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Marine fisheries catches in Arctic Alaska. Booth, Shawn; Zeller, Dirk 2008

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ISSN 1198-6727  Fisheries Centre Research Reports  2008 Volume16 Number 9  MARINE FISHERIES CATCHES IN ARCTIC ALASKA  Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Canada  MARINE FISHERIES CATCHES IN ARCTIC ALASKA  Shawn Booth and Dirk Zeller  Fisheries Centre Research Reports 16(9) 59 pages © published 2008 by The Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia 2202 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C., Canada, V6T 1Z4  ISSN 1198-6727  Fisheries Centre Research Reports 16(9) 2008 MARINE FISHERIES CATCHES IN ARCTIC ALASKA Shawn Booth and Dirk Zeller  CONTENTS Page DIRECTOR’S FOREWORD.......................................................................................................................................1 ABSTRACT............................................................................................................................................................2 INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................................................2 MATERIALS AND METHODS..................................................................................................................................4 HUMAN POPULATION DATA............................................................................................................................4 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES DATA.......................................................................................................................4 SUBSISTENCE FISHERIES DATA.......................................................................................................................5 RESULTS..............................................................................................................................................................9 TOTAL CATCH TIME SERIES.............................................................................................................................9 SUBSISTENCE CATCHES..................................................................................................................................9 COMMERCIAL CATCHES................................................................................................................................10 DISCUSSION.......................................................................................................................................................10 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS........................................................................................................................................11 REFERENCES......................................................................................................................................................12 APPENDIX 1: METHODS OF EXPANSION AND ANCHOR POINTS...............................................................................14 APPENDIX 2: INUPIAT NAMES, COMMON NAMES AND SCIENTIFIC NAMES FOR SPECIES REPORTED.........................43 APPENDIX 3: COMMUNITY INFORMATION...........................................................................................................44 APPENDIX 4: PARTICIPANTS AND NOTES FROM DATA VALIDATION WORKSHOP .....................................................59  A Research Report from the Fisheries Centre, UBC and the Lenfest Ocean Program  Fisheries Centre Research Reports 16(9) 59 pages © Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, 2008 FISHERIES CENTRE RESEARCH REPORTS ARE ABSTRACTED IN THE FAO AQUATIC SCIENCES AND FISHERIES ABSTRACTS (ASFA) ISSN 1198-6727  Marine fisheries catches in arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  1  DIRECTOR’S FOREWORD The huge area which makes up the Amerasian Arctic, from Novaya Zemlya Island and the Kara Sea, off north-western Siberia in the west to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Hudson Bay in the east, is fully encompassed in FAO Statistical Area 18, one of the 19 large statistical areas through which the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization documents the marine fisheries catches of the world, based on reports filed since 1950 by FAO’s member countries. In the case of FAO Area 18, the member countries did not do their job. Thus, catches for the north of Siberia were not reported to the FAO by the USSR and later Russia (which can perhaps be forgiven since the USSR was not a member, and Russia joined the FAO only in 2006). Similarly, Canada’s catches from its Arctic waters were desultorily reported to the FAO. We reported on this for both USSR/Russia and Canada in Fisheries Centre Research Reports, 15(2), published in 2007. The present report, which covers the fishery of arctic Alaska, thus completes our coverage of the Amerasian Arctic, i.e., of FAO Area 18, for which the total catch, as reconstructed by members of the Sea Around Us Project from 1950 to 2005, is over 50 times that reported by FAO. As is here illustrated for Alaska, this is because the statistical reporting systems at the national (and hence international) level for fisheries on Russia, the USA and Canada do not pay any attention to their smallscale fisheries, even when these provide all the fish consumed in vast areas. In this, unfortunately, Russia, the USA and Canada do not differ much from other countries, which all tend to underestimate their smallscale fisheries catches. But more could have been expected, given that these three countries have the resources, one would think, to document one of the major food-producing sectors of the economy along their Arctic coasts. The present report also highlights the USA-specific problem of missing data as they relate to state-level jurisdiction, as fisheries data collected and reported by the State of Alaska from their 3 nautical mile jurisdiction are not incorporated into national catch reports. Be that as it may, these catch time series should now become important baselines, e.g., for assessing gains and losses due to the warming now raging in the Arctic, which will not fail to impact on fisheries. This is also the reason why the documentation of the bottom-up process used to arrive at the catch data presented therein is given in such great details. This report is based on work funded by the Lenfest Oceans Program (www.lenfestocean.org), and we thank Ms Margaret Bowman for having understood the need to establish a historic baseline for fisheries which may change radically in the next decades, as the ice of the Arctic recedes and its waters become accessible to industrial fishing fleets. These fleets have wreaked havoc on the fish stocks and ecosystems further south. Let us hope that they do not get to undermine the fisheries documented here. Daniel Pauly, Director UBC Fisheries Centre October 2008  2  Marine fisheries catches in arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  MARINE FISHERIES CATCHES IN ARCTIC ALASKA1 Shawn Booth and Dirk Zeller  Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 e-mail: s.booth@fisheries.ubc.ca; d.zeller@fisheries.ubc.ca  ABSTRACT The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) provides global data on fisheries catches based on reports by member countries. Interestingly, for FAO Statistical Area 18 (Arctic), the USA reports no fish catches to the global community. In Alaska, it is the communities found north of Cape Prince of Wales that fall within FAO area 18. However, the State of Alaska’s Department of Fish and Game has collected time series of commercial data, and undertakes community fisheries subsistence studies that are temporally and spatially intermittent. At the regional level, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA, Alaska) do not report on either of these fisheries, as they take place within state waters. The Sea Around Us Project, at the University of British Columbia’s Fisheries Centre, undertakes catch reconstructions to account for discrepancies between globally reported and likely total catches. Our catch reconstruction includes both subsistence and commercial fisheries of marine and anadromous species from 1950-2006 for 15 coastal and near-coastal communities in arctic Alaska. Total catches over this time period were estimated to be 89,000 tonnes (196.2 million pounds), with subsistence catches contributing 54 % (48,200 tonnes or 106.4 million pounds), and commercial catches estimated at over 40,700 tonnes (89.8 million pounds). Subsistence catches averaged 847 tonnes·year-1 (1.8 million pounds·year-1, range: 589-1,139 tonnes·year-1). It is only since the late 1980s that subsistence catches have exceeded those from the 1950s, when there was a higher reliance on fisheries resources. Despite a small increase in subsistence catches, the human population has increased from approximately 3,550 to approximately 12,650, which resulted in per capita catch rates falling from 237 kg·person-1·year-1 (523 pounds·person-1·year-1) in 1950 to 78 kg·person-1·year-1 (171 pounds·person-1·year-1) in 2006. One of the main drivers for this was the decrease in the amount of fish used for dog feed, when the snowmobile replaced the dogsled as the main form of transportation. The more holistic historical perspective of total reconstructed fisheries catches presented here is important, in view of the impacts of global climate change, given the significance of these resources for the food security of arctic peoples.  INTRODUCTION Alaskan marine fisheries in the arctic area are those that operate north of Cape Prince of Wales on the Seward Peninsula (Figure 1). This area falls within the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization’s (FAO) Statistical Area 18. The National Marine Fisheries Service’s Alaska branch (NMFSAlaska) does not report on these fisheries, because they take place within state waters. At the federal level, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS-National) reports on Alaska’s fisheries, but they do not include catches taken in the arctic. As a consequence, the United States currently reports zero catches to FAO for the arctic area. The state agency, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G), has collected time series of commercial data and has also undertaken community subsistence studies that are intermittent in space and time. However, no complete time series of total marine catch estimates exist for the arctic coast of Alaska. Here, we present reconstructed estimates of total commercial and subsistence catches taken by the 15 coastal and near-coastal communities in Alaska’s arctic waters that form part of FAO Statistical Area 18 for the years 1950 to 2006. Fisheries in 1950 were under the mandate of the US federal government. However, driven in part by the desire of Alaskans to have control over their salmon resources, statehood was achieved in 1959. At this point, the State of Alaska took control of its own fisheries management. With the implementation of the Magnuson-Stevens Act in 1976, the federal government gained responsibility for fisheries taking place from 3-200 nautical miles from shore and the state retained responsibility for the fisheries occurring within 3 nm of the coast. After Alaska gained statehood, its subsistence use of fish and wildlife was given priority over all other uses. However, in subsequent years the Alaska Board of Fisheries and Game created 1 Cite as: Booth, S. and Zeller, D. (2008) Marine fisheries in arctic Alaska. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 16(9). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727].  Marine fisheries catches in arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  3  a rural subsistence priority, which was later ruled to be in violation of the state’s constitution, and thus subsistence use and personal use fisheries are currently given priority. In 1999, the federal government also extended its jurisdiction to include fisheries on all public lands and waters under the Federal Subsistence Management Program (Woodby et al., 2005).  Human populatio Human population (x 103)  The people of arctic communities have always relied on the Arctic Ocean for a large part of their sustenance. The area is sparsely populated, and the 15 communities represented in this study (Wales, Shishmaref, Deering, Buckland, Selawik, Kotzebue, Noatak, Kivalina, Point Hope, Point Lay, Wainwright, Barrow, Atqasuk, Nuiqsut, and Kaktovik) have an estimated total population of over 12,000 that grew at an average annual rate of 5.2 % per year from 1950 to 2000. The total population has since been slightly decreasing (Figure 2). Two communities, Atqasuk and Nuiqsut, were founded in the 1970s by people moving from existing communities to traditional lands. These 15 communities form part of three Alaska Native Regional Corporations—the Bering Straits Native Corporation (Wales and Shishmaref), NANA Regional Corporation (Deering, Buckland, Figure 1. The U.S. State of Alaska, showing the 200 nm Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Selawik, Kotzebue, and southern boundary of FAO Statistical Area 18 (Arctic). Indicated also are the arctic Noatak, and communities of 1) Wales, 2) Shishmaref, 3) Deering, 4) Buckland, 5) Selawik, 6) Kivalina) and the Kotzebue, 7) Noatak, 8) Kivalina, 9) Point Hope, 10) Point Lay, 11) Wainwright, 12) Arctic Slope Regional Barrow, 13) Atqasuk, 14) Nuiqsut and 15) Kaktovik. Corporation (Point Hope, Point Lay, Wainwright, Barrow, Atqasuk, Nuiqsut, and Kaktovik). Marine commercial fisheries are important in Kotzebue Sound, with chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) the most important component of the catch, while marine subsistence fisheries 14 are an important component throughout the 12 area, and target a variety of species including chum salmon, whitefish (Coregonidae) and 10 Dolly varden (Salvelinus malma). 8 6 4 2 0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure 2. Human population for the 15 communities of arctic Alaska 1950-2006. Solid circles indicate census data taken from the website of the Division of Commerce, Community and Economic Development’s website (www.dced.state.ak.us/). Intervening years are linearly interpolated. For individual community information, see Appendix 3.  The coastal communities in arctic Alaska have relied on a mixed economy since the late 19th century, when American government and business expanded into the territory and developed commercial industries (Wolfe, 2004). Whaling, reindeer herding, and furtrapping were important early contributors. After World War Two, the building of military stations (e.g., the DEW line) also provided the opportunity for people to earn wages. More recently, the discovery of oil on the North Slope in 1968 has enabled people to participate in a  4  Marine fisheries catches in arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  mixed economy with the cash income helping some maintain a subsistence lifestyle. Since the mid-1960s, people have also largely replaced the dog sled with motorized transport (see also Booth and Watts, 2007, for the Canadian arctic). Furthermore, the development of oil fields has had effects on some animal populations, including Bowhead whales and caribou (National Research Council, 2003).  MATERIALS AND METHODS Time series estimates of commercial catches were taken mainly from the 2004 and 2005 Annual Management Reports (Kohler et al., 2005; Banducci et al., 2007), with additional unreported catches being estimated (see ‘Commercial fisheries data’ below). The Annual Management Reports detail the catch in numbers of individuals taken and average weights that were used to convert numbers of fish to round weight. A time series average for weight was used to estimate the weight of the catch in years when the report did not detail average weights. Arctic cisco taken in the Colville River fishery were assigned an average weight of 1 pound (0.45 kg; Daigneault and Reiser, 2007). Estimates of subsistence catches were taken from a variety of sources (see ‘Subsistence fisheries data’ below) and were expanded using a range of approaches to incorporate communities and years when no data were available. Subsistence catches in Alaska are often reported in terms of edible weight. If the edible weight to round weight conversion factors were not given, a standard conversion factor of 1.3 was used (i.e., round weight * 0.75 = edible weight; Anonymous, 2001)  Human population data The Alaska Department of Commerce, Community and Economic Development maintains the Alaska community database that provides population data for the first year of every decade (www.dced.state.ak.us), as well as estimates for 2005 and 2006. To estimate the population for each community and year, linear interpolations were performed between years of reported data. For Point Lay (the above data source did not report population for this community between 1940 and 1980), we used Point Lay Biographies (Impact Assessment Inc., 1989) to estimate the population between 1950 and 1980. Total population for the 15 arctic communities grew from approximately 3,550 in 1950 to 13,000 in 2000 at an average rate of 5.2 % per year, before declining to about 12,650 in 2006 (Figure 2).  Commercial fisheries data Administratively, commercial fisheries for this area take place in the Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim region. This region encompasses the drainages of the Kuskokwim, the Yukon and Colville Rivers, and includes both Norton Sound and Kotzebue Sound. However, the areas of the region that coincide with FAO Statistical Area 18 are Kotzebue Sound and the northern district of the Yukon-Northern area. Within these two areas, there are few commercial fishing opportunities, although a fishery that mainly targets chum salmon takes place in Kotzebue Sound, while another fishery in the Colville Delta targets whitefish. The commercial fishery for chum salmon in Kotzebue Sound is stated to have officially started in 1962 and the Colville River fishery officially commenced in 1967. Commercial catches were taken from the 2005 Annual Management Report and the 2007 Kotzebue Sound salmon season summary (Banducci et al., 2007; Menard and Kent, 2007). The commercial fishery in Kotzebue Sound for chum salmon, along with incidental takes of Dolly varden (Salvelinus malma), other species of salmon, and the fishery for sheefish (Stenodus leucichthys) is reported by the commercial fisheries department within ADF&G. Recent and historical data for these species were taken from the 2004 Annual Management Report (Kohler et al., 2005) and the 2005 Annual Management Report (Banducci et al., 2007). However, data for the commercial fishery that targets Arctic cisco largely in estuarine waters near the Colville River were taken from data supplied by Stephen Murphy (pers. comm.2). For the period 1974-1976 and 1981, unreported catches of Dolly varden were estimated using the respective average decadal catches. However, although it is reported in official documents that the commercial fishery in Kotzebue Sound started in 1962, there were local commercial fisheries taking place prior to this. The commercial fishery taking place prior to that date was an informal one, whereby local people sold their catch for dog feed to people who ran dog-sled teams, the transportation link prior to the introduction of the snowmobile (C. 2 Stephen R. Murphy, ABR, Inc. P.O. Box 80410, Fairbanks, Alaska 99708-0410, (907)-455-6777 [date information received: October 19, 2007].  Marine fisheries catches in arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  5  Lean, pers. comm.3). Similarly, Stefanich (1973) reported that commercial fisheries taking place in the Colville River prior to 1967 were taking approximately 64,000 whitefish and ciscos each year; Wilimovsky (1956) estimated that 10,000 pounds of whitefish were taken in one instance in 1952. Thus, these two commercial fisheries had unreported catches estimated for the period prior to their official reporting by ADF&G. There was also a Japanese fishery in the Chuckchi Sea beginning in 1966, with most fishing effort taking place between 66-67O N and 166-169O W, an area largely within the current boundaries of the US Exclusive Economic Zone. This fishery’s peak catches were similar to those for Kotzebue Sound, and thus, this fishery may have been intercepting large numbers of Kotzebue area chum salmon. Commercial data for the Japanese fishery are reported for 1966 and 1967 (Anonymous, 1967, 1968).  Subsistence fisheries data Here, we define subsistence fisheries as those targeting fish species that rely on marine waters as part of their life history. Thus, subsistence fisheries include both anadromous and marine fish species that are taken in marine, estuarine or freshwater environments, but exclude fish species that are solely reliant on freshwater for their life-cycle. Anadromous species including chum salmon, sheefish, whitefish and Dolly varden, and marine species, including herring (Clupea pallasii) and cod (Boreogadus saida and Eleginus gracilis), are the main species of importance. Subsistence fisheries catch data come from a variety of reports that are spatially and temporally intermittent (Table 1) and form the basis for data ‘anchor’ points (see Zeller et al., 2007). Early studies such as those by Patterson (1974) quantify fisheries catches for several communities representing an average annual catch of important species. The State of Alaska, through its Community Profiles Database (www.subsistence.adfg.state.ak.us), maintains a database on subsistence fish catch and wildlife harvests that includes fisheries data for eleven of the fifteen communities, with most information derived from household surveys. Other studies mostly focus on a given community in a given year, although it is worthy to note that Burch (1985) presents data for Kivalina for two distinct time periods (1964-1965 and 19821983). The data sources used to derive estimates of non-commercial, subsistence catches also indicated that the reported catch totals incorporated catches used for dog-feed. In order to account for catches that were not reported during these studies, yearly catches were estimated using several methods. The most common method involved interpolating between data anchor points via per capita catch rates. This method involves dividing reported catches of a year by the human population of the same year and then interpolating linearly between the per capita catch rates. Another method involved using average catches, whereby a community’s catch for reported years was divided by the number of years of reported data to derive an average catch, which was applied to other years when there were no data reported. This method was used in those cases where there was known to be large variations, including zero catches, due to ice in lagoon areas (Burch, 1985). The third method was to use the same reported catch for other years that lacked reported data; this was mostly done in carrying catches forward in time from the last reported catch amount, but was also used in some cases to carry catches backwards in time from the earliest reported catches. The two final methods involved scaling a community’s catch to either another community’s reported catch or to another species catch in the same community. Point Hope, Point Lay and Wainwright had only one reported anchor point for most species, and thus other anchor points in time were derived using reported changes for the same species in Kivalina. In Kotzebue, Dolly varden catches were estimated as a percentage of chum salmon catches, since there is some indication that higher catches of Dolly varden are associated with higher catches of chum. Chum salmon catches in Shishmaref were estimated by linearly interpolating the exploitation rate between two data anchor points (average 1971-1975 and 1989); for later years missing reported data the average exploitation rate was used. In Wales, chum catches were derived for 1971-1975 and 1989 using the reported change in catches for Shishmaref. For the intervening time periods, catches were estimated by linear interpolation of the exploitation rate. Eggers and Clark (2006) provide estimated total run sizes for Kotzebue District chum for 1962-2004. Catch data were converted into exploitation rates by dividing the number of chum salmon caught in reported years by the estimated 3 Charlie Lean, Norton Sound Fisheries Research and Development Director, P.O. Box 358, Nome, Alaska, 99762, 1-888-650-2477 [date information received: January 24, 2008].  Table 1. Sources used to construct time series anchor points of subsistence fisheries catches by taxa for 15 communities in Arctic Alaska. Community  Source  Year(s)  Common name  Atqasuk  Craig (1987) Anon. (2005b) Patterson (1974)  1983 1994 1971  Anon. (2001)  1987-1989  Raleigh 1957 in Mattson (1962) Anon. (1967) Anon. (1968) Moore (1979) Banducci et al. (2007) Mason et al. (2007) Raleigh 1957 in Mattson (1962) Patterson (1974) Sobelman (1984) Magdanz and Utermohle (1994) Anon. (2001)  1957 1967 1968 1972 1970-1975, 1979, 1981 2003 1957 1972 1974, 1975 1994 1994  Kohler et al. (2005) Banducci et al. (2007) Patterson (1974) Anon. (2001) Pedersen (2005) Raleigh 1957 in (Smith et al. 1966) Saario 1959 in (Burch, 1985) Saario and Kessel (1966) Patterson (1974) Braund & Burnham in (Burch, 1985) Burch (1985) Anon. (2001)  1994 1965-1977, 1979, 19811971 1985, 1986, 1992 2001, 2002 1957 1959 1959, 1960 1972 1982 1964, 1965, 1982, 1983 1992  Kohler et al. (2005) Banducci et al. (2007) Raleigh 1957 in (Smith et al. 1966) Anon. (1967) Anon. (1968) Patterson (1974) Georgette and Loon (1993)  1981-1984 1968-1972, 1979, 1982, 1984-1986 1957 1967 1968 1972 1986  broad whitefish, humpback whitefish, least cisco broad whitefish, chum salmon, humpback whitefish, whitefish Arctic cod, Bering cisco, broad whitefish, chum salmon, Dolly varden, humpback whitefish, least cisco, pink salmon, round whitefish, saffron cod Arctic cod, Bering cisco, broad whitefish, capelin, chum salmon, Dolly varden, humpback whitefish, least cisco, pink salmon, rainbow smelt, round whitefish, saffron cod, sculpin chum salmon chum salmon, sheefish chum salmon pink salmon, smelt, whitefish chum salmon chum salmon, smelt chum salmon Bering cisco, coho salmon, Dolly varden, least cisco, pink salmon, saffron cod chum salmon chinook salmon, coho salmon, pink salmon, sockeye salmon Arctic cod, Bering cisco, broad whitefish, Dolly varden, flounder, herring, humpback whitefish, least cisco, Pleuronectidae, round whitefish, saffron cod, sculpin, sheefish, smelt chum salmon chum salmon Arctic cisco, Dolly varden, least cisco salmon, pink salmon, saffron cod Arctic cisco, Dolly varden chum salmon, pink salmon Arctic cod, saffron cod Dolly varden, whitefish Arctic cod, chum salmon, whitefish whitefish Arctic cod, chum salmon, coho salmon, Dolly varden, pink salmon, saffron cod Arctic cod, chinook salmon, chum salmon, Dolly varden, flounder, herring, pink salmon, rainbow smelt, saffron cod, sheefish, sockeye salmon, whitefish chum salmon Dolly varden  Anon. (2001)  1991  Eggers and Clark (2006)  1962-2004  Barrow  Buckland  Deering  Kaktovik  Kivalina  Kotzebue  1981,  chum salmon sheefish sheefish chinook salmon, Dolly varden, flounder, saffron cod, sheefish, smelt Bering cisco, broad whitefish, Dolly varden, flounder, herring, humpback whitefish, least cisco, saffron cod, sculpin, sheefish, smelt Bering cisco, broad whitefish, chinook salmon, coho salmon, Dolly varden, flounder, herring, humpback whitefish, least cisco, pink salmon, Pleuronectidae, saffron cod, sheefish, smelt, sockeye salmon chum salmon  Table 1 (cont’d). Sources used to construct time series anchor points of subsistence fisheries catches by taxa for 15 communities in Arctic Alaska. Community Source Year(s) Common name Noatak  Raleigh 1957 in Mattson (1962) Anon. (1968) Patterson (1974)  1957 1968 1972  Georgette and Utermohle (2000) Georgette and Utermohle (2001) Anon. (2001)  1999 2000 1994  Georgette et al. (2003)  2002  Banducci et al. (2007) Anon. (2001)  1969-1971, 1973-1984, 1986, 1985, 1993  Point Hope  Raleigh 1957 in Smith et al. (1966) Raleigh 1957 in Mattson (1962) Foote and Williamson (1966) Patterson (1974)  1956 1957 1959, 1960 1971  Point Lay Shishmaref  Anon. (2001) Raleigh 1957 in Mattson (1962) Patterson (1974) Conger and Magdanz (1990)  1987 1957 1973 1989  Anon. (2001)  1995  Banducci et al. (2007)  Nuiqsut  Wainwright  Patterson (1974) Anon. (2001)  1967, 1968, 1971, 1972, 1974, 1975, 1995 1971 1988, 1989  Wales  Raleigh 1957 in Mattson (1962) Patterson (1974)  1957 1973  Magdanz and Utermohle (1994) Anon. (2001)  1994 1993  chum salmon chum salmon Bering cisco, broad whitefish, chum salmon, Dolly varden, humpback whitefish, least cisco, round whitefish Sheefish Bering cisco, broad whitefish, humpback whitefish, least cisco, round whitefish, sheefish Arctic cod, Bering cisco, broad whitefish, chinook salmon, chum salmon, coho salmon, Dolly varden, humpback whitefish, least cisco, round whitefish, saffron cod, sheefish, smelt Bering cisco, broad whitefish, chinook salmon, coho salmon, humpback whitefish, least cisco, pink salmon, round whitefish chum salmon, Dolly varden Arctic cisco, Arctic cod, broad whitefish, chinook salmon, chum salmon, coho salmon, Dolly varden, humpback whitefish, least cisco, pink salmon, rainbow smelt, round whitefish pink salmon chum salmon Arctic cod Arctic cod, Dolly varden, pink salmon, smelt, whitefish broad whitefish, chum salmon, Dolly varden, flounder, herring, pink salmon, smelt chum salmon broad whitefish, chum salmon, Dolly varden, flounder, herring, humpback whitefish, pink Arctic cod, broad whitefish, chum salmon, coho salmon, Dolly varden, flounder, herring, humpback whitefish, king crab, pink salmon, round whitefish, saffron cod, sculpin, smelt, sockeye salmon Arctic cod, Bering cisco, broad whitefish, chinook salmon, coho salmon, Dolly varden, flounder, herring, humpback whitefish, king crab, least cisco, pink salmon, round whitefish, saffron cod, sculpin, sheefish, smelt, sockeye salmon chum salmon chinook salmon, Dolly varden, pink salmon, smelt Bering cisco, chinook salmon, chum salmon, flounder, least cisco, pink salmon, round whitefish, saffron cod, sculpin, smelt chum salmon Arctic cod, broad whitefish, coho salmon, Dolly varden, flounder, humpback whitefish, pink salmon, round whitefish, saffron cod chinook salmon, chum salmon, coho salmon, pink salmon, sockeye salmon Arctic cod, Bering cisco, broad whitefish, chinook salmon, chum salmon, coho salmon, Dolly  8  Marine fisheries in arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  total run size of that year. Average reported weights from the commercial fishery for chum in Kotzebue Sound were used to convert the number of salmon to live weights. Detailed data and all sources used are presented in Appendix 1. Human vs. dog feed component of subsistence catches Prior to the introduction of the snowmobile in the early 1960s, dog-teams provided the main mode of transportation. The first snowmobiles were sold in Kotzebue in the early 1960s and by the winter of 196566 the first snowmobiles were brought into Noatak (Hall, 1971). Therefore, we assumed that for communities other than Kotzebue, the snowmobile was introduced in 1965 and for Kotzebue in 1963. Fish were one of the main sources of feed for the dog-teams in some communities. Abrahamson (1968) reported that a dog would need at least 2 pounds of dried fish per day over the winter. C. Lean (pers. comm.) indicated that in the past a dog would be fed half a chum salmon (approximately 4 lbs, given an average weight of 8 lbs per chum) during the winter, and during the rest of the year, they would be fed with other protein sources (e.g., caribou). Thus, we considered that, prior to the introduction of the snowmobile, each dog would be fed 4 pounds of fish each day over a 6 month period prior to the introduction of the snowmobile. Raleigh (1957, in Mattson 1962), gave estimates for the number of dogs in the 1950s in each community excluding Wainwright, Barrow, Kaktovik, Selawik and Point Lay. Estimates of the number of dogs for communities lacking data were based on the average dogs-to-people ratio for those communities that had reported data. Patterson (1974) also provided an estimate for the total number of dogs in 1972 for the NANA region, which includes communities outside the scope of this work. However, Raleigh (1957 in Mattson 1962) also provided estimates for these communities and thus, the number of dogs in 1972 for each of the communities was based on the percentage decline of total dogs between 1957 and 1972. For 1957, we assumed that each dog was fed 4 pounds of fish per day over a 6 month period. For 1972, Patterson (1974) estimated that each dog was fed 327 pounds (round weight) of fish per year. Georgette and Loon (1993) estimated the amount of fish fed to dogs for the community of Kotzebue in 1986 and estimates are also provided for Noatak in 1999 (Georgette and Utermohle, 2000) and 2000 (Georgette et al. 2001). These data were transformed into anchor points based on the amount of fish used for dog-feed (as a percentage) in relation to the total estimated fish catch. The 1957 estimate of the amount of fish used for dog-feed (as a percentage of the total estimated fish catch) was held constant until the year the snowmobile was introduced (Kotzebue 1963, all others 1965) and then scaled linearly to the 1972 estimate. For the communities that did not have any data available past the 1972 estimate, we scaled the amount of fish used for dog feed on the percentage change for Noatak because Kotzebue, as a regional centre, has a much larger population. Thus, it was possible to estimate, for each community, what percentage of catch through time was fed to dogs by linearly interpolating between anchor points. However, for some communities the estimates of fish used for dog-feed exceeded the reported catch for the anchor years of 1957 and 1972. On further investigation, it was found that these communities relied far less on fish as a protein source and relied more heavily upon land or marine mammals. Estimates of total protein availability for each community were based on the report of Patterson (1974), who provided estimates on the weight of caribou, deer/reindeer, moose, seals, walrus, beluga, bowhead whales and birds taken in each community. The estimated amount of fish caught was added to these amounts and a percentage contribution to the available protein by fish was determined. The communities of Wales, Shishmaref, Point Hope and Kaktovik were found to have a negative balance, and they also had fish contributing less than 15 % to their protein availability, and therefore we assumed that they did not rely heavily on fish for dog-feed. Therefore, we were also able to determine that the communities of Wainwright and Barrow, which were missing information on the number of dogs, were not heavily dependent on fish as dog-feed because they had fish contributing 3 % and 5 %, respectively to their total protein availability. No data were available for Point Lay, quantifying the number of dogs or contributions to protein availability, although the community is known for its beluga harvest (B. White, pers. comm.4); therefore it was assumed that fish were not relied upon for dog-feed for the following communities: Barrow, Kaktovik, Point Hope, Point Lay, Shishmaref, Wainwright, and Wales. Thus, for each community that was reliant upon fish for dog-feed (Deering, Buckland, Kotzebue, Noatak, 4 Bruce Wright, Senior scientist, Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association, 1131 East International Airport Rd., Anchorage Alaska 99518, (907)-276-2700 [date information received: January 24, 2008].  Marine fisheries in arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  9  Kivalina and Selawik) we were able to determine through time what percent of the estimated catch was used for dog-feed. For the communities of Atqasuk and Nuiqsut, that were established on traditional lands in the 1970s, the average percentage (excluding Kotzebue) was used to determine what proportion of fish was used for dog-feed in the first year that people re-settled traditional lands and the decline was based on changes represented by the community of Noatak. Although Deering in 1957 had a positive protein availability balance, the protein availability balance was negative in 1972, and therefore the change in the amount of fish fed to dogs was based on the average percent decline for the other communities, excluding Kotzebue.  RESULTS Total catch time series Prior to 1962, when commercial fisheries were part of the informal economy, total estimated catches averaged approximately 1,230 t·year-1 (2.7 million lbs·year-1; 1950-1961), with the informal commercial sector accounting for on average 31 % of the yearly catch (Figure 3). For the first years when the commercial fishery was considered to be part of the formal economy (1962-1969), total catches were estimated to average approximately 1,080 t·year-1 (2.4 million lbs·year-1). From 1970-1989, there were two peak periods of catches, 1974-1975 with catches of 3,178 and 2,909 tonnes (7.0 and 6.4 million lbs) respectively, and then in 1981-1982 with catches of 3,529 and 2,609 tonnes (7.8 and 5.8 million lbs), respectively. Catches for 1970-1989 averaged approximately 1,981 t·year-1 (4.4 million lbs·year-1). During the 1990s, catches averaged approximately 1,651 t·year-1 (3.6 million lbs·year-1) and in the early 2000s estimated total catches had declined to 1,355 t·year-1 (3.0 million lbs·year-1; Figure 3).  a)  4,000 3,500  Catch (t)  3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000  Commercial Subsistence  500 0 1950 1,200  b)  1960  1970  1980 Year  1,000  1990  2000  Total commercial and subsistence catches over the time period considered here amount to approximately 89,000 tonnes (196 million lbs). The most important species is chum salmon, which accounts on average for 55 % of the total yearly catch. The whitefish complex (whitefish + ciscos) is the next most important taxon, accounting for on average 21%, while sheefish and Dolly varden account for 12 % and 8 % of the total yearly catch, respectively (Figure 4).  Subsistence catches  Catch (t)  Subsistence catches account for approximately 54 % of the estimated 600 total catches (Figure 3a). From 1950Human component 1965, prior to the Japanese high seas 400 fleet fishing in the Chuckchi Sea, 200 Dog component subsistence catches averaged 850 t·year-1 (1.9 million lbs·year-1), but declined to 0 around 685 t·year-1 (1.5 million lbs·year1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 1) from 1966-1979. Catches increased to Year average 791 t·year-1 (1.7 million lbs·yearFigure 3. a) Estimated total marine and anadromous fisheries 1) during the 1980s and it was only since catches (excluding marine mammals) by fishing sector for 15 the late 1980s that subsistence catches coastal and near-coastal communities of Arctic Alaska, and b) have consistently surpassed catches from breakdown of subsistence catch into estimated amounts destined the 1950-1966 time period. Since 1990, for human consumption and for dog-feed. subsistence catches have averaged 1,000 t·year-1. Despite increases in subsistence catches, subsistence per capita catch rates have declined from 237.0 kg·person-1 (522.6 lbs·person-1) in 1950 to 77.8 kg·person-1 (171.5 lbs·person-1) in 2006. The sharpest drop in subsistence per capita catch rates came from 1950-1971, with an estimated decline of approximately 60 %. Between the 1950s and 1990s, there has been a 2.4-fold drop in subsistence per capita catch rates (Figure 5). 800  Marine fisheries in arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  10  Catch (t)  a)  3,000  Use of fish for dog-feed  2,500  For the eight communities that we determined were reliant on fish for dog-feed, the percentage of fish for dog-feed accounted for 58 % of the catch total in 1950 declining to 6 % in 2006. Prior to the introduction of the snowmobile (1950-1962), it was estimated that the amount of fish fed to dogs averaged 459 t·year-1 (1 million lbs·year-1). From 1963 to 1975, the amount of fish required for feed dropped from an estimated 387 t·year-1 (843,000 lbs·year-1) to 82 t·year-1 (181,000 lbs·year-1) or from 56 to 14 % of the estimated total subsistence catches for the eight communities. Since 1976, catches for dog-feed have averaged 65 t·year-1 (143,000 lbs·year-1) and have declined from 13 % to 6 % of total catches (Figure 4).  2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 1950 1,000  Chum salmon 1960  1970  b) 800 Catch (t)  Dolly varden  1980  1990  2000 Others Herring  Year Cod Other salmon  600 400  Sheefish  200  Whitefish  0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Commercial catches  Year Figure 4. Taxonomic distribution of fisheries catches for the 15 coastal communities of arctic Alaska (by common names, marine mammals excluded) for 1950-2006 for a) chum salmon; and b) all other species. Note the difference in scale between the two panels. Whitefish includes both ciscos and whitefish; pink, coho, chinook, and sockeye salmon comprise the group ‘Other salmon’; Cod includes both Arctic cod and saffron cod; while capelin, king crab, flounder and other Pleuronectidae, rainbow smelt, smelt and sculpin comprise the group ‘Others’. See Appendix 2 for all common, local and scientific names.  Commercial fisheries that were part of the informal economy from 1950-1961 were estimated at 382 t·year-1 (842,000 lbs·year-1). Commercial fisheries catches in 1962 were estimated at 553 tonnes (1.2 million lbs), but did not reach that level again until 1970. From 1963-1969 commercial catches averaged 249 t·year-1 (548,000 lbs·year-1); during the 1970s reported catches averaged 1,097 t·year-1 (2.4 -1 -1 million lbs·year ), rising to around 1,408 t·year (3.1 million lbs·year-1) in the 1980s, before declining in the 1990s to average 621 t·year-1 (1.4 million lbs·year-1). In 2000-2001, catches averaged 732 t·year-1 (1.6 million lbs·year-1), but due to market conditions recent commercial catches have been low, averaging 226 t·year-1 (497,000 lbs·year-1) from 2002-2006. Chum salmon are the main contributors to the commercial catch totals accounting for an average of 93 % of total commercial catches. Peak years for chum occur every 3 to 4 years (Figure 4).  DISCUSSION -1·year-1) Per cap (kg·person  Catch rate  250 200 150 100 50 0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure 5. Estimated subsistence per capita catch rates (total catches/total human population) for arctic Alaska, 1950-2006 for 15 communities.  The data presented here are estimates of fisheries catches for species that spend at least a portion of their life-cycle in marine waters (excluding marine mammals) taken from 1950-2006 by 15 coastal and nearcoastal communities in arctic Alaska. The data estimated here more likely represent total catches than those presented by reporting agencies, and may serve as baseline data for this area, which is also lacking adequate baseline data for marine mammals (Hovelsrud et al., 2008). Furthermore, it may also be wise to heed the call for a ban on commercial fishing in this area to prevent fishing fleets from expanding into this area  Marine fisheries in arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  11  as the ice recedes (Biello, 2008). This would also allow the local people to maintain food security in the face of climate change and a changing ecosystem; the loss of resources that the people have always relied on would have dramatic effects on the culture of the people. Although the state agency, the ADF&G, reports on both fishery sectors, these data do not make it to either the national (NMFS) or international (FAO) organizations. A catch-reporting system more transparent to the public, including data transfer information between the state, regional, national, and international agencies is needed so stakeholders can more easily access and understand data and their limitations for policy and decision-making processes. Having a baseline of information available on total fisheries catches is also important in light of global warming, and impacts from ongoing developments. Commercial catches have been in decline since peaking in the early 1980s. However, the drop since 2000 is due to a limited market situation (one buyer only), and subsistence catches have increased during this time. However, the increase in subsistence catches is small compared to the growth in human population, thus resulting in a declining per capita subsistence catch rate and hence per capita supply. There has been a 3.3 fold decline in subsistence per capita rates from the 1950s to 2006. This value is much lower than that for the Canadian arctic, where subsistence per capita rates in coastal communities in the Inuvialuit region dropped approximately 15 fold between 1950 and 2001 (Booth and Watts, 2007). The difference is due to the higher reliance on fish for dog-feed in the Mackenzie Delta area, where it was reported that catches of marine and anadromous fishes were approximately 4 times higher in 1960 compared to the data source study years, 1988-1997 (Usher, 2002). Although it appears that the commercial fisheries are well-monitored, a more regular, systematic survey method would lead to a better understanding of subsistence fisheries. It is interesting that the commercial fishery sector appears to report all catches. However, it is the subsistence use, which is given priority in the state constitution, which seems to be lacking consistent, detailed and comprehensive data. A subsistence survey design incorporating each community in a specified time interval, with abundance indices for species in non-survey years would assist in clarifying actual subsistence catches. Specific attention to all salmon species would also benefit the efforts to track global warming effects, since species’ distributions will be affected. Coho salmon in Norton Sound have been increasing in abundance over the last two decades, but tracking similar changes in areas further north is currently difficult since salmon species, besides chum, are often described as ‘other’ salmon in reports. However, it should be noted that chinook salmon do appear to have extended their historical distributions northwards because they have been appearing in Barrow since the mid-1990s and there is no local Inupiaq name for them (C. George, pers. comm.5). Previously, the furthest reported extent of this species was Wainwright. The data anchor points used here are from a variety of sources. These sources may not have scaled up catches to a community level, and thus our estimates may be missing data. This is because early reported catches may be observed amounts, whereas later reports are based mainly on a household survey method, which includes estimates for non-reporting households. However, these anchor points do allow an assessment of more likely catches for the years when no data have been collected at all. The estimates of catches presented here are likely conservative, since no marine catches have been estimated for inland communities that may still have summer camps for fishing near marine waters or that fish for anadromous species further inland.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank Jim Menard, Jim Magdanz and Jim Simon of ADG&G, Stephen Murphy of ABR, Inc. and Bill Wilson, North Pacific Fishery Management Council, for providing us with additional data and insights. We would also like to thank Oceana, and especially Susan Murray and Jonathan Warrenchuk, for local and logistic support, assistance and active contributions to this work and to the associated data workshop conducted in Anchorage, Alaska on 24th of January, 2008. This project has been funded by the Lenfest Ocean Program and forms part of the Sea Around Us Project, funded by the Pew Charitable Trusts, Philadelphia, and located at the Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia.  Craig George, Division of Wildlife Management, North Slope Borough, P.O. Box 69, Barrow, Alaska 99723, (907)-852-2611 [date information received: January 24, 2008].  5  Marine fisheries in arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  12  REFERENCES Abrahamson, J.D. (1968) Westward Alaska: The native economy and its resource base. United States Federal Field Committee for Development Planning in Alaska. Anchorage, Alaska, vii + 184 p. Anonymous (1967) 1967 Annual Report, Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim area. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Commercial Fisheries, Anchorage, Alaska, 123 p. Anonymous (1968) 1968 Annual Report, Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim area. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Commercial Fisheries, Anchorage, Alaska, 110 p. Anonymous (2001) Community Profiles Database. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Anchorage. Available at: www.subsistence.adfg.state.ak.us/geninfo/publctns/cpdb.cfm [Accessed: October 15, 2007]. Anonymous (2004) Remedial investigation/feasibility study report for sites LF001. ST003, and LF002. Anchorage, Alaska, 289 p. Available at: http://hoeflernet.com/uploads/oliktok_final.pdf [Accessed February 23, 2008]. Anonymous (2005a) Fish and Wildlife of Alaska's North Slope: Fisheries. ConocoPhillips, Anchorage, Alaska. 4 p. Available at: www.conocophillipsalaska.com/environmental/Fisheries%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf [Accessed: February 15, 2008]. Anonymous (2005b) Northeast National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska: Final amended integrated activity plan/environmental impact statement. Bureau of Land Management, Anchorage, Alaska, 1698 p. Anonymous (2007) Northeast national petroleum reserve-Alaska (NPR-A) draft supplemental integrated plan/environmental impact statement (IAP/EIS). Bureau of Land Management, Anchorage, Alaska, 1698 p.  activity  Banducci, A., Kohler, T., Soong, J. and Menard, J. (2007) 2005 Annual Management Report: Norton Sound, Port Clarence, and Kotzebue. Fishery Management Report No. 07-32, Department of Fish and Game, Division of Commercial Fisheries, Anchorage, Alaska, vii + 194 p. Biello,  D. (2008) Preserving Arctic fisheries before harvesting them. Scientific American. Available www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=preserving-arctic-fisheries-before-harvesting-them [Accessed: May 5, 2008].  at:  Booth, S. and Watts, P. (2007) Canada's arctic marine fish catches. p. 3-15 In: Zeller, D. and Pauly, D., (eds.), Reconstruction of marine fisheries catches for key countries and regions (1950-2005).Fisheries Centre Research Report 15(2). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia. Burch, E.S. (1985) Subsistence production in Kivalina, Alaska: A twenty-year perspective. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Juneau, Alaska, xii + 341 p. Conger, A.O. and Magdanz, J. (1990) The harvest of fish and wildlife in three Alaska communities: Brevig Mission, Golovin and Shishmaref. Technical Paper No. 188, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Juneau, Alaska, viii + 77 p. Craig, P.C. (1987) Subsistence fisheries at coastal villages in the Alaskan arctic, 1970-1986. Minerals Management Service, Alaska Outer Continental Shelf Region, Leasing and Environment Office, Springfield, Virginia, iii + 63 p. Daigneault, M.J. and Reiser, C. (2007) Colville River fall fishery monitoring. Unpublished report prepared by LGL Alaska Research Associates, Inc. for ConocoPhillips, Anchorage, Alaska, 42 p. Eggers, D.M. and Clark, J.H. (2006) Assessment of historical runs and escapement goals for Kotzebue area chum salmon. Fishery Manuscript No. 06-01, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Anchorage, Alaska, 45 p. Foote, D.C. and Williamson, H.A. (1966) A human geographical study. p. 1041-1107 In: Wilimovsky, N.J. and Wolfe, J.N., (eds.), Environment of the Cape Thompson region, Alaska. United States Atomic Energy Commission Division of Technical Information, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Georgette, S., Caylor, D. and Tahbone, S. (2003) Subsistence salmon harvest summary Northwest Alaska 2002. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, and Kawerak, Inc., Kotzebue, Alaska, 44 p. Georgette, S. and Loon, H. (1993) Subsistence use of fish and wildlife in Kotzebue, a Northwest Alaska Regional Centre Technical Paper No. 167, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Juneau, Alaska, ix + 211 p. Georgette, S. and Utermohle, C. (2000) Subsistence salmon harvest summary Northwest Alaska 1999. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Kotzebue, Alaska, 35 p. Georgette, S. and Utermohle, C. (2001) Subsistence salmon harvest summary Northwest Alaska 2000. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Kotzebue, Alaska, 46 p. Hall, E.S. (1971) The "Iron Dog" in northern Alaska. Anthropologica 13: 237-254. Hovelsrud, G.K., McKenna, M. and Huntington, H.P. (2008) Marine mammal harvests and other interactions with humans. Ecological Applications 18: S135-S147. Impact Assessment Inc. (1989) Point Lay Biographies. OCS Study MMS 89-0094, La Jolla, California, 149 p. Kohler, T., Banducci, A., Soong, J. and Menard, J. (2005) Annual Management Report 2004: Norton Sound, Port Clarence, Kotzebue. Regional Information Report No. 3A05-04, Department of Fish and Game, Division of Commercial Fisheries, Anchorage, Alaska, xii + 171 p. Magdanz, J. and Utermohle, C. (1994) The subsistence salmon fishery in the Norton Sound, Port Clarence and Kotzebue Districts, 1994. Technical Paper No. 237, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Juneau, Alaska, vi + 63 p. Mason, R., Magdanz, J. and Craver, A. (2007) Subsistence Production and Family Networks in Buckland, Alaska. University of Washington. 10 p. Available at: www.cfr.washington.edu/research.cesu/newsletters/PNWCV_Summer2007.pdf [Accessed: February 27, 2008] Mattson, C.R. (1962) Chum salmon resources of Alaska from Bristol Bay to Point Hope. United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C., iii + 22 p.  Marine fisheries in arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  13  Menard, J. and Kent, S. (2007) 2007 Kotzebue Sound salmon season summary. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Commercial Fisheries, Nome, Alaska, 4 p. Moore, G.D. (1979) Issue Background: Buckland Food Shortage. Technical Paper Number 7, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Kotzebue, Alaska, ii + 16 p. National Research Council (2003) Cumulative environmental effects of oil and gas activities on Alaska's North Slope. The National Academy Press, Washington, xiii + 288 p. Patterson, A. (1974) Subsistence harvests in five native regions. The Joint Federal-State Land Use Planning Commission for Alaska, Resource Planning Team, Anchorage, Alaska, 48 p. Pedersen, S. and Alfred, L., Jr. (2005) Kaktovik 2000-2002 Subsistence Fishery Harvest Assessment. Alaska Department of Fish and Game Kaktovik, and Inupiat Corporation, Fairbanks, Alaska, viii + 58 p. Saario, D.J. and Kessel, B. (1966) Human ecological investigations at Kivalina. p. 969-1039 In: Wilimovsky, N.J. and Wolfe, J.N., (eds.), Environment of the Cape Thompson region, Alaska. United States Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Technical Information, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Smith, H.D., Seymour, A.H. and Donaldson, L.R. (1966) The Salmon Resource. p. 861-876 In Willimovsky, N.J. and Wolfe, J.N., (eds.), Environment of the Cape Thompson Regions, Alaska. United States Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Technical Information, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Sobelman, S. (1984) Background paper on subsistence salmon fishery, Inmachuk River, Deering. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Fairbanks, Alaska, 12 p. Stefanich, F. (1973) Resources inventory Arctic Region: Fisheries resources, preliminary draft. Joint Federal-State Land Use Planning Commission, Anchorage, Alaska, 8 p. Usher, P.J. (2002) Inuvialuit use of the Beaufort Sea and its resources, 1960-2000. Arctic 55: 18-28. Wilimovsky, N.J. (1956) The utilization of fishery resources by the Arctic Alaskan Eskimo. Occasional Papers of the Natural History Museum of Stanford University 2: 1-8. Wolfe, R.J. (2004) Local traditions and subsistence: A synopsis from twenty-five years of research by the State of Alaska. Technical Paper No. 284, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Juneau, Alaska, v + 81 p. Woodby, D., Carlile, D., Siddeek, S., Funk, F., Clark, J.H. and Hulbert, L. (2005) Commercial fisheries of Alaska. Department of Fish and Game Special Publication No. 05-09, Anchorage, Alaska, iv + 66 p. Zeller, D., Booth, S., Davis, G. and Pauly, D. (2007) Re-estimation of small-scale fisheries catches for U.S. flag island areas in the Western Pacific: The last 50 years. Fisheries Bulletin 105:266-277.  14  Marine fisheries in arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  APPENDIX 1: METHODS OF EXPANSION AND ANCHOR POINTS Anchor points of reported catch were determined from the indicated references and are identified as ‘Source’. Anchor points are all presented in pounds (lbs), and a conversion factor of 0.4536 was used to convert pounds to kilograms. Methods of expansion include the manner in which interpolations were done between anchor points, and are as follows: Derived anchor from another community: this method used information from another community to scale catches for the present community. For example, Atqasuk had catches of Broad whitefish scaled to the catch changes noted in Barrow from 1983 to 1977 to derive a catch anchor for the first year of catches in Atqasuk. Avg taxa % * total catch: this method involved using the interpolated catch value for a community and in order to derive taxonomic entities, the reported taxa amount for anchor years was summed and an average taxonomic percentage was calculated. This taxonomic percentage was applied to all years that had interpolated catch data to derive catch by species. (Year) catch: this method used the stated catch for other years when there were no anchor points. Pop * per cap scaled: this method accounts for scaling a per capita rate between two anchor points. Catch data were first transformed into per capita rates (catch/human population) and then linearly interpolated between anchor years. The per capita rate was then multiplied by the population to estimate catches. Avg catch: the reported catch over the number of years indicated that had reported data. Pop * avg per cap: reported catch data were transformed into per capita rates and an average per capita rate was calculated to use in conjunction with the population data to estimate catches. Proportion of a species: this method was used in some cases where the taxonomic entities were not well defined or reported through time inconsistently; largely a problem with the whitefish/cisco complex. In these cases, the taxonomic entities were pooled across years, and one taxon’s catch was based as a proportion of another. For example, reported data for Kaktovik included whitefish in 1971; cisco in 1985 & 1986; Bering, least and, Arctic cisco in 1992; and only Arctic cisco was reported in 2001 & 2002. Knowing that historically the main fishery is for Arctic cisco and that some least cisco are caught incidentally , the catch of least cisco was estimated as a proportion of the catch of Arctic cisco based on the year 1992, when there is full taxonomic accounting. Raised anchor’s avg catch: this involved raising the calculated average catch of one species to account for the average weight of a single fish and was used for sockeye salmon in Noatak. The average catch for the reported years (2.6 lbs) was less than a single individual (5 lbs) and thus this value was raised to account for the average weight of a single sockeye salmon in non-anchor years. Scaled to changes presented in (source): reported catch totals (anchor points) were scaled to catch data presented in the source document, which presented a time series of subsistence data. Scaled as proportion of another community’s catches: One community’s catches were scaled as a proportion of another community’s catches for the same taxon; used to scale Selawik’s catches of chum salmon and Dolly varden to Kotzebue. Scaled via exploitation rate: total run size (by number) of chum salmon was estimated for Kotzebue area chum salmon by Eggers and Clark (2006). Thus, it was possible to calculate an exploitation rate (number salmon taken/total run size) for anchor years. For periods of no data, catches were estimated by linearly interpolating between exploitation rates and multiplying by the total run size.  Table A1.1. Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Atqasuk. Community  Common name  Year(s)  Method  Reported catch (lbs)  Atqasuk  broad whitefish  1977 1978-1982 1983 1984-1993 1994 1995-2006 1977 1978-1982 1983 1984-1993 1994 1995-2006 1977 1978-1982 1983 1984-1993 1994 1995-2006 1977 1978-1982 1983 1984-1993 1994 1995-2006 1977 1978-1982 1983 1984-1993 1994 1995-2006  Derived anchor from Barrow Avg taxa % * total catch Anchor Avg taxa % * total catch Anchor Avg taxa % * total catch Derived anchor from Barrow Avg taxa % * total catch Anchor Avg taxa % * total catch Anchor Avg taxa % * total catch Derived anchor from Barrow Avg taxa % * total catch Anchor Avg taxa % * total catch Anchor Avg taxa % * total catch Derived anchor from Barrow Avg taxa % * total catch Anchor Avg taxa % * total catch Anchor Avg taxa % * total catch Derived anchor from Barrow Avg taxa % * total catch Anchor Avg taxa % * total catch Anchor Avg taxa % * total catch  1,502  chum salmon  humpback whitefish  least cisco  whitefish  Source  190  Craig (1987)  3,423  Anon. (2005b)  47 0  Craig (1987)  113  Anon. (2005)  2,371 4,795  Craig (1987)  911  Anon. (2005)  1,697 4,083  Craig (1987)  0  Anon. (2005)  2,199 0  Craig (1987)  5,292  Anon. (2005)  Table A1.2. Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Barrow. Community  Common name  Year(s)  Method  Barrow  chum salmon  1950-1970 1971 1972-1988 1989 1990-2006 1950-1986 1987-1989 1990-2006 1950-1986 1987-1989 1990-2006 1950-1986 1987-1989 1990-2006 1950-1970 1971 1972-1986 1987-1989 1990-2006 1950-1970 1971 1972-1988 1989 1990-2006 1950-1970 1971 1972-1986 1987-1989 1990-2006 1950-1970 1971 1972-1986 1987-1989 1990-2006 1950-1970 1971 1972-1986 1987-1989 1990-2006  1971 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1989 catch Avg catch (’87-’89) Anchors Pop * avg per cap Avg catch (’87-’89) Anchors Avg catch (’87-’89) Avg catch (’87-’89) Anchors Avg catch (’87-’89) 1971 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Avg catch (’87-’89) 1971 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchors 1989 catch 1971 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Pop * avg per cap (’87-’89) 1971 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Avg catch (’87-’89) 1971 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Avg catch (’87-’89)  capelin  rainbow smelt  sculpin  Dolly varden  pink salmon  saffron cod  Arctic cod  round whitefish  Reported catch (lbs)  Source  4,500  Patterson (1974)  14,941  Anon. (2001)  1,056; 0; 92  Anon. (2001)  25; 0; 237  Anon. (2001)  0; 9; 0  Anon. (2001)  600  Patterson (1974)  126; 256; 452  Anon. (2001)  500  Patterson (1974)  1,384  Anon. (2001)  625  Patterson (1974)  0; 259; 0  Anon. (2001)  394  Patterson (1974)  0; 2,119; 4,539  Anon. (2001)  1,403  Patterson (1974)  3,534; 970; 21  Anon. (2001)  Table A1.2 (cont’d). Community  Common name  Year(s)  Method  Barrow (cont’d)  humpback whitefish  1950-1970 1971 1972-1986 1987-1989 1990-2006 1950-1970 1971 1972-1986 1987-1989 1990-2006 1950-1970 1971 1972-1986 1987-1989 1990-2006 1950-1970 1971 1972-1986 1987-1989 1990-2006  1971 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Avg catch (’87-’89) 1971 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Avg catch (’87-’89) 1971 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Avg catch (’87-’89) 1971 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Avg catch (’87-’89)  broad whitefish  Bering cisco  least cisco  Reported catch (lbs)  Source  4,289  Patterson (1974) Anon. (2001)  5,102; 2,178; 12,159 45,243  Patterson (1974)  45,825; 39,576; 105,228  Anon. (2001)  890  Patterson (1974)  2,180; 203; 1,884  Anon. (2001)  5,360  Patterson (1974)  11,697; 10,095; 3,905  Anon. (2001)  Table A1.3. Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Buckland. Community  Common name  Year(s)  Method  Buckland  chum salmon  1950-1956 1957 1958-1966 1967-1968 1969 1970-1975 1976-1978 1979 1980 1981 1982-2002 2003 2004-2006 1950-1971 1972 1973-2002 2003 2004-2006 1950-1966 1967 1968-2006 1950-1971 1972 1973-2006 1950-1971 1972 1973-2006  1957 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled to avg (’67, ’68, ’70-’75) Anchor Avg per cap (’67, ’68, ’70-’75) Anchors 1970’s anchors avg per cap Anchor Avg per cap (’70-’75, ‘81) Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 2003 catch 1972 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 2003 catch Pop * 1967 per cap Anchor 1967 catch Pop * 1972 per cap Anchor 1972 catch Pop * 1973 per cap Anchor 1972 catch  smelt  sheefish  pink salmon  whitefish  Reported catch (lbs)  Source  98,900  Mattson (1962)  1,507; 359  Anon. (1967, 1968)  Range: 533-15,670  Banducci et al.( 2007)  8,800  Banducci et al. (2007)  455  Banducci et al. (2007)  33,042  Mason et al. (2007)  9,333  Moore (1979)  15,250  Mason et al. (2007)  46,566  Anon. (1967)  240  Moore (1979)  2,000  Moore (1979)  Table A1.4. Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Deering. Community  Common name  Year(s)  Method  Deering  chum salmon  1950-1956 1957 1958-1964 1965-1977 1978 1979 1980 1981-1985 1986-1993 1994 1995-2006 1950-1993 1994 catch 1995-2006 1950-1993 1994 catch 1995-2006 1994 1995-2006 1950-1993 1994 1995-2006 1950-1993 1994 1995-2006 1950-1993 1994 1995-2006 1950-1993 1994 1995-2006 1950-1993 1994 1995-2006 1950-1971 1972 1973-1993 1994 1995-2006  1957 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Avg catch (’70-’77) Anchor Avg catch (’81-’83) Anchors Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1994 catch 1994 catch Anchor 1994 catch 1994 catch Anchor 1994 catch Anchor 1994 catch Pop * per cap (’94) Anchor Pop * per cap (’94) Pop * per cap (’94) Anchor Pop * per cap (’94) Pop * per cap (’94) Anchor Pop * per cap (’94) Pop * per cap (’94) Anchor Pop * per cap (’94) Pop * per cap (’94) Anchor Pop * per cap (’94) Pop * avg per cap (‘72 & ’94) Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * per cap (’94)  chinook salmon  sockeye salmon Pleuronectidae1 herring  sculpin  sheefish  smelt  flounder  coho salmon  1  : originally identified as halibut  Reported catch (lbs)  Source  213,833  Mattson (1962)  Range: 3,358-63,004  Kohler et al. (2005)  17,600  Kohler et al. (2005)  Range: 2,059-15,908  Kohler et al. (2005)  26,387  Kohler et al. (2005)  560  Magdanz and Utermohle (1994)  30  Magdanz and Utermohle (1994)  5  Anon. (2001)  16  Anon. (2001)  17  Anon. (2001)  27  Anon. (2001)  4  Anon. (2001)  1  Anon. (2001)  2,000  Patterson (1974)  204  Magdanz and Utermohle (1994)  Table A1.4 (cont’d). Community  Common name  Year(s)  Method  Deering (cont’d)  Dolly varden  1950-1971 1972 1973-1993 1994 1995-2006 1950-1971 1972 1973-1983 1984 1985-1993 1994 1995-2003 2004 2005-2006 1950-1993 1994 1995-2006 1950-1993 1994 1995-2006 1950-1993 1994 1995-2006 1950-1971 1972 1973-1993 1994 1995-2006 1950-1971 1972 1973-1993 1994 1995-2006 1950-1993 1994 1995-2006 1950-1971 1972 1973-1993 1994 1995-2006  Pop * avg per cap (‘72 Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * per cap (’94) Pop * avg per cap (‘72 Anchor Pop * avg per cap (‘72 Pop * per cap (’94) Pop * avg per cap (‘72 Anchor Pop * avg per cap (‘72 Pop * per cap (’94) Pop * avg per cap (‘72 Pop * per cap (’94) Anchor Pop * per cap (’94) Pop * per cap (’94) Anchor Pop * per cap (’94) Pop * per cap (’94) Anchor Pop * per cap (’94) Pop * per cap (’72) Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1994 catch Pop * per cap (’72) Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1994 catch Pop * per cap (’94) Anchor Pop * per cap (’94) Pop * per cap (’72) Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1994 catch  pink salmon  humpback whitefish  round whitefish  broad whitefish  Bering cisco  least cisco  Arctic cod  saffron cod  & ’94)  Reported catch (lbs)  Source  333  Patterson (1974)  54,11  Anon. (2001)  267  Patterson (1974)  6,976  Magdanz and Utermohle (1994)  167  Anon. (2001)  1  Anon. (2001)  51  Anon. (2001)  659  Patterson (1974)  965  Anon. (2001)  11  Patterson (1974)  11  Anon. (2001)  5  Anon. (2001)  659  Patterson (1974)  965  Anon. (2001)  & ’94) & ’94) & ’94) & ’94) & ’94)  Table A1.5. Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Kaktovik. Community  Common name  Kaktovik  Dolly varden1  Year(s)  1950-1970 1971 1972-1984 1985-1986 1987-1991 1992 1993-2000 2001-2002 2003-2006 Arctic cisco 1950-1970 1971 1972-1984 1985-1986 1987-1991 1992 1993-2000 2001-2002 2003-2006 least cisco 1950-1970 1971 1972-1991 1992 1993-2006 pink salmon 1990-1991 1992 1993-2006 salmon 1990-1991 1992 1993-2006 Arctic cod 1950-1991 1992 1993-2006 saffron cod 1950-1991 1992 1993-2006 flounder 1950-1984 1985 1986-1991 1992 1993-2006 1: identified in sources as Arctic char until 1992 anchor  Method 1971 per cap*pop Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Avg per cap (’01-’02)*pop 1971 per cap * pop Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Pop * avg per cap (’01-’02) Proportion of Arctic cisco Anchor Proportion of Arctic cisco Anchor Proportion of Arctic cisco 1992 catch Anchor 1992 catch 1992 catch Anchor 1992 catch 1992 catch Anchor 1992 catch Pop * per cap (’92) Anchor 1992 catch 1985 catch Anchor 1985 catch Anchor 1992 catch  Reported catch (lbs)  Source  12,500  Patterson (1974)  11,481; 6,601  Anon. (2001)  20,617  Anon. (2001)  6,492; 9,891  Pedersen (2005)  2,933  Patterson (1974)  3,106; 2,105  Anon. (2001)  7,572  Anon. (2001)  1,271; 2,135  Pedersen (2005)  192  Patterson (1974)  465  Anon. (2001)  23  Anon. (2001)  117  Anon. (2001)  157  Anon. (2001)  243  Anon. (2001)  1  Anon. (2001)  1  Table A1.6. Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Kivalina. Community  Common name  Year(s)  Method  Kivalina  Dolly varden  1950-1958 1959-1960 1961-1963 1964-1965 1966-1967 1968-1972 1973-1978 1979 1980 1981-1982 1983 1984-1986 1987-1991 1992 1993-2006 1950-1955 1956-1957 1958-1963 1964-1965 1966-1971 1972 1973-1980 1981-1984 1985-1991 1992 1993-2006 1950-1981 1982-1983 1984-1991 1992 1993-2006 1950-1956 1957 1958-1981 1982-1983 1984-1991 1992 1993-2006 1950-1991 1992 1993-2006  Pop * avg per cap (’59 & ’60) Anchors Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Avg catch (’79 & ’81) Anchors Anchor Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1992 catch Pop * avg per cap (‘56&’57) Anchors Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Scaled via per cap Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Scaled via per cap Anchor Avg catch (‘84 & ‘92) Pop * avg per cap (’82 & ’83) Anchors Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1992 catch Pop * per cap avg (’57, ’82 & ’83) Anchor Pop * avg per cap scaled Anchors Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1992 catch Pop * per cap (’92) Anchor 1992 catch  chum salmon  coho salmon  pink salmon  chinook salmon  Reported catch (lbs)  Source  96,200; 112,300  Saario and Kessel (1966)  93,995; 28,140  Burch (1985)  Range: 68,518; 152,750  Banducci et al. (2007)  73,000  Banducci et al. (2007)  87,450; 127,222 68,467 Range: 50,565; 73,500  Banducci et al. (2007) Burch (1985) Banducci et al. (2007)  93,057  Anon. (2001)  4,300; 4,300  Smith et al. (1966); Mattson (1962)  1,425; 116  Burch (1985)  800  Patterson (1974)  1,001;1,953; 1,880; 1,640  Kohler et al. (2005)  5,571  Anon. (2001)  260; 40  Burch (1985)  435  Anon. (2001)  8,750  Smith et al. (1966)  4; 32  Burch (1985)  485  Anon. (2001)  171  Anon. (2001)  Table A1.6 (cont’d). Community  Common name  Year(s)  Method  Kivalina (cont’d)  sockeye salmon  1950-1991 1992 1993-2006 1950-1958 1959 1960-1963 1964-1965 1966-1971 1972 1973-1981 1982-1983 1984-1991 1992 1993-2006 1950-1958 1959 1960-1963 1964-1965 1966-1971 1972 1973-1981 1982-1983 1984-1991 1992 1993-2006 1950-1958 1959-1960 1961-1971 1972 1973-1981 1982 1983-1991 1992 1993-2006 1950-1991 1992 1993-2006  Pop * per cap (’92) Anchor 1992 catch 1959 catch Anchor Pop * per cap avg (’59, ’64 & ’65) Anchors Pop * per cap avg (’64, ‘65 & ’71) Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Pop * per cap scaled (’82 & ’83) Anchor Anchor’s catch avg 1959 catch Anchor Pop * per cap avg (’59, ’64 & ’65) Anchors Pop * per cap avg (’64, ‘65 & ’71) Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Pop * per cap scaled (’82 & ’83) Anchor Anchor’s catch avg 1959 catch Anchors same catch between anchors Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1992 catch Pop * per cap (’92) Anchor 1992 catch  Arctic cod  saffron cod  whitefish  flounder  Reported catch (lbs)  Source  113  Anon. (2001)  634  Burch (1985)  0; 0  Burch (1985)  1,200  Patterson (1974)  0; 3,259  Burch (1985)  2,849  Anon. (2001)  766  Burch (1985)  0; 6,955  Burch (1985)  0  Patterson (1974)  9; 1,040  Burch (1985)  2,984  Anon. (2001)  12,000; 12,000  Saario and Kessel (1966)  12,000  Patterson (1974)  7,717  Burch (1985)  6,216  Anon. (2001)  59  Anon. (2001)  Table A1.6 (cont’d). Community  Common name  Year(s)  Method  Kivalina (cont’d)  rainbow smelt  1950-1991 1992 1993-2006 1950-1991 1992 1993-2006 1950-1991 1992 1993-2006  Pop * per cap (’92) Anchor 1992 catch Pop * per cap (’92) Anchor 1992 catch Pop * per cap (’92) Anchor 1992 catch  herring  sheefish  Reported catch (lbs)  Source  29  Anon. (2001)  187  Anon. (2001)  93  Anon. (2001)  Table A1.7. Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Kotzebue. Community  Common name  Year(s)  Method  Kotzebue  chum salmon  1950-1956 1957 1958-1961 1962-2004 2005-2006 1950-1971 1972 1973-1990 1991 1992-2006 1950-1971 1972 1973-1985 1986 1987-1990 1991 1992-2004 2005-2006 1950-1971 1972 1973-1985 1986 1987-1990 1991 1992-2006 1991 1992-2006 1950-1985 1986 1987-1990 1991 1992-2006 1950-1971 1972 1973-1985 1986 1987-1990 1991 1992-2006  1957 catch Anchor Scaled to 1960s avg catch Anchors 2004 catch 1972 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1991 catch Proportion of chum catch Anchor Scaled via chum proportions Anchor Avg of chum proportions (’86 & ’91) Anchor Avg of chum proportions 2004 catch 1972 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * avg per cap Anchor 1991 catch Anchor 1991 catch Avg per cap * pop Anchor Avg per cap * pop Anchor Avg per cap * pop 1972 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1991 catch  chinook salmon  Dolly varden  flounder  Pleuronectidae1 herring  saffron cod  1  : originally identified as halibut  Reported catch (lbs)  Source  314,072  Mattson (1962)  Range (92,329-639,270)  Eggers and Clark (2006)  100  Patterson (1974)  7,565  Anon. (2001)  10,000  Patterson (1974)  35,264  Georgette and Loon (1993)  88,724  Anon. (2001)  30  Patterson (1974)  16,017  Georgette and Loon (1993)  1,555  Anon. (2001)  142  Anon. (2001)  14,135  Georgette and Loon (1993)  28,495  Anon. (2001)  8,000  Patterson (1974)  20,170  Georgette and Loon (1993)  28,532  Anon. (2001)  Table A1.7 (cont’d). Community  Common name  Year(s)  Method  Kotzebue (cont’d)  sculpin  1950-1985 1986 1987-2006 1950-1966 1967-1968 1969-1971 1972 1973-1985 1986 1987-1990 1991 1992-2006 1950-1971 1972 1973-1985 1986 1987-1990 1991 1992-2006 1950-1990 1991 1992-2006 1950-1990 1991 1992-2006 1950-1991 1991 1992-2006 1950-1985 1986 1987-1990 1991 1992-2006 1950-1985 1986 1987-1990 1991 1992-2006  Per cap * pop Anchor 1986 catch Avg catch (’67 & ’68) Anchors Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * avg per cap (’86 Anchor Pop * avg per cap (’86 1972 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1991 catch Pop * per cap (’91) Anchor 1991 catch Pop * per cap (’91) Anchor 1991 catch 1991 per cap * pop Anchor 1991 catch 1986 catch Anchor Pop * avg per cap (’86 Anchor 1991 catch 1986 catch Anchor Pop * avg per cap (’86 Anchor 1991 catch  sheefish  smelt  coho salmon  sockeye salmon  pink salmon  Bering cisco  least cisco  Reported catch (lbs)  Source  2,003  Georgette and Loon 1993  65,390; 131,226  Anon (1967, 1968)  138,300  Patterson (1974)  185,186  Georgette and Loon (1993)  568,856  Anon. (2001)  840  Patterson (1974)  3,377  Georgette and Loon (1993)  4,096  Anon. (2001)  216  Anon. (2001)  1,079  Anon. (2001)  1,295  Anon. (2001)  4,321  Georgette and Loon (1993)  5,848  Anon. (2001)  72  Georgette and Loon (1993)  97  Anon. (2001)  & ’91) & ’91  & ’91)  & ’91)  Table A1.7 (cont’d). Community  Common name  Year(s)  Method  Kotzebue (cont’d)  broad whitefish  1950-1985 1986 1987-1990 1991 1992-2006 1950-1985 1986 1987-1990 1991 1992-2006  1986 catch Anchor Pop * avg per cap (’86 & ’91) Anchor 1991 catch 1986 catch Anchor Pop * avg per cap (’86 & ’91) Anchor 1991 catch  humpback whitefish  Reported catch (lbs)  Source  4,142  Georgette and Loon (1993)  5,605  Anon. (2001)  15,451  Georgette and Loon (1993)  20,910  Anon. (2001)  Table A1.8. Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Noatak. Community  Common name  Year(s)  Method  Noatak  chum salmon  1950-1956 1957 1958-1959 1960 1961-1968 1969-1971 1972 1973-1984 1985 1986-1987 1988 1989-1993 1994 1995-1998 1999 2000-2004 2005-2006 1950-1961 1962-1963 1964-1968 1969-1971 1972 1973-1978 1979-1984 1985 1986-1987 1988-1990 1991-1993 1994 1995-1998 1999 2000-2004 2005-2006 1950-1993 1994 1995-2006 1950-1993 1994 1995-2006  1957 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Avg catch (’61-’69) Anchors Anchors Anchor Anchors Avg of ‘80s catch anchors Anchors Avg of ‘80s catch anchors Anchors Anchor Anchors Avg of ‘90s catch anchors Anchors Avg catch (’00-’04) Pop * avg per cap (’62 & ’63) Anchors Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Avg of ‘80s catch anchors Anchors Avg of ‘80s catch anchors Anchors Anchors Anchors Avg of ‘90s catch anchors Anchors Avg catch (’00-’04) Pop * per cap (’94) Anchor Pop * per cap (’94) Pop * per cap (’94) Anchor Pop * per cap (’94)  Dolly varden  Arctic cod  saffron cod  Reported catch (lbs)  Source  253,012  Mattson (1962)  Range: 51,039-420,454 108,435; 33,372; 80,344 70,264 Range: 1,966-50,955  Anon. (1968) Banducci et al. (2007) Patterson (1974) Banducci et al. (2007)  10,840; 23,952  Banducci et al. (2007)  Range: 13,588-34,844 59,386 Range: 20,912-80,728  Banducci et al. (2007) Anon. (2001) Banducci et al. (2007)  Range: 18,722-62,720  Banducci et al. (2007)  182,312; 27,258  Banducci et al. (2007)  213,510; 24,420; 32,452 97,600  Banducci et al. (2007) Patterson (1974)  Range: 15,506-45,300  Banducci et al. (2007)  313; 9,494  Banducci et al. (2007)  31,722; 26,370; 30,353 20,368 Range: 29,427-36,301  Banducci et al. (2007) Anon. (2001) Banducci et al. (2007)  Range: 17,023-87,312  Banducci et al. (2007)  21  Anon. (2001)  153  Anon. (2001)  Table A1.8 (cont’d). Community  Common name  Year(s)  Method  Noatak (cont’d)  chinook salmon  1950-1993 1994 1995-1996 1997-1998 1999 2000-2006 1950-1993 1994 1995-2002 2003-2006 1950-1993 1994 1995-2002 2003-2006 1950-1993 1994 1995-1998 1999-2000 2001-2006 1950-1993 1994 1995-2006 1950-1993 1994-2002 2003-2006 1950-1971 1972 1973-1993 1994 1995-1999 2000 2001 2002 2003-2006  Avg anchors’ catch (’94-’99) Anchor Anchors Anchor Anchor Avg anchors’ catch (’94-’99) Pop * avg per cap (’94-’02) Anchor Anchors Avg catch (’00-’02) Avg anchors’ per cap (’94-’99) Anchor Anchors Avg catch (’00-’02) Pop * avg per cap (’94, ’99 & ’00) Anchor Pop * avg per cap (’94, ’99 & ’00) Anchors Pop * avg per cap (’94, ’99 & ’00) Pop * per cap (’94) Anchor Pop * per cap (’94) Raised anchors’ avg catch (’94-’02) Anchors Raised anchors’ avg catch (’94-’02) 1972 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * avg per cap (’94, ’00 & ’02) Anchor Pop * avg per cap (’94, ’00 & ’02) Anchor 2002 catch  coho salmon  pink salmon  sheefish  smelt  sockeye salmon  broad whitefish  Reported catch (lbs)  Source  81 0; 0 65; 82 0  Anon. (2001) Georgette and Utermohle (2000) Georgette et al. (2003) Georgette and Utermohle (2000)  1,285 Range: 0-800  Anon. (2001) Georgette et al. (2003)  0 Range: 0-35  Anon. (2001) Georgette et al. (2003)  716  Anon. (2001)  840; 1033  Georgette and Utermohle (2000)  15  Anon. (2001)  Range: 0-10  Georgette et al. (2003)  183  Patterson (1974)  116  Anon. (2001)  119  Georgette and Utermohle (2000)  130  Georgette et al. (2003)  Table A1.8 (cont’d). Community  Common name  Year(s)  Method  Noatak (cont’d)  humpback whitefish  1950-1971 1972 1973-1993 1994 1995-1999 2000 2001 2002 2003-2006 1950-1971 1972 1973-1993 1994 1995-1999 2000 2001 2002 2003-2006 1950-1971 1972 1973-1993 1994 1995-1999 2000 2001 2002 2003-2006 1950-1971 1972 1973-1993 1994 1995-1999 2000 2001 2002 2003-2006  1972 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * avg per cap (’94, Anchor Pop * avg per cap (’94, Anchor 2002 catch 1972 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * avg per cap (’94, Anchor Pop * avg per cap (’94, Anchor 2002 catch 1972 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * avg per cap (’94, Anchor Pop * avg per cap (’94, Anchor 2002 catch 1972 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * avg per cap (’94, Anchor Pop * avg per cap (’94, Anchor 2002 catch  round whitefish  Bering cisco  least cisco  Reported catch (lbs)  Source  8,864  Patterson (1974)  5,639  Anon. (2001)  5,768  Georgette and Utermohle (2000)  6,320  Georgette et al. (2003)  331  Patterson (1974)  210  Anon. (2001)  215  Georgette and Utermohle (2000)  236  Georgette et al. (2003)  555  Patterson (1974)  353  Anon. (2001)  361  Georgette and Utermohle (2000)  396  Georgette et al. (2003)  226  Patterson (1974)  144  Anon. (2001)  147  Georgette and Utermohle (2000)  161  Georgette et al. (2003)  ’00 & ’02) ’00 & ’02)  ’00 & ’02) ’00 & ’02)  ’00 & ’02) ’00 & ’02)  ’00 & ’02) ’00 & ’02)  Table A1.9. Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Nuiqsut. Community  Common name  Year(s)  Method  Nuiqsut  Arctic cisco  1973-1984 1985 1986-1992 1993 1994-1998 1999 2000-2003 2004-2006 1973-1984 1985 1986-1992 1993 1994-1998 1999 2000-2003 2004-2006 1973-1984 1985 1986-1992 1993 1994-2006 1973-1984 1985 1986-1992 1993 1994-2006 1973-1984 1985 1986-1992 1993 1994-2006 1973-1984 1985 1986-2006 1973-1984 1985 1986-1992 1993 1994-2006  Pop * avg per cap (’85-’87) Anchor Scaled to changes presented Anchor Scaled to changes presented Avg catch (’98 & ’00) Scaled to changes presented Pop * avg per cap (’01-’03) Pop * avg per cap (’85-’87) Anchor Scaled to changes presented Anchor Scaled to changes presented Avg catch (’98 & ’00) Scaled to changes presented Pop * avg per cap (’01-’03) Pop * per cap 1985 Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1993 catch Pop * per cap 1985 Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1993 catch Pop * per cap 1985 Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1993 catch 1985 catch Anchor 1985 catch Pop * per cap 1985 Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1993 catch  least cisco  Dolly varden  broad whitefish  humpback whitefish  round whitefish  rainbow smelt  Reported catch (lbs)  Source  31,489  Anon. (2001)  42,221  Anon. (2001)  7,649  Anon. (2001)  4,369  Anon. (2001)  3,959  Anon. (2001)  2,252  Anon. (2001)  35,815  Anon. (2001)  55,273  Anon. (2001)  4,635  Anon. (2001)  1,699  Anon. (2001)  13  Anon. (2001)  585  Anon. (2001)  56  Anon. (2001)  in (Anonymous, 2005a) in (Anonymous, 2005a) in (Anonymous, 2005a)  in (Anonymous, 2005a) in (Anonymous, 2005a) in (Anonymous, 2005a)  Table A1.9 (cont’d). Community  Common name  Year(s)  Method  Nuiqsut (cont’d)  Arctic cod  1973-1992 1993 1994-2006 1993 1994-2006 1973-1992 1993 1994-2006 1993 1994-2006 1973-1984 1985 1986-1992 1993 1994-2006  1985 catch Anchor 1985 catch Anchor 1993 catch Pop * per cap (’93) Anchor 1993 catch Anchor 1993 catch Pop * per cap 1985 Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1993 catch  chinook salmon chum salmon  coho salmon pink salmon  Reported catch (lbs)  Source  9  Anon. (2001)  140  Anon. (2001)  618  Anon. (2001)  99  Anon. (2001)  1,821  Anon. (2001)  488  Anon. (2001)  Table A1.10. Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Point Hope. Community  Common name  Year(s)  Method  Point Hope  chum salmon  1950-1956 1957 1958-1963 1964-1965 1966-1971 1972 1973-1980 1981-1984 1985-1991 1992 1993-2006 1950-1955 1956 1957-2006 1950-1958 1959-1960 1961-1970 1971 1972-2006 1950-1958 1959-1960 1961-1963 1964-1965 1966-1967 1968-1970 1971 1972 1973-1978 1979 1980 1981-1986 1987-1991 1992 1993-2006 1950-1970 1971 1971-2006 1950-1970 1971 1972-1981 1982 1983-1991 1992 1993-2006  Pop * per cap (’57) Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchors from Kivalina Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchor from Kivalina Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchors from Kivalina Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchor from Kivalina Avg of derived anchors (’84 & ’91) Pop * avg per cap (’56 & ‘72) Anchor Pop * avg per cap (’56 & ‘72) Pop * avg per cap (’59 & ’60) Anchors Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1971 catch Pop * per cap (’59 & ’60) Derived anchors from Kivalina Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchor from Kivalina Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchors from Kivalina Anchor Derived anchor from Kivalina Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchor from Kivalina Avg catch (’79 & ’81) Derived anchors from Kivalina Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchor from Kivalina 1992 catch Pop * per cap (’71) Anchor 1971 catch 1971 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchor from Kivalina Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchor from Kivalina 1992 catch  pink salmon  Arctic cod  Dolly varden  smelt  whitefish  Reported catch (lbs)  Source  21,672  Mattson (1962)  7,182; 585 3,024 5,045; 9,843; 9,475; 8,266 28,076  1,680  Smith et al. (1966)  6,775; 4,000  Foote & Williamson (1966)  3,750  Patterson (1974)  14,040; 16,390 13,718; 4,107 17,545; 22,923; 11,591 10,000 16,731  Patterson (1974)  Range: 7,380-18,568 13,581  1,000  Patterson (1974)  2,500  Patterson (1974)  1,608 1,295  Table A1.11. Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Point Lay. Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Point Lay  chum salmon  pink salmon  herring  smelt  broad whitefish  1950-1956 1957 1958-1963 1964-1972 1973-1980 1981-1984 1985-1986 1987 1988-1991 1992 1993-2006 1950-1986 1987 1988-2006 1950-1986 1987 1988-2006 1950-1986 1987 1988-2006 1950-1958 1959-1960 1961-1964 1965 1966-1971 1972 1973-1981 1982 1983-1986 1987 1988-1991 1992 1993-2006  1957 catch Derived anchor from Kivalina Pop * per cap scaled 1963 catch Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchors from Kivalina Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchor from Kivalina 1992 catch Scaled to chum salmon Anchor 1987 catch 1987 catch Anchor 1987 catch Pop * per cap (’87) Anchor 1987 catch Pop * per cap (’59) Derived anchors from Kivalina Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchor from Kivalina Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchor from Kivalina Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchor from Kivalina Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchor from Kivalina 1992 per cap * pop  Source  134  83; 172; 173; 158 323  Anon. (2001)  720  243  Anon. (2001)  7  Anon. (2001)  49  Anon. (2001)  57; 47 7 6 123 111 116  Anon. (2001)  Table A1.12. Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Point Lay. Community  Common name  Year(s)  Method  Selawik  sheefish  1950-1966 1967-1968 1969-1971 1972 1973-1985 1986 1987-2006 1950-1971 1972 1973-2006 1950-1971 1972 1973-2006 1950-1971 1972 1973-2006 1950-1971 1972 1973-2006 1950-1971 1972 1973-2006 1950-1971 1972 1973-2006  Avg catch (’67 & ’68) Anchors Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchor from Kotzebue Pop * avg per cap (’72 & ’86) Pop * per cap (’72) Anchor 1972 catch Pop * per cap (’72) Anchor 1972 catch Pop * per cap (’72) Anchor 1972 catch Pop * per cap (’72) Anchor 1972 catch Scaled as proportion of Kotzebue Anchor Scaled as proportion of Kotzebue Scaled as proportion of Kotzebue Anchor Scaled as proportion of Kotzebue  whitefish  smelt  flounder  herring  chum salmon  Dolly varden  Reported catch (lbs)  Source  46,566; 30,480  Anon. (1967, 1968)  113,439  Patterson (1974)  108,605  472,467  Patterson (1974)  84  Patterson (1974)  11  Patterson (1974)  67  Patterson (1974)  933  Patterson (1974)  133  Patterson (1974)  catches catches catches catches  Table A1.13. Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Shishmaref. Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Shishmaref  chum salmon  Dolly varden  sockeye salmon  pink salmon  coho salmon  1950-1956 1957 1958-1966 1967-1968 1969-1970 1971-1972 1973 1974-1975 1976-1988 1989 1990-1994 1995 1996-2004 2005-2006 1950-1972 1973 1974-1988 1989 1990-1994 1995 1996-2006 1950-1972 1973 1974-1988 1989 1990-1994 1995 1995-2006 1950-1972 1973 1974-1988 1989 1990-1994 1995 1996-2006 1950-1972 1973 1974-1988 1989 1990-1994 1995 1996-2006  1957 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Anchor Anchors Scaled via exploitation rate Anchor Avg exploitation rate (’89 & ’95) Anchor Avg exploitation rate (’89 & ’95) 2004 catch 1973 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1995 catch 1973 catch Derived anchor from pink salmon Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1995 catch 1973 catch Anchor Pop * per cap avg (’89 & ’95) Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1995 catch 1973 catch Derived anchor from pink salmon Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1995 catch  Source  1,462  Mattson (1962)  930; 359  Banducci et al. (2007)  1,061; 264 3,640 1,700; 1,978  Banducci et al. (2007) Patterson (1974) Banducci et al. (2007)  6,783  Conger and Magdanz (1990)  56,000  Banducci et al. (2007)  360  Patterson (1974)  2,039  Conger and Magdanz (1990)  5,959  Anon. (2001)  17 280  Conger and Magdanz (1990)  3,058  Anon. (2001)  53  Patterson (1974)  871  Conger and Magdanz (1990)  3,868  Anon. (2001)  6,608  Conger and Magdanz (1990)  5,194  Anon. (2001)  Table A1.13 (cont’d). Community  Common name  Year(s)  Method  Shishmaref (cont’d)  chinook salmon  1950-1972 1973 1974-1994 1995 1996-2006 1989 1990-1994 1995 1996-2006 1950-1972 1973 1974-1988 1989 1990-1994 1995 1996-2006 1950-1972 1973 1974-1988 1989 1990-1994 1995 1996-2006 1950-1988 1989 1990-1994 1995 1996-2006 1950-1972 1973 1974-1988 1989 1990-1994 1995 1996-2006 1950-1972 1973 1974-1994 1995 1996-2006  1973 catch Derived anchor from pink salmon Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1995 catch Anchor Avg catch (’89 & ’95) Anchor Avg catch (’89 & ’95) Pop * per cap (’73) Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * avg per cap (’89 & ’95) 1973 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1995 catch Pop * avg per cap (’89 & ’95) Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1995 catch 1973 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1995 catch 1973 catch Derived anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1995 catch  king crab  flounder  herring  sculpin  smelt  sheefish  Reported catch (lbs)  Source  1,285  Anon. (2001)  3,000  Conger and Magdanz (1990)  1,289  Anon. (2001)  320  Patterson (1974)  675  Conger and Magdanz (1990)  36  Anon. (2001)  2,667  Patterson (1974)  5,226  Conger and Magdanz (1990)  12,989  Anon. (2001)  101  Conger and Magdanz (1990)  743  Anon. 2001  267  Patterson 1974  1,017  Conger and Magdanz (1990)  6,161  Anon. (2001)  58 548  Anon. (2001)  Table A1.13 (cont’d). Community Common name Shishmaref (cont’d)  broad whitefish  humpback whitefish  round whitefish  Arctic cod  saffron cod  Bering cisco  least cisco  Year(s)  1950-1972 1973 1974-1988 1989 1990-1994 1995 1995-2006 1950-1972 1973 1974-1988 1989 1990-1994 1995 1995-2006 1950-1972 1973 1974-1988 1989 1990-1994 1995 1995-2006 1950-1972 1973 1974-1988 1989 1990-1994 1995 1995-2006 1950-1972 1973 1974-1988 1989 1990-1994 1995 1995-2006 1950-1972 1973 1974-1994 1995 1996-2006 1950-1972 1973 1974-1994 1995 1996-2006  Method  1973 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1995 catch 1973 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1995 catch 1973 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1995 catch 1973 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1995 catch 1973 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1995 catch 1973 catch Derived anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1995 catch 1973 catch Derived anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1995 catch  Reported catch (lbs)  Source  94  Patterson (1974)  142  Conger and Magdanz (1990)  133  Anon. (2001)  2,029  Patterson (1974)  3,054  Conger and Magdanz (1990)  2,940  Anon. (2001)  543  Patterson (1974)  817  Conger and Magdanz (1990)  769  Anon. (2001)  667  Patterson (1974)  243  Conger and Magdanz (1990)  329  Anon. (2001)  646  Patterson (1974)  7,710  Conger and Magdanz (1990)  10,452  Anon. (2001)  491 4,604  Anon. (2001)  31 291  Anon. (2001)  Table A1.14. Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Wainwright. Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Wainwright  Chum salmon  Pink salmon  Chinook salmon  Dolly varden  Smelt  1950-1956 1957 1958-1963 1964-1965 1966-1971 1972 1973-1980 1981-1984 1985-1987 1988-1989 1990-1991 1992 1993-2006 1950-1970 1971 1972-1987 1988-1989 1990-2006 1950-1970 1971 1972-1988 1989 1990-2006 1950-1958 1959-1960 1961-1963 1964-1965 1966-1967 1968-1970 1971 1972 1973-1978 1979 1980 1981-1986 1987-1991 1992 1993-2006 1950-1970 1971 1972-1987 1988-1989 1990-2006  Pop * per cap (’57) Derived anchor from Kivalina Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchors from Kivalina Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchor from Kivalina Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchors from Kivalina Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchor from Kivalina 1992 catch Pop * per cap (’71) Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Avg catch (’88 & ’89) Pop * per cap (‘71) Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1989 catch Pop * avg per cap (’69 & ’60) Derived anchors from Kivalina Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchors from Kivalina Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchor from Kivalina Anchor Derived anchor from Kivalina Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchor from Kivalina Avg catch (’79 & ’81) Derived anchor from Kivalina Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchor from Kivalina 1992 catch 1971 per cap * pop Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Avg catch (’88-’89)  Source  342 113; 9 64 80; 155; 149; 130 41; 553  Anon. (2001)  443  125  Patterson (1974)  25; 215  Anon. (2001)  488  Patterson (1974)  216  Anon. (2001)  1,713; 2,000 1,674; 501 2,140; 2,720; 1,414 1,220 2,041  Patterson (1974)  1,300 Range: 900-2,265 1,832 1,657  1,250  Patterson (1974)  3,231; 8,653  Anon. (2001)  Table A1.14 (cont’d). Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Wainwright. Community  Common name  Year(s)  Method  Wainwright (cont’d)  Saffron cod  1950-1958 1959 1960-1963 1964-1965 1966-1971 1972 1973-1981 1982-1983 1984-1987 1988-1989 1990-2006 1950-1987 1988-1989 1990-2006 1950-1987 1988-1989 1990-2006 1950-1970 1971 1972-1987 1988-1989 1990-2006 1950-1970 1971 1972-1987 1988-1989 1990-2006 1950-1970 1971 1972-1987 1988-1989 1990-2006  1959 catch Derived anchor from Kivalina Pop * avg per cap (’59, ’64, ’65) Derived anchors from Kivalina Pop * avg per cap (’64, ’65, ‘72) Derived anchor from Kivalina Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchors from Kivalina Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Avg catch (’88 & ’89) Avg catch (’88 & ’89) Anchors Avg anchors’ catch Avg catch (’88 & ’89) Anchors Avg catch (’88 & ’89) 1971 catch Derived anchor from Kivalina Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Avg catch (’88 & ’89) 1971 catch Derived anchor from Kivalina Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Avg catch (’88 & ’89) 1971 catch Derived anchor from Kivalina Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Avg catch (’88 & ’89)  Sculpin  Flounder  Bering cisco  Round whitefish  Least cisco  Reported catch (lbs)  Source  137 0; 683 118 1; 422 305; 179  Anon. (2001)  3; 7  Anon. (2001)  0; 3  Anon. (2001)  411 15; 568  Anon. (2001)  381 540; 0  Anon. (2001)  10,627 6,161; 8,901  Anon. (2001)  Table A1.15. . Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Wales. Community  Common name  Year(s)  Method  Wales  chum salmon  1950-1956 1957 1958-1966 1967-1968 1969-1970 1971-1975 1976-1992 1993-1994 1995-2004 2005-2006 1950-1972 1973 1974-1992 1993-1994 1995-2006 1950-1972 1973 1974-1992 1993-1994 1995-2006 1950-1992 1993-1994 1995-2006 1950-1972 1973 1974-1992 1993-1994 1995-2006 1950-1972 1973 1974-1992 1993 1994-2006 1950-1972 1973 1974-1992 1993 1994-2006  1957 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchors from Shishmaref Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchors from Shishmaref Scaled via exploitation rate Anchors Avg exploitation rate (’93 & ’94) 2004 catch Pop * avg per cap (’73 & ’94) Anchor Pop* avg per cap (’73 & ’94) Anchors Po p* avg per cap (’73 & ’94) 1973 catch Derived anchor from coho Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Avg catch (’93 & ’94) Pop * avg per cap (’93 & ’94) Anchors Avg catch (’93 & ’94) 1973 catch Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Avg catch (’93 & ’94) Pop * per cap (’73) Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1993 catch Pop * per cap (’73) Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1993 catch  pink salmon  chinook salmon  sockeye salmon  coho salmon  Dolly varden  flounder  Reported catch (lbs)  Source  1,290  Mattson (1962)  821; 317 936; 233; 803; 1,500; 1,745 7,194; 6,295  Anon. (2001); Magdanz and Utermohle (1994)  160  Patterson (1974)  5,414; 5,474  Anon. (2001); Magdanz and Utermohle (1994)  1,136; 851  Anon. (2001); Magdanz and Utermohle (1994)  178; 135  Anon. (2001); Magdanz and Utermohle (1994)  100 1,903; 2,000  Anon. (2001); Magdanz and Utermohle (1994)  800  Patterson (1974)  1,508  Anon. (2001)  400  Patterson (1974)  427  Anon. (2001)  Table A1.15 (cont’d). Community  Wales (cont’d)  Common name herring  sculpin  Bering cisco  broad whitefish  humpback whitefish  round whitefish  Arctic cod  saffron cod  Year(s)  1950-1992 1993 1994-2006 1950-1992 1993 1994-2006 1950-1972 1973 1974-1992 1993 1994-2006 1950-1972 1973 1974-1992 1993 1994-2006 1950-1972 1973 1974-1992 1993 1994-2006 1950-1972 1973 1974-1992 1993 1994-2006 1950-1972 1973 1974-1992 1993 1994-2006 1950-1972 1973 1974-1992 1993 1994-2006  Method  Pop * per cap (’93) Anchor Pop * per cap (’93) Pop * per cap (’93) Anchor Pop * per cap (’93) Pop * per cap (’73) Derived anchor from whitefish Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1993 catch Pop * per cap (’73) Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1993 catch Pop * per cap (’73) Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1993 catch Pop * per cap (’73) Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1993 catch Pop * per cap (’73) Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1993 catch Pop * per cap (’73) Anchor Pop * per cap scaled Anchor 1993 catch  Reported catch (lbs)  Source  143  Anon. (2001)  11  Anon. (2001)  519 404  Anon. (2001)  790  Patterson (1974)  615  Anon. (2001)  386  Patterson (1974)  300  Anon. (2001)  158  Patterson (1974)  123  Anon. (2001)  108  Patterson (1974)  68  Anon. (2001)  425  Patterson (1974)  267  Anon. (2001)  Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  43  APPENDIX 2: INUPIAT NAMES, COMMON NAMES AND SCIENTIFIC NAMES FOR SPECIES REPORTED Common name  Scientific name  Inupiat name  Source  Arctic cisco  Coregonus autumnalis  Qaataq  Anon. (2007)  Bering cisco  Coregonus laurettae  Tiipuq  Anon. (2007)  least cisco  Coregonus sardinella  Iqalusaaq  Anon. (2007)  Arctic cod  Uugaq/Iqalugaq  Anon. (2007)  saffron cod  Boreogadus saida Eleginus gracilis  Uugaq  Anon. (2007)  chinook salmon  Oncorhynchus tshawytscha  Iqalugrauq  Anon. (2007)  chum salmon  Oncorhynchus keta  Iqalugrauq  Anon. (2007)  coho salmon  Oncorhynchus kisutch  Iqalugrauq  Anon. (2004)  pink salmon  Oncorhynchus gorbuscha  Amaqtuuq  Anon. (2007)  sockeye salmon  Oncorhynchus nerka  -  broad whitefish  Coregonus nasus  Aanaaqliq  Anon. (2007)  humpback whitefish  Coregonus pidschian  Piquktuuq  Anon. (2007)  round whitefish  Prosopium cylindraceum  Aanaaqliq/Savigunaq  Craig (1987)  sheefish  Stenodus leucichthys  Sii  Magdanz et al. (2002)  Dolly varden  Salvelinus malma  Iqalukpik  Anon. (2007)  capelin  Mallotus villosus  Panmigriq  Anon. (2007)  flounder  Liopsetta glacialis  Nataagnaq/Puyyagiaq  Anon. (2007)  herring  Clupea pallasii  Uqsruqtuuq  Anon. ( 2007)  rainbow smelt  Osmerus mordax  Ilhaugniq  Anon. (2007)  sculpin  Triglopsis quadricornis  Kanayuq  Anon. (2007)  Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  44  APPENDIX 3: COMMUNITY INFORMATION Atqasuk Atqasuk is a community that was re-established on traditional lands around 1977 primarily by former residents of Barrow (www.dced.state.ak.us). Estimated population grew from 74 in 1977 to 237 in 2006 (Figure 3.1). Atqasuk had the catches of all taxa summed over all years to derive a taxonomic breakdown for catches. For non-anchor years, the catches were apportioned to taxa based on the average reported proportion for the two anchor years (1983 & 1994). Atqasuk had its 1977 catch total scaled from the 1983 anchor point by using the change in Barrow’s catch over the same time period. Barrow was used to scale the catches because this community was established by former residents of Barrow.  250  150 100 50 0 1977  1982  1987  1992  1997  2002  Year  Figure A3.1. Estimated population of Atqasuk 1977-2006; solid circles indicate census years.  a)  b)  5.0  5.0  4.5  4.5  4.0  4.0  3.5  3.5 Catch (t)  Catch (t)  Population  200  3.0 2.5 2.0  2.0 1.5 1.0  0.5  0.5  0.0  0.0 1977  1987  1992 Year  1997  2002  Least cisco  2.5  1.0  1982  Whitefish  3.0  1.5  1977  Chum  Humpback whitefish Broad whitefish 1982  1987  1992  1997  2002  Year  Figure A3.2. a) Anchor points (solid diamonds), and estimated reconstructed total catches (line) and, b) taxonomic breakdown of reconstructed catches.  Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  45  Barrow Barrow is the northernmost community in North America and residents still participate in traditional marine mammal hunts. The development of oil fields at Prudhoe Bay has established it as the economic center of the North Slope Borough, and tax revenues from the North Slope oil fields fund services throughout the borough (www.dced.state.ak.us). The population is estimated to have grown from 951 people in 1950 to 4,065 people in 2006. Patterson (1974) identified (6,250 lbs) of “herring” being taken. However, C. George 4,000 (pers. comm.1) noted that Pacific herring were not caught in subsistence nets, but 3,000 rather these should be identified as cisco. He 2,000 also noted that it was only recently (1990s) that king salmon (Oncorhynchus 1,000 tshawytscha) appeared in local waters and 0 that there was no local Inupiaq name for 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 them, and coho salmon (O. keta) were also likely to have been misidentified, as a result Year of chum salmon being called ‘silver’ salmonFigure A3.3. Estimated population of Barrow 1950-2006; the common name in Alaska for coho solid circles indicate census years. salmon.  Population  5,000  Thus, what was originally identified as herring (Patterson, 1974) was changed to cisco in the present study, and records of coho salmon and king salmon were changed to chum salmon (Patterson, 1974; Anonymous, 2001). It should also be noted that Craig (1987) in a survey of salmon streams in this area only identified appearances of coho and king salmon as strays, usually with only one specimen being caught.  Also, Arctic charr were split between Dolly varden (anadromous) and Arctic charr (freshwater) based on information provided by Craig George. He noted that about 10% of what was formerly identified as Arctic char was taken in lakes near Barrow and that the other 90% were taken in marine waters and therefore would be Dolly varden. Chum salmon catch data for the years 1987 and 1988 (1,587 and 853 pounds) as indicated in the CPDB were ignored. This was because the values were low in relation to the other anchor points and because the Community Profiles Database indicated that these years were not the most representative for the community.  a)  70  b)  60  60 50  Catch (t)  Catch (t)  50  70  40 30  40  20  10  10  0  0 1960  1970  1980 Year  1990  2000  Others  30  20  1950  Humpback whitefish Least cisco Chum  1950  Broad whitefish 1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure A3.4. a) Anchor points (solid diamonds), and estimated reconstructed total catches (solid line), and b) the taxonomic breakdown with ‘others’ consisting of Arctic cod, Bering cisco, capelin, Dolly varden, pink salmon, rainbow smelt, round whitefish, saffron cod and sculpin.  1 Craig George, Division of Wildlife Management, North Slope Borough, P.O. Box 69, Barrow, Alaska 99723, (907)-852-2611 [date information received January 24, 2008].  Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  46  Buckland Buckland is located on the Buckland River, and a herd of more than 2,000 reindeer are managed, with the workers being paid in meat (www.dced.state.ak.us). In 1972, Buckland experienced a food shortage (Moore, 1979) and was given special permits for increasing the subsistence food supply in that year. The population is estimated to have grown from 102 people in 1950 to 457 in 2006.  Population  Buckland’s reported catch of chum salmon declined dramatically after 1960. Part of this decline may have been due to the introduction of the snowmobile. However, the decrease demand for protein sources due to the introduction of the snowmobile does 500 not seem to match with the noted food shortage in 1972. It is possible that the 400 Japanese high-seas fishing fleet may have been catching chum salmon destined for 300 the Buckland River, resulting in the 200 depressed catches after 1968. However, it should also be noted that hatcheries were 100 developed in response to record low returns of wild stocks in the 1960s and 1970s and 0 therefore it is possible that the low 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 production levels may signal other factors Year in the low returns during this period Figure A3.5. Estimated population of Buckland 1950-2006; (www.lib.noaa.gov/japan/aquaculture2).  80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1950  Catch (t)  Catch (t)  solid circles indicate census years.  1960  1970  1980 Year  1990  2000  80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1950  Whitefish Smelt Chum  1960  Sheefish 1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure A3.6. a) Anchor points (solid diamonds), and estimated reconstructed total catches (line), and b) taxonomic breakdown of the reconstructed catches.  2 Heard, W.R. (2001) Alaska salmon enhancement: a successful program for hatchery and wild stocks. In: Nakamura, Y., J.P. McVey, K. Leber, C. Neidig, S. Fox, and K. Churchill, (eds.). 2003. Ecology of Aquaculture Species and Enhancement of Stocks. Proceedings of the Thirtieth U.S. – Japan Meeting on Aquaculture. Sarasota, Florida, 3-4 December. UJNR Technical Report No. 30. Sarasota, FL: Mote Marine Laboratory.  Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  47  Deering Deering is located on Kotzebue Sound at the mouth of the Inmachuk River. Moose, seal and beluga provide most meat sources (www.dced.state.ak.us). The population was estimated at 174 in 1950 and has declined to 138 in 2006. Charlie Lean3 stated that 1984, 1994 and 2004 were record pink salmon runs; therefore, the 1994 per capita rate was applied to these years.  Population  Deering’s reported catch of chum salmon declined dramatically after 1960, and coincides with Buckland’s decline. Part of this decline would have been attributed to the introduction of the snowmobile. However, the decrease demand for protein sources due to the introduction of the snowmobile does 200 not seem to match with the noted food shortage in 1972. It is possible that the 150 Japanese high-seas fishing fleet may have been catching chum salmon destined for the 100 rivers in the area, resulting in the depressed catches after 1968. However, it should also 50 be noted that hatcheries were developed in response to record low returns of wild stocks 0 in the 1960s and 1970s and therefore it is 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 possible that the low production levels may signal other factors in the low returns during Year period Figure A3.7. Estimated population of Deering 1950-2006; this (www.lib.noaa.gov/japan/aquaculture). solid circles indicate census years.  120  b)  120  100  100  80  80  Catch (t)  Catc C atch (t)  a)  60 40 20 0 1950  60 40  Chum  Pink Others Dolly varden  20 0 1960  1970  1980 Year  1990  2000  1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure A3.8. a) Anchor points (solid diamonds), and estimated reconstructed total catches (solid line), and b) taxonomic breakdown of the reconstructed catches with others consisting of Arctic cod, Bering cisco, broad whitefish, chinook salmon, coho salmon, flounder, herring, humpback whitefish, least cisco, Pleuronectidae, round whitefish, saffron cod, sculpin, sheefish, smelt and sockeye salmon.  3 Charlie Lean, Norton Sound Fisheries Research and Development Director, P.O. Box 358, Nome, Alaska, 99762, 1-888-650-2477 [date information received: January 24, 2008].  Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  48  Kaktovik Kaktovik is located on the north shore of Barter Island along the Beaufort Sea. Previously, it was a trading center for the Inupiat and was a bartering place for the Inupiat communities in Alaska and the Inuit of Canada. Currently, the people carry out some subsistence activities within the Mackenzie Delta, which overlaps with the harvests by people of Aklavik, Canada (Pedersen et al., 1985). In 1985, the main subsistence resource harvests, in order of importance, were Bowhead whale, fish, and caribou. In 1985 all households participated in fishing activities (Pedersen et al., 1985). The population was estimated as 115 people in 1950 and has grown to 288 in 2006. The Community Profile Database for 1992 identifies 3 species of cisco being caught (Arctic cisco-7lbs edible weight; Bering cisco-5,672 lbs edible weight; and least cisco-349 lbs edible weight). Pedersen (2005) did not list Bering cisco as being harvested by Kaktovik residents and therefore the catch for Bering cisco was changed to Arctic cisco. The subsistence fishery targets Arctic cisco migrating out of the Mackenzie River and the catches are influenced by wind direction, westerly winds are associated with higher catches.  350 Population  300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure A3.9. Estimated population of Deering 1950-2006; solid circles indicate census years. 14  b)  14  12  12  10  10  Catch (t)  Catch (t)  a)  8 6  8  Dolly varden  6  4  4  2  2  0 1950  Others Arctic cisco  0  1960  1970  1980 Year  1990  2000  1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure A3.10. a) Anchor points (solid circles), and estimated reconstructed total catches (line), and b) taxonomic breakdown of the reconstructed catches with ‘others’ consisting of Arctic cod, flounder, least cisco, salmon (unidentified), pink salmon, and saffron cod.  Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  49  Kivalina Kivalina is situated on a barrier island along the Chuckchi Sea coast by the Kivalina River, but the community will re-locate due to severe coastline erosion and wind-driven ice damage (www.dced.state.ak.us). The near-by Wulik River is also important for subsistence use. Kivalina has grown from an estimated population of 117 people in 1950 to 391 people in 2006. The Wulik River supports small populations of chum, pink, and sockeye salmon. Pink salmon spawn in the lower 6 miles of the Wulik River, chum salmon spawn in the lower 15 miles of the river, while sockeye salmon spawn below Wulik Forks (www.nwabor.org/planning/4.05%20Coastal% 20Mgt/Chapter%206%20Description%20of% 20Designated%20Areas.htm4).  500  Population  400 300 200 100 0  The early report by Saario and Kessel (1966) presents data by harvest year (Aug-July) and therefore these harvest years were used as Year surrogates for calendar years. Therefore, for Figure A3.11. Estimated population of Kivalina 1950instance, the first harvest from Aug 1959 to 2006; solid circles indicate census years. July 1960 was treated as the calendar year 1959. Arctic cod and Saffron cod had their catch totals combined in order to interpolate total cod catches for years of no data. This was done because depending on the year neither species was caught, only one species was caught, but in some years both species were caught. This allowed the catch to be split (by using the average proportion for each species for anchor years) between both species for years when an interpolation was done. 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  90  a)  60  80 70  Catch (t)  Catch (t)  90  b)  80 70 50 40  30 20  10 0  10 0 1960  1970  1980 Year  1990  2000  Others  50 40  30 20  1950  Chum  Whitefish  60  1950  Dolly varden  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure A3.12. a) Anchor points (solid diamonds), and estimated reconstructed total catches (line), and b) taxonomic breakdown of the reconstructed catches with ‘others’ consisting of Arctic cod, flounder, herring, rainbow smelt, saffron cod, sheefish, coho salmon, pink salmon, chinook salmon and sockeye salmon.  4  Anonymous (2005) Northwest Arctic Borough coastal management plan-public review draft. [Accessed: January, 4, 2008].  Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  50  Kotzebue The regional economic centre of Kotzebue is located on the Baldwin Peninsula, which is surrounded by Kotzebue Sound. There are three near-by rivers, the Kobuk, Noatak and Ssezawick Rivers. As well, Hotham Inlet, which is the outlet for the Kobuk and Selawik Rivers, is located on the east side of the peninsula and this inlet is linked to Selawik Lake (www.dced.state.ak.us). The estimated population has grown from 623 people in 1950 to 3,104 in 2006. Although there are several reports that quantify subsistence chum catches (e.g., Patterson, 1974, Banducci et al., 2007), we used the totals from Eggers and Clark (2006) for the period 1962-2004 because they accounted for underreporting of chum salmon catches for this community. Pink salmon runs in the management area fluctuate drastically between years; usually alternating between very strong and very weak returns. The current cycle is strong on even numbered years and weak on odd numbered years (www.sf.adfg.state.ak.us/Management/Areas. cfm/FA/northwestOverview.fishInfo5).  3,500 Population  3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure A3.13. Estimated population of Kotzebue 1950-2006; solid circles indicate census years.  Patterson (1974) stated the recent average pink salmon catch as being 50 lbs (0.028 lbs·person-1). Catch for pink salmon in 1991 was estimated as 1,295 lbs (0.47 lbs·person-1). Patterson’s catch total was not used for Pink salmon because the total seemed low, especially if the strength in cyclical abundance is for even years. The 1991 catch for halibut was assigned to the family Pleuronectidae because workshop participants believed that this was mis-identified and was likely a flounder6. Whitefish (excluding sheefish) had the species breakdown from 1991 applied to all other years’ estimated catch, with the catch of 2,647 lbs in 1971 (Patterson, 1974) being excluded as this was for one species only.  600  b)  600  500  500  400  400  Catch (t)  Catch (t)  a)  300 200 100 0 1950  300  1970  1980 Year  1990  2000  Sheefish  200 100  1960  Others Dolly varden  0 1950  Chum 1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure A3.14. a) Anchor points (solid diamonds), and estimated reconstructed total catches (line), and b) taxonomic breakdown of the reconstructed catches with ‘others’ consisting of Arctic cod, flounder, herring, rainbow smelt, saffron cod, sheefish, coho salmon, pink salmon, chinook salmon and sockeye salmon.  The fish of the Northwest Management Area. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Sport Fish Division. [Accessed: February 8, 2008]. 6 Reconstruction data and validation workshop held as part of the 2008 Alaska Marine Science Symposium on January 24, 2008 in Anchorage, Alaska. 5  Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  51  Noatak Noatak is located on the west bank of the Noatak River. During the summer, many people still travel to Sheshalik spit to fish. The estimated population has grown from 326 people in 1950 to 470 in 2006. Catches for cisco and whitefish (excluding sheefish/inconnu) had their catch totals combined in order to interpolate total catches for years of no data. The species breakdown was based on the percent contribution of each species in 1994.  500 Population  400 300 200 100 0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure 3.15. Estimated population of Noatak 1950-2006; solid circles indicate census years.  300  300  b)  250 200  Catch (t)  Catch (t)  a)  150  250 200 150  100  100  50  50  0 1950  1960  1970  1980  Year  1990  2000  0 1950  Others  Dolly varden  Chum 1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure A3.16. a) Anchor points (solid diamonds), and estimated reconstructed total catches (line), and b) taxonomic breakdown of the reconstructed catches with ‘others’ consisting of Arctic cod, Bering cisco, broad whitefish, chinook salmon, coho salmon, humpback whitefish, least cisco, pink salmon, round whitefish, saffron cod, sheefish, smelt and sockeye salmon.  Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  52  Nuiqsut Nuiqsut is located on the Nechelik Channel of the Colville River Delta, about 35 miles inland from the Beaufort Sea coast. The community was re-established in 1973 on traditional land by 27 families from Barrow (www.dced.state.ak.us). The estimated population has grown from an estimated 108 people in 1973 to 417 people in 2006. Nuiqsut catches are dominated by broad whitefish and two species of ciscos. Subsistence catches have increased in comparison to the commercial fishery since the Helmerick’s family has limited its commercial operation. It is important to note in the context of salmonid range extension that in the 2000s, the Trapper School in Nuiqsut released coho salmon fry as part of an enhancement program (www.cf.adfg.state.ak.us/geninfo/pubs/rir/5j04 -02/rir-5j04-02_p3.pdf7).  500 Population  400 300 200 100 0 1973  1978  1983  1988  1993  1998  2003  Year  Figure 3.17. Estimated population of Nuiqsut 1973-2006; solid circles indicate census years  60  60  a)  b)  40  Catch(t)  Catch (t)  50  30  40  Others Arctic cisco  30  20  20  10  10  Broad whitefish  0  0 1973  Least cisco  50  1978  1983  1988 Year  1993  1998  2003  1973  1978  1983  1988  1993  1998  2003  Year  Figure A3.18. a) Anchor points (solid circles), and estimated reconstructed total catches (solid line), and b) taxonomic breakdown of the reconstructed catches with ‘others’ consisting of Arctic cod, chinook salmon, chum salmon, coho salmon, Dolly varden, humpback whitefish, pink salmon, rainbow smelt, and round whitefish.  7 Farrington, C. (2004). Alaska salmon enhancement program 2003 report. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Commercial Fisehries. Juneau, Alaska, 50 p.  Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  53  Point Hope Point Hope is located along the Chuckchi Sea. The earliest studies used for this report arose from environmental studies for Project Chariot, which in the 1950s aimed to create a harbor near Point Hope by detonating nuclear material. Although this project never occurred, nuclear material from Nevada was used in some experiments and buried and forgotten until the mid-1990s, when the nuclear material was removed (http://arcticcircle.uconn.edu/SEEJ/chariotseej.html). The estimated population of Point Hope has grown from 264 people in 1950 to 737 in 2006. Dolly varden, whitefish, and chum salmon catch totals had additional anchor points derived from Kivalina. Anchor years from Kivalina for these species were used to derive changes in catch totals for these species because the latest data for these species caught in Point Hope was in 1971  Population  800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure A3.19. Estimated population of Point Hope 1950-2006; solid circles indicate census years.  35  35  b)  30  30  25  25 Catch (t)  Catch Catc h (t)  a)  20 15  15 10  5  5  1950  Chum  20  10  0  Smelt + Whitefish Arctic cod  Dolly varden Pink  0 1960  1970  1980 Year  1990  2000  1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure A3.20. a) Anchor points (solid diamonds), and estimated reconstructed total catches (line), and b) taxonomic breakdown of the reconstructed catches.  Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  54  Point Lay Point Lay lies between the communities of Point Hope and Wainwright along the Chuckchi Sea. The village was nearly abandoned in the mid-1950s and it was not until the early 1970s that people started to move back. Point Lay Biographies (Impact Assessment Inc., 1989) states that during the intervening time period one couple lived there, whereas the state census states that no-one lived there between 1950 and 1980, the first non-zero census year. The estimated population has grown from 34 people in 1950 to 235 people in 2006. Chum salmon, broad whitefish and Dolly varden had additional anchor points derived from Kivalina. However, in this case the derived anchor points used changes in per capita rates. This was done because the village was nearly abandoned in the mid1950s.  300 Population  250 200 150 100  Craig (1987) presented data for the 1983 fishery in Point Lay. Total estimated catch 0 was 143 pounds. These data were not used for 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 several reasons: 1) some of the average Year weights suggested for species were very low Figure 3.21. Estimated population of Point Lay (e.g., Dolly varden @ 2 lbs; commercial 1950-2006; solid circles indicate census years. average for the same year = 5.8 pounds); 2) camps away from the community were not monitored during the study; and 3) the camps away from the community were “conservatively assumed that the harvest away from the village was similar to that at the village”; and 4) the fall fishery was not monitored. 50  a)  2.0  b)  Others Broad whitefish  1.5 Catch (t)  Catch (t)  1.5  2.0  1.0 0.5  0.5  0.0  0.0  Chum  Pink  1.0  Dolly varden 1950  1960  1970  1980 Year  1990  2000  1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure A3.22. a) Anchor points (solid diamonds), and estimated reconstructed total catches (line), and b) taxonomic breakdown of the reconstructed catches with ‘others’ consisting of flounder, herring, and smelt.  Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  55  Selawik Selawik is located at the mouth of the Selawik River where the river meets Selawik Lake. The people of the area barter for seal and beluga with the communities that are situated along the coast (www.dced.state.ak.us). The area is well-known for sheefish; the sheefish populations in this area are slow growing, but attain larger sizes than other populations in Alaska (www.sf.adfg.ak.us). The human population was estimated to grow from 273 in 1950 to 841 in 2006. The earliest reported catches presented, which were transformed into anchor points fall well below the reconstructed total catch line because the earliest reported catches only documented the catch for sheefish. Although sheefish are a species of whitefish, no whitefish, which make up the largest portion of the catches, were reported until Patterson (1974).  1,000 Population  800 600 400 200 0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure A3.23. Estimated population of Selawik 1950-2006; solid circles indicate census years  350  b)  350  300  300  250  250 Catch (t)  Catch (t)  a)  200 150  150 100  50  50  1950  Sheefish  200  100  0  Others  Whitefish  0 1960  1970  1980 Year  1990  2000  1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure A3.24. a) Anchor points (solid diamonds), and estimated reconstructed total catches (line), and b) taxonomic breakdown of the reconstructed catches with ‘others’ consisting of chum salmon, Dolly varden, flounder, herring and smelt.  Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  56  Shishmaref Shishmaref is located along the Chuckchi Sea on Sarichef Island. Severe impacts from storms caused erosion of 30 feet of shore in 1997, and since then the shoreline has continued to erode by an average of 35 feet per year. This erosion has caused several houses to be moved and in 2002 the community decided to re-locate. Two reindeer herds are managed in the area. The estimated population of the community has grown from 194 people in 1950 to 615 in 2006. Estimated chum salmon catches after 1975 were based on exploitation rates derived from the work by Eggers and Clark (2006) and thus, it was assumed that the community intercepts Kotzebue area chum salmon.  700 500 400 300 200 100 0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure 3.25. Estimated population of Shishmaref 1950-2006; solid circles indicate census years  a)  Whitefish (except Sheefish/Inconnu) had their catch totals combined in order to interpolate total whitefish catches for years of no data. The species breakdown from 1995 was applied to all other years’ catch. Cisco had their catch totals combined in order to interpolate total catches for years of no data. The species breakdown from 1995 was applied to all other years’ catch.  60  Catch (t)  50 40 30 20 10 0 1950  b)  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  60 50  Catch(t)  Population  600  Others Smelt Dolly varden Pink Bering cisco Coho Saffron cod Herring Chum  40 30 20 10 0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure A3.26. a) Anchor points (solid diamonds), and estimated reconstructed total catches (line), and b) taxonomic breakdown of the reconstructed catches with ‘others’ consisting of Arctic cod, chinook salmon, flounder, humpback whitefish, king crab, least cisco, round whitefish, sculpin, sheefish and sockeye salmon.  Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  57  Wainwright Wainwright is located along the Chuckchi Sea between Point Lay and Barrow. The estimated population has grown from 227 in 1950 to 517 in 2006. Catches of chum salmon and Dolly varden were scaled to those in Kivalina. Catches for cisco and species of whitefish (excluding sheefish/inconnu) had their catch totals combined in order to interpolate total whitefish catches for years of no data. The species breakdown was based on the per cent contribution of each species to the total catches reported over all years.  600 Population  500 400 300 200 100 0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  Patterson (1974) stated that 750 lbs of whitefish (shortnose) was caught. This value was not used here because it related to one type of whitefish only.  2000  Year  Figure 3.27. Estimated population of Wainwright 1950-2006; solid circles indicate census years  12  b)  12  10  10  8  8  Catch (t)  Catch (t)  a)  6  Dolly varden  Others  6  4  4  2  2  Smelt Least cisco  0 1950  0 1960  1970  1980 Year  1990  2000  1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure A3.28. a) Anchor points (solid circles), and estimated reconstructed total catches (line), and b) taxonomic breakdown of the reconstructed catches with ‘others’ consisting of Arctic cod, chinook salmon, flounder, humpback whitefish, king crab, least cisco, round whitefish, sculpin, sheefish and sockeye salmon.  Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  58  Wales Wales is located on Cape Prince of Wales at the tip of the Seward Peninsula near the boundary between FAO Areas 18 (arctic) and 67 (Pacific, Northeast). Thus, the estimated total subsistence reconstructed catches for this community were split evenly between the two FAO areas (presented are the total reconstructed catches before the split). Wales was a major whaling station, and the residents still maintain a strong whaling culture, despite the large loss of life during the influenza outbreak at the turn of the 20th century. The estimated population has remained fairly constant over the time period considered her, with an average of 141 people living in the community from 1950-2006. Wales had the catches of chum salmon scaled to those of Shishmaref to derive other anchor points. After 1975, chum salmon catches for non-anchor years were based on exploitation rates derived from the work by Eggers and Clark (2006) and thus, it was assumed that the community intercepts Kotzebue area chum.  150 100 50 0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure 3.29. Estimated population of Wales 1950-2006; solid circles indicate census years.  Catches for whitefish (excluding sheefish/inconnu) had their catch totals combined in order to interpolate total whitefish catches for years of no data. The species breakdown was based on the per cent contribution of each species to the total catches reported in 1993.  12  Catch (t)  10 8 6 4 2 0 1950  1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  12 10 Catch (t)  Population  200  8  Others Dolly varden Chinook Coho Pink  6 4 2 0 1950  Chum 1960  1970  1980  1990  2000  Year  Figure A3.30. a) Anchor points (solid circles), and estimated reconstructed total catches (solid line), and b) taxonomic breakdown of the reconstructed catches with ‘others’ consisting of Bering cisco, flounder, least cisco, round whitefish, saffron cod, sculpin and smelt.  Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  59  APPENDIX 4: DATA VALIDATION WORKSHOP HELD IN ANCHORAGE, ALASKA: PARTICIPANTS AND NOTES. The workshop was held on January 24, 2008 immediately following the 2008 Alaska Marine Science Symposium. Local logistic and organizational support was organized by Jonathan Warrenchuk and Susan Murray of Oceana-Juneau, Alaska. Thirteen people participated in the one day workshop (Table A4.1), with opening comments by Daniel Pauly concerning the state of global fishery statistics, and Dirk Zeller expanding on the purposes and examples of why catch reconstructions are needed. Thereafter, Shawn Booth communicated the preliminary results for the individual catch reconstructions for ten marine coastal communities. After presenting the preliminary data for each community, participants were invited to give feedback on the reconstruction, which was largely related to the subsistence fisheries sector. Two general concerns arose: standardizing common names of fish species used in historical documents to the correct scientific names; and increasing the number of communities to include some which that, although not physically located on the coast, nevertheless are considered significant users of marine species, including anadromous salmon species. Common names were standardized between communities and assigned both the scientific names and Inupiat names for the species; the catch reconstruction was expanded to include the communities of Selawik, Nuiqsut, Atqasuk, Noatak, and Buckland. However, although workshop participants suggested including catches of Little Diomede Island, the catches were not reconstructed because the island is located south of the boundary for FAO Statistical Area 18. Furthermore, the community is largely dependent on walrus and other marine mammals, and it is only recently that the people have begun to string nets around the islands (J. Menard, pers. comm.8). The five other communities that were included for the expanded reconstruction were located inland, but they do rely on anadromous species of fish (i.e., salmon and whitefish complex), which spend at least a portion of their life-cycle in marine waters.  Table A4.1: Participants (and affiliations) attending the Arctic Alaska Catch Reconstruction Workshop in Anchorage, January 24, 2008. Participant  Affiliation  Booth, Shawn  University of British Columbia’s Fisheries Centre  Childers, Dorothy  Alaska Marine Conservation Council  Coon, Cathy  Arctic Research Coordinator, Minerals Management Service  George, Craig  North Slope Borough, Department of Wildlife Management  Lean, Charlie  Norton Sound Fisheries Research and Development  MacLean, Steve  The Nature Conservancy  Menard, Jim  Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Commercial Division (Nome)  Morse, Muriel  Alaska Marine Conservation Council  Murray, Susan  Oceana, Juneau  Pauly, Daniel  University of British Columbia’s Fisheries Centre  Warrenchuk, Jonathan  Oceana, Juneau  Wright, Bruce  Senior Scientist, Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association  Zeller, Dirk  University of British Columbia’s Fisheries Centre  Jim Menard, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Commercial Fisheries, P.O. Box 1148 Nome, Alaska, 99762 [date information received: January 24, 2008].  8  

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