UBC Faculty Research and Publications

[Supplementary Data] From near extinction to recovery: Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic ammonoid shell… Smith, Paul L.; Longridge, Louise M.; Grey, Melissa; Zhang, Jin; Liang, Bo Oct 31, 2013

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
52383-Smith_etal_Instructions_Lethaia_rev_2014-02-06.pdf [ 85.53kB ]
52383-Smith_etal_Raw_Data_Lethaia_2014.xls [ 234kB ]
52383-Smith_etal_References_Data_Sources_Lethaia_rev_2014-02-06.pdf [ 58.54kB ]
Metadata
JSON: 52383-1.0052312.json
JSON-LD: 52383-1.0052312-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 52383-1.0052312-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 52383-1.0052312-rdf.json
Turtle: 52383-1.0052312-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 52383-1.0052312-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 52383-1.0052312-source.json
Full Text
52383-1.0052312-fulltext.txt
Citation
52383-1.0052312.ris

Full Text

From near extinction to recovery: Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic ammonoid shell geometry PAUL L. SMITH, LOUISE M. LONGRIDGE, MELISSA GREY, JIN ZHANG AND BO LIANG  Paul L. Smith [psmith@eos.ubc.ca], Louise M. Longridge [llongridge@eos.ubc.ca], Jin Zhang [jzhang916@yahoo.ca], Bo Liang [boliang@shaw.ca], Department of Earth Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2020 Earth Sciences Building, 2207 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z4; Melissa Grey [curator@jogginsfossilcliffs.net], Joggins Fossil Institute, 100 Main Street, Joggins, Nova Scotia, Canada B0L 1A0. PUBLISHED IN LETHAIA.  January 2014. DOI:10.1111/let.12058 ABSTRACT The Triassic-Jurassic extinction resulted in the near demise of the ammonoids. Based on a survey of ammonoid expansion rates, coiling geometry and whorl shape, we use the Raup accretionary growth model to outline a universal morphospace for planispiral shell geometry. We then explore the occupation of that planispiral morphospace in terms of both breadth and density of occupation in addition to separately reviewing the occurrence of heteromorphs. Four intervals are recognized: pre-extinction (Carnian to Rhaetian); aftermath (Hettangian); post-extinction (Sinemurian to Aalenian); and recovery (Bajocian to Callovian). The pre-extinction and recovery intervals show maximum disparity. The aftermath is marked by the disappearance of heteromorphs and a dramatic reduction in the range of planispiral morphologies to a core area of the morphospace. It is also characterized by an expansion into an evolute, slowly expanding part of the morphospace that was not occupied prior to the extinction and is soon abandoned during the post-extinction interval. Aftermath and post-extinction ammonoid data show a persistent negative correlation whereby rapid expansion rates are associated with narrow umbilical widths and often compressed whorls. The permanently occupied core area of planispiral morphospace represents generalist demersals whose shells were probably optimizing both hydrodynamic efficiency and shell stability. All other parts of the planispiral morphospace, and the pelagic modes of life the shells probably exploited, were gradually reoccupied during the post-extinction interval. Planispiral adaptation was by diffusion away from the morphospace core rather than by radical jumps. Recovery of disparity was not achieved until some 30 million years after the extinction event.  Keywords: extinction, radiation, disparity, Triassic, Jurassic, ammonoids  ACCOMPANYING FILES:  1) RAW DATA Smith et al.  2014 Lethaia? UBC. XL file containing raw and derived data. Data sources are cited. 2) REFERENCES FOR DATA SOURCES Smith et al 2014 Lethaia -UBC. Word file containing the bibliographic information for references used as data sources.    VARIABLES MEASURED AND PARAMETERS INCLUDED IN THE RAW DATA FILE  The Raup model of shell geometry, as used here, includes three parameters derived from six variables which are illustrated in Figure 1 (Smith et al in press).    VARIABLES D= Shell Diameter UD= Umbilical Diameter r= shell radii WW= whorl width WH= whorl height  PARAMETERS  The three parameters calculated from the six variables are:  1. The square of the ratio of radii is called the expansion rate [W= (?2/?1)2]. 2. The relative distance between the generating curve and the axis of coiling describing the looseness of coil U=UD/D where UD is the umbilical diameter and D is the shell diameter.  3. The whorl width (WW) divided by whorl height (WH) which is a box model used to approximate the relative compression or depression of the specimen (Figure 1 B) (WWWH=WW/WH).     From near extinction to recovery: Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic ammonoid shell geometry PAUL L. SMITH, LOUISE M. LONGRIDGE, MELISSA GREY, JIN ZHANG AND BO LIANG  Paul L. Smith [psmith@eos.ubc.ca], Louise M. Longridge [llongridge@eos.ubc.ca], Jin Zhang [jzhang916@yahoo.ca], Bo Liang [boliang@shaw.ca], Department of Earth Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2020 Earth Sciences Building, 2207 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z4; Melissa Grey [curator@jogginsfossilcliffs.net], Joggins Fossil Institute, 100 Main Street, Joggins, Nova Scotia, Canada B0L 1A0. PUBLISHED IN LETHAIA.  January 2014. DOI:10.1111/let.12058 ABSTRACT The Triassic-Jurassic extinction resulted in the near demise of the ammonoids. Based on a survey of ammonoid expansion rates, coiling geometry and whorl shape, we use the Raup accretionary growth model to outline a universal morphospace for planispiral shell geometry. We then explore the occupation of that planispiral morphospace in terms of both breadth and density of occupation in addition to separately reviewing the occurrence of heteromorphs. Four intervals are recognized: pre-extinction (Carnian to Rhaetian); aftermath (Hettangian); post-extinction (Sinemurian to Aalenian); and recovery (Bajocian to Callovian). The pre-extinction and recovery intervals show maximum disparity. The aftermath is marked by the disappearance of heteromorphs and a dramatic reduction in the range of planispiral morphologies to a core area of the morphospace. It is also characterized by an expansion into an evolute, slowly expanding part of the morphospace that was not occupied prior to the extinction and is soon abandoned during the post-extinction interval. Aftermath and post-extinction ammonoid data show a persistent negative correlation whereby rapid expansion rates are associated with narrow umbilical widths and often compressed whorls. The permanently occupied core area of planispiral morphospace represents generalist demersals whose shells were probably optimizing both hydrodynamic efficiency and shell stability. All other parts of the planispiral morphospace, and the pelagic modes of life the shells probably exploited, were gradually reoccupied during the post-extinction interval. Planispiral adaptation was by diffusion away from the morphospace core rather than by radical jumps. Recovery of disparity was not achieved until some 30 million years after the extinction event.  Keywords: extinction, radiation, disparity, Triassic, Jurassic, ammonoids  ACCOMPANYING FILES:  1) RAW DATA Smith et al.  2014 Lethaia? UBC. XL file containing raw and derived data. Data sources are cited. 2) REFERENCES FOR DATA SOURCES Smith et al 2014 Lethaia -UBC. Word file containing the bibliographic information for references used as data sources.    VARIABLES MEASURED AND PARAMETERS INCLUDED IN THE RAW DATA FILE  The Raup model of shell geometry, as used here, includes three parameters derived from six variables which are illustrated in Figure 1 (Smith et al in press).    VARIABLES D= Shell Diameter UD= Umbilical Diameter r= shell radii WW= whorl width WH= whorl height  PARAMETERS  The three parameters calculated from the six variables are:  1. The square of the ratio of radii is called the expansion rate [W= (?2/?1)2]. 2. The relative distance between the generating curve and the axis of coiling describing the looseness of coil U=UD/D where UD is the umbilical diameter and D is the shell diameter.  3. The whorl width (WW) divided by whorl height (WH) which is a box model used to approximate the relative compression or depression of the specimen (Figure 1 B) (WWWH=WW/WH).     Smith, Longridge, Grey, Zhang, Liang  Lethaia 2014 REFERENCES FOR DATA SOURCES Arkell, W. J., B. Kummel and C. W. Wright. 1957. Mesozoic Ammonoidea. Pp. L80-L465 in W. J. Arkell et al. Mollusca 4, Cephalopoda, Ammonoidea. Part L of R. C. Moore, ed. Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. Geological Society of America, New York, and University of Kansas, Lawrence. Arthur, A.J., P.L. Smith, J.W.H. Monger and H.W. Tipper. 1993  Mesozoic stratigraphy and Jurassic paleontology west of Harrison Lake, southwestern British Columbia.  Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin 441: 62 p. Blau, J., C. Meister, R. Schlatter and R. Schmidt-Effing. 2001. Ammonites from the Lower Jurassic (Sinemurian) of Tenango de Doria (Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico). Part I: Erbenites n. g., a new Asteroceratinae. Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaeontologie Monat Shefte 3:175-183. Bloos, G. 1994. Fr?he Arietitidae (Ammonoidea) aus dem Hettangium (Angulata-Zone, Unt. Lias) von W?rttemberg (SW-Deutschland). Stuttgarter Beitr?ge zur Naturkunde, Serie B (Geologie und P?laontologie) 219:1-67, 4 pls. Buckman, S. S. 1918. Jurassic Chronology: I - Lias. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 73:257?327. Callomon, J. H. and R. B. Chandler. 1990. A review of the ammonite horizons of the Aalenian ? Lower Bajocian Stages in the Middle Jurassic of southern England. In S. Cresta and G. Pavia, coords. Memoire descrittive della Carta Geologica D?Italia XL:85-112. Callomon, J. H. and J.K. Wright 1989 Cardioceratid and Kosmoceratid ammonites from the Callovian of Yorkshire. Palaeontology 32: 88-96.  Canavari, M. 1882. Beitr?ge zur Fauna des unteren Lias von Spezia. Palaeontographica 29:125-192, pls 15-21. Corna, M. and J.-L. Dommergues. 1995. Les ammonites du Sin?murien de Mandelot (Cote-D?Or, France). Approches biostratigraphique, morphologique et ontog?n?tique. Geobios 28:17-47.  ____, ____, C. Meister and R. Mouterde. 1997. Sin?murien. In E. Cariou and P. Hantzpergue, coords. Groupe Fran?ais d??tudes du Jurassique, biostratigraphie du Jurassique ouest-europ?en et m?diterran?en. Zonations parall?les et distribution des invert?br?s et microfossiles. Bulletin des Centres de Recherches-Exploration Production d?Elf-Aquitaine M?moire 17:pl. 2. Cresta, S. 2002. Accardia; Alocolytoceras; Calliphylloceras; Lytoceras; Megalytoceras; Paviaites; Phylloceras; Planammatoceras; Tatroceras. In G. Pavia and S. Cresta, eds. Revision of Jurassic ammonites of the Gemmellaro collections. Quaderni del Museo Geologico "G.G. Gemmellaro" 6: 27, 42-44, 70-71, 92, 100-103, 181-182, 186-187, 190-191. Dagis, A. A. 1968. Toarcian ammonites (Dactylioceratidae) of Northern Siberia. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, 108 p., 12 pls. (In Russian) Dommergues, J.-L., C. Meister and F. B?hm. 1995. New data on Austroalpine Liassic ammonites from the Adnet Quarries and adjacent areas (Ober?sterreich, Northern Calcareous Alps). Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt A 138:161-205. ____, ____ and R. Mouterde. 1997. Pliensbachian. In E. Cariou and P. Hantzpergue (Coords.), Groupe Fran?ais d??tudes du Jurassique, biostratigraphie du Jurassique ouest-europ?en et m?diterran?en. Zonations parall?les et distribution des invert?br?s et microfossiles. Bulletin des Centres de Recherches-Exploration Production d?Elf-Aquitaine M?moire, 17:pls. 6-7. Donovan, D. T. and G. F. Forsey. 1973. Systematics of Lower Liassic Ammonitina. University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions 64, 18 p., 4 pls. ____ and F. Surly. 2003. Lower Jurassic (Pliensbachian) ammonites from Bornholm, Baltic Sea, Denmark. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin 1:555?583. Elmi, S. and R. Mouterde. 1997. Les faunes de Czernyeiceras (Hammatoceratinae, Ammonitina) ? la limite du Toarcien et de L?Aal?nien. Universit? Catholique de Lyon 10:103-116. ____, L. Rulleau, J. Gabilly and R. Mouterde. 1997. Toarcien. In E. Cariou and P. Hantzpergue (Coords.), Groupe Fran?ais d??tudes du Jurassique, biostratigraphie du Jurassique ouest-europ?en et m?diterran?en. Zonations parall?les et distribution des invert?br?s et microfossiles. Bulletin des Centres de Recherches-Exploration Production d?Elf-Aquitaine M?moire, 17:pl. 11. Faraoni, P., A. Marini, G. Pallini and F. Venturi. 1994. Pp. 247-297. Nuove faune ad ammonite delle zone ad E. mirabilis ed H. serpentinus nella Valle del F. Bosso (PS) e loro reflessi sulla biostratigrafia del limite Domeriano-Toarciano in Appennino. Studi Geologici Camerti volume speciale, ?Biostratigrafia dell?Italia centrale?. Faur?, P. 2002. Le Lias des Pyr?n?es. Actes du Laboratoire de G?ologie S?dimentaire et Pal?ontologie de l?Universit? Paul-Sabatier Toulouse, Strata II, 39, 761 p., 25 pls. Fernandez-Lopez, S. and R. Mouterde. 1994. Miscellanea del Servizio Geologico Nazionale 5:117-159. Frebold, H. 1951. Contributions to the paleontology and stratigraphy of the Jurassic System in Canada. Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin 18, 54 p. ____. 1964. Illustrations of Canadian fossils, Jurassic of Western and Arctic Canada. Geological Survey of Canada Paper 63-4, 107 p. ____. 1967. Hettangian ammonite faunas of the Taseko Lakes area, British Columbia. Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin, 158, 35 p., 9 pls. Gal?cz, A. 1994. Lokuticeras nov. gen. ? a new genus for a Mediterranean Bajocian (Middle Jurassic) stephanoceratid ammonite group. Miscellanea del Servizio Geologico Nazionale 5:161-175. ____, B. G?czy and M. Monostori. 2008. Csernye revisited: New ammonite finds and ostracods from the Lower Jurassic Pliensbachian/Toarcian boundary beds in Bakonycsernye, Transdanubian Hungary. Geologica Pannonica 36:187-225.  G?czy, B. and C. Meister. 2007. Les ammonites du Sin?murien et du Pliensbachien inf?rieur de la montagne du Bakony (Hongrie). Revue de Pal?obiologie 26:137-305. Gil, M. S. U. 1985. Bioestratigrafia y paleontologia (Ammonitina) del Aaleniense en el sector noroccidental de la Cordillera Iberica. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 452 p., 34 pls. Gu?rin-Franiatte, S. 1990. Ammonites du Lias inf?rieur de France (II): Psiloceratidae, Schlotheimiidae et premiers Arietitidae. Centre d?Etude et de Recherches Geologique et Hydrologiques M?moire 29, 207 p., 30 pls. Guex, J. 1972. R?partition biostratigraphique des ammonites du Toarcien moyen de la bordure sud des Causses (France) et r?visions des ammonites d?crites et figur?es par Monestier (1931). Eclogae geologicae Helvetiae 65:611-645, 13 pls. ____. 1975. Description biostratigraphique du Toarcien sup?rieur de la bordure sud des Causses (France). Eclogae geologicae Helvetiae 68:97-129, 12 pls.  ____. 1995. Ammonites Hettangiennes de la Gabbs Valley Range (Nevada, USA). G?ologie Lausanne M?moires 27, 131 p. ____. 2000. Paronychoceras gen. n., un nouveau genre d?ammonites (Cephalopoda) du Lias sup?rieur. Soci?t? Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles Bulletin 87.2:115-124. Hall, R. L. and G. E. G. Westermann. 1980. Lower Bajocian (Jurassic) cephalopod faunas from western Canada and proposed assemblage zones for the Lower Bajocian of North America. Palaeontographica Americana 9(52), 93 p. Henriques, M. H. 2000. Aalenian of the Zambujal de Alcaria Section (Central Lusitanian Basin; Portugal). Pp. 85-94 in R. L. Hall and P. L. Smith, eds. Advances in Jurassic Research 2000. Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on the Jurassic System. GeoResearch Forum 6. Trans Tech, Switzerland. Hillebrandt, A. Von. 2000. Die ammoniten-fauna des s?damerikanischen Hettangium (basaler Jura). Palaeontographica, Abteilung A, Teil 257:85-189, 14 pls; Teil 258:65-116, 12 pls; Teil 258:1-64, 16 pls.  ____. 2002. Ammoniten aus dem oberen Sinemurium von S?damerika. Revue de Pal?obiologie 21:35-147. ____. 2006. Pliensbachian ammonites of South America. Revue de Pal?obiologie 25:1-403. ____ and Westermann, G. E. G. 1985. Aalenian (Jurassic) ammonite faunas and zones of the Southern Andes. Zitteliana 12:3-55. Howarth, M. K. 1992. The ammonite family Hildoceratidae in the Lower Jurassic of Britain. Part 2. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society London 146:107-200, 38 pls. Imlay, R. W. 1953. Callovian (Jurassic) ammonites from the United States and Alaska-Part 2. Alaska Peninsula and Cook Inlet regions. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 249B: 25-55, plates 25-55. ____. New genera and subgenera of Jurassic (Bajocian) ammonites from Alaska. Journal of Paleontology 35:467-474, pls 63-64. ____. 1962. Late Bajocian ammonites from the Cook Inlet Region, Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 418-A:A1-A14, 5 pls. ____. 1964. Middle Bajocian ammonites from the Cook Inlet Region, Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 418-B:B1-B61, 29 pls. ____. 1980. Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) ammonites from southern Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1091: 42 p., 12 pls. ____. 1981. Jurassic (Bathonian and Callovian) ammonites in eastern Oregon and western Idaho. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1142: 24 p., 5 pls. ____. 1982. Late Bajocian ammonites from Southern Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1189, 19 p., 7 pls. Irnstorfer, O. 2005. Trias-ammoniten aus den Hallst?tter Kalken. Fossilien 6:361-368. Jakobs, G. K. 1997. Toarcian (Early Jurassic) ammonoids from Western North America. Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin 428, 137 p. ____ and P. L. Smith. 1996. Latest Toarcian ammonoids from the North American Cordillera. Palaeontology 39:97-147. Johnston, F. N. 1941. Trias at New Pass, Nevada (new Lower Karnic Ammonids). Journal of Paleontology 15:447-491. Konstantinov, A. G. 1995. Arctophyllites, a new genus of Ammonoidea from Carnian deposits of Northeastern Asia. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 29:18-25. (In Russian) ____. 1999. A new ammonoid genus from the Carnian of the northern Okhotsk region. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 33:132-135. ____. 2006. The first discovery of Apartidae (Ammonoidea) in the Carnian of Northeastern Asia. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 40:261-265. Krymholts, G. Ya, M. S. Mesezhnikov and G. E. G. Westermann. 1988. The Jurassic ammonite zones of the Soviet Union. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 223, 116 p. Lange, W. 1941. Die ammonitenfauna der Psiloceras-Stufe Norddeutschlands. Palaeontographica, Abteilung A 93:1-92, 20 pls. Longridge, L. M., P. L. Smith and H. W. Tipper. 2008. Late Hettangian (Early Jurassic) ammonites from Taseko Lakes, British Columbia, Canada. Palaeontology 51:367-404. Macchioni, F. 2002. Calliphylloceras. In G. Pavia and S. Cresta, eds. Revision of Jurassic ammonites of the Gemmellaro collections. Quaderni del Museo Geologico "G.G. Gemmellaro" 6: 56-57. ____, P. L. Smith and H. W. Tipper. 2006. Late early Sinemurian (Early Jurassic) ammonites from the Taseko Lakes map area, British Columbia. Palaeontology 49:557-583. Meister, C., Vu Khuc, D. Tran Huyen and P. Doyle. 2002. Les ammonites du Jurassique inf?rieur des provinces de Dak Lak et de H? Chi Minh Ville, Vi?t Nam du Sud. Revue de Pal?obiologie 21:439-483. Morton, N. 1990. Bearreraig (Isle of Skye, N.W. Scotland) as boundary stratotype for the base of the Bajocian Stage. In S. Cresta and G. Pavia, coords. Memorie descrittive della Carta Geologica D?Italia XL:23-48. Ohmert, W. and C. Rolf with contributions by R. Mattes. 1994. The Aalenian boundaries at Wittnau (Oberrhein area, south west Germany). Miscellanea del Servizio Geologico Nazionale 5:33-61. Parisi, G., A. Baldanza, L. Benedetti, E. Mattioli, F. Venturi and S. Cresta. 1998. Toarcian stratigraphy of the Colle d?Orlando section (Umbria, Central Italy, northern Apennine). Societ? Paleontologica Italiana Bollettino 37:3-39. Pavia, G. 1983. Monografie II - Ammoniti e biostratigrafia del Baiociano inferiore di Digne (Francia SE, Dip. Alpes-Haute-Provence). Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, 254 p. Polubotko, I. B. and Khudoley, K. M. 1960. Onakhodke rannegetangskikh ammonitov na Severo-Vostoke SSSR. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 3:56-60. (In Russian) Rak?s, M. 1993. Late Triassic and Early Jurassic Phylloceratids from the Salzkammergut (Northern Calcareous Alps). Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt Wein A 136:933-963. ____. 1994. Les ammonites Lotharingiennes du Jebel Bou Hamid (Haut-Atlas de Rich, Maroc). Proceedings of the 3rd Pergola International Symposium. Palaeopelagos Special Publication 1:299-316. ____. 1999. Lower Liassic (Hettangian) ammonites from Zlambach Graben near Bad Goisern, Upper Austria. Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt Wein A 56:329-341. ____. 1999. Some hitherto undescribed Liassic ammonites from the Adnet Formation in Austria. Abhandlungen der Geologischen Bundesanstalt 56:319-328. ____ and Guex, J. 2002. Les ammonites du Jurassique inf?rieur et moyen de la dorsale tunisienne. G?ologie Lausanne M?moires 39, 217 p. Repin, Y. S. 1968. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 3:140. (In Russian) Riccardi, A. C. and G. E. G. Westermann. 1991. Middle Jurassic ammonoid fauna and biochronology of the Argentin-Chilean Andes. Part III: Bajocian-Callovian Eurycephalitinae, Stephanocerataceae. Palaeontographica Beitr?ge zur Naturgeschichte der Vorzeit, Pal A, 216, 110 p., 30 pls. Rieber, H. 1963. Ammoniten und stratigraphie des Braunjura B der Schwabischen Alb. Palaetonographica A 122, 89 p., 8 pls. Sadki, D. 1990. Les derniers Grammoceratinae et les derniers Hammotoceratinae du Bajocien inf?rieur du Haut-Atlas marocain. In S. Cresta and G. Pavia, coords. Memorie descrittive della Carta Geologica D?Italia XL:205-214.  ____ and R. Mouterde. 1994. Ammonites de l?Aal?nien sup?rieur et du Bajocien inf?rieur a affinit?s oust am?ricaines dans le Haut-Atlas marocain. Miscellanea del Servizio Geologico Nazionale 5:191-201. Sandoval-Gabarron, J. 1983. Bioestratigrafia y paleontologia (Stephanocerataceae y Perisphinctaceae) del Bajocense y Bathonense en Las Cordilleras Beticas. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Univesity of Granada, Vol. I, 613 pp; Vol. II, 72 pls. Schlegelmilch, R. 1976. Die ammoniten des s?ddeutschen Lias. Stuttgart ? New York, Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart. ____. 1985. Die ammoniten des s?ddeutschen Doggers. Stuttgart ? New York, Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart. Seyed-Emami, K., F. T. F?rsich, M. Wilmsen, F. Cecca, M. R. Majidifar, G. Schairer and A. Shekarifard. 2006. Stratigraphy and ammonite fauna of the upper Shemshak Formation (Toarcian-Aalenian) at Tazareh, eastern Alborz, Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 28:259-275. Silberling, N. J. 1959. Pre-Tertiary statigraphy and Upper Triassic paleontology of the Union District Shoshone Mountains, Nevada. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 322, 67 p., 9 pls. Smith, J. P. 1927. Upper Triassic marine invertebrate faunas of North America: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 141:1-262, 121 pls. Smith, P. L. and H. W. Tipper. 1996. Pliensbachian (Lower Jurassic) ammonites of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. Bulletins of American Paleontology 348, 122 p. ____. 2000. The schlotheimiid succession across the Hettangian-Sinemurian boundary (Lower Jurassic), Taseko Lakes map area, British Columbia, Canada. Revue de Pal?obiologie, Vol. Sp?c., 8:1-12. Sturani, C. 1971. Ammonites and stratigraphy of the ?Posidonia Alpina? beds of the Venetian Alps. Memorie degli Instituti di Geologia e Mineralogia dell?, Universit? di Padova 28, 188 p., 16 pls. Taylor, D. G. 1988. Paradiscamphiceras: un nouveau genre d?ammonites du Lias inf?rieur. Soci?t? Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles Bulletin 79:117-122. ____. 1998. Late Hettangian-Early Sinemurian (Jurassic) ammonite biochronology of the western Cordillera, United States. Geobios 31:467-497. ____ and Guex, J. 2002. The Triassic/Jurassic System boundary in the John Day Inlier, east-central Oregon. Oregon Geology 64:3-27. Tozer, E. T. 1994. Canadian Triassic ammonoid faunas. Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin 467, 663 p. Tutcher, J. W. and A. E. Trueman. 1925. The Liassic rocks of the Radstock district (Somerset). Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 81:595?666. Venturi, F. 1981. Hammatoceratinae, Buckman 1887, nel Toarciano medio ?Rosso Ammonitico? umbro ? marchigiano. Societ? Paleontologica Italiana Bollettino 20:81-92. ____. 1997. Martanites, nuovo genere di ammonite Harpoceratinae nel ?Rosso Ammonitico umbro-marchigiano? (Zona a Hildaites serpentinus, Toarciano inferiore) Societ? Paleontologica Italiana Bollettino 35:321-330. ____ and R. Ferri. 2001. Ammoniti Liassici dell'Appennino centrale. Tibergraph, Citt? di Castello. ____ and C. Nannarone. 2002. Ammoniti del Sinemuriano inferiore del Monte Cetona (Prov. di siena). Societ? Paleontologica Italiana Bollettino 41:131-162. ____, ____ and M. Bilotta. 2004. Eoderoceratidae (Mollusca, Ammonoidea) from the ?Corniola? of the Central Apennines, related to the Sinemurian?Pliensbachian boundary in the Mediterranean area. Bollettino della Societ`a Paleontologica Italiana 43:361?82. W?hner, F. 1882-1888. Beitr?ge zur Kenntnis der tieferen Zonen des unteren Lias der nord?stlichen Alpen. Beitr?ge zur Pal?eontologie ?sterreich-Ungarns und des Orients 2-11, 291 p., 66 pls. Weitschat, W. 1973. Stratigraphie und ammoniten des h?heren Untertoarcium (oberer Lias) von NW-Deutschland. Geologisches Jahrbuch A8:3-81. Westermann, G. E. G. 1964. The ammonite fauna of the Kialagvik Formation at Wide Bay, Alaska Peninsula. Part I. Lower Bajocian (Aalenian). Bulletins of American Paleontology 47(216), 503 p. ____. 1969. The ammonite fauna of the Kialagvik Formation at Wide Bay, Alaska Peninsula. Part II. Sonninia Sowerbyi Zone (Bajocian). Bulletins of American Paleontology 57, 226 p. ____. 1975. Bajocian ammonoid fauna of Tethyan affinities from the Kambe Limestone Series of Kenya and implication to plate tectonics. Newsletter on Stratigraphy 4:23-48. ____ and A. C. Riccardi. 1972. Middle Jurassic ammonoid fauna and biochronology of the Argentine-Chelean Andes. Part I: Hildocerataceae. Palaeontographica Beitr?ge zur Naturgeschichte der Vorzeit. Pal A, 140, 116 p., 31 pls. ____. 1979. Middle Jurassic ammonoid fauna and biochronology of the Argentine-Chilean Andes. Part II: Bajocian Stephanocerataceae. Palaeontographica Beitr?ge zur Naturgeschichte der Vorzeit. Pal A, 164, 188 p., 28 pls. Westermann, G. E. G.  and J. Callomon. 1988. The Macrocephalitinae and associated Bathonian and Early Callovian (Jurassic) ammonoids of the Sula Islands and New Guinea.  Palaeontographica A203: 1-90.   Wiedmann, J. 1970. Uber den Ursprung der Neoammoniden ? das problem einer typogenese. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae 63:923-1020, 10 pls. Wiedenmayer, F. 1980. Die ammoniten der mediterranen Provinz im Pliensbachian und Unteren Toarcian aufgrund neuer Untersuchungenim Generoso-Becken (Lombardische Alpen). M?moires de la Soci?t? h?lv?tique de Sciences Naturelles 93:1?195. Yin, J., P. L. Smith, J. P?lfy and R. Enay. 2007. Ammonoids and the Triassic/Jurassic boundary in the Himalayas of southern Tibet. Palaeontology 50:711-737.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.52383.1-0052312/manifest

Comment

Related Items