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Airborne endotoxin exposures to grain elevator workers is independent of dust concentration (presentation) Bartlett, Karen H.; Dimich-Ward, Helen; Chan-Yeung, Moira; Kennedy, Susan M. 2006

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Airborne endotoxin exposures to grain elevator workers is independent of dust concentration Karen H. Bartlett, Helen Dimich-Ward, Moira Chan-Yeung and Susan M. Kennedy  Terminal grain elevators  Photo credit: Yat Chow  Farant & Moore AIHAJ 1978; 39:177-194.  Pre-1975: Canadian grain elevator dust „ „ „  17 terminal-transfer grain elevators 19 Occupational exposure groups Total dust range 0.4 – 412 mg/m3 – (434 Personal dust samples)  „ „  Explosion hazard ! Exposure limit 10 mg/m3 Farant & Moore AIHAJ 1978; 39(3):177-194  Post 1975: UBC & Labour Canada collaboration „ „ „ „  UBC Respiratory Health Research group: Medical surveillance Labour Canada: exposure monitoring of grain elevator workers 1975 – 2003, every third year 5 terminal grain elevators in Port of Vancouver (every sampling period), 1 terminal grain elevator in Prince Rupert (not 2003)  Dust control: Vancouver terminal grain elevators Total grain dust (personal samples) 14  12  GM mg/m3  10  8  6  4  2  0  74  75  76  77  78  79  80  81  82  83  84  85  86  Year  Adapted from Huy Am Rev Respir Dis 1991; 144:1314-21  87  88  89  Health effects: grain dust „  Grain dust – Asthma – Acute airway reactivity – Chronic airway reactivity – Bronchitis – Progressive irreversible airflow obstruction  Health effects: grain dust and/or endotoxin „  Grain dust – Asthma – Acute airway reactivity – Chronic airway reactivity – Bronchitis – Progressive irreversible airflow obstruction  Jagielo Chest 1996;110:263-270  „  Endotoxin – – – –  Cough Chest tightness Shortness of breath Longitudinal decline in PFT  Image: CCHSA 2006; II:2  Post 1996: UBC & Terminal Elevators Assoc. „  „  „  UBC School of Environmental Hygiene added endotoxin analysis in 1996 sampling period Side-by-side total (~ 30 um da) and inhalable (100 um da) grain dust sampling in 1999 Randomized total and inhalable dust and endotoxin in 2003.  1996: Grain handled (% of day) Other, 5.1 Rye, 0.2 Oats, 0.2 Canola, 11.1  Barley, 11.5  Types of grain handled (% of day)  Wheat, 71.9  1996 2003: Grain handled (% of day)  Other, 22.18  Types of grain handled (% of day)  Wheat, 21.7  Rye, 0 Oats, 0.12 Barley, 9.4  2003 Canola, 46.6  Measured personal dust and endotoxin  n Terminal elevator 1 2 3 4 5 6  61 67 67 60 53 68  Personal dust GM mg/m3 (GSD) 1996 n 2003  0.79 (3.9) 0.68 (2.8) 0.47 (3.4) 0.69 (3.7) 0.68 (5.4) 0.53 (4.4)  22 17 22 21 NT 19  0.26 (4.4) 0.62 (2.1) 0.38 (3.6) 0.57 (7.5) 0.38 (5.4)  n  61 67 62 60 53 68  Personal endotoxin GM EU/m3 (GSD) 1996 n 2003  197 (17.8) 93 (15.2) 115 (20.2) 126 (19.0) 91 (19.5) 91 (15.4)  22 17 22 21 NT 19  87 (4.3) 191 (2.1) 127 (4.0) 253 (9.9) 121 (9.5)  Measured total (personal) dust and endotoxin  n Terminal elevator 1 2 3 NS 4 5 6  61 67 67 60 53 68  Personal dust GM mg/m3 (GSD) 1996 n 2003  0.79 (3.9) 0.68 (2.8) 0.47 (3.4) 0.69 (3.7) 0.68 (5.4) 0.53 (4.4)  22 17 22 21 NT 19  0.26 (4.4) 0.62 (2.1) 0.38 (3.6) 0.57 (7.5) 0.38 (5.4)  n  61 67 62 60 53 68  Personal endotoxin GM EU/m3 (GSD) 1996 n 2003  197 (17.8) 93 (15.2) 115 (20.2) 126 (19.0) 91 (19.5) 91 (15.4)  22 17 22 21 NT 19  87 (4.3) 191 (2.1) 127 (4.0) 253 (9.9) 121 (9.5)  Measured total (personal) dust and endotoxin  n Terminal elevator 1 2 3 4 5 6  61 67 67 60 53 68  Personal dust GM mg/m3 (GSD) 1996 n 2003  0.79 (3.9) 0.68 (2.8) 0.47 (3.4) 0.69 (3.7) 0.68 (5.4) 0.53 (4.4)  22 17 22 21 NT 19  0.26 (4.4) 0.62 (2.1) 0.38 (3.6) 0.57 (7.5) 0.38 (5.4)  p = 0.007  n  61 67 62 60 53 68  Personal endotoxin GM EU/m3 (GSD) 1996 n 2003  197 (17.8) 93 (15.2) 115 (20.2) 126 (19.0) 91 (19.5) 91 (15.4)  22 17 22 21 NT 19  NS  87 (4.3) 191 (2.1) 127 (4.0) 253 (9.9) 121 (9.5)  Job titles „ „  18 job titles 7 job groups – – – – – – –  Panel control operator/QC operator Grain inspector/house inspector Pellet plant/trackshed/switchman Cleaner Trades: Electrician/sheetmetal/millwright Distributor/bintop/basement/annex/gallery Sweeper/general labourer  Grain dust by job group Total (personal) grain dust 1996 vs 2003 10 1996 2003  GM dust mg/m  3  8  6  1 pco/qco 2 inspectors  4  3 pellet plant 4 cleaner  2  5 trades 6 distributor  0 0  1  2  3  4 Job groups  5  6  7  8  7 sweeper  Endotoxin by job group Total (personal) endotoxin 1996 vs 2003  GM endotoxin EU/m  3  10000 1996 2003  1000  1 pco/qco 2 inspectors  100  3 pellet plant 4 cleaner  10  5 trades 6 distributor  1 0  1  2  3  4 Job groups  5  6  7  8  7 sweeper  Determinants of total (personal) exposure to dust or endotoxin Variable Job category Inspectors Pco/Qco Trades Distributor Sweeper Cleaner (baseline pellet plant) Time spent during day Sweeping Maintenance Outside Sampling year 1996 R2 for model  ln dust mg/m3 Direction Std. coeff.  p  ln endotoxin EU/m3 Direction Std. coeff. p  ↓ ↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑  - 0.081 - 0.149 + 0.186 + 0.124 + 0.219 + 0.215  0.076 0.001 <0.001 0.010 <0.001 <0.001  ↓ ↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑  - 0.103 - 0.175 + 0.176 + 0.129 + 0.220 + 0.248  0.019 <0.001 0.001 0.006 <0.001 <0.001  ↑ ↑ ↓ ↑  + 0.259 + 0.188 - 0.106 + 0.155  <0.001 <0.001 0.009 <0.001  ↑ ↑ ↓ NA  + 0.295 + 0.174 - 0.077 0  <0.001 <0.001 0.048 NS  0.364  <0.001  0.412  <0.001  Total vs. inhalable grain dust by job group Total vs. inhalable (personal) grain dust - 2003 10 Total Inhalable  GM grain dust mg/m  3  8  6  1 pco/qco 2 inspectors  4  3 pellet plant 4 cleaner  2  5 trades 0 0  1  2  3  4 Job groups  5  6  7  8  6 distributor 7 sweeper  Total vs. inhalable endotoxin by job group Total vs. inhalable (personal) endotoxin - 2003 10000  GM endotoxin EU/m  3  Total Inhalable 1000  1 pco/qco 2 inspectors  100  3 pellet plant 4 cleaner  10  5 trades 6 distributor  1 0  1  2  3  4  Job groups  5  6  7  8  7 sweeper  Conclusions „  „  „  There was no significant differences in total or inhalable dust, or total or inhalable endotoxin between grain elevators. Geometric mean total particulate (personal) exposures were significantly lower in the 2003 than the 1996 sampling period. Total particulate means << 10 mg/m3 for all job groups.  Conclusions „  „  Overall geometric mean total endotoxin (personal) was not significantly different for 2003 compared to the 1996 sampling period. Only 3 of 7 job groups had geometric mean endotoxin concentrations below 200 EU/m3.  Conclusions „  „  Job groups and performing tasks of sweeping and maintenance were significant predictors of endotoxin concentration. Personal total and inhalable endotoxin is an independent inhalation hazard.  Acknowledgements „  „  The study was funded in part by the Vancouver Terminal Elevators Association. The authors thank Yat Chow and Ron Do for conducting the exposure monitoring.  

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