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Marine mammal populations: Reconstructing historical abundances at the global scale Christensen, Line Bang 2006

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ISSN 1198-6727  Fisheries Centre Research Reports  2006 Volume 14 Number 9  Marine Mammal Populations: Reconstructing historical abundances at the global scale  Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Canada  ! " '  * ++,  #$  & & " $( (  -. / /  % '  )  ! "##$ % &'( % % ) * %+&)', ( )',+ * +&'- .&,+) & % % *'/%' (, %+ +.( - ) % , % (  )'+('+,  /& ( +) 0, ) (1) / % ,+ % + &'+ )/* +&)' ) 3 4 . 5 . 5 %+( &% , %'/  " 2 2 $ 6 6 6  (+.)/,  / , %  7 # 6  (,* +,  3 3  5 8 5 8  96 6" $ $ : ## #" #2 # "#  + /&, *,,&)' /  % ;')1 (/-( ('+, ( ( (' (,  % ('/& (, % 8& ( 5 8 % 8&& + % 8&&& , % 8&= % 8= % 8=& % 8=&&  < 5 <  0  &,.( &(,  ('+ (  (,(%  .  5  8 "# " "" "9 2# 2 9  8  #% ! 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A A  @ 1  &  A 55 (  )/(  +  A  &  +  @ @  G  A  Nt ) − Ct K 8  8  7  5 5  ? 4 4 5  7 5  A @;  + 4  +  @ ;@  < '  !  @'T K'@A  4  8 < '@  ∂ ( N t +1 − N t ) 2r N = rmax − max t = 0 ∂N t K A  4  N msy = +  K 2  &  4  5  5 1  7 5  ' @  7  '  4  & 1! <@ A 5 A 5  5 8 < + 2! + 5  &  & %% 1  + 4  2  ;  8  < . A 5 7A  5 @ 7  $  1 ; +  8  7  5  !@ @ A ? 55  "!@  ?A ? 4 / + ?A ?  A 5 A5  4  @  5  7  A 8  @  4 8  4 A  4  4 @ 4  A A  5 4  A  @  5@  5  5  5  55  55  ,+)  .%,+& ,+) ; (/* +&)' %'% E,&,  3 + A 6"! , % A 8@ ;!@ 7 < 4  +  5 7 5 4  A  8  4  5  4 ;  5 8  -4  4  3 4  @ A 4  N t +1 = N t + rmax N t (1 −  5 , %!@  5 4  5  N t wt )e − C t K  N1 = K A ' 5 A 8  A  5 !G  4  @  G  @  8  @  A  G'  A  3  4 3  B 4  8@  4  5  @"@ U < @A A  < K  7  G  ;@ A  8  , % ,, %! 1 A  (@ "##$! 5 4  4  5  8@  ! 2! 4  A  ! 7  @  !  ! ;  A 4 ' B 5  ?  ? @  , % A % 4 ! 75 A 4  5  A  5 G ;  5 , % ;% B 4  8  ;  5  4  3 5 '0 ' B 7 5  T ;  ! @  4 "! 3 5  4  5 +  ,, % A 5  4@ & %  4 5  5 A C @ A V #! 4 V WA  ,/! V # # ! 5 4 5 0 < @ A CA A 5  5 4 4  A  @  A @ # #" ,/ V # #"! 5 1 @ 6! ;A A 5 4 8  @ 0 %  A4 5 8@ ; ## 8@ A # " ,/ V # #$!  5 A 5  A @ XV # A  ! %  τ w = 1− p * κ A  5  σy =  4  (0.3 ≤ p ≤ 0.6) 3  A  # 5  p κ @A B  9!  !  #  @  +  7  5  4  L( y t | rmax , K , wt ) = n log(σ y ) + A  @ @A  1 log(2π ) + 2  5 <  4  4  zt  n i =1  2  2σ y  2  @W  4  @  z t = log( N t ) − log( y t ) + 8 9#@### + 8  ; % A  7  A  @  4  @  5 3 ,  &  :! +  5  3  !  A 5  5  depletion =  !@  ;+ 9D / 4  A  B  5 @  5 @ "##9!@  +  5 +  @  @  @  %  8=  5 B  @ 4  4  A X+  5  B  8 &  @ 5  @  +  4  4 5  4  %  5  K − N 2001 * 100% K  & 4 / 4 +  7 A  ;+ A  "##9! &  5 H7  A  @&  A  %  ?  4@ A  4  3 +  A  )5  5  4  & %+&)' +) ,& * %+(/ /%+%  4  @& 4 A  ? & A  5  5  A  8  5  ,, % A :# "### A  A 4 5  4  @ A 5  + A 7+ ?A A  !  5  A +  5  5 A 7@  A  @ 5  7 A  @  @ 4  A 5  A 7 <@ A  5  +  4  5 6$@ A  5  7@ A A  55 +  75  4  5  A  4 @  "@  A A @  5  7 V # # 8  A ?  5 4  ?  ' 4  5  5  ;@ &  8  A 4  4 @&  A  5  A  5 5  A  8? ?  "  4 4 5 A  5 <  5 5" ;V $#@### 4 &  5  &  & %% 1  2  $  @ &  4 5  4 Vτ w  4  Vσ y  =  5 XV # @  #D +  #D 5 4  X!@ A V#  proportion * κ = 0.01 * 0.1 @  = 0.9 * 0.1 1  &  @  @  A  V#  ;  8  @A  5 &  !  4  Vσ y  = 0 .3 * 0 .1 @ A  @ A XV #  +  @  :#D 5 X & 5 5 8 "! . A 4 @ 5 & V## 4  4  V #  V#  Vτ w  4  3 5 A  = 0.1 * 0.7 @  @ 4 A 5  5 V # #"@  5 A 5  ; V## @  "! + ##  5  3  4  8@  5  A 55  5  3  1.0  4  4  0.5  1.0  0.0  real  0  -0.5  log2(  estimated  )  0.5  -1.0  - 0.5  -1.0  r_max + 4 5#  K 5 8  G 4  5 TH ?  8  ;  A  @  ##  V## 4 H  5  $#@### A 4 V## 5"  ')+( %  "  @  1.0  (b)  1.0  (a)  0.5  0.5  1.0  0.0  0.0  real  0  -0.5  -0.5  log2(  estimated  )  0.5  -1.0  -1.0  - 0.5  -1.0  r_max  r_max  K  !+  5  A  4 8A  ## A  8  + V ## !  4 8  A  8  K ## !  ;  $#@###! A  8  ; V ##  4  4 # #" +  !  &  & %% 1  +  5 4 2!  2  $  A B @  4  A @&5 4 @  A A  4 &  A 5 ;  A @  8  1.0  (b)  1.0  (a)  8@ &  0.5  0.5  1.0  0.0  0.0  real  0  -0.5  -0.5  log2(  estimated  )  0.5  -1.0  -1.0  - 0.5  -1.0  r_max 5 +  ! 8  4 V## @  r_max  K ;  8  !  A 4  4  K  ;V $#@###  ! 5  ## !  8V 85  # #2$ A  !  8V  ## 8  @  3 %  %  & 69@### @  8V  G  ? # # " XV # @ 5 A  ##  B 4 +  3  A  +  H C  @5  A  ?# !  4 4 0 8  8  4  # #:!  +  8!  5 ;V  4 9 +  A  4 ;4  H ? 8 5 5  5  8? @  4 :#D  8  5  5  % A  A  4  ?  7  A 4  4  4  5  4  +  2#D  τ w = 0.1 * 0.7  σ y = 0 .1 * 0 .3  @  8  @  A  @  ;! @  ;  8  4  B  A  ;  2.5  15  2.0 10  1.5 1.0  5  Catch ( 10 ^3)  Number of individuals (10^5)  (a)  0.5 0.0  0 1850  1870  1890  1910  1930  1950  1970  1990  Year  15  2.5 2.0  10  1.5 1.0  5  Catch ( 10 ^3)  Number of individuals (10^5)  (b)  0.5 0.0  0 1850  1870  1890  1910  1930  1950  1970  1990  Year ,  3 7 3  4 + A  ? 3  C 0  A  !  5  3  @ 3  @  4  4 @  !  H  4  + 9D  &  & %% 1  2  $  0.0  real  -1.0  -0.5  log2(  estimated  )  0.5  1.0  (a)  r_max 8  5 5  5  V##  55 4  5 V##  3 %  %  G  +  K 8  # # "!  ; 69@###!  5  %  @  ;  8 A  5  A  5 + @5 7  # #26@ # #2$@ 4 @ XV # @ 5 A  5  A  8  @  @A  ; A  8  @5 4  @  A 4@  # !  @ 4  A 4 @A  ## 2#D  τ w = 0.1 * 0.7  ! 5  5  4 A 5  75  ##  2 5 5 9@###@ 2#@### :#D  @ A  8  4 %  ? H C 5 # #2$  7 A @  @&  5  ?  σ y = 0 .1 * 0 .3 5  5 +  5 4  7 +  4  8 8  4  A 5  7  A  8  4 4 0 8  #@### @ @ $5  +  8? @  A 5 A  ##  4 : + 7!@ + ;  $  @  , !  3  H  4  5  +  A 7  9D + A  4  3 C 0  4 3  @  @ 3  @  4  0.0  real  -1.0  -0.5  log2(  estimated  )  0.5  1.0  ? 3  !  5  r_max  8  5  5 +  84  A  +  5 ;  K  8  !@ @  A 4@  8  # #26@ # #2$@ # # ! ; 9@###@ 2#@###@ #@###! 5 A # !A C 04 # #2$ V## @ 4 V## ! 4 8  &  & %% 1  +  8.  /  2  $  .  A ?5  ? @  5  @ @  )5  @  5 A  @ + @ 5 4@ + 29D 5 A A 7 5  % "## ! &  @  A 4@ 5 A  A 5  A  7  5 A ?  & "##"!  1 5  1  @A @  A  5 7?  @  7?  5 (  5  +  7@  A  H A 7?  @ "##"! + &1 A &1 @ "## G  ?  7  ? 6 &  5  5 29D  4 7  @  A  4  @  A  9  @ "## ! 5; 7  ;4  5 @A  5  ; 5  5  7?  ?  4  150  K  100 K  obs  50  pred 0 0  0.1  0.2  0.3  0.4  0.5  struck-but-lost rate Struck-but-lost rate + 7?  55  ?  5 @  @ A  7? 7?  ? 4 4  ;G @  5 5  @ 55  @ 5  5  5  7? A  !  ?  &  7? @ ? 7?  !  @  ?  ;  A 4  @  ;5  5  & 7  + @ ? 5  ?@  ? 7  ? @  7  + 5  A  5 5  8  G  6  @  (,* +, 5  A 5  5 A 4  A  A  A 5  !  5  , 8? 8 @  "##  !  7 9D  G "!  7  @  5  @A A  ? 8 & 5 % 8&= 5 5  K − N 2001 * 100% K  " & 5 5  %  @&  7 G 2! ! <@  4 5 @  !@  4  70  <@  "##  <  @5  # @A  + &/0  A  3  5  depletion =  5 5  7 @  5  A  A @ 5  < @A ? 8 +  5 3  4  ,, %! 5 A  5  4 A  4  5 4  & + @  X@  A  4  8&= &5  8  Sei Whales NP 60  0.8 Number of individuals (10^5)  5  &/  50 0.6  40 30  0.4  Catch ( 10 ^2)  +  20 0.2 10 0.0  0 1910  1920  1930  1940  1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year , 5  3  +  !@  7 9D  A  4@  4  3 @  &  & %% 1  2  / 5  5  $  5  &/0 @  5 X  4 1 '( 67  2 7 ( ( ( ' ( ( ' 7 ( ( ( ' 3 9 / ( < : /2 5 / ( / ' ) ( (2 4  ; &  9 / 3 9 / 5  9 / 1:5 7 ( ' (  '8 *4  /  *4;  1:5 7 (5 3 29 2 '  (  52  2 4 45  *4;  5 '  *4&  ('  (  *4&  ) * %+&)' + %I( +) &(, ) (Y )&+(/ (+% (%',  +  5 5 8 8  =  8 ? ?  ?  + 6@ A 2@ + @ 9D  + 8& ' 4 @  %  5 +  9@ 4 5  5  >  + @  5 ? 8 9D  ?  + 5 9D  @ A  4@  4  5  2@ A 5  5 4@ ?  "##  @ @ A  "#  @  <  5  )  A  +  ' (  "  #  "  & '  *; *;  >2  $ & . 3  ,  "  **  #  "  $'  * *;  . /  "  '  -**  / "  6  3 5 &= 16  4  **  3 5 &= 16  *5-** $5; * 5 ** - 5;** &;5-** &5-** -$5*** &$5*** *5*** -5 ** $ 5;** 5 ** &$5*** $& 5*** 5 &*5*** $ 5 ** &;5 ** 5*** -;5&** ; 5-** 5*** - &5*** ;- 5*** $ $5*** 5 ** 5$** &5&**  -5 * &5 ;* 5 ;* ;5$** 5*;* &5 ** $5;** ;5&** ; 5;** -5$;* ;5& * 5 ** $-5*** -5*** ;$-5*** &&5$** ; 5 ** - 5 ** *5-** &5 ** ; 5 ** 5 ** ;5$** ; 5 ** &5 ** ;5-** % $5 **  5;** * 5& * $5; * &5 * 5; * &5 &* ;5& * 5-;* $5*** 5*** & 5*** 5*** -$5*** ;5*** " '  $% $ -$ - % && 5 * 5 * ;5 ;* 5 * & 5; * 5;&* $5&** *5 ** " '  & 5 ** ; 5 ** -;5 ** ;5 ** - 5 ** -5*** -5 ** 5 ** 5 ** -5&** *5&** ;5 ** 5*** ;;5*** 5*** 5*** & 5*** ;5***  ; 5 ** *5 ** & 5&** 5 ** --5$** 5*** 5;** 5 &* &5 ** $5 $* &5 -* 5$** 5&** -5 ** ;5*** &$5*** 5*** *5*** 5 ** 5 ** ; 5;** 5*** &*5*** ;*;5*** &$ ;&$ ;-  7 ( 3/ = ; $ ;  -  ; & &  ' /  "  '  *  5  +  "  #  "  '  * *;  +  (  #  0( + / ( ? +/ ( ?  (  "  -&* #  "  & '  ;*  3  "  #  "  --; '  ** *;  1  "  #  "  -  '  ;*  #  " "  #  2 ' 2  "  #  & *  "  #  & *  ;$5*** -5$** -*5 ** $ 5*** **5*** ;$ 5*** ;5 ** *5 ** $5 ** ;5 ** *5 ** $5 **  & ;4-  "  '  &$  -  -  $ $  ,  & %% 1  A  2  @$  +  A  5 @  ;A ,  5 +  .  A  @  : D + )4 @  Number of individuals (10^3)  $  2@  A  : G. A 669 2! %  5A ' % !@  @ 5 ? A ),(1& @ "##2G ; @ "## ! , A @ 5 # ' 5 5 A A @ A % 4 (@ "##2! % 7 5 7 2 D + 2@ #!@ ' 5 7 . 7 6 D + 2@ "! 6#D5 A + 6!  @ '  ,  0  6:G % 7 5  20  8  15  6  10  4  5  2  0  0 1890  1910  1930  1950 Year  3  5  '  %  A  1970  1990  Catch ( 10 ^2)  &  ""  @  7  8  6  7  5  6 5  4  4  3  3  2  2  Catch ( 10 ^3)  Number of individuals (10^4)  9  1  1 0  0 1910  1930  1950  1970  1990  Year 3  5  '  5  A  30 25  15 20 10  15 10  5 5 0  0 1910  1930  1950  1970  Year 3  5  ,  .  A  1990  Catch ( 10 ^3)  Number of individuals (10^4)  20  & %% 1  ,  A  +  ,  2  $  @3 A )  ,  ;  7  Number of individuals (10^3)  4  "D@ 5  8 A  $@:## 7  4 2!  . @ 5 @ 62G . (@ 66G ; 4 6$@### A :69 5 + 2@ 2! + 4 @ "## G 4 (@ "##2!  ? @ "## ! + 5  100  6  80  5 4  60  3 40  2  20  1  0  0 1780  1810  1840  1870  1900 Year  3  5  ,  A  1930  1960  1990  4  Catch ( 10 ^3)  &  "  @  A  @1  +  A @  66G / 4  (@  ! ,  A  Number of individuals (10^5)  $ D@ 5 + 2@ (@ "##2!  A 6G I B 2:$@###  0 4  @ @ "##"! +  A  ;  8 4  5  6## 4  I  20  40  15  30  10  20  5  10  0  0 1800  1830  1860  1890  1920  1950  Catch ( 10 ^3)  ,  1980  Year 3  A  @$  A (@  :G  A 6:$ +  A  A @  6G ; 8  5  5  +  2@ 6!  " D 9@  0  5 A Z (@ "###G % @ "##"G ; @ "## ! + 4 ' % + 2@ 9!@ 92D ' $!@ $D , . + 2@ :!@ 4 (@ "##2! @ 4 6$D  & %% 1  2  $  Number of individuals (10^4)  20  30 25  15 20 10  15 10  Catch ( 10 ^2)  &  5 5 0  0 1880  1900  1920  1940  1960  1980  2000  Year 3  5  '  %  5  A  5  8 4  7 6  3  5 4  2  3 2  1  1 0  0 1900  1920  1940  1960 Year  3  5  '  5 5  A  1980  2000  Catch ( 10 ^3)  Number of individuals (10^4)  9  8  40  6  30  4  20  2  10  0  0 1910  1930  1950  1970  Catch ( 10 ^3)  @  Number of individuals (10^5)  "$  1990  Year 3  -  A  5  ,  .  5  A  @3  & 2## K ## @ ' % A A 8 4 (@ "##2! . A 4@& 4 5 & 5 & ' 5 @ A 7 5 A < 7 5 A 4< ? @ "###G I ,A < @ "##"G 1 (@ "##"G / 7@ "## G ; @ "## !@ 4 B 55 5 + 5 7 4 5 8 7 $##@ A "9D A 5 + 2@ 6! + A # 6! @ @ 5 H 8 5 A 4 + 4 @ 4 5 ? @ 5 @ + ' A 5 7 5 A G 8 6 # 7 $D & 5 A + 2@ 6@ ! > 5 7 ,A < (@ "##$! @ A 4 29D  & %% 1  2  $  30  7  25  6 5  20  4  15  3  10  2  5  1  0  0 1600  1650  1700  1750  1800  1850  1900  1950  Catch ( 10 ^2)  Number of individuals (10^3)  &  2000  Year 3  5  '  5  A  30 25  30 20 20  15 10  10 5 0  0 1890  1910  1930  1950  1970  Year 3  5  '  A  5  A  1990  Catch (*10)  Number of individuals (10^2)  40  "6  @  @$  A  A  (@ 2@  " ! &  "## 7 + 6!  Number of individuals (10^3)  % 0  @ 5 A Z (@ :G @ "## ! & ' % @ 6$6@ < 9D + 2@ "#! & ' 5 @ #2@ 7 4 4 $D 5 + , . @ 7 A # @ A D 5 < + 2@ ""! 4 @ 4 5 D5 A G ;  9  9  8  8  7  7  6  6  5  5  4  4  3  3  2  2  1  1  0  0 1870  1890  1910  1930  1950  Year 3  5  '  %  A  1970  1990  Catch ( 10 ^2)  A  & %% 1  2  $  Number of individuals (10^3)  9  6  8  5  7 6  4  5  3  4 3  2  2  Catch ( 10 ^2)  &  1  1 0  0 1900  1920  1940  1960  1980  2000  Year  40  40  30  30  20  20  10  10  0  0 1910  1930  1950  1970  Year Figure 22. Population trajectory for Southern Hemisphere blue whales  1990  Catch ( 10 ^3)  Number of individuals (10^4)  Figure 21. Population trajectory for North Pacific blue whales  2#  @  A  A  @$  A A ; A 7@ A A  % ' (@  G I 55  .  @A @ "## ! % 4  2G ;  4 @  A &1 @ 5 4  6 D@ 2@  7@  (@ "##2! & 4  +  "2!  Number of individuals (10^4)  15  30  10  20 15  5  10  Catch ( 10 ^2)  25  5 0  0 1650  1700  1750  1800  1850  1900  1950  2000  Year Figure 23. Population trajectory for Arctic bowhead whales ( +  H  0  A 9 G)  0 A  @$  $ @  @ 5 (  &* '  ::G H 7  @  69G ;  & 5 5  @ A 4@  5 A " D + 2@ #  A 5 #D +  6!  A ' ?  ' %  5  @ @ 5  5  A A  5  K5 @ "## ! & "9@  G;  A  +  4@  5 A 7@  5 5  ' 5 @ " ! & , 2D + 2@  , 4 *  +  & $  .  @ "9! -  4  & %% 1  2  $  Number of individuals (10^4)  7  20  6 15  5 4  10  3 2  Catch ( 10 ^2)  &  5  1 0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year Figure 24. Population trajectory for the North Pacific Eden/Bryde whale complex  7 6 5  10  4 3 5  2 1  0  0 1910  1930  1950  1970  1990  Year Figure 25. Population trajectory for the Southern Hemisphere Eden/Bryde whale complex  Catch ( 10 ^2)  Number of individuals (10^4)  15  2"  @  .  . +  @&  7A @ "##"G . A  " 5 A <7@ "##"G ; @ "## ! % 5 4 "$@ "2D@ ' 5 7 A 6 D + 2! -  ":@ @  1 7A "6! + 9:D@  @ '  % ,  6"D  6!  40 Number of individuals (10^3)  69G @  4  9 8 7  30  6 5  20  4 3  10  2 1  0  0 1660 1700 1740 1780 1820 1860 1900 1940 1980 Year 3  5  '  %  7A  Catch ( 10 ^2)  .  7A  & %% 1  2  $  30  30  25  25  20  20  15  15  10  10  5  5  0  0 1900  1920  1940  1960  1980  Catch ( 10 ^2)  Number of individuals (10^3)  &  2000  Year Figure 27. Population trajectory for North Pacific humpback whales  20  25 15 20 15  10  10 5 5 0  0 1910  1930  1950  1970  Year 3  5  ,  .  7A  1990  Catch ( 10 ^3)  Number of individuals (10^4)  30  2  @  7A  7 A & ) 5  ' . ' % 5 5 , ) A 5 7! 4 (@ "##2! & 4 7+ 5 7A 4 @ "$ ' % # ' 5 + 2! A 4 A 5 4 @A ' % 7 "$D 5 7 2"D + 2@ " @ 2#! 7A ' A @ & ' % @ ' 5 @ 7A 4 ":D + 6!  7!@  Number of individuals (10^4)  ' 5 I  @  30  5  25  4  20  3  15 2  10 5  1  0  0 1930  1940  1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  Catch ( 10 ^3)  +  @$  2000  Year  3  5  '  %  7A 20  6 15  5 4  10  3 2  5  1 0  0 1940  1950  1960  1970  1980  Year  3  5  '  5  7A  1990  2000  Catch ( 10 ^2)  Number of individuals (10^4)  7  & %% 1  %  2  7A  &  $  @$  A  A  7A "##"G ; 5 4 I  A @ "## ! 1 A  < ,  4  (@ "##2! +  % (@  5 4  @  7 A 1 4 @ 5 $D 4  A  % 7A G @ 6G " + 2!@ 5 4 @  5 (@ 4 %  (@ "##2! +  2@  2 !  Number of individuals (10^5)  5  9 8  4  7 6  3  5 4  2  3 2  1  1 0  0 1920  1930  1940  1950  1960 Year  Figure 31. Population trajectory for Antarctic minke whales  1970  1980  1990  2000  Catch ( 10 ^3)  &  2$  %  + ' - 7 @  A % @ ;  Number of individuals (10^3)  8  @3  A @ "##"@ ; 92# A + 2@  5 @ "## ! +  A 8 <  A  @  (@ 62@ @ 4 2D 5 ?  2"!  30  30  25  25  20  20  15  15  10  10  5  5  0  0 1530  1590  1650  1710  1770  1830  1890  1950  2010  Year Figure 32. Population trajectory for North Atlantic right whales. NOTE: catches are plotted as a line instead of histograms for visual ease.  Catch (*10)  '  @  &  & %% 1  '  5 ' %  A  @3  $  F  5 A 5 (@ "## @ ; @ "##"@ ; @A 629 + 2@  A 5  @ "## ! + 5  I 55 2##@  30 25  15 20 10  15 10  5 5 0  0 1830 1850 1870 1890 1910  1930 1950 1970 1990  Year Figure 33. Population trajectory of North Pacific right whales  2@ 6$D  22!  20 Number of individuals (10^3)  (@  Catch (*10)  + + '  2  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& %% 1  ,  ?5  2  A  + A  ?5 2G / 4 I @  $  @=  %  A A (@  5 ,  6G  (@ 6$G (@ "##2G ;  4  A 0 . @ "## !  @ @  5 2G 1  A  < +  @  5  2 !  7 Number of individuals (10^4)  @  ?  9 8  6  7  5  6  4  5  3  4 3  2  2  1  1  0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  Year Figure 34. Population trajectory for Japanese short-finned pilot whales  2000  Catch ( 10 ^2)  &  #  @  7 A  0 4 7 5  7 0 +  Number of individuals (10^3)  A  @$ 5 @ 2G ; 7 A @ 29!G  ' @ "##"G /0%  5 @  7  (@ "##2G ; #: A "$D + 6!  A I 5 "6D  @ "## ! + A  20  40  15  30  10  20  5  10  0  0 1910  1930  1950  1970  Year Figure 35. Population trajectory for Japanese Baird's beaked whales  1990  Catch (*10)  0  &  & %% 1  2  $  @A A 0 @ 6G )[ ? 7 . A 4@5 7+ 7& *  Number of individuals (10^4)  A @ "##"G ; @ "## ! & 4 @A 5 4 @ 7 A 4 + @ 8 7 6$"@ A IJ ?%4 "##"!@ A @& 4 5 @ A 44 4 5 % 4 @ "##"! . A 4 @ & 8  ' +  .  1 < " 4  @ A 2$!  @5  8  8  5  A % <  @  -  7@ .  A  6$"Q . 6$"  4 ?IJ  A 4  5  ? 5  30  6  25  5  20  4  15  3  10  2  5  1  0  0 1860  1880  1900  1920  1940  1960  1980  ?  -  P 5 @ 5  G  (@  &1  4  Catch ( 10 ^3)  +  2000  Year Figure 36. Population trajectory for beluga whales ;  A  ;  @6  A  4  @ (@ "###G &1 H &1,@ "## G  2G ;  (@  @ 9 @ + 29  4 + 6!  @  @  2:! & 92@  26@  ' 4 @  2 ! -  @  5  5  A I 55 @ "## ! 1 ' % #@### @A $ "D 4 5 9D 5 7 A +  @ "##"G ; 5 & 6D , .  "  @  30 25  15 20 10  15 10  Catch (*10)  Number of individuals (10^3)  20  5 5 0  0 1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  8  20  6  15  4  10  2  5  0  0 1940  1950  1960  1970  1980  Year Figure 38. Population trajectory for North Pacific killer whales  1990  2000  Catch (*10)  Number of individuals (10^3)  Figure 37. Population trajectory for North Atlantic killer whales  & %% 1  2  $  Number of individuals (10^3)  40  100 80  30  60 20 40 10  Catch (*10)  &  20  0  0 1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year Figure 39. Population trajectory for Southern Hemisphere killer whales  ?5  A  +  ?5 (@ &  ' A5 A  +  @ + 6!  @=  A "G I 55 @ A 9D@ A 4@ @  % @ 5 (@  2G ;  I  @  A 9G ; +  5 ! -  @  @ @ 4 5 :D 5  A @ "## ! + :# @ #! )55 $ D ?5  @  5  8 4  7 6  3  5 4  2  3 2  Catch ( 10 ^3)  Number of individuals (10^5)  9  1  1 0  0 1700  1740  1780  1820  1860  1900  1940  1980  Year Figure 40. Population trajectory for Faroe Island long-finned pilot whales  100  6  80  5 4  60  3  40  2 20  1 0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year Figure 41. Population trajectory for Northwest Atlantic (Newfoundland) pilot whales  Catch ( 10 ^2)  Number of individuals (10^4)  7  & %% 1  '  2  A  + A ; $D@  $  @< A  3 @ "## ! +  7@ A 3  % 5 @  '  %  : G I 55  9#@###  4  +  @ (@ A @  A 2G /0% 7 96 @ "!  Number of individuals (10^4)  9  (@ "##2G  30  8  25  7 6  20  5  15  4 3  10  2  5  1 0  0 1580 1630 1680 1730 1780 1830 1880 1930 1980 Year  Figure 42. Population trajectory for northern bottlenose whales  Catch ( 10 ^2)  &  $  @  +  A  @1  5  7 A <7 1 @ , @ "##2G ; 4 / 7@ A 4 + 6!  :6G 1 @ "## ! + 7  A I  0  @ A 2G ,  @  G  ? $D + -  7  A (@  75 $9@ @ @  &  2! . A 4 @ D  30 Number of individuals (10^3)  A  5  25  4  20  3  15 2  10  1  5 0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980 Year  Figure 43. Population trajectory for Japanese false killer whales  1990  2000  Catch ( 10 ^2)  7  & %% 1  ' A +  2  @&  A 2G . 8  $  % ' @ "##"G ; 5 + @ "## !@  ?IJ .  7@ 7 5  ::@ @  A  .  7  Number of individuals (10^4)  5  #D +  -  @  26D 5 7 @  :: +  . @ @ "## ! ' A ' %  @  @A 9! ( 5 7 4  A  I 55 (@ 8 4 5 5 ' A ,4 ! =7 5 ? 7 7 A 7@ "## ! + 55 ! + 55 < :: + @ $! + 4 5 $$D 7 @ " D :: + 6! 4  6  6  5  5  4  4  3  3  2  2  1  1  0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980 Year  Figure 44. Population trajectory for Canadian Baffin Bay narwhals  1990  2000  Catch ( 10 ^2)  &  6  @  7 6  15  5 4  10  3 2  5  Catch ( 10 ^2)  Number of individuals (10^3)  20  1 0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year Figure 45. Population trajectory for Hudson Bay narwhals  20  25 15 20 15  10  10 5 5 0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980 Year  Figure 46. Population trajectory for Greenlandic Baffin Bay narwhals  1990  2000  Catch ( 10 ^2)  Number of individuals (10^3)  30  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9#  @  40  5 30 4 3  20  2  Catch ( 10 ^4)  Number of individuals (10^6)  6  10 1 0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year Figure 47. Population trajectory for Eastern Tropical Pacific pantropical spotted dolphins  40  5 30 4 3  20  2 10 1 0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  Year Figure 48. Population trajectory for Japanese pantropical spotted dolphins  2000  Catch ( 10 ^2)  Number of individuals (10^5)  6  &  & %% 1  ,  2  $  @+  + 6G /  (@  A @ "##"G ;  @ "###G ? " D  <7  @ "## ! + ( + + 9@  ! -  1 5  @  ,  :6G / 4 9 @  @  "6D  6!  40  20  30  15  20  10  10  5  0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  Catch ( 10 ^4)  Number of individuals (10^5)  +  5  5  2000  Year Figure 49. Population trajectory for Eastern Tropical Pacific spinner dolphins ,  7  + A  , <  @A 7 (  5  I  5 @  D ? :D A  66G  + 9 + 54 2D +  @  A 0 @ "##"G ;  6G  5 @ 9@ 5 4 6!  9#! & @ + @  9@  @5  @ "## ! + 4 I A @ 8 9 ! % @5  7  ? 7 6 @  , -  @  9"  @  30 25  30 20 20  15 10  Catch ( 10 ^3)  Number of individuals (10^5)  40  10 5 0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year Figure 50. Population trajectory for Eastern Tropical Pacific short beaked common dolphins  9 8  5  7  4  6 5  3  4  2  3 2  1  1  0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  Year Figure 51. Population trajectory for Northwest Atlantic short beaked common dolphins  2000  Catch ( 10 ^2)  Number of individuals (10^4)  6  /  & %% 1  0  2  $  @1  /  0 (@ 6:G I 55 7 I 9"! +  5  '  @  5 @5 ; @  66G @  A @ "## ! + 5  66G ;  ?  5  A  6D 75  I + / 9@ @/  $2 +  A  4 " D +  5  I  )  0  6!  9 Number of individuals (10^5)  0  5  8 4  7 6  3  5 4  2  3 2  Catch ( 10 ^4)  &  1  1 0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year Figure 52. Population trajectory for Japanese Dalls porpoises @ + I 55  ? 2G 1  (@ A  I @ ' A . A 4 "D  @  7 7  %  , @  G 1 B ? &  , 55  & 9D  $$ +  9@  7 9 ! -  & I @  A @ "## ! + 5 4? @  4  @ @  5 @ "##"G ; 5 9# +  9@  @ 7  5 D +  6!  92! @  @  5  5  4  4  3  3  2  2  1  1  0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  Catch ( 10 ^2)  Number of individuals (10^4)  9  2000  Year  30  30  25  25  20  20  15  15  10  10  5  5  0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980 Year  Figure 54. Population trajectory for Japanese bottlenose dolphins  1990  2000  Catch ( 10 ^2)  Number of individuals (10^4)  Figure 53. Population trajectory for Northwest Atlantic bottlenose dolphins  & %% 1  '  2  A  $  @2  +  A A $6D 5  5 3 J :6  G; +  (@  ' @ "## ! + 99!  9@  5 @A  4 @  Number of individuals (10^5)  5  40  4  30  3 20 2  Catch ( 10 ^3)  &  10  1 0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year Figure 55. Population trajectory for northern right whale dolphins .  @1  +  ' A - 7 (@ 2G @ "## ! + ? ' , @ ##@ 4 @ 4  ; 7 @  < + ' A(  !@  9@ @  . 1 1  : $@ 96! & 6 @ " D +  @ 5 A :G ?, . 4 @ 6G A @ ' % & A @ 6 D + 9@ 9$! & ' , @ " D 9# + 9@ 9:! & A 4 A 9"D 5 A ' % ' A5 :D + 9@ 9 ! @ 6! @  9$  @  30 25  6 20 4  15 10  Catch ( 10 ^2)  Number of individuals (10^4)  8  2 5 0  0 1900  1920  1940  1960  1980  2000  Year Figure 56. Population trajectory for Greenlandic harbour porpoises  8  4  6  3 4 2 2  1 0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980 Year  Figure 57. Population trajectory for North Sea harbour porpoises  1990  2000  Catch ( 10 ^3)  Number of individuals (10^5)  5  & %% 1  2  $  Number of individuals (10^4)  20  30 25  15 20 10  15 10  Catch ( 10 ^2)  &  5 5 0  0 1710  1750  1790  1830  1870  1910  1950  1990  Year  20  8  15  6  10  4  5  2  0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  Year Figure 59. Population trajectory for Western North Atlantic harbour porpoises  2000  Catch ( 10 ^3)  Number of individuals (10^4)  Figure 58. Population trajectory for Baltic harbour porpoises  96  @  A  +  %  ? A  @2 ?  @ A @  8=&! 5%  Number of individuals (10^3)  %  & A  5  A , <7@ "##"G ; 9# + 9@  9G . D  4 ?  ' (@ 6#G , < @ "## ! & A $#! 5 5 D + 6!  %  @A @ A  % & -  30  30  25  25  20  20  15  15  10  10  5  5  0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  66G 8 @  Catch (*10)  %  2000  Year Figure 60. Population trajectory for Northwest Atlantic white-sided dolphins ) * %+&)' + %I( +) &(, ) (Y )&+(/ &''& (/,  +  5 5 8  + ? %  + 8& '  ?  $ 9D  +  @A :  5 5 4  5  8  ? 8  4 @  + @  5 ? 8 9D  ?  + 5 9D  @ A  4@  4  5  $@ A 5  5 4@ ?  "##  @ @ A  &  & %% 1  2  < )  $  5  +  ' (  >33  +  2  > 2(  "  #  4 &*  #  +  &;  *  "  '  #  *  *  . /  6  (  &*  (  &*  6  0  .  ;-  (  "  # '  & (2' $  ( (  @  /  " +  ( ( 3  +  ;*  #  ;-  2 1  --  1 ' +  B 2  2  -&  ( " #  ' ')  --&  6  3 5 &= 16 5&*** 5*** -;5*** 5 *5*** 5$ *5*** &5&$*5*** &*5*** *5*** - 5*** ;5- *5*** 5; *5*** &5 *5*** $ 5*** &&*5*** 5*$*5*** -5&** 5-** 5*** &5*** ;5 ** &-5*** - $5*** ;*-5*** 5 *5*** -5 ;*5*** &5*-*5*** 5***5*** &5&$*5*** ;5$;*5*** -5; *5*** 5 $*5*** $ 5*** 5$;*5*** -*$5*** ;- 5*** ;;5*** 5*** $5*** 5*** 5&** -5 ** ; 5 ** &5*** --5*** 5*** *5-** -;5-** *-5*** 5*** $ 5*** * 5***  **  3 5 &= 16  5*** 5*** &;5*** 5$ *5*** $ 5$** 5-**5*** 5 &* ;5-$* 5 ** ;5&$*5*** 5;**5*** &5$ *5*** $ 5*** &; 5*** $5*** &5 ** 5*** 5*** 5*** &;5*** 5*** 5*** ; &5***  7 =  ( 3/  &&  &  -&  *  5 *5*** 5 *5*** &5 -*5*** 5 *5*** 5-**5*** 5 -*5*** ;* 5*** ;$5*** - 5*** ; 5*** -;5*** - $5*** -5*** 5*** 5*** *5$** ;5 ** 5*** * 5*** ;$5*** - 5*** 5 ** 5&** &;5-** *&5*** ;;5*** -$5***  ;  -*  -  * ;  &  $#  @  @< 5 4 @ "##"G $# @  Number of individuals (10^4)  -  < 4  @  ' 5 @ (@ "##"G ; @ "## ! + @ 9# + A :D 5 9# D 5  A  +  I 55 < + !  (@ $@  20  20  15  15  10  10  5  5  0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980 Year  Figure 61. Population trajectory for Bering Sea ribbon seals  1990  2000  2G $ !  Catch ( 10 ^3)  +  #  &  & %% 1  2  $  @1 5 @ "## ! + A 99D 9 @ @ $@ $2! & 5 4  ' &  @  K  A '  '  % 5  & @ ":D +  Number of individuals (10^6)  . A  @A 9#@### & ' 4 !  <7@ "##"@ 5 @  H % 4  4 9D 5 5 9#@###@  @  + #  $@ @  5 H % @ D +  $@  $ ! -  $"! & 4 + A 4 4 4  @  6  30  5  25  4  20  3  15  2  10  1  5  0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980 Year  Figure 62. Population trajectory for North Atlantic/Arctic ringed seals  1990  2000  Catch ( 10 ^4)  + ;  $"  @  10 8  15  6 10 4 5  2  0  0 1910  1930  1950  1970  1990  Year Figure 63. Population trajectory for Baltic ringed seals  40  5 30 4 3  20  2 10 1 0  0 1900  1920  1940  1960 Year  Figure 64. Population trajectory for North Pacific/Arctic ringed seals  1980  2000  Catch ( 10 ^3)  Number of individuals (10^6)  6  Catch ( 10 ^3)  Number of individuals (10^4)  20  &  & %% 1  2  @&  +  @ % @ "## ! @ $9!  ;  Number of individuals (10^5)  $@  @  @  @ 4 4  5  "@ .  @  (@ 4  5 4  "  A 6"#@ A 4 7  20  20  15  15  10  10  5  5  0  0 1820  1850  1880  1910  1940  1970  A (@ "##"@ D +  Catch ( 10 ^3)  ,  $  2000  Year Figure 65. Population trajectory for southern elephant seals  -  @<  -  ' 2G . @ "##"G ; 9# 4 + $@ 55 5 D +  % @ @ "## ! & & A $$! & , A @ 6D 5 9# !  A  @ +  $@  I 55 $9D5 @ A $:! + 4  (@  $  @  20  25 15 20 15  10  10  Catch ( 10 ^2)  Number of individuals (10^3)  30  5 5 0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  20  40  15  30  10  20  5  10  0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980 Year  Figure 67. Population trajectory for Scottish gray seals  1990  2000  Catch ( 10 ^2)  Number of individuals (10^4)  Figure 66. Population trajectory for Icelandic gray seals  &  & %% 1  .  @1  +  $  4 2@ ; 4  (@  @ "## ! + 1 $"D 5  5 @ 6 9 + A  A 7(  & $  5 +  '  . !@ A  $@  $6! &  @A $@ 5  4  $ ! + 1 + $@  ,  7 :#! -  $#D  ' 2D 6 :@  @  5 2$D  !  20 Number of individuals (10^5)  3 A A  @  5 4  15  3 10 2 5  1  0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  Year Figure 68. Population trajectory for West Ice (East Greenland) harp seals  2000  Catch ( 10 ^4)  % +  2  $$  @  5 4  15  3 10 2 5  Catch ( 10 ^5)  Number of individuals (10^6)  20  1  0  0 1900  1920  1940  1960  1980  2000  Year Figure 69. Population trajectory for Northwest Atlantic harp seals  5  6  4  5 4  3  3  2  2 1  1 0  0 1900  1920  1940  1960 Year  Figure 70. Population trajectory for White Sea harp seals  1980  2000  Catch ( 10 ^5)  Number of individuals (10^6)  7  &  & %% 1  .  2  $  @  .  4 4 @ $6D  % :"! -  6$G  '  3 #@  %  7 @  )  2G ;  (@ "#D@  @ @ "## ! + A 5 4 4 5 9#D + !  I +  $@  A ;4 7 : ! + ' A $ + $@  7 6  15  5 4  10  3 2  5  Catch ( 10 ^4)  Number of individuals (10^5)  20  1 0  0 1940  1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year Figure 71. Population trajectory for Jan Mayen hooded seals  40  8 7  30  6 5  20  4 3  10  2 1 0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980  Year Figure 72. Population trajectory for Northwest Altantic hooded seals  1990  2000  Catch ( 10 ^3)  Number of individuals (10^5)  9  $6  @  @3 5 2@ ; 4 @ "##"@ ; @ " D + $@ D + !  ' @ "## ! &  @ H  K 7  A , @ A  3 $$  :2! -  @  40 Number of individuals (10^4)  (@  9 8 7  30  6 5  20  4 3  10  2 1  0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980 Year  Figure 73. Population trajectory for Bering/Chukchi bearded seals  1990  2000  Catch ( 10 ^3)  +  &  & %% 1  .  @1  +  $  " 5 @ "## ! +  A 5  A  '  7 D 5  . 6D +  +  5 Number of individuals (10^4)  $@  !  20  4  15  3 10 2 5  1 0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980 Year  Figure 74. Population trajectory for California harbour seals  1990  2000  Catch ( 10 ^2)  : !G  @ "##"@ ; A 4@  2  :#  @  @1 + @ "##"@ ; 4 55 % 7 @ $$@ $@  A , + $@ 3 $@ :$! + @A 4 @ 4  A  '  A :9! & ,  5 @  ' A 5 )7 7  5  A A $9@  $D  ::!  30  5  25  4  20  3  15 2  10 5  1  0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980 Year  Figure 75. Population trajectory for Bering largha/spotted seals  1990  2000  Catch ( 10 ^3)  Number of individuals (10^4)  +  5 @ "## ! + D 5 $9 @ A $#D + , 5 5 A  & %% 1  2  $  Number of individuals (10^4)  20  6 5  15 4 10  3 2  Catch ( 10 ^3)  &  5 1 0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  40  8  30  6  20  4  10  2  0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980 Year  Figure 77. Population trajectory for Okhotsk Sea largha/spotted seals  1990  2000  Catch ( 10 ^3)  Number of individuals (10^4)  Figure 76. Population trajectory for Northeast Pacific largha/spotted seals  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& %% 1  % +  5 % G  2  @0  B  5  4  3  8 AA  A , . @ "## ! + 4 7 62# . A 4 @ 5 : # 62#@ ## 5 . A 4@ A 4 5 ## A 4 & 4 ; 4 @& + :@ :6!  2G ;  (@ 4  Number of individuals (10^5)  $  4 +  (@ 5 5 @ 8  20  40  15  30  10  20  5  10  0  0 1790  1820  1850  1880  1910  Year Figure 78. Population trajectory for Antarctic fur seals  1940  1970  2000  Catch ( 10 ^4)  &  :  @  + ,  %5 ,  % %5 . A 4 +  5 %  @0 5  3 A :@  A (@  5 : ! -  2@ ; 4 @A @  A @ "## ! +  A < 5  D 5 D +  Number of individuals (10^5)  30  @ ## !  9 8  25  7  20  6 5  15  4  10  3 2  5  1  0  0 1900  1920  1940  1960 Year  Figure 79. Population trajectory for the South African fur seal  1980  2000  Catch ( 10 ^4)  ,  &  & %% 1  '  @  ' 6 G  5  5 4 5  $  3 + 6#! 3 @;  4 (@ "###G 5  A @ "##"G ; @ A  @ "## ! + D5 D + @ A %  @ 5 @  5 ,  &  5  '  5 :6$ ! +  5  6## @ ? 8  @  4  +  :@  5 5  8&!  30 Number of individuals (10^5)  -  @A  20  25 15 20 15  10  10 5 5 0  0 1780  1810  1840  1870  1900  1930  1960  1990  Year Figure 80. Population trajectory for Northern fur seals  ,  %  + , I 55  @6  #"  % (@  2G  3  (@  5 4  A  D 5  2G ; 5  A @ "## ! + < +  :@  , ' 2#@ 6 !  . H 7  Catch ( 10 ^4)  +  5  2  :$  @  7 6  15  5 4  10  3 2  5  Catch ( 10 ^3)  Number of individuals (10^4)  20  1 0  0 1930  1940  1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year Figure 81. Population trajectory for South American sea lions ' AZ +  5  @0  ' AZ 5 , % 5 7 A ? $A (@ "##"! +  Z 5 A . @"9#@### A A 4 A  8 4  #  A A @ ' AZ 2G ; @ "## ! % @ 8 7 & ' AZ @ 2 #@### 5 A 4 6# 6 2 @ 6! %5 $@ $ 5 A 7 ? 75 A 5 #@### 5 ' A 6# 3 (@ 2!@ 5 A $#@###T! @ 6! & 3 &5 4 4 4 4 A 4 5 2 #@### 4 < 5 ' A Z 5 @ @ @ 6! . A 4 @ & 5 #@### 4 4 8 + 5 ! A "! 5 + @ 55 % . @ "## !@ & 4 7 @ 7 5 I 55  (@  & %% 1  2  5 +  @) 5 A 5 @  -  $  # '  .  @ "##"@ ; 7 5 9D  5 A @ "## ! + ? +  @  A  5  7 5 5  $D :@  +  !  30 Number of individuals (10^4)  @ 6"!  5  25  4  20  3  15 2  10  Catch ( 10 ^3)  &  1  5 0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year Figure 82. Population trajectory for California sea lion  , +  @3% , 6G 4  5  5 1  F  A 5 (@ "###G ; @ "## ! + ( % 7 7 5 2D " + 4 55 5 1 $ D 9 + :@ 62@ 6 ! 2D 5 6## "## + ! + H ) H 1 % 8&! , / % 7  '  5 @ A @ A 7@ A  B % 7 @, 5  4A  :6  @  5  6  4  5 4  3  3  2  2  Catch ( 10 ^3)  Number of individuals (10^4)  7  1  1 0  0 1910  1930  1950  1970  1990  Year  20  40  15  30  10  20  5  10  0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980 Year  Figure 84. Population trajectory for Western Alaska Steller sea lions  1990  2000  Catch ( 10 ^2)  Number of individuals (10^4)  Figure 83. Population trajectory for Eastern Alaska Steller sea lions  &  & %% 1  2  $  @ "## ! + $#D 5 , 9# 4 +  ,  4 @6  + A "##"@ ; A 1 7 H D 5 + !G  % A 7 9# :@  $6D 5 69@ ' A  5  ' <I 5 D 5 + :@ 6$ 4@ 6$! %  .  @  ##  @ 66@ ( @ 4,  ' 6 @  @ 6D@  A 6:! +  %  5 Number of individuals (10^5)  6@ ;  :D 8&!  20  4  15  3 10 2 5  1 0  0 1870  1890  1910  1930  1950  Year Figure 85. Population trajectory for Chukchi / Bering Sea walruses  1970  1990  Catch ( 10 ^3)  1  6#  @  10 8  15  6 10 4 5  Catch  Number of individuals (10^2)  20  2  0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  8  20  6  15  4  10  2  5  0  0 1950  1960  1970  1980 Year  Figure 87. Population trajectory for Northwater walruses  1990  2000  Catch (*10)  Number of individuals (10^3)  Figure 86. Population tracjectory for East Greenlandic walruses  & %% 1  2  $  40  Number of individuals (10^3)  100 80  30  60 20 40  Catch (*10)  &  10  20 0  0 1660  1710  1760  1810  1860  1910  1960  2010  Year Figure 88. Population trajectory for Spitsbergen walruses  7 6  15  5 4  10  3 2  5  1 0  0 1900  1920  1940  1960 Year  Figure 89. Population trajectory for West Greenlandic walruses  1980  2000  Catch ( 10 ^2)  Number of individuals (10^3)  20  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&  & %% 1  + ,  6 +  2  <  $  5 8 ,  U! 5  &  @  "## 9D &!  9D &! ' A  :: 9  ,  9  , /  7  9  0  $2 9#  '  A  :6  .  : $  %  A  9#  ?  +  <  ,  @$## ::@9## K 9@###! 9@#$#@### @ #@### K $@ #@###! "@$$#@### "@ 9#@### K 2@2$#@###! 2@ #@### 2@#2#@### K 9@$$#@###! @ #@### @### K @$$#@###! 9" @### #9@### K :: @###! #6@### 2 9@### K @###! :# @### : @### K :@###! #2@### 9"@2## K " :@###!  : @:## 9$@### K #@6##! "@"##@### @:"#@### K "@69#@###! @ #@### @9##@### K "@ 9#@###! 2@6##@### "@ #@### K 9@92#@###! @# #@### 96 @### K @2"#@###! 9 @### ##@### K :: @###! "::@### "#2@### K 2$ @###! 929@### 2 9### ? :99###! #"@### 9 @ ## K " $@###!  5  &  "## 9D &!  @ 9D &!  9# #2 ,  6"#  -  9#  .  6 9  .  # $$  . $9 5  , 5 '  %5  ,  %  5  5 , 1  : # %  / D! " 9: "6 2 "  2" "  5 8  ,  %  @  ## :6$ 2# 6# " $$#  9#9@### 2$2@### K $$ @###! 6@9:#@### $@29#@### K @$##@###! :2 @### 99#@### K @#:#@###! " @### ""$@### K 2 2@###! :@6##@### @2##@### K "2@9##@###! @:6#@### @"9#@### K "@96#@###! $$6@### 29:@### K $ "@###! 26 @### 2::@### K ""@###! 92"@### 2@### K $ 9@###! @96#@### @# #@### K @ :#@###! @:6#@### @ #@### K "@2"#@###! @:2#@### @$"#@### K "@$9#@###! " #@### ""$@### K 26 @###! ""9@### 9$#@## K " :@###! 2@### " @### K 6#@###! 2:6@### "$6@### K 9":@###!  @  9# @### 2$ @### K $9 @###! $@" #@### 2@ 6#@### K 6@2 #@###! :22@### 9 @### K :@###! "6$@### " @### K 26 @###! @2##@### 6@ #@### K 2@$##@###! 6 @### 9 @### K @2"#@###! 9 $@### "9 @### K 96 @###! 26 @### 2: @### K @###! @### 2#:@### K 9 @###! @":#@### # @### K @$6#@###! @$"#@### @2##@### K "@#"#@###! @$2#@### @6$#@### K "@#2#@###! "2"@### :2@### K 229@###! " @### $@### K "2$@###! 6 @ ## :#@:## K @ ##! "# @### 2 @### K ": @###!  / D! ":  2$ 9#  : "#  "# 9 2 :  6  @  140  4.5 4  120  3.5  Abundance (biomass) Abundance (numbers)  3  80  2.5  60  2  Catch (biomass)  1.5  40  Catch (numbers)  1  20  0.5  0 1800  1850  1900 Years  5 @  6## ? "## 4 +  A A  0 2000  1950  +  &  Catch 10^6 (numbers and tonnes)  Abundance 10^6 (numbers and tonnes)  100  +  7  A A  4  % %%  + A  & A :## 5 :2@# "@ $$ H  A  5  4  B  5  4 < 5  %  2 @"2 @"2 ! A ! 4 55 A A "! A 4 A@ 5 5  @  6$G  5  5  :## 5 7 5%  A 7 +  ,  + ##  5 @  & A  @  +  ! + 29@$ @$2 ! 5 4  5 1 @  , @ 5  5 @  @ ## @ 7 6"  5 @  5  8 +  5  2## ' % ! . A 4@  5 92# : @92:@22 6## + 4 A :## @ A  A 4@ 4  92#@ A 4 @  A 5 1 @A A 4  5  & %% 1  2  $  1.6  5  numbers  4  1.4 biomass  Numbers (10^6)  1.2  4 3  1.0  3  0.8  2  0.6  2  0.4  1  0.2  1  0.0 1750  1800  1850  1900  Biomass (10^6 kg)  &  0 2000  1950  Years  1 "##  5  +  @  !  7  !5  :9#  A  Average weight (t)  25 20 15 10 5 0 1530  1580  1630  1680  1730  1780  1830  1880  1930  1980  Years 4 2  %4 +  A 4  5 A  5  92# K "## @ 5  4 4  4  6$  @  %  A  1  A  ! &  2: +J A  5 + A  @ 5  2#@  ! 4 5 6"! / A 4  A G  5  @  2@  5  26D 5 5 11&&@  %5  A  A A 4  1 @  7  +J A  @  6"!  0 @  @ A  7@ 1  ,  2 @ 5  8 A  5  1 @  ?  A  A @  A  + A  5A @ A  5  +  $# @ 5 + A  A  5 &  4  6$@ A  @  &1  A  5 5  @A  @  A  @  @  H ?  A  5 2  5 4  A  ,  5 .  +  A  5  A A 5  A @  8 Average weight (tons)  7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1900  1920  1940  1960  1980  2000  Years %4  &  A 4  % %%  5  &  4 5  5 @A @  7 "6D  5  A  5  %  A 4  ## K "## @  A 5  5 6##  5 6## K "## % 5 ""D #?$"D! A 6## 5 :$ 96? 9! $# ? 2! + 62 5 9$ @A  "## "##  &  & %% 1  2  $  140 120  Numbers (10^6)  100 80 60 40 20 0 1800  1850  /  1900 Years  5 9D  + +  5  1950 6##  2000  "## +  @  4  7  A 5  @  6# @  + $#  4  5  A @A  + 5  A 4  + A  ##G 5  4  A ##  9 ## 4  66  @  45  + (1) True seals  40  (2) Smaller dolphins and porpoises  Numbers (10^6)  35  (3) Eared seals and walrus  30  (4) Smaller whales and larger dolphins  25  ,  (5) Great whales  20  (  15  A -  10  A ,  A  5 0 1800  1850  1900  1950  2000  Years  $  A  5 @  5 +  A " 9  4 7  + 55  :# @ A 96 66 4 4  5 4? 8 ::@ A 55  6# G ""D :# @  + A "# 4  &  & %% 1  2  $  55  30 Pinnipeds  50  27  45  Cetaceans  24  21  35 18 30 15 25 12 20 9  15  6  10  3  5  0 0 1800 1820 1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 Years  -  5  !5  6##  "##  Cetaceans numbers (10^6)  Pinniped numbers (10^6)  40  #  &  @  % %%  +  %  8 7  5 96?6$D! 5 A @ 5 @A  A 4 A  5 8  5 5 5  4  3  @ A  + : A 6##  9D 5 "D@  + 5 :$D  "## 5  &  4 6##@  5  + 7  :"D 5  "D 5  180 160 140 Biomass (10^6 t)  120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1800  1850  1900  1950  2000  Years /  5 9D  4  +  @  & %% 1  6  2  $  A  5 A  6@  7 8  7  6##  "##  +  5  9!@  A  4  ! + 4 A  + A  A 4  6  6!  140  +  120  Biomass (10^6 t)  5 -  4 ,  3  A  100  A  80 ,  60  2  40 (  1 0 1800  A  %  1850  A  1900  20 0 2000  1950  Years 5  6##  "##  Great whale biomass (10^6 t)  &  "  @  A  5  5  & @A  +  @  8  7  7 4  120 Cetaceans 100  Pinnipeds 6  5  4  60  3 40 2 20 1  0 0 1800 1820 1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 Years @5  6##?"##  Cetacean biomass (10^6 t)  Pinniped biomass (10^6 t)  80  &  & %% 1  2  $  > +  4  4  A  7  4 8 ## 8 A  A  A  5  A 5  6##  "## @  5  160 140 Biomass (10^6 t)  120 100 80 60 40 20 0 5  Numbers (10^6)  4 3 2 1 0 1800  1850  1900  1950  2000  Years  /  A  5 9D  3 5  4  6##  "## +  5  @  +  5A 4 4  A A  5 B @5 A @A < A  5 5 @  A  + A ,  @ ,  A  6## A  54  1 5  4 1 4  2# A +  +  A + B 55  A @ 4  2? 2 A 5A  # &  # & ## &  A A  7 :# @  A  A  5  A  4  @A A  7 @A 5  6:?6 @ A  5  6## ,  6##  , ,  A A A A  @# @ 6:"@9" 2:2@6:# " 9@669  ,  6## 7A  .  7A A A  A  "6#@2 "92@#6# #:@#9" 99@" 2  5  &  & %% 1  2  $  90 fin sperm blue sei minke  Average weight 75  50  60 30 45 20 30  10 15  0 0 1900  , B  1920  5  1940  A  4  1960  Years A  5  1980  2000  Average weight (tonnes)  Catch in numbers (10^3)  40  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&  & %% 1  2  4  $  +  7  55  5  4 @  < A  ;! A 5 5  rmax (1 −  8!@  Nt )5 K  4  ?  +  @  @  5 ' A  8  5  5  & A  + 5  5  4  55  5 A  A 4@  5 @A +  ?  @& 4  !  5 7?  ;A  5  55 4  @  @ @ 5  0 &5 ;  4 A 7@  @ 4 4  7  +  A A  7? 4 @ @ . A 4@ 7 ,, %  A <'  + A  5 A A  4 5  A B  A  &  @  8 5  7 4  5 5  5  8 7? ?  5  (+.)/) )-E  + +  & A @  5 4  B ! %  5 &  & @A  3  55 0@ 8  , 5 4  ? +  8  7  4  @  ;V  5  '  ;@  4 4  A &5  4 @ A  ! % !@ A 4 5  7 8 +  7  ,, %@  %  @ !@ 5" 5  5  ? B A 5  @  TAC = brPt (  A 4 +%  7@  ! +  5  Pt − a) @ K &1  A  5 5  4  4  5 4  !  !  AA  C0 4  5  !@  @ 7@  A 7  A  @  5  9 D 5 ;@  5  A A  #  A  5  4  @  Pt −1 2 ) − C t −1 @ A K  ? 5  B 8 A?  8  %!  Pt = Pt −1 + r (1 −  9 D  @  A @  5  @ A A  @&  ,  &1 0  C0 C0  @ 8?  ;. A 4@  8  1  3  4  A  A  A 7  @  A  ! @  A  A  5 A 7  A  7  @5  5 ?  8 5 ? 55 @ 5  "#  @5  @  5 5 .  1 4  &  &  C ?A + @ 4  5  @ ,  4  5  5  4  4 5  4 A  8  4  ! +  5  55  @  8  +  A  5  4 A  4  7 < +  @ 5  < 5  7  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umbers (10^3)  +  H  7  200 150 +  100 50 0 1950  1960  5  3 +  1970 5  1 7  1980 Years % $!  7 %1 +  1990 5,  2000 @A @* @  2010  @ "##$!@  &  & %% 1  % 5 4  $  A @A  A  ?  55  8 A + A 4 5 4 :2@### A 4  5  A @A ' . 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