9 7 9 1 9 8 0 1 9 8 1 1 9 8 2 1 9 8 3 1 9 8 41 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 1 1 13 24 26 23 41 39 58 89 107 377 96 61 34 37 289 345b Skates 2 2 3 3 3 5 5 8 11 13 48 12 8 5 5 37 43c Rays 2 2 3 3 3 5 5 8 11 13 48 12 8 5 5 37 432 Eels 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 5 2 2 2 2 2 23 Catfishes 1 0 12 14 20 24 13 25 23 29 42 175 76 43 27 45 40 1544 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 6 7 11 11 13 5 21 36 34 38 149 40 21 17 15 25 50b Oil sardinec Other sardines 3 1 38 43 46 64 67 65 68 89 86 361 118 207 183 739 697 841d Hilsa shad 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 79e Other shads 1 1 1 6 11 5 8 13 29 25 115 38 21 18 16 23 2 1f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 2 8 34 38 35 69 67 63 81 122 103 342 106 1 4 8 1 5 9 2 1 5 2 3 0 2 9 2ii Thrissocles 3 8 4 7 5 2 5 8 6 6 6 9 8 6 7 9 8 5 8 6 3 3 5 8 5 84 129 197 90 156g Other clupeids 1 1 14 6 9 12 5 21 9 1 0 11 67 29 25 2 9 9 6 3 0 8 3 9 1 2 1 75 Bombay duck6 Lizard fishes7 Half beaks and Full 5 5 8 16 13 10 11 16 36 53 227 79 35 12 22 12 728 Flying fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 2 7 7 79 Perches 5 6 67 104 114 140 163 200 241 218 292 1241 329 408 235 440 715 1099a Rock codsb Snappersc Pig face breamsd Threadfin breamse Other perches1 0 Goatfishes 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 3 6 8 0 3 6 5 0 6 0 7 3 8 4 1 0 41 1 Threadfins 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 5 2 2 2 2 17 521 2 Croakers 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 8 7 2 7 7 5 5 5 5 381 3 Ribbon fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 1 2 17 18 4 0 7 11 4 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 3 2 39 52 62 90 106 96 111 130 135 494 120 1 1 4 9 3 1 0 2 9 2 1 0 0b Scadsc Leather-jacketsi Trachynotusd Other Carangids 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 8 2 1 2 4 125 137 115 216 378i Coryphaenaii Elacate1 5 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 1 7 21 39 59 87 79 82 123 180 144 472 107 138 336 1143 231 485b Gazza1 6 Big jawed jumper1 7 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 1 1 2 3 2 2 4 5 9 9 27 8 4 2 6 13 9b Silver pomfret 2 3 6 12 10 8 16 17 37 36 106 32 16 6 23 54 38c Chinese pomfrets1 8 Mackerela Indian mackerel 1 4 16 17 17 39 80 36 94 64 89 316 66 156 109 265 220 423b Other mackerels 3 4 5 4 9 20 9 24 16 22 78 16 2 6 2 9 4 0 4 4 5 71 9 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 1 2 15 25 23 40 47 39 45 50 62 245 64 52 54 60 72 124b S. guttatus 1 1 13 22 21 37 44 36 42 47 57 227 59 48 50 55 66 115c S. lineolatusd Acanthocybium spp.2 0 Tunniesa E. affinisb Auxis spp.c K. pelamis 4 5 7 10 7 10 7 7 10 30 171 41 38 24 21 59 129d T. tonggole Other tunnies 1 1 2 2 2 3 1 2 3 7 41 10 9 6 5 14 322 1 Bill fishes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 27 1152 2 Barracudas 6 7 12 17 19 13 31 26 51 76 297 85 57 28 54 34 1602 3 Mullets 1 9 25 75 75 111 127 130 129 155 194 695 167 158 95 150 203 3102 4 Unicorn cod2 5 Flatfishesa Halibutb Floundersc Soles2 6 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 6 7 14 17 19 13 49 43 60 67 1405 88 73 32 77 86 256b Non-Penaeid prawns 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 5 2 2 2 2 2 2c Lobsters 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 5 2 2 2 2 4 11d Crabs 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 5 2 2 17 34 12 38e Stomatopods2 7 Molluscs2 8 Cephalopods 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 5 2 2 2 2 2 2Total 341 41 2 60 0 6 8 3 9 3 6 1 0 2 5 1 1 0 4 1 3 2 5 1 6 0 1 1 8 3 8 8 4 9 2 2 0 6 6 2 1 6 4 2 2 3 4 4 6 3 1 4 6 4 0 7 4 7 2  Appendices  122 Table N : Continued. Species 198 5 1 9 86 1 9 87 1 9 88 1 98 9 1 99 0 19 9 1 19 9 2 19 9 3 1 9 9 4 1 9 95 1 9 96 1 9 97 1 99 8 1 99 9 20 0 01 Elasmobranchsa Sharks 375 3 85 3 77 36 2 34 0 31 5 297 605 8 9 3 1133 975 1080 862 1324 766 1278b Skates 47 48 46 44 4 0 3 6 33 67 1 0 0 126 108 119 97 148 85 319c Rays 38 70 1 03 13 7 17 1 20 6 250 278 3 2 4 351 383 410 422 495 420 4432 Eels 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 13 Catfishes 155 2 20 2 84 35 1 41 7 48 2 567 607 8 8 1 1105 977 915 841 733 524 6834 Clupeidsa Wolf herring 53 99 1 49 20 1 25 4 30 8 363 316 3 7 8 407 371 368 333 35 7 29 7 31 7b Oil sardinec Other sardines 889 1 1 74 1 4 48 1 7 14 1 97 7 2 23 7 24 9 6 26 9 3 31 1 5 3 2 7 0 3 4 27 3 5 96 3 6 39 4123 4576 3560d Hilsa shad 78 2 43 4 26 62 2 82 5 1 03 4 1245 3157 22 1 5 1019 1691 1721 1546 766 418 387e Other shads 2 0 23 25 26 2 7 2 8 2 8 2 8 3 0 3 0 29 29 27 2 9 2 4 2 6f Anchoviesi Anchoviella 3 2 3 4 09 4 88 56 3 63 7 70 8 777 924 11 5 5 1291 1138 1143 1073 807 1189 1132ii Thrissocles 159 1 85 2 05 22 2 23 7 24 9 2 6 1 2 6 7 2 9 3 2 9 5 2 96 2 99 2 93 32 0 273 687g Other clupeids 1 4 6 8 1 9 86 2 4 91 2 9 89 3 48 2 3 97 2 4462 3325 35 6 3 3483 3312 3293 3126 3 35 4 2 79 1 29 7 45 Bombay duck6 Lizard fishes7 Half beaks and Full 74 1 43 2 17 29 5 37 4 45 6 538 436 4 3 9 400 366 367 382 33 2 211 12178 Flying fishes 7 8 9 9 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 10 10 10 1 1 9 99 Perches 1141 1 5 62 1 9 81 2 3 98 2 81 5 3 23 2 3775 4193 40 1 3 3581 3222 3188 2998 2519 4534 7551a Rock codsb Snappersc Pig face breamsd Threadfin breamse Other perches10 Goatfishes 1 1 5 1 42 1 66 19 1 21 3 23 5 265 2 6 0 2 7 1 2 6 6 2 65 2 61 2 49 27 2 21 6 21 411 Threadfins 52 82 1 14 14 6 17 9 21 1 2 5 4 278 3 7 8 455 346 356 325 342 581 57 612 Croakers 37 2 48 4 84 73 1 98 6 1 24 6 15 6 5 1779 11 2 8 391 419 413 388 469 111 8313 Ribbon fishes 9 5 1 37 1 78 22 1 26 4 30 6 3 4 9 3 8 4 4 5 1 4 8 0 5 07 5 38 5 49 627 533 61614 Carangidsa Horse mackerel 9 7 1 10 1 18 12 4 12 9 13 2 201 203 2 1 1 201 178 169 145 14 1 11 7 12 5b Scadsc Leather-jacketsi Trachynotusd Other Carangids 384 4 73 5 51 62 2 69 0 75 5 1216 1299 14 2 4 1423 1331 1323 1176 1196 1965 938i Coryphaenaii Elacate15 Silverbelliesa Leiognathus 527 7 49 9 72 1 1 96 1 42 1 1 64 7 1938 2389 24 7 1 2403 2335 2320 2187 1853 1484 2086b Gazza16 Big jawed jumper17 Pomfretsa Black pomfret 9 59 1 14 17 1 23 2 29 3 9 0 1 1 0 1 2 7 135 128 145 121 802 674 66 9b Silver pomfret 40 2 10 3 97 59 6 79 9 1 00 9 3 0 5 3 8 0 4 3 5 464 439 497 416 1 35 5 1 79 2 2487c Chinese pomfrets18 Mackerela Indian mackerel 355 5 56 7 63 97 7 1 19 3 1 41 1 1631 1965 19 5 3 1758 1618 1628 1400 1142 1060 1806b Other mackerels 63 71 77 81 8 4 8 6 8 8 8 7 9 4 9 2 90 89 85 9 1 7 6 8 119 Seer fishesa S. commersoni 123 1 50 1 70 18 9 20 7 22 3 239 270 3 5 5 411 378 425 371 482 532 586b S. guttatus 116 1 38 1 58 17 5 19 1 20 7 221 249 3 2 8 379 349 393 343 444 492 541c S. lineolatusd Acanthocybium spp.20 Tunniesa E. affinisb Auxis spp.c K. pelamis 125 1 41 1 52 16 0 16 5 17 0 1 7 4 1 7 3 1 8 6 1 8 2 1 78 1 76 1 68 18 1 15 0 16 0d T. tonggole Other tunnies 33 75 1 22 17 1 22 0 27 2 324 491 8 0 9 1068 1007 1005 949 4015 1190 43521 Bill fishes 113 1 25 1 31 13 5 13 8 13 7 1 3 7 1 3 4 1 4 0 1 3 3 1 28 1 23 1 14 119 116 33922 Barracudas 157 2 31 3 08 38 5 46 3 54 2 620 728 9 2 2 1039 948 926 788 1073 892 57523 Mullets 324 4 67 6 12 75 8 90 4 1 05 3 1242 1479 21 3 3 2669 2698 2745 2460 2145 1558 189924 Unicorn cod25 Flatfishesa Halibutb Floundersc Soles26 Crustaceansa Penaeid prawns 256 2 82 3 00 31 5 32 6 33 4 353 373 4 0 5 4 1 0 4 24 4 31 4 25 47 8 39 2 399b Non-Penaeid prawns 2 45 92 14 3 19 4 24 9 3 1 3 3 5 7 4 2 5 469 445 409 630 1021 1061 71c Lobsters 11 14 16 18 1 9 2 0 2 3 2 4 2 7 2 8 30 31 30 3 4 2 8 29d Crabs 37 55 74 92 11 0 12 9 153 162 3 0 5 4 3 0 5 61 6 85 7 75 982 751 989e Stomatopods27 Molluscs28 Cephalopods 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 244 233 229 226 19 9 119 11 8Total 7904 . 9 11 1 15 1 4 3 21 1 7 53 1 2 0 73 4 2 3 94 4 2 68 0 7 3 04 8 5 3 23 9 1 32 0 3 4 31 3 44 31 8 61 2 9 9 69 3 4 78 0 3 2 00 8 3 6 40 7  

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