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Appendices for "Athapaskan migrations: the archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia" Matson, R.G.; Magne, Martin Paul Robert 2007

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Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Appendix I:I:ARTIFACTS aAppendix Artifacts and AND FaunaFAUNA Table of Contents Artifact Descriptions Patricia Ormerod Table of Contents Artifact Bifaces Descriptions Patricia Ormerod 3 Bifaces 1. Side-notched Points (SNPT) and Multi-notched Side-notched Points 5(MNPT) 2. 1. KavikSide-notched Points (KAPT) Points (SNPT) and 3. Corner-notched Multi-notched Points Side-notched (CNPT) Points (MNPT) 5 4. 2. Stemmed Kavik Points Points (STPT) (KAPT) 7 5. 3. Miscellaneous Corner-notched PointsPoints (MIPT) (CNPT) 9 6. 4. PointStemmed Fragments Points ; Small (STPT) Points (PTFRs) and Large Points (PTFRl) 10 7. 5. Large Miscellaneous Formed Bifaces Points : Complete (MIPT) (LFBI) and Fragments (LFBF) 10 8. 6. Small Point Formed Fragments: BifacesSmall (SFBI) Points (PTFRs) Retouchedand Flake Large tools Points (PTFRl) 11 9. 7. Formed Large Scrapers Formed Bifaces: (FOSC)Complete (LFBI) and Fragments (LFBF) 12 10. 8. Spurred SmallScrapers Formed Bifaces (SFBI) 14 Retouched 11. Bifacially Flake Retouched tools Flakes: Large (BIREl) and Small (BIREs) 12. 9. Unifacially FormedRetouched Scrapers (FOSC) Flakes 17 13. 10. Utilized Spurred Flakes Scrapers (UTIL) 18 14. 11. Multiple-edged Bifacially Retouched Unifaces Flakes: (MUUT) Large (BIREl) and Small (BIREs) 18 15. 12. Sinuous, Unifacially Multiple-edged RetouchedUnifaces Flakes: Large (SINU) (UNREl) and Small (UNREs) 20 16. 13. Gravers Utilized (GRAV) Flakes (UTIL) 17. Perforators: 21 Alternating 14. (PERFa) Multiple-edged and Non-Alternating Unifaces (MUUT) (PERFn) 24 18. 15. DrillsSinuous, (DRIL) Multiple-edged Unifaces (SINU) 24 Bipolar 16. Reduction Gravers (GRAV) Lithic Assemblage 26 19. 17. Pièces Perforators: Esquillées Alternating (PEEQ) (PERFa) and Non-Alternating (PERFn) 27 20. 18. Bipolar Drills Wedges (DRIL)(WEDG) 29 Bipolar 21. Bipolar Reduction CoresLithic & Fragments Assemblage (BICO and BICOf) Cobble-based 19. PiècesLithic Esquillées Assemblage (PEEQ) 29 22. 20. Cortex Bipolar SpallWedges Tools (SPTO) (WEDG) 31 23. 21. CoreBipolar Tools and Cores Fragments & Fragments (CORE) (BICO and BICOf) 32 Cobble-based 24. Hammerstones Lithic Assemblage (HAST) 25. 22. Polished Cortex Cobble Spall Tools (POCO) (SPTO) 33 26. 23. Pecked CoreCobble Tools and ToolFragments (PCOB) (CORE) 34 27. Cobble 24. Hammerstones Tools (COBL) (HAST) 35 28. Cobble 25. Polished with Use-wear Cobble (POCO) (UCOB) 35 29. Large 26. Pecked FlakeCobble Tools (LFLT) Tool (PCOB) 35 Microblade 27. Cobble Assemblage Tools (COBL) 36 30. Microblades 28. Cobble with (MIBL) Use-wear (UCOB) 37 31. Microblade 29. Large Flake Cores Tools (MICO) (LFLT) 37 Bone Microblade and Antler Assemblage Assemblage 32. Incised 30. Microblades Bone (INCB) (MIBL) 38 33. Bone 31. Microblade Fish SpearCores Points (MICO) (Leister Prongs) (BPNT) 39 35. BoneBone and Antler Awl (BAWL) Assemblage 34. Harpoon 32. Incised points Boneand (INCB) fragments (TPNT) 40 35. Bone 33. Bone Awl Fish (BAWL) Spear Points (Leister Prongs) (BPNT) 41 1  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia 34. Harpoon points and fragments (TPNT) 35. Bone Awl (BAWL) 36. Scapula Beamer (BEAM) CR 73 / EkSa 35 Assemblage Unique Items 37. Waisted Stone (WAST) 38. Adze Flake (ADZEf) 39. Polished Pebble (POLP) 40. Pebble with Ochre (OCHP) 41. Notched/Incised Slate (NOSL) Historic Artifact Assemblage 42. Historic Artifacts: Bear Lake Site (EkSa 36) (HIST) 43. Historic Artifacts: Other Sites (HIST) Obsidian Source Analyses  Martin Magne  43 44 45 45 45 46 46 46 46 49 50  Faunal Analysis Linda Roberts and Martin Magne  51  Research Methods Bear Lake Site (EkSa 36) Fauna Plateau Pithouse Tradition Sites Comparison of Bear Lake, Shields, and Boyd Sites Fauna Notes on Cambium-Stripped Lodgepole Pine  51 52 60 65  Martin Magne 68 72  References cited for Appendix I  2  Appendix  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  ARTIFACT DESCRIPTIONS Patricia Ormerod This section provides descriptions, definitions and photographs of the stone, bone and antler, and historic artifact classes recovered in the excavations and from surface collections. Artifact types and acronyms follow the classification used in the original Eagle Lake Archaeological Project report (Matson et al. 1980). The acronyms are used in tables in the main volume, in tables in this appendix and in the artifact database. This classification serves as the basis of the intersite comparisons basic to the research reported in Chapter 4. All objects were reexamined, reclassified, and measured for this report. Length, width, thickness and weight data are reported for all artifact types. When metric data are tabled, the mean and range are reported and the inter-quartile range (IQR) is also reported for types with more than 10 members. Tabled data for maximum length and maximum width are based only on specimens that are complete in that dimension unless stated otherwise. Thickness data are based on all specimens including fragments. Weights are based on specimens that are complete in both length and width unless stated otherwise. All dimensions in this appendix are given in millimetres (mm) and weights are in grams (g). Where individual artifact measurements are tabulated, “completeness” (C) is also indicated. Lithic raw material types are described as granite, chert, obsidian, and fine-grained or coarse-grained basalt. Bakewell and Irving (1994) have reported that petrographic definitions without geochemical analyses can result in confusion in the classification and sourcing of stone; we suspect they would classify the Eagle Lake area “basalts” as “dacites”. Artifact numbers used in this report are those on the artifacts and, therefore, may include the temporary site numbers assigned in the field rather than Borden site numbers. Table I-1 provides a cross reference of temporary site numbers, Borden site numbers, and site names. Although many artifacts have been previously illustrated, both in publications (various Matson and Magne, Magne 1985; Matson and Pokotylo 1998; Pokotylo and Mitchell 1998) and in ‘Grey Literature’ research reports (Matson et al. 1980; Magne and Matson 1984), all artifact illustrations were re-photographed for the current volume. Where appropriate, references are made to Paull’s (1984) residue analysis, which is reported in more detail in Magne and Matson (1984). Paull used the Sudan IV test for fats and the Hemastix test for hemoglobin. Only loci that looked like they might be dried blood were tested. We found that the most detailed and useful artifact classification for stylistic and temporal comparisons with the Eagle Lake project assemblages was Stryd’s 1973 dissertation, which included a detailed analysis of several large collections dating to the last half of the Plateau Pithouse Tradition (PPT) in the Lillooet region of B.C.  3  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Table I-1 Field Assigned Site Numbers, Borden Site Numbers and Site Names (For lithic artifacts described in “Artifact Description” and labelled on Figures and Tables.) Field Assigned Site Numbers (n.a.) ELP 1:1 ELP 16:1 ELP 19:1 ELP 20:1 ELP 22:1 ELP 26:2 ELP 27:1 ELP 32:1 ELP 44:2, G20:2 ELP 44:3, G20:3 ELP 44:4, G20:4 ELP G2:4 ELP G5:1 ELP G7:1 CR 1 CR 3 CR 9 CR 12 CR 28 CR 32 CR 40 CR 50 CR 64 CR 73 CR 89 CR 92 CR 98 T84-27 ElRw 4 ELP G2:04  Borden Site Number Site Name EkSa 13 Shields Site EkSa 17 EkSb 5 EkSa 27 EkSa 28 EkSb 6 EkSa 31 EkSa 32 Boyd Site EkSa 36 Bear Lake Site EkSb 13 EkSb 14 EkSb 15 EkSa 130 EkSb 21 EkSb 24 EjSa 11 EjSa 10 EkSa 115 EjSa 13 EkSa 98 EkSa 39 EkSa 89 EkSa 118 EkSa 34 EkSa 35 EkSa 55 EkSa 33 Brittany Creek Site EkSa 62 EkSb 37 Fish Trap Lake Site ElRw 4 Quiggly Holes/ Bidwell Creek Site Offsite  4  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Flaked Lithic Assemblage Bifaces 1.  Side-notched Points and Multi-notched Side-notched Points  Side-Notched Points  SNPT  n = 55  The side-notched point assemblage includes 49 fine-grained basalt and 6 obsidian specimens.  Table I-2 Side-Notched Points: Metric Data # of Specimens Range IQR Length 13 16.7-32.5 18.8-27.4 Width 27 10.2-20.2 11.8-14.8 Thickness 55 1.6- 6.6 2.7-3.6 Weight 11 0.43-2.39 0.55-1.25  Mean 22.5 13.5 3.2 1.10  The simple or single side-notched points and fragments (Figure I- 1, a-a’ [Figure 42 in the main volume]) are equivalent to Stryd’s Side-Notched Arrow Points (Stryd 1973:330-332, Plate 24 a-t) and Sanger’s Group 10 Side-Notched Points with small, narrow notches (Sanger 1970:42-44) which are commonly referred to as Kamloops side-notched points (Richards and Rousseau 1987; Pokotylo and Mitchell 1998). Blades are triangular with straight (rarely convex) lateral blade margins, side notches are (usually) bifacial, narrow, and shallow, and bases are generally straight, although some are concave. Kamloops side-notched points were strongly associated with the Kamloops “Phase” components (Stryd 1973:332) of the Kamloops Horizon (1200 -200 BP) as defined by Richards and Rousseau (1987). They first occur about 1200 years ago and are used to define the beginning of the Kamloops culture. Small, side-notched arrow points are found over much of western North America in the last 1000 years. The dimensions and weights of Eagle Lake area side-notched points are similar to those recorded by Stryd (1973) and Matson et al. (1984). Stryd noted that up to 30 % of the Kamloops side-notched points, primarily the smaller specimens, were created by bifacial marginal retouch on a unifacial primary flake (Stryd 1973:331). This reduction process was apparent in only 3 of the Eagle Lake Project side-notched point assemblage (Figure I-1, s-u). One point (Figure I-1, v), exhibits the bilateral basal flaring and rapidly expanding stem described by Stryd (Stryd 1973:331, Fig 24 q-t) but has no evidence of “the beginning of small side notches” that he found on three of the four Lillooet area specimens. EkSa 36:3072 (Figure I-1, y) was tested by Paull (1984) for fat and blood residues at two loci and both came up positive. This finding is in agreement with the traditional interpretation that these bifaces are arrow points. Two specimens have a single side notche only (Figure I-1, w-x): the one from the Bear Lake site (EkSa 36) (Figure I-1, w) is thin with unifacial flaking along both lateral margins and one deep side-notch. It was recovered in two pieces (blade and base) which had snapped apart from the inside centre of the notch, so we can assume it broke during manufacture. The other single side-notched point (Figure I-1, x) is flaked on alternate faces and was intact when 5  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  found. A detailed, multivariate analysis of the variation within this point class is provided in the discussion in Chapter 4 where subtle variations within this class are shown to correspond with ethnic origin.  Figure I-1. Side-notched and Multi-notched Points Side-notched Points (SNPT): a. ELP 32:1122 b. ELP 19-1:454 c. CR 98:8 d. T84-27:491 f. CR 73:40 g. CR 9:1 h. ELP 19-1:641 i. CR 98:7 k. EkSa 33:3895 l. CR 98:1 m. ElRw4:1677 n. CR 92:1892 p. EkSa 13:4092 q. ELP 19-1:1461 r. ELP 19-1:244 s. CR 1:2 u. EkSa 33:3047 v. T84-27:2119 w. EkSa 36:4981/2215 y. EkSa 36:3072 z. CR 92:1868 a’. CR 32:1 Multi-notched Points (MNPT): b’. EkSa 13:1058 c’. ElRw 4:1356 d’. ELP 19-1:1493 e’. CR 28:2 g’. ElRw 4:1675  Table I-3 Single-side Notched Points: Metric Data Artifact No. Length Complete Width EkSa 36:4981/2215 31.2 Y 20.2 ElRw 4:1357 23.0 Y 12.2  6  e. ELP 19-1:163 j. ELP 19-1:24 o. ELP 19-1:8 t. ELP 19-1:175 x. ElRw 4:1357  f’. CR 92:2194  Complete Thickness Y 3.2 Y 3.8  Weight 1.45 1.00  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Large side-notched points (Figure I-1, y-a’) include one of obsidian from the Bear Lake site (EkSa 36) that has a convex base with a spur. A specimen from the Brittany Creek site (EkSa 33) (Figure I-1, z) has an elongated, asymmetrical tip and crushing on one lateral margin: it may have been used as a drill. Table I-4 Large Side-notched Points: Metric Data Artifact No. Length Complete Width Complete Thickness ELP 32:3072 32.5 Y 15.7 Y 5.4 CR 32:1 35.3 N 17.0 Y 6.6 CR 92:1868 27.4 Y 15.3 Y 6.2 Multi-notched Points  MNPT  Weight 2.10 3.41 2.39  n=6  Five multi-notched side-notched points from the Eagle Lake Project area are fine-grained basalt, one, from the Shields site (EkSa 13), is obsidian (Figure I-1, b’); and all are bifacially flaked (Figure I-1, b’-g’). Stryd (1973:331-32) placed the multi-notched point within the Kamloops culture but Richards and Rousseau (1987:43-44) believe the multi-notched variant of the Kamloops side-notched point type dates between ca. 400 and 100 B.P. This kind of point is associated with PPT and not with Athapaskan assemblages. Five specimens exhibit multiple notches on the blade and one has multiple notches on the stem only (Figure I-1, g’). In all cases, the notches are asymmetrical, occurring only (or in larger numbers) on one lateral margin. The point with stem notches (Figure I-1, g’) and one specimen with blade notching (Figure I-1, f’) exhibit “small, narrow notches” as described by Stryd (1973:331, Fig 24, i) for the single specimen in the Lillooet assemblage. The other four specimens have broad, shallow notches. The two specimens from the Bidwell Creek/Quiggly Holes site (ElRw 4) were recovered during excavation, not on the surface. The sizes reported here are similar to those given by Matson et al. (1983:163) for the Mouth of the Chilcotin (MOC). Table I-5 Multi-notched Points: Metric Data Artifact No. Length Complete Width EkSa 13:1058 29.1 Y 15.4 EkSa 33:2194 16.4 N 12.6 ElRw 4:1356 21.3 Y 13.5 ElRw 4:1675 24.4 N 13.3 ELP 19-1:1499 17.9 Y 14.0 2.  Kavik Points  Complete Thickness Weight Y 4.3 1.44 N 3.1 0.68 Y 3.1 0.69 N 3.7 1.01 N 2.8 0.58  KAPT  n=4  The Kavik point (Campbell 1968), also referred to as Klo-kut (Shinkwin 1979: 117, 154; Morlan 1973:480, Campbell 1968:41), is a small, stemmed point with triangular blade, maximum width at the shoulders, and a well-defined stem that can be straight or contracting. The specimens from the Kavik site, described as crudely finished chert and chalcedony, had pointed bases and sharp, unground edges (Campbell 1968:37). The Kavik point style is associated with northern Athapaskan culture (Campbell 1968:39-41) and is relatively recent 7  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  (Campbell 1968:40; Boudreau 1974:11). The size range of the four Kavik points recovered in the Eagle Lake Project area is most similar to the assemblage of five “Klo-kut-like points” from the Dixthada site (Shinkwin 1979:117) although in form both assemblages are like the slightly larger points from the Klokut site (Morlan 1973:241-249). The Eagle Lake points are fine-grained basalt (Figure I-2, a-d; [Figure 43 in the main volume]). Only items “a” (ELP 32-1:188; the Bear Lake site) and “d” (EkSa 33:1007) in Figure I-2 fully fit the description of Kavik or Klo-kut points. The other two points have both notches and tapering stems that might be considered to be combinations of Kamloops and Kavik point attributes. Nothing like them was found in PPT descriptive material, indicating that they are not typical of the Plateau Pithouse Tradition, and thus they are tentatively included along with more typical Kavik points in this report.  Figure I-2. Kavik, Corner-notched, Stemmed and Miscellaneous Points Kavik Points (KAPT): a. ELP 32-1:188 b. EkSa 33:2650 c. CR 73:39 Corner-Notched Points (CNPT): e. EkSa 32:6200 f. EkSa 13:1474 h. CR 89:1 Stemmed Points (STPT): i. EkSa 32:1046 j. ElRw 4:1358 k. EkSa 13:2418 m. ELP 27 OS:8 Miscellaneous Points (MIPT): n. EkSa 33:2477 o. EkSa 33:3330  8  d. CR 92:1007 g. EkSa 32:5712 l. CR 40:128 p. CR 92:20  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia Table I-6 Kavik Points: Metric Data Artifact No. Length C Width CR 73:39 16.5 N 11.0 ELP 32-1:188 22.8 Y 9.1 EkSa 33:1007 11.5 N 12.2 EkSa 33:2650 16.6 N 11.0 3.  Corner-notched Points  C N Y N N  Thickness 2.5 3.0 2.4 3.1  CNPT  Appendix  Weight 0.50 0.47 0.28 0.68  n=4  Two complete corner-notched points and two base fragments, all fine-grained basalt, were recovered in the Eagle Lake Project area (Figure I-2, e-h). The fragment of a cornernotched point (Figure I-2, f) recovered from the Shields site (EkSa 13) is almost identical in size and shape to the largest complete point (Figure I-2, e) from the Boyd site (EkSa 32). The small, complete corner-notched point (Figure I-2, g), also from the excavation at the Boyd site (EkSa 32), is very fine-grained basalt with unifacial thinning of the base. These three points appear to fit Type A Corner-Notched Atlatl Points as described by Stryd for the Lillooet area of the British Columbia Plateau (Stryd 1973:338-39, Fig 26 a-h). Stryd reports (1973:339) that 12 of the 23 Type A points he recovered were from Kamloops “Phase” components and most of the rest were from the equivalent of Richards and Rousseau’s (1987) Plateau Horizon (2400 -1200 BP). This distribution indicates they are probably not atlatl points and are, in any event, associated with the last half of the Plateau Pithouse Tradition (PPT). The presence of these two corner-notched points (and the stemmed points described below) and the lack of Kamloops points at the Boyd site were interpreted in the field as indicating that a good Kamloops component was not present at the Boyd site. Since one of the main reasons for excavating the Boyd site was to obtain a terminal date for the Eagle Lake PPT occupation, this inference ended excavation there and led to the excavation of the Shields site. The identification of this point type as common in the Kamloops culture invalidates this interpretation, as did the resulting Kamloops-age radiocarbon date obtained from the Boyd site. Furthermore, the third example of this point type was from another late PPT component at the Shields site. Paull (1984) tested EkSa 32:6200 (Figure I-2, e) in three loci for blood and one for fat. One test was positive for fat and negative for blood and two were positive for blood, as expected for projectile points. The fourth corner-notched point fragment from the Eagle Lake area was collected on the surface of EkSa 55 (Figure I-2, h). It is similar to Sanger’s Group 3 Projectile Points (1970:38, 105, Fig 20 k-p), attributed to the Lower Middle Period (5000 BP to 4000 BP), however, it has no evidence of basal grinding. Table I-7 Corner-notched Points: Metric Data Artifact No. Length C Width C Thickness EkSa 32:6200 54.1 Y 29.5 Y 8.2 EkSa 32:5712 32.6 Y 22.8 Y 5.3 EkSa 13:1474 35.6 N 22.4 N 8.6 CR 89:1 28.6 N 24.9 Y 4.7 9  Weight 12.69 3.39 5.74 2.57  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  4.  Stemmed Points  STPT  Appendix  n=5  The five stemmed points recovered in the Eagle Lake Project area are all fine-grained basalt (Figure I-2, i-m). Three (Figure I-2, i-k), including one each from the Shields (EkSa 13, k) and Boyd (EkSa 32, i) sites, are relatively thick, with neck and stem of nearly equal width. Only the specimen from the Bidwell Creek site (ElRw 4) (Figure I-2, j) tapers slightly from neck to base; one edge is worn to a polish. The other two specimens (Figure I-2, l-m), including one from the Boyd site (EkSa 32), have unifacial or bifacial thinning of blade and stem: the thinned base of the Boyd site specimen (Figure I-2, m) is concave. The stemmed points recovered in the Eagle Lake Project area are similar in shape to Stryd’s Stemmed Atlatl Points (1973:327-28) but are smaller and fall within the general size (but not thickness) parameters of his Stemmed Arrow Points (1973:325). Stryd reports that both these types are found in Kamloops components. In terms of size, all the points here appear to be shorter than any of the atlatl points reported by Stryd, and the widest one (22.8 mm) from Eagle Lake does not quite match the narrowest (23.4 mm) reported by Stryd; only one from Eagle Lake is as thick as any from Lillooet. Thus these points appear to be significantly smaller than Stryd’s Stemmed Atlatl Points. One example from the surface of the Boyd site (Figure I-2, m) might be better compared with Sanger’s (1970:44) Group 12 “Single Basal Notch” class that includes a variety of outlines and is found in the pre-PPT component of the Lochnore Creek site (EdRk 7). Figure 22, “d” in Sanger shows a very similar object to the Boyd site point. With this exception, the stemmed point class from the Eagle Lake Project area appears to date to the last half of the PPT. Paull (1984) tested EkSa 32:1046 (Figure I-2, i) for blood at one loci and it was positive. Table I-8 Stemmed Points: Metric Data Artifact No. Length C Width EkSa 32:1046 36.3 Y 15.6 EkSa 13:2418 30.9 N 21.0 ElRw 4:1358 37.0 N 12.0 ELP 27:OS:8 28.6 N 16.8 CR 40:128 21.7 N 22.8 5.  Miscellaneous Points  C Thickness Weight Y 6.7 3.66 N 8.0 4.72 Y 5.5 2.46 Y 5.0 2.30 N 6.4 3.26  MIPT  n=3  Two unnotched points and one fragment, all fine-grained basalt, were recovered from the Brittany Creek site (EkSa 33) (Figure I-2, n-p). The two complete specimens (Figure I-2, n-o), although dissimilar, both fall into Stryd’s Unnotched Arrow Point Type that is affiliated with the Kamloops culture (1973:323-24, Fig 22 a-g). Both may be arrow point preforms. The fragment (Figure I-2, p) may also be a preform, in this case for a small cornernotched point with squared shoulders and an expanding stem. Similar points are described by Stryd 1973:334-35, Fig 24) as Corner Notched Arrow Points Type C and are primarily affiliated with the Kamloops Horizon.  10  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Table I-9 Miscellaneous Points: Metric Data Artifact No. Length C Width C Thickness Weight EkSa 33:208 19.5 N 15.6 N 2.8 1.04 EkSa 33:2477 24.3 Y 13.1 N 4.1 1.17 EkSa 33:3330 32.3 Y 13.8 Y 5.0 1.86 6.  Point Fragments  Fragments of Small Points  PTFRs  n = 13  Fragments of small, bifacially flaked points (Figure I-3, a-o) include thirteen tip fragments (Figure I-3, a-m), one medial fragment (Figure I-3, n) and one medial fragment with base (Figure I-3, o). Eleven tip fragments are from small, triangular, symmetrical points (Figure I-3, a-k): three are obsidian; the remainder are fine-grained basalt. Two tip fragments (Figure I-3, l-m), both from the surface of the Brittany Creek site (EkSa 33), are slightly asymmetrical: one, (m), is fine-grained basalt, the other, (l), is chert. The medial/base fragment (Figure I-3, o), also from the Brittany Creek site, is probabably from a side-notched point.  Figure I-3. Point Fragments Fragments of Small Points (PTFRs): a. CR 92:2284 b. EkSa 33:3483 f. T84-27:1270 g. ELP 19-1:252 k. ElRw 4:1959 l. EkSa 33:3378 Framents of Large points (PTFRl): p. CR 28:44 q. CR 28:47 u. EkSa 32:6208  c. ELP 19-1:158 h. T84-27:2013 m. EkSa 33:3422  d. ELP 32:1242 i. ELP 19-1:880 n. CR 92:1199  e. CR 92:590 j. T84-27:1017 o. EkSa 33:2863  r. ELP 16-1:25  s. ELP 26 OS:1  t. ELP 14 OS:1  11  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia Fragments of Large Points  PTFRl  Appendix  n=6  Fragments of large points include four medial fragments (Figure I-3, p-s) and two tip fragments (Figure I-3, t-u). The four medial fragments are fine-grained basalt and were surface collected (Figure I-3, p-q). One tip fragment of obsidian (Figure I-3, t) was on the surface of ELP Quad 14. The other fragment, of fine-grained basalt (Figure I-3, u), complete except for the missing base, is from the excavation at the Boyd site (EkSa 32). Its blade is similar to Stryd’s Notched Atlatl Point Type A affiliated with the Kamloops culture (1973:336-37, Fig 25 g). It has a bilaterally symmetrical blade with maximum width at the shoulders and shallow, semi-circular notches. The largest number of point fragments recovered at one site is seven, collected on the surface at the Brittany Creek site (EkSa 33) (Figure I-3, b,l,m,o). The Fish Trap Lake site (EkSb 37) and ELP Quad 19:1 (EkSa 27) each yielded three specimens, Figure I-3, f, h, j and Figure I-3, c, g, i, respectively, and the Bear Lake site (EkSa 36) (Figure I-3, d) and the Bidwell Creek/Quiggly Holes site (ElRw 4) (Figure I-3, k) each yielded one fragment. 7.  Large Formed Bifaces  Complete Large Formed Bifaces LFBI n=4 The complete, large formed bifaces include an igneous tci-tho from the Bear Lake site (EkSa 36) (Figure I-4, a), two bifaces of basalt with attributes similar to the tci-tho (Figure I-4, b-c), and a large, basalt, stemmed biface, also from the Bear Lake site (EkSa 36) (Figure I-4, d). The tci-tho, sometimes defined as a bifacially retouched scraping tool, is a distinctive Athapaskan artifact class (Dumond 1978:55, Wilmeth 1978, Clark 1975:68-69) that includes cortex spalls. On the specimen (Figure I-4, a) from the Bear Lake (EkSa 36) excavation, one lateral margin exhibits bifacial retouch whereas the other lateral margin has been worn to a rounded contour. Both faces, from the worn edge to the midpoint, are smoothed and reddish, possibly the result of animal residues. Paull (1984) tested this object at three loci for blood and fat, and at one of the loci for Lignin. One loci was negative for blood and fat, one positive for all three, and one positive for blood and negative for fat. Thus the inference that these objects are used in hide processing appears to be supported by these tests. The biface from ELP Quad 16 (EkSb 5) (Figure I-4, b) is coarse-grained basalt. Although all flaked margins show evidence of fine polish from use, polish predominates on the tip and the thinnest margin, suggesting the specimen is homologous to the tci-tho described above. The other fine-grained basalt specimen, recovered at CR 64 (EkSa 34), (Figure I-4, c), is asymmetrical and resembles a “miscellaneous” biface described by Sanger (1970:73-74, Fig 31-p) but is more crudely made. The curved edge exhibits finer, discontinuous, unifacial retouch or use-wear which suggests a function similar to the tci-tho. The stemmed biface from the Bear Lake site (Figure I-4, d) is beautifully made and has a slightly steeper angle on the lateral margin with the deeper shoulder notch. The specimen was recovered in seven pieces, six from Unit 55 and one from Unit 58. Only the very tip of the blade is missing. Compared to the PPT bifaces reported by Stryd (1973) and Sanger (1970), this specimen is very large, and has a unique shape. It is probably not mere coincidence that this shape is the same as seen in the Kavik point as it is from the prehistoric component (Layer Bf) at the Bear Lake site. 12  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Figure I- 4 Large Formed Bifaces (LFBI): a. EkSa 36:2802 b. ELP 16-1:24 c. CR 64 OS:1 d. EkSa 36:4971  Table I-10 Large Formed Bifaces (tci-tho-like): Metric Data Artifact No. Length C Width C Thickness ELP 32:2802 97.1 Y 75.5 Y 22.7 CR 64:OS:1 94.4 N 59.7 Y 17.1 ELP 16-1:24 58.8 Y 69.1 Y 21.0 ELP 36:4971, 122.8 Y 44.4 Y 13.4 4972, 4973, 4974, 4975, 5533  Weight 181.30 62.9 93.17 60.76  Large Formed Biface Fragments LFBF n=5 Five large biface fragments were recovered (Figure I-5, a-e). Two, one from the Boyd site (EkSa 32) (Figure I-5, a), and one from the Bear Lake site (EkSa 36) (Figure I-5, b), are morphologically similar to the proximal ends of the tci-tho- like bifaces described above. Two smaller fragments (Figure I-5, c-d), both from the Bear Lake site (EkSa 36), also exhibit similar flaking patterns. EkSa 36:3004 (Figure I-5, c) was tested by Paull (1984) at three loci for blood and fat residues. One loci was negative for both, one positive for both and one positive for blood but negative for fat, indicating probable use for flesh or hide processing. EkSa 36:3984 (Figure I-5, b) was also tested by Paull at four loci for blood and three of these were positive, indicating that these specks were blood. 13  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Figure I- 5 Large Formed Biface Fragments and Small Oval Formed Bifaces Large Formed Biface Fragments (LFBF): a. EkSa 32:5830 b. EkSa 36:3984 c. EkSa 36:3004 d. EkSa 36:4402 e. CR 28:5 Small Formed Bifaces, Oval (SFBI): f. CR 40:1 g. EkSa 13:4337 h. EkSa 13:1889 i. T84-27:1070 j. EkSa 33:3325 k. ELP 44-3:200  One biface fragment from CR 28 (EkSa 98) (Figure I-5, e) is very fine-grained basalt with an unusual form: one face exhibits a long, concave flake scar (probably a hinged flake removal from an attempt to thin the other lateral margin). The intact lateral margin exhibits unifacial use-wear. 8.  Small Formed Bifaces  SFBI  n = 43  Twelve complete small formed bifaces and 30 fragments were recovered in the Eagle Lake Project area and four forms were noted: Oval (Figure I-5, f-k); Leaf-shaped/Ovate (Figure I-6, a-h); Triangular (Figure I-6, i-n); and Miscellaneous (Figure I-6, o). Fragments were assigned to these types where possible; the remaining fragments (not illustrated) are described (following Stryd 1973:348) as: End sections; Medial sections; and Unclassifiable fragments.  14  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Table I-11 Complete Small Formed Bifaces All Forms: Metric Data # of Specimens Range Mean Length 5 32.4 - 50.7 42.0 Width 11 9.9 - 38.4 22.5 Thickness 12 3.9 - 17.2 8.6 Oval Small Formed Bifaces n=5 Three complete small, oval bifaces of fine-grained basalt (Figure I-5, f-h), including two from the Shields site (EkSa 13), and two fragments of basalt (Figure I-5, i-j) were recovered in the Eagle Lake Project area. Cortex is visible on four of the basalt specimens: both complete specimens from the Shields site (EkSa 13) (Figure I-5, g-h), the complete specimen from CR 40 (Figure I-5, f), and one fragment (Figure I-5, i) from T84-27. One small biface of green stone (Figure I-5, k) also has some cortex remaining. The Eagle Lake area small, oval bifaces are comparable to Stryd’s Biface Type Group E (1973:231-32, 348) and as Stryd suggested may be blanks for secondary flaking to produce various tools. Leaf-Shaped/Ovate Small Formed Bifaces n=8 Eight small bifaces recovered in the Eagle Lake area (Figure I-6, a-h) are similar to Sanger’s Leaf-shaped Biface Group 5 (1970:73, Fig 31-m,n) and Stryd’s Ovate Bifaces Group A (1973:345-346, Fig 27a,b and Fig 28 a-d). The five complete specimens (Figure I-6, a-e) and three end fragments (Figure I-6, f-h) are basalt, have an ovate form, and are lenticular in section. The two complete bases, both from the Shields site (EkSa 13; Figure I-5, g, h), have asymmetrical notching at the proximal end and evidence of retouch on the edges. Four medial fragments, described below but not illustrated, may also be from leaf-shaped bifaces. Triangular Small Formed Bifaces n = 11 Eleven small biface specimens (Figure I-6, i-m) are similar to Sanger’s Triangular Biface Group 3 (1970:73, Fig 31, f-i), although one (Figure I-6, i) has an elongated form and wear attributes similar to Stryd’s Triangular Perforator (1973:Fig 28r). This specimen, from CR 98 (EkSa 62), is obsidian with a thick cross-section and a flat ventral face. The lateral margins exhibit fine retouch / grinding which may be similar to what Stryd refers to as “characteristic . . . light use modification of the lateral shaft margins” (1973:350). However, unlike Stryd’s examples, wear is not at the tip of the Eagle Lake specimen, but is equally distributed along both lateral margins from the tip to the mid-point. The remaining triangular small formed bifaces are represented by one “complete” specimen (Figure I-6, j) and nine distal end (tip) fragments, one of obsidian (Figure I-6, k) and eight of basalt (Figure I-6, l-m). Although some of these specimens are lenticular in crosssection all are thinner than the possible perforator described above (Figure I-6, i). Lateral margins are primarily slightly convex and only one specimen, from Brittany Creek (EkSa 33) (Figure I-6, l), has straight margins. No intact bases were recovered. Miscellaneous Small Formed Biface n=1 A small, crescent-shaped, basalt biface with continuous flaking on both margins, no polish or use wear, and with both ends snapped off was recovered during excavations at the Bear Lake site (EkSa 36) (Figure I-6, n). The crescent-shape lateral margin was bifacially 15  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Figure I-6. Small Formed Bifaces (SFBI) Ovate, complete: a. ELP 19-1:980 b. CR 50:1 c. Ovate fragments: f. EkSa 33:4348 g. EkSa 13:4339 h. Triangular complete: i. CR 98:5 j. EkSa 32:6295 Triangular fragments: k. ELP 19-1:96 l. CR 92:1425 m. Miscellaneous Small Formed Bifaces: n. EkSa 36:4841 o.  Appendix  EkSa 33:3205 d. EkSa 13:1385 e. EkSa 13:2419 EkSa 36:4355 EkSa 33:3489 CR 92:1906  flaked to produce a steep, sharp edge. Neither Sanger (1970) nor Stryd (1973) illustrate artifacts of this type. Medial Fragments of Small Formed Bifaces n=5 Five medial biface fragments were recovered in the Eagle Lake Project area although none were recovered from the Bear Lake (EkSa 36), Shields (EkSa 13), or Boyd (EkSa 32) sites. All are from either oval or ovate (leaf-shaped) small bifaces and all have lenticular crosssections with one of obsidian thicker than the four basalt specimens. End Fragments of Small Formed Bifaces n=5 Five basalt end fragments, probably from triangular Kamloops side-notched points, include four thin proximal ends and one thicker fragment from the Brittany Creek site (EkSa 33) (Figure I-6, o). This specimen is possibly a distal end (tip) and has some cortex and fine continuous, unifacial flaking on all four margins. The notch visible on one lateral margin appears to have been an unintentional by-product of a flake removal. The other four proximal end fragments have flat ends and straight lateral margins.  16  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Unclassifiable Fragments of Small Formed Bifaces n=6 Six unclassifiable fragments of bifaces were recovered: one, from the Brittany Creek site (EkSa 33), is obsidian; all others are basalt. Retouched Flake Tools 9.  Formed Scrapers  FOSC  n = 12  Following Stryd’s formed scraper typology based on the primary location of retouch (1973:352-361), two types of scrapers were recovered from the Eagle Lake Project area: Continuous Scrapers (n = 6) (Figure I-7, a-c, f, h, j) and End Scrapers (n = 6) (Figure I-7, d-e, g, i, k-l). All were made from flakes and have marginal retouch of relatively uniform height forming an angle of 45 degrees or steeper with the ventral face. No spurred scrapers were recovered in the Eagle Lake Project area.  Plate 7 Formed Scrapers (FOSC) a. EkSa 13:5431 b. EkSa 13:2169 f. EkSa 32:2099 g. EkSa 32:2513 k. CR 40:2 l. EkSa 33:4390  c. EkSa 13:5257 h. CR 92:564  d. EkSa 13:1391 i. CR 92:826  e. EkSa 13:1564 j. CR 40:49  Continuous Scrapers The six continuous scrapers have unbroken retouch around the edge, exclusive of the striking platform, and all retouched edges exhibit use wear. All are made of fine-grained material: chert, obsidian, or fine-grained basalt. Only one specimen (from the Boyd site, EkSa 32) has cortex on the ventral face (Figure I-7, f). Three continuous scrapers were recovered at the Shields site (EkSa 13) (Figure I-7, a-c) including the only specimen with a complete oval outline (Figure I-7, a). Another specimen from the Shields site (Figure I-7, c)  17  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  has unifacial retouch on alternating faces: the dorsal face on two edges and the ventral face on the third edge. The “incomplete” continuous scraper specimens have oval distal ends, however, as noted by Stryd, the proximal ends are missing, perhaps by intent “to facilitate hafting” or by accidental breakage (1973:360, Fig 30-u). Table I-12 Continuous Scrapers: Metric Data Artifact No. Length C Width C Thickness EkSa 13:5431 23.8 Y 20.0 Y 7.9 EkSa 13:2169 24.6 N 18.3 Y 5.2 EkSa 13:5257 24.2 N 20.5 Y 5.6 EkSa 32:2099 17.0 N 10.7 Y 4.0 EkSa 33:564 15.9 N 15.1 N 4.7 CR 40:49 19.7 N 21.8 N 3.5  Weight 4.02 2.03 3.33 0.80 1.48 1.93  Material Obsidian Chert FG Basalt Chert Obsidian FG Basalt  End Scrapers End scrapers have one rounded end produced by retouch (Magne 1985:168), the primary working edge is located transverse to the long axis of the tool and the lateral edges exhibit less intense use-wear (Stryd 1973:353). All end scrapers recovered in the Eagle Lake Project area are based on flakes. Two end scrapers were recovered at the Shields site (EkSa 13) (Figure I-7, d-e) and one, of chert, has cortex (Figure I-7, d). One was recovered at the Boyd site (EkSa 32) (Figure I-7, g). All end scrapers have unifacial retouch on the dorsal face (Figure I-7, d, e, g, i, k, l) and are similar to Stryd’s Convex End Scraper Types (1973:354-55, Fig 30 a-n) which he notes are similar to Sanger’s Formed Uniface Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 (round to oval unifaces, stemmed or tanged unifaces, and round to oval thick unifaces respectively) (Sanger 1970:78, Fig 33 a-h). Table I-13 End Scrapers: Metric Data Artifact No. Length C Width EkSa 13:1391 30.1 N 23.8 EkSa 13:1564 23.4 Y 26.8 EkSa 32:2513 30.7 Y 22.8 EkSa 33:826 28.7 Y 27.3 CR 40:2 28.1 N 24.7 EkSa 33:4390 34.4 N 29.7  C Thickness Weight Y 8.0 3.98 Y 8.4 5.15 N 7.0 4.17 Y 5.4 5.89 Y 5.7 3.96 N 4.3 6.52  10. Spurred Scrapers  Material Chert FG Basalt FG Basalt CG Basalt FG Basalt CG Basalt  n=0  No spurred scrapers were recovered in the Eagle Lake Project area. 11. Bifacially Retouched Flakes  n = 81  Like Sanger’s Non-formed Biface Type (1970:76), the bifacially retouched flakes from the Eagle Lake Project area have little deliberate shaping, are primarily basalt [over 90%] (obsidian n = 7, chert n = 1), and many specimens are pieces of larger artifacts. Sanger’s 18  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  bifaces were recovered in largest quantities in the Upper Middle Period (3500 -2000 BP) but were present, in decreased quantities, in the Late Period (1500 -500 BP) (1970:76, 105). They are similar to Stryd’s Retouched Flakes (both unifacial and bifacial) which he describes as “Flakes of irregular form with limited marginal retouch..[that]..display either unifacial or bifacial retouch ... usually... restricted to one edge or part of one edge. Characterized by little or no wear, these flakes probably served as short use all-purpose cutting and scraping implements” (1973:365). Both Sanger and Stryd note that, given the fragmentary nature of the specimens, measurements have little meaning, although Sanger reports that lengths range from 10 to almost 70 mm with the majority in the 20 to 40 mm range (1970:76). The Eagle Lake area specimens are reported as two sub-sets: large (complete length greater than or equal to 35 mm), and small (complete length less than 35 mm) with length measured as the maximum dimension from the striking platform of the flake to the distal end. Large Bifacially Retouched Flakes BIREl n = 17 All large bifacially retouched flakes are basalt (fine-grained basalt n = 10, coarse-grained n = 7) (Figure I-8, a-f). Six specimens are complete (Figure I-8, a, d-f), including one from the Boyd site (EkSa 32) excavation (Figure I-8, a) and one of fine-grained basalt with continuous retouch on the end and lateral margins (Figure I-8, d). With the exception of the Boyd site specimen and two from the Bidwell Creek (ElRw 4, Figure I-8, b) excavation, all specimens were recovered on the surface (Table I-14). Table I-14 Large Bifacially Retouched Flakes: Metric Data # of Specimens Range IQR Mean Length 11 38.5-79.6 45.9-57.5 56.9 Width 8 23.3-58.7 32.1-37.0 37.4 Thickness 17 6.0-15.5 8.8-12.7 10.5 Weight 6 8.36-70.57 6.57-32.23 27.81 Small Bifacially Retouched Flakes BIREs n = 64 The small bifacially retouched flakes (Figure I-9, a-p) are basalt with the exception of seven obsidian specimens and one of chert (Figure I-9, k). Fifteen specimens are complete (Figure I-9, f,h, j,l,o-p) and five of these have cortex (Figure I-9, f,l). Six fragments also have cortex. Nine specimens were recovered from the excavation at the Shields site (EkSa 13) (Figure I-9, a-b) including one of obsidian; five at the Boyd site (EkSa 32) (Figure I-9, c-f), including one of obsidian ; and six at the Bear Lake site (EkSa 36) (Figure I-9, g-h), again with one of obsidian. Thirteen were recovered at ELP Quad 19:1 (EkSa 27) (Figure I-9, m-p) including a specimen with a worn end that may have been used as a scraper (Figure I-9, n). Table I-15 Small Bifacially Retouched Flakes: Metric Data # of Specimens Range IQR Mean Length 28 18.6-34.2 21.9-31.5 26.9 Width 33 8.5-55.9 12.3-23.7 20.7 Thickness 64 1.9-14.3 3.4-6.7 5.37 Weight 15 0.54-9.23 1.41-4.92 3. 72 19  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Figure I-8. Large Bifacially Retouched Flakes (BIREl): a. EkSa 32:2097 b. ElRw 4:1355 c. ELP 20 OS:1 d. CR 12:1  e. EkSa 33:3386  Appendix  f. ELP 44-3:196  12. Unifacially Retouched Flakes Like Sanger’s Non-formed Unifaces (1970:80) and Stryd’s Unifacially Retouched Flakes (1973:366), the specimens from the Eagle Lake Project area exhibit no deliberate shaping and many are fragmentary. For the Eagle Lake Project assemblage, this type is defined as having retouch along a single edge only and is, therefore, similar to Sanger’s Group 1 to Group 6 Non-formed Unifaces (1970:80-81). (See also multiple-edged unifaces and sinuous, multipleedge unifaces described below for other types of non-formed unifaces.) Large unifacially retouched flakes have maximum length of complete specimens equal to or greater than 44 mm (Figure I-10, a-c) and small specimens have maximum length of complete specimens less than 44 mm (Figure I-10, d-k). Fifteen (of sixteen) large specimens have cortex, whereas only seven (of 60) small specimens do. Large unifacially retouched flakes are primarily basalt with two each of chert (Figure I-10, b) and igneous material (Figure I-10, c). The 60 small unifacially retouched flakes are also primarily basalt, with four of chert (Figure I-10, j) and nine of obsidian (Figure I-10, fg). No large, unifacially retouched flakes were recovered in the Bear Lake site (EkSa 36) excavation, although eight small ones were (Figure I-10, d-e). The Shields site (EkSa 13) 20  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Plate 9 Small Bifacially Retouched Flakes (BIREs) a. EkSa 13:1422 b. EkSa 13:3959 c. EkSa 32:1049 f. EkSa 32:6287 g. ELP 32:104 h. ELP 32:184 k. EkSa 33:3236 l. EkSa 33:3522 m. ELP 19-1:159 p. ELP 19-1:700  d. EkSa 32:1054 i. ElRw 4:1347 n. ELP 19-1:660  Appendix  e. EkSa 32:1068 j. ElRw 4:1680 o. ELP 19-1:318  yielded five large (Figure I-10, b) and twelve small unifaces (Figure I-10, f-i), and two large and eight small unifaces (Figure I-10, j) were recovered at the Boyd site (EkSa 36). 13. Utilized Flakes  UTIL  n = 43  Utilized flakes are chipped stone flakes with macroscopic use-wear polish, striations, and irregularly spaced or continuous flake scars along at least one edge (Ludowicz 1980:98-101). The specimens from the Eagle Lake Project area are primarily basalt (Figure I-11, j) but include six flakes of obsidian, two chert, and one of quartz (Figure I-11, a). Sixteen are complete flakes with utilization; the remainder are fragments of utilized flakes. Flake size varies considerably: weight of the twelve complete basalt flakes ranges from 0.22 grams (Figure I-11, d) to 146.45 grams. One quartz complete flake is 42.87 grams and three obsidian complete flakes range from 0.50 to 2.65 grams. The assemblage has been separated into thirty-five small (Figure I-11, c-i), seven medium size (Figure I-11, a-b, j-k) and one large size utilized flake. Small flakes have a maximum 21  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Figure I-10. Unifacially Retouched Flakes Large (UNREl): a. T84-27:1 b. EkSa 13:3038 Small (UNREs): d. EkSa 36:4478 e. EkSa 36:5934 g. EkSa 13:3720 h. EkSa 13:1575 i. EkSa 13:1386  c. ELP G5-1:5 f. EkSa 13:5351 j. EkSa 32:1053  Appendix  k. CR 92:131  length of less than 40 mm, medium flakes have maximum lengths between 40 and 100 mm, and the large utilized flake has a maximum length over 100 mm. Table I-16 Utilized Flakes: Metric Data # of Specimens Range IQR Length 22 10.5-112.2 15.7-27.2 Width 25 8.4-63.1 11.7-23.1 Thickness 43 1.2-21.9 2.9-6.4 Weight 17 0.22-146.56 0.65-3.17 Weight* 16 0.22-42.87 0.65-2.65 * not including the largest flake  Mean 29.5 21.2 5.6 13.6 5.24  Small amounts of cortex remain on eight of the thirty-five small utilized flakes, often on the striking platform or one lateral margin. Cortex remains on all medium size flakes (n = 7)  22  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Figure I-11 Utilized Flakes (UTIL) Medium: a. CR 73:84 b. ElRw 4:1877 Small: c. ElRw 4:2030 d. T84-27:1431 g. EkSa 33:3494 h. EkSa 33:4330  j. ELP 19-1:1172 e. EkSa 32:5737 i. EkSa 33:4393  Appendix  k. ELP 19-1:612 f. EkSa 33:3181  and includes four with full dorsal cortex (Figure I-11, a, k), two with platform cortex (Figure I-11, b, j), and one of fine-grained basalt with cortex on the distal end (CR 64:48, not illustrated) that may be a utilized core rejuvenation flake. The single large specimen also has a small amount of cortex on the dorsal surface (~ 5%). Most utilized flakes were collected on the surface although eighteen were recovered during excavation at various sites including the Boyd site (EkSa 32) (Figure I-11, e). However, none were recovered at either the Shields (EkSa 13) or Bear Lake (EkSa 36) sites. The surface of the Brittany Creek site (EkSa 33, CR 92) yielded fifteen utilized flakes (Figure I-11, f-i) including four of obsidian and two of chert in addition to the fine-grained and coarse-grained basalt specimens. Most of the specimens from this site are small, weighing less than four grams, but include a fragment of a coarse-grained basalt utilized flake weighing 18.8 grams and a complete, fine-grained basalt utilized flake weighing 146.46 grams. Two flakes with utilization on two edges were recovered at ELP Quad 19:1 (EkSa 27) (Figure I-11, j-k). One (Figure I-11, j) has utilization flaking on the ventral side only on both edges (and a large flake 23  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  removed on the ventral face to facilitate holding). The other (Figure I-11, k) has use-wear flaking on the dorsal side (which also has full cortex). 14. Multiple-edged Unifaces  MUUT  n = 21  Multiple edged unifaces have continuous retouch (or alternate edge retouch) on more than one edge and retouched edges are relatively straight. If edges are S-curved, the unifaces fall into the next category, Sinuous Multiple-Edged Unifaces. Multiple-edged Unifaces, Sinuous Multiple-Edged Unifaces, Gravers, and Perforators all typically have multiple working edges and points, and are usually made on thin flakes of fine-grained basalt or obsidian. In these characteristics they fit what Judge (1973:108-110) called “Utility Flakes” in his analysis of PaleoIndian assemblages. If these objects lack graving or perforating tips they fall into the two multiple-edged uniface classes; most Gravers and Perforators also have multiple unifacial retouched edges. Multiple-edged Unifaces were recovered only from excavations at the Shields (EkSa 13) (n = 13) (Figure I-12, a-g), Boyd (EkSa 32) (n = 7) (Figure I-12, h-k), and Bear Lake (EkSa 36)  Figure I-12 Multiple-edged Unifaces (MUUT) a. EkSa 13:3965 b. EkSa 13:3964 c. EkSa 13:4611 f. EkSa 13:5411 g. EkSa 13:5414 h. EkSa 32:1028 k. EkSa 32:1047 l. EkSa 36:4474  24  d. EkSa 13:2763 i. EkSa 32:2550  e. EkSa 13:2348 j. EkSa 32:1042  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  (n = 1) (Figure I-12, l) sites. Two specimens, both from the Boyd site (EkSa 32), exhibit alternating retouch (dorsal on one edge, ventral on the other) (Figure I-12, h, k). Materials are predominantly fine-grained basalt, with two obsidian unifaces recovered at the Shields site (EkSa 13) (Figure I-12, a-b). The concentration on the PPT housepit sites indicates they may have value in indicating ethnicity, a subject investigated in Chapter 4. Table I-17 Multiple-edged Unifaces: Metric Data # of Specimens Range IQR Length 9 19.8-41.4 27.7-34.9 Width 17 8.2-26.4 15.5-20.0 Thickness 21 2.0-6.3 3.0-4.1 Weight 8 0.79-3.77 1.47-2.30 15. Sinuous, Multiple-edged Unifaces  SINU  Mean 30.7 18.4 3.5 2.00 n=8  Sinuous, multiple-edged unifaces are a variant of multiple-edged unifaces (continuous retouch on more than one edge) that exhibit a pronounced sinuous outline (incurvateexcurvate) (Figure I-13, a-h). Like the multiple-edged unifaces, sinuous edged unifaces may have retouch (or use wear) on alternating faces. Sinuous edged specimens were recovered only at the Shields (EkSa 13) and Boyd (EkSa 32) sites. All are basalt and all are complete flakes, except one (Figure I-13, e). The Shields site (EkSa 13) specimens (Figure I-13, a-d) are larger than those recovered at the Boyd site (EkSa 32) (Figure I-13, e-h). As with the Multipleedged Unifaces, these may also be indicative of ethnicity, and are discussed in Chapter 4.  Figure I-13 Sinuous, Multiple-edged Unifaces (SINU) a. EkSa 13:1054 b. EkSa 13:1888 c. EkSa 13:2063 f. EkSa 32:2096 g. EkSa 32:2510 h. EkSa 32:6197  25  d. EkSa 13:3950  e. EkSa 32:2095  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia Table I-18  Length Width Thickness Weight 16. Gravers  Appendix  Sinuous, Multiple-edged Unifaces: Metric Data by Site Boyd Site n = 4 Shields Site n=4 Range Mean Range Mean 32.0-35.7 34.0 37.1-57.6 47.8 13.7-24.4 18.6 26.0-35.5 31.1 3.0-5.6 4.0 5.2-6.0 5.5 1.08-3.01 1.79 3.54-8.43 6.88 GRAV  n = 31  Gravers are flakes that have a pronounced projection, referred to as a shaft and tip (Stryd 1973:361-364) or a spur (Sanger 1970:83-84), and must have use-wear on the tip (Stryd  Figure I-14 Gravers, Alternating Perforators, Non-alternating Perforators Gravers (GRAV): a. T84-27:14 b. EkSa 36:4978 c. EkSa 13:2347 e. EkSa 13:4686 f. EkSa 13:5685 g. EkSa 32:5708 h. EkSa 32:6202 j. EkSa 32:2512 Alternating Perforators (PERFa): k. EkSa 13:3205 l. EkSa 13:4793 n. EkSa 32:1057 o. ELP 19-1:324 Non-alternating Perforators (PERFn): p. EkSa 36:1059 q. EkSa 13:2357 s. EkSa 32:2519 t. EkSa 32:6199  26  d. EkSa 13:4327 i. EkSa 32:6204 m. EkSa 32:1056 r. EkSa 13:3039  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  1973:361-364). Stryd distinguishes between “sharp” gravers with sharp tips blunted through use (1973:361-364,Fig 31, a-g), and “rounded” gravers with rounded, unifacially retouched shaft tips (Stryd 1973:361-364, Fig 31, h-m). The gravers collected in the Eagle Lake Project area (Figure I-14, a-j) are all “sharp” gravers with blunted tips, all are basalt, and all, except one, were recovered in excavations. The surface-collected specimen is from the Fish Trap Lake site (T84:27, EkSb 37) (Figure I-14, a). Eighteen gravers were recovered at the Shields site (EkSa 13) (Figure I-14, c-f) and two specimens (Figure I-14, d-e) are almost identical. Eleven are from the Boyd site (EkSa 32) (Figure I-14, g-j): one specimen (Figure I-14, h) has more than one graving tip. Only one, a somewhat dubious member of this class, was recovered from the Bear Lake site (EkSa 36) (Figure I-14, b). As with the previous two flake tool classes, these may also have value in identifying ethnicity, as discussed in Chapter 5. Although each specimen has the defining attributes of gravers, many have use-wear and retouch on lateral margins as well, which indicates that the tools were used for more than one type of function. Bone and antler artifacts recovered at the Shields site (EkSa 13), including leister points, harpoon points and decorated fragments, may have been produced using gravers. Table I-19 Gravers: Metric Data # of Specimens Range Length 17 19.3-38.0 Width 25 14.0-28.5 Thickness 31 2.4-19.2 Weight 12 1.03-4.72  17. Perforators  IQR 24.3-29.2 17.9-21.8 3.4-4.1 1.27-1.88  PERF  Mean 26.9 19.8 4.3 1.79  n = 19  Sanger grouped perforators and drills together (1970:84, Fig 34 i-l) as only eight were recovered in his study. Sanger’s perforators and drills share a number of characteristics: elongated points on bifacially chipped flakes, usually basalt, and a length range of 19 mm to 63 mm. Sanger distinguished drills by the presence of wear polish in a pattern created by rotary action; those without wear polish were categorized as perforators. In the Eagle Lake Project area, perforators were recovered that are similar to Sanger’s type (Figure I-14, k-t) and have the attributes defined by Stryd as well (1973:350-52): a long, sharply tipped shaft that is generally unifacially flaked (although some have alternate and bifacial retouch), plano-convex shaft cross-sections, light use modification of the lateral shaft margins with most wear at the tip, and (commonly) broken tips. Only ELP Quad 19:1 (EkSa 27) yielded obsidian perforators. The majority of specimens from the Shields (EkSa 13), Boyd (EkSa 32), and Bear Lake (EkSa 36) sites are very fine-grained basalt. No clearly bifacially retouched “drills” were recovered. The Shields site (EkSa 13) yielded ten perforators; one is chert and the others are fine-grained basalt. At the Boyd site (EkSa 32) six perforators, all fine-grained basalt, were recovered and only one perforator, a crude specimen of large size (Figure I-14, p), was recovered from the Bear Lake site (EkSa 36). Two perforator fragments were recovered at ELP Quad 19:1 (EkSa 27). 27  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  The Eagle Lake Project area perforators are separated into types based on the location of retouch. Alternating perforators (Figure I-14, k-o) exhibit unifacial retouch on alternate faces and non-alternating perforators (Figure I-14, p-t) exhibit unifacial retouch on one face only. Reference is also made, where applicable, to butt modifications as defined by Stryd: oval (1973: Fig 28-s), irregular, triangular or unclassifiable (1973:351-2). Alternating Perforators PERFa n=8 Alternating perforators exhibit unifacial retouch on alternate faces (Figure I-14, k-o). Only one specimen is obsidian (Figure I-14, o); it is from ELP Quad 19:1 (EkSa 27) and the butt was unclassifiable. All other alternating perforators are basalt and are from excavations at the Shields site (EkSa 13) (n = 4) (Figure I-14, k-l) and Boyd site (EkSa 32) (n = 3) (Figure I14, m-n). The specimens from the Shields site include one oval butt perforator (Figure I-14, k), one triangular perforator, and four irregular butt perforators that have incorporated the irregular shape to create a haft or handle on one lateral edge (Figure I-14, l). The three alternating perforators from the Boyd site are all oval butt specimens. Table I-20 Alternating Perforators: Metric Data # of Specimens Range Mean Length 5 28.1-45.5 32.9 Width 7 18.0-32.7 23.1 Thickness 8 3.5-8.3 4.8 Weight 5 1.59-6.94 3.32 Non-Alternating Perforators PERFn n = 11 Non-alternating perforators from the Eagle Lake Project area (Figure I-14, p-t) are all fine-grained basalt with two exceptions: an obsidian perforator from the surface of ELP Quad 19:1 (EkSa 27) that is fragmentary and unclassifiable and a large, oval butt perforator of chert from the Shields site (EkSa 13). Five other non-alternating perforators recovered at the Shields site include one triangular butt perforator and four irregular butt perforators that range from the smallest recovered in the Eagle Lake Project area (Figure I-14, q) to large ones including one (Figure I- 14, r) with a unique, long shaft. At the Boyd site (EkSa 32), three non-alternating perforators were recovered: one triangular (Figure I-14, s), one with an oval butt (Figure I-14, t) and one unclassifiable fragment (missing both base and tip) that is similar to the oval butt perforator. Only one large, non-alternating perforator was recovered at the Bear Lake site (EkSa 36) (Figure I-14, p): it has an irregular butt similar to those described by Stryd (1973:352). Table I-21 Non-Alternating Perforators: Metric Data # of Specimens Range Mean Length 4 20.3-50.8 34.8 Width 8 8.2-42.9 24.6 Thickness 11 3.1-9.6 5.4 Weigh 4 0.61-6.02 3.51  28  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia 18. Drills  DRIL  Appendix  n=0  No drills of lithic manufacture, with wear indicating rotary motion (Stryd 1973:349), were recovered in the Eagle Lake Project area. Bipolar Reduction Lithic Assemblage The original report on the 1979 Eagle Lake Archaeological Project described fifty-two bipolar cores and wedges (Ludowicz 1980:101-105). With specimens from later field seasons added, the number of artifacts created by bipolar flaking techniques has increased to one hundred and sixty, classified as pièces esquillées, wedges, and bipolar cores and fragments. Bipolar reduction involves striking the raw material from above while it rests on an anvil, therefore, the resulting fracture has evidence of forces coming from opposite directions. Artifacts created using bipolar techniques exhibit battering and negative bulb scars on opposite ends (Ludowicz 1980:101) and a double wedge shape (Loy and Powell 1977:58). Sanger noted evidence of bipolar flaking in the Lochnore-Nesikep assemblages, however, believing the artifacts were the detritus of lithic manufacture, he combined what others had referred to as pièces esquillées and wedges into one group of “bipolar flaked artifacts” (1970:84). For the Eagle Lake assemblage analysis we follow Macdonald (1968), Stryd (1973), and Magne (1985) in interpreting bipolar artifacts as implements. The large quantity of bipolar artifacts found during the Eagle Lake Archaeological Project probably results from the use of small pebbles of fine-grained basalt and obsidian as the raw material for lithic manufacture. Both of these raw materials are usually available as small pebbles, the fine-grained basalt locally, and obsidian from Obsidian Creek, north of Anahim Lake. 19. Pièces Esquillées  PEEQ  n = 86  The Eagle Lake Project area pièces esquillées (Figure I-15) are similar to those described by Stryd (1973:369, Fig 31, s-v) and Magne (1985:168). They are small, utilized artifacts with a rectanguloid shape and all four edges about equal in length (Stryd 1973; Magne 1985:168). They exhibit paired crushed margins (usually the lateral margins) and bipolar flake scars (not extending across the entire face) where irregular bipolar flakes were driven from both faces at the crushed margins (Stryd 1973 after MacDonald 1968:85-90; Magne 1985:168). Stryd’s assemblage amounted to only thirteen specimens, all of them basalt. In the Eagle Lake Project area most of the eighty-six specimens recovered are basalt, except for ten obsidian pièces esquillées collected on the surface, six from the Brittany Creek site (EkSa 33) (Figure I15, m) and four at ELP Quad 19:1 (EkSa 27) (Figure I-15, n-o). The Eagle Lake area specimens are somewhat smaller than those described by Stryd: he reported a maximum length of 51 mm, and illustrates one of approximately 42 mm and another of 40 mm, of the four illustrated (out of the total of 13). In contrast, the longest Eagle Lake area specimen is 37.2 mm in length from platform to flake termination (Figure I-15, a) in a sample of 86. The smallest complete pièce esquillée, with a length of 16.1 mm, was recovered at the Shields site (EkSa 13) (Figure I-15, f). Thirty-three pièces esquillées, all fine grained basalt, were recovered at the excavated sites: four at the Bear Lake site (EkSa 36) (Figure I-15, b), one at Quiggly Holes/Bidwell 29  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Figure I-15 Pièces Esquillées (PEEQ) a. CR 40:48 b. ELP 32:1428 f. EkSa 13:1585 g. EkSa 13:4783 k. EkSa 33:1301 l. EkSa 33:3208 p. ELP 44/G20:228  c. ElRw 4:1678 h. EkSa 13:4334 m. EkSa 33:4323  d. T84-27:4 i. EkSa 32:1064 n. ELP 19-1:79  Appendix  e. T84-27:2073 j. EkSa 32:1444 o. ELP 19-1:1245  Creek (ElRw 4) (Figure I-15, c), eight at the Fish Trap Lake site (T84:27/ EkSb 37) (Figure I15, d-e), fourteen at the Shields site (EkSa 13) (Figure I-15, f-h), and six at the Boyd site (EkSa 32) (Figure I-15, i-j). The largest collection of pièces esquillées from a single site, numbering thirty-two, is a surface collection from the Brittany Creek site (EkSa 33); these are primarily fine-grained basalt (Figure I-15, m), however, six obsidian specimens were also recovered (Figure I-15, k-l). Only one other site yielded obsidian pièces esquillées; four were recovered at ELP Quad 19:1 (EkSa 27) (Figure I-15, n) along with ten fine-grained basalt specimens (Figure I-15, o). Surface collections at four other sites in the Eagle Lake area ranged from one to five specimens, including five from Grassland Quadrat 20/ ELP Quadrat 44 (Figure I-15, p). Thirty-four of the eighty-six pièces esquillées are complete. All specimens illustrated in Figure I-15 are complete except “c” and “k” and represent the size range and all sites where pièces esquillées were recovered, except CR 1 (EjSa 11) which yielded one fragment.  30  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia Table I-22 Pièces Esquillées: Metric Data # of Specimens Range IQR Length 52 11.2-37.2 18.9-24.9 Width 55 11.4-33.9 15.1-21.3 Thickness 86 2.6-10.6 4.2-6.4 Weight 34 0.72-7.06 1.59-3.26 20. Bipolar Wedges  WEDG  Appendix  Mean 21.7 18.7 5.42 2.4  n = 60  Bipolar wedges exhibit two lines of bipolar reduction, perpendicular to each other, resulting in flaking and crushing on all four margins (Figure I-16, a-o). These characteristics are well illustrated on a specimen from the Shields site (EkSa 13) (Figure I-16, g). Materials recovered in the Eagle Lake project area include thirteen obsidian (Figure I-16, b, i, m); five  Figure I-16 Bipolar Wedges and Cores Wedges (WEDG): a. ELP 32:129 b. ELP 32:160 e. ElRw 4:1360 f. T84-27:352 g. EkSa 13:2167 j. EkSa 13:4087 k. EkSa 32:5826 l. EkSa 32:6301 o. EkSa 33:4302 Bipolar Cores (BICO) and Bipolar Core Fragments (BICOf): r. EkSa 33:3745 s. ELP 19-1:161 t. ELP 26 OS:2  31  c. ELP 32:1058 h. EkSa 13:2849 m. EkSa 33:3437  d. ElRw 4:1302 i. EkSa 13:3178 n. EkSa 33: 3808  p. EkSa 33:2411  q. EkSa 33:3621  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  coarse grained basalt (Figure I-16, o); and one chert specimen (Figure I-16, n) in addition to the forty-one specimens of fine-grained basalt. Cortex remains on four specimens: one each from the Bear Lake site (EkSa 36) (Figure I-16,a), the Fish Trap Lake site (EkSb 37) (Figure I16, f), and the Shields (EkSa 13) and Brittany Creek (EkSa 33) sites. Bipolar wedges have a distribution similar to the pièces esquillées: the Brittany Creek site (EkSa 33) yielded the largest number with twenty-one specimens, the Shields site (EkSa 13) had eleven, the Boyd site (EkSa 32) had nine, Bear Lake (EkSa 36) had eight, and Fish Trap Lake (EkSb 37) and Bidwell Creek site (ElRw 4) each yielded four. Three other specimens were recovered at three surface sites in the Eagle Lake Project area. The specimens from the Bear Lake (EkSa 36) (Figure I-16, a-c) and Boyd (EkSa 32) (Figure I-16, k-l) sites are more “blocky” than the thinner, wedge-shaped specimens from most other sites. Specimens from the Brittany Creek site (EkSa 33) also include many blocky wedge fragments of basalt and obsidian (Figure I-16, o). The finest examples of bipolar wedges were recovered at the Shields site (EkSa 13) (Figure I-16, g-j) and include one of obsidian. Table I-23 Bipolar Wedges: Metric Data # of Specimens Range IQR Length 32 12.1-43.1 19.7-29.1 Width 33 6.2-32.8 12.3-21.4 Thickness 60 3.3-17.5 5.9-10.0 Weight 25 0.24-18.80 1.37-2.99 21. Bipolar Cores & Fragments  Mean 23.8 17.4 7.5 3.33  BICO and BICOf  n = 14  Bipolar cores have cortex and, like pièces esquillées, exhibit crushing and negative flake scars on opposite ends as a result of the core being held on an anvil while being struck from the top (Figure I-16, p-t). The core may have been inverted 180 degrees and struck again from the opposite end, however, there is no evidence of crushing along the sides of the core, and the resulting shape is a long and narrow core (Ludowicz 1980:103). Bipolar cores may be an early stage in the production of pièces esquillées or, if rotated 90 degrees and struck again, bipolar wedges. As with the other artifacts of bipolar flaking, the largest number of cores was recovered on the surface of the Brittany Creek site (EkSa 33) (n = 10, Figure I-16, p-r) including the only examples of coarse-grained basalt (2) and chert (1) (Figure I-16, q) in addition to three obsidian (Figure I-16, p) and four fine-grained basalt specimens (Figure I-16, r). No bipolar cores were recovered at the Bear Lake (EkSa 36), Shields (EkSa 13), or Boyd (EkSa 32) sites. Three specimens were recovered on the surface at other sites: ELP Quad 19:1 (EkSa 27) yielded two bipolar cores, both obsidian (Figure I-16, s), and the Fish Trap Lake site (EkSb 37) and ELP Quad 26 (EkSa 31) (Figure I-16, t) each yielded one fine-grained basalt specimen.  32  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Table I-24 Bipolar Cores and Fragments # of Specimens Range Mean Length 13 12.9-36.7 25.2 Width 10 8.9-28.1 20.0 Thickness 14 4.8-13.0 7.8 Weight 11 0.46-10.23 4.39  Cobble-based Lithic Assemblage 22. Cortex Spall Tools  SPTO  n = 11  Cortex spall tools are large, generally flat flakes derived from cobbles, with water-worn cortex on the dorsal surface and naturally sharp edges that may show evidence of utilization or limited retouch (Sanger 1970:88-89; Matson et al. 1980). Spall flakes, often from granular basalt and other dense igneous cobbles, may exhibit retouch to provide a haft end and a blunted scraping end, although generally only one end will be worked (Magne 1985:168). Polish is common at the scraping end of the tool (Magne 1985:169). Stryd noted that in the assemblage of sixty-eight retouched spalls he described, all but one exhibited unifacial dorsal retouch; the one exception was bifacially retouched (1973:366-67). He also noted that retouch is primarily at the transverse edge, but also occurs on the lateral edges, and occasionally on the entire margin except for the bulb area. The modest collection of eleven cortex spall tools from the Eagle Lake Project area includes three (one from the Shields site (EkSa 13), one from ELP Quad 19:1 (EkSa 27), and one from a grassland quadrat) with no retouch but with use-wear, similar to those described by Sanger (1970:88-89) and specimens from the Mouth of the Chilcotin (Matson et al. 1983:25). Specimens with retouch include the variations described by Stryd: six exhibit unifacial retouch ranging from limited flaking of the transverse edge (all specimens from the Brittany Creek site, EkSa 33), to much flaking of either the transverse edge (one specimen at the Bear Lake site (EkSa 36) (Figure I- 17, a) or both the transverse and lateral edges (ELP G2:2). Two cortex spall tools with bifacial flaking were also recovered (Figure I-17, b-c), including one (Figure I-17, b) with bifacial retouch on all edges except at the bulb. The other bifacially flaked specimen is unique (Figure I-17, c): it is the only one of fine-grained basalt and appears to be a thin cobble, with cortex on both faces, that has been shaped by bifacial flaking to create a rounded end and incurvate sides, perhaps for hafting. The other, curved end exhibits extreme polish and the lateral edges exhibit use-wear flaking. This artifact was likely hafted as a hide scraper as illustrated by Teit (1900; Fig. 1). All but one of the eleven cortex spall tools were recovered on the surface, including one from the surface of the Bear Lake site (Figure I-17, a). The specimen recovered during excavation was at the Shields site (EkSa 13). The only fine-grained basalt specimen is from a grassland quadrat (Figure I-17, c). All other specimens are either coarse-grained basalt or igneous material. Most sites yielded only one specimen, however, the Brittany Creek site (CR 92/EkSa 33) yielded four, (two each of coarse-grained basalt and igneous material) and ELP Quad 19:1 (EkSa 27) yielded two of coarse-grained basalt (Figure I-17, b). 33  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Figure I-17 Cortex Spall Tools (SPTO) a. ELP 32-1:275 b. ELP 19-1:1549  c. ELP 44-3:250  Table I-25 Cortex Spall Tools # of Specimens Range Length 9 80.0-151.5 Width 8 58.1-95.7 Thickness 10 7.6-26.7 Weight 8 72.89-318.00 23. Core Tools and Fragments  Appendix  Mean 100.3 76.3 16.5 154.94  CORE  n = 12  Core tools are cobbles with flake scars but with no prepared platforms (Matson 1976:131). Core tools and fragments (not illustrated) were collected only at the Brittany Creek site (EkSa 33) and all are from the surface. All specimens are coarse-grained basalt except one of igneous material. Two cores exhibit evidence of retouch and may have served as choppers: EkSa 33:3940 has large, coarse flakes removed bifacially to create a steep edge (opposite the rounded cortex-covered edge) and finer bifacial retouch of the steepened edge to sharpen it. The other retouched core tool (EkSa 33:4245) exhibits unifacial retouch on one sharp, steep edge and also retains cortex cover. 34  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia Table I-26 Core Tools # of Specimens Range Length 9 66.5-257.6 Width 9 43.9-116.9 Thickness 12 16.9-83.7 Weight 8 57.83-1320.0 24. Hammerstones  Appendix  Mean 98.6 74.8 39.6 390.33  (HAST)  n=3  Hammerstones are unshaped, round to oval cobbles with indications of use in the form of pitting or roughening, usually confined to limited and specific areas, but some show wear all over one or both ends (Sanger 1970:89). Sanger’s hammerstones vary widely in weight, ranging from 29 grams to 3,305 grams. Stryd described hammerstones with pitted ends in three forms: oval, elliptical, and triangular (1973:380-81). In the Eagle Lake Project area, only three hammerstones were recovered. Two oval shaped, igneous cobbles were recovered: one from ELP Quadrat 26 (EkSa 31) has extensive pitting on one end and one from the Bear Lake site (EkSa 36) has extensive pitting on one end and the adjacent lateral margin. The specimen from the Brittany Creek site (EkSa 33) is unusual (Figure I-18, a). It is also igneous rock but has a natural wedge shape at one end. At the other end, large bifacial flakes have been removed to create a similar, but alternate, wedge shape. Both ends are worn from use, forming two sinuous edges. Although this might be classified as a cobble tool (see below), its shape varies from Sanger’s definition of cobble choppers as it is not a rounded cobble. Table I-27 Hammerstones: Metric Data Artifact Length C Width C EkSa 33:3192 81.4 Y 47.6 Y EkSa 36:1720 160.0 N 86.9 Y ELP 26-3:20 106.3 N 70.8 Y 25. Polished Cobble  Thickness 26.1 64.9 47.4  POCO  Weight 173.46 1393.6 559.39  n=1  One cobble recovered from hearth Feature H at the Bear Lake site (EkSa 36) has an unusual but natural outline resembling a hatchet-shape (not illustrated). The basalt cobble is 128.0 mm long, 67.6 mm wide and 27.4 mm thick, exhibits polish on both ends and on the curved lateral margin, and weighs 332.16 grams. 26. Pecked Cobble Tool  PCOB  n=1  One cobble tool, recovered on the surface of the Brittany Creek site (EkSa 33, not illustrated), is unique. It is a flat, round, porous igneous cobble that is worn around the entire margin. One surface exhibits polish and is pecked at the centre. It is 137.0 mm long, 128.6 mm wide, and 20.7 mm thick and weighs 680.50 grams and is possibly an anvil stone.  35  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia 27. Cobble Tools  COBL  Appendix  n=3  Cobble tools are unifacially flaked implements (with rare specimens having bifacial flaking) based on rounded cobbles that may have served as chopping tools or as scrapers (Matson 1976:141). Flaking is generally crude, often with only three or four large flakes removed to form an edge and materials vary widely, although basalts are common (Sanger 1970:84-87). Two artifacts, both from the Bear Lake site (EkSa 36), are similar to Sanger’s cobble choppers (1970:84): they are based on flat, round cobbles of igneous material crudely flaked with three or four large flakes removed. One is unifacially flaked to form a sharp edge on the transverse edge with the greatest curvature. The other (Figure I-18, b) is unlike those described by Sanger. It is bifacially flaked on both ends. Based on the presence of extensive use-wear on the edge opposite the flaking it may have been used for scraping. One flat, round basalt cobble was recovered from the Shields site (EkSa 13). It exhibits two large flake removals at the broader end and has extensive use wear including pitting, striations and large, unifacial flake removals on one lateral margin.  Figure I-18. Hammerstones and Cobble Tools Hammerstone (HAST): a. EkSa 33:3192 Cobble Tool (COBL): b. ELP 32:1558  36  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia Table I-28 Cobble Tools Artifact Length ELP 32-1:1467 136.3 ELP 32-1:1558 154.0 EkSa 13:4039 169.0 28. Cobble with Use-wear  C Y Y Y  Width 97.6 100.3 107.6  C Y Y Y  Thickness 34.6 33.0 46.9  UCOB  Appendix  Weight 754.90 738.80 1299.4 n=1  One flat, round, igneous cobble was recovered from the Shields site (EkSa 13) that exhibits use-wear but no flaking (not illustrated). It is worn smooth along one margin and along one adjacent face but also exhibits pecking along the same margin, indicating possible use as a grinding stone. The specimen is 86.2 mm long, 78.2 mm wide, 38.5 mm thick and weighs 417.59 grams. 29. Large Flake Tools  LFLT  n = 13  Large flake tools, unlike the large formed bifaces, generally exhibit unifacial flaking (Figure I-19). They are based on two flake shapes derived from cobbles: one is oblong,  Figure I-19 Large Flake Tools (LFLT) a. EkSa 13:4330 b. ELP 44-4:264  c. EkSa 13:5430  37  d. EkSa 13:3962  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  triangular and blocky (Figure I-19, a-b); the other has a half-moon or ulu shape and is flatter (Figure I-19, c-d). Many specimens of both types have cortex that often becomes the handheld part of the tool. All have been shaped to create a sharp working edge and a hafting area, usually by unifacial flaking, but occasionally by bifacial flaking (Figure I-19, c). Two specimens, one from the Bear Lake site (EkSa 36) and one from the Fish Trap Lake site (EkSb 37) (not illustrated) exhibit alternate edge flaking. The flat, ulu-shaped flakes generally have unifacial flake removals to create a sharp working edge and, along the opposite edge, a dulled edge for ease of holding. Use-wear flaking is generally unifacial, but on two specimens is bifacial (Figure I-19, a). All tools exhibit use-wear on the sharpened edge in the form of macroscopic polish, crushing, and small, discontinuous flake removals. Three large flake tools have a unique sinuous edge with use wear: one is a flat flake type (Figure I-19, d), and two are of the blocky type (Figure I-19, b). The greatest number of specimens, six, was recovered in the Shields site (EkSa 13) excavation (Figure I-19, a, c-d), including one specimen of fine-grained basalt (Figure I-19, d) with extensive use-wear (in the form of crushing and small, unifacial flake removals) on one lateral margin and on the sinuous edge. One blocky, large flake tool of granite with alternate unifacial retouch was recovered at the Bear Lake site (EkSa 36). Three blocky specimens were recovered on the surface of Grassland Quadrat 20; all are coarse-grained basalt. One exhibits bifacial flaking on all edges. The tool has use-wear on more than one edge, as if the tool was rotated, but one edge has the most extensive (and bifacial) evidence of use. Another specimen from Grassland Quadrat 20 (Figure I-19, b) is bifacially shaped at the platform end and has a sinuous, naturally steep edge with unifacial use-wear flaking. One large flake tool was also recovered at each of the following sites: at Fish Trap Lake (EkSb 37) a flat, curved specimen of fine-grained basalt; at ELP Quadrat 19:1 (EkSa 27) a blocky specimen of coarse-grained basalt; and at ELP Quadrat 22 (EkSb 6) a blocky specimen of fine-grained basalt. Use-wear flaking and patination indicate this tool was used, discarded and reused more recently. Both usages are evident on the curved edge, but earlier use-wear flaking includes the opposite, slightly sinuous edge. Table I-29 Large Flake Tools: Metric Data # of Specimens Range Mean Length 10 71.8-131.1 101.7 Width 11 49.8-84.7 62.4 Thickness 13 15.0-44.7 23.8 Weigh 9 77.71-292.94 159.42 Microblade Assemblage 30. Microblades  MIBL  n=4  Microblades are relatively thin, narrow flakes with straight, parallel sides (and ridges) and relatively constant thickness/width ratio (Sanger 1970:60). Striking platforms have flat, unfacetted surfaces and the ventral side may be a smooth, straight line or may be crescent 38  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  shaped (Sanger 1970:62). Obsidian microblades were recovered in the Eagle Lake project area at two sites: three at the Boyd site (EkSa 32) (Figure I-20, a-c) and one on the surface of the Brittany Creek site (CR 92/EkSa 33) (Figure I-20, d). Only one (Figure I-20, a) is complete and it is 18.3 mm long. The fragmentary specimen from the Brittany Creek site is a little wider and thicker than the microblades from the Boyd site. Table I-30 Microblades: Metric Data Artifact Length C Width EkSa 32:2091 18.3 Y 4.6 EkSa 32:2941 10.3 N 4.4 EkSa 32:6133 6.2 N 3.6 EkSa 33:2766 8.4 N 6.0 31. Microblade Cores  C Y Y Y Y  Thickness 1.5 0.9 0.4 1.9  MICO  Weight 0.12 0.05 0.01 0.11  n=0  No microblade cores were recovered in the Eagle Lake Project area.  Figure I-20. Microblade and Ground Stone Assemblages Microblades (MIBL): a. EkSa 32:2091 b. EkSa 32:2941 c. EkSa 32:6133 d. EkSa 33:2766 Adze flakes (ADZEf): e. CR 73:61 f. CR 73:109 Notched Slate (NOSL): g. CR 73:113 Polished Pebble (POLP): h. CR 73:100 Waisted Stones (WAST): i. CR 73:83 j. CR 73:41 Pebble with Ochre (OCHP): k. CR 73:38  39  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Bone and Antler Assemblage 32. Incised Bone  INCB  n = 11  In the Eagle Lake Project area incised or decorated bone fragments and one incised tooth were recovered at three excavated sites: six fragments at the Bear Lake site (EkSa 36) (Figure I21, a-c, g-i), one fragment at the Shields site (EkSa 13) (Figure I-21, d), and two fragments at a housepit site CR 73 (EkSa 35) (Figure I-21, e,f). In all, seven specimens show clear evidence of incising and one worn fragment may have been incised. The decorative patterns created by the incised lines are similar to those reported by Sanger (1970:92-95) and Stryd (1973: Fig 40, k-l) for beads and pendants. One fragment from the Bear Lake site (EkSa 36) was whittled, rather than incised (Figure I-21, a), and one from the Shields site (EkSa 13) was decorated with notches (Figure I-21, d). An incised tooth (Figure I-21, c) was recovered at the Bear Lake site (EkSa 36). One specimen from CR 73 (EkSa 35) (Figure I-21, f) is a flat rectangle (with an outline similar to the neck of a bottle, with three parallel lines carved onto the upper lip of one edge  Figure I- 21. Incised and Decorated Bone (INCB) a. EkSa 36:6010 (whittled) b. EkSa 36:5787 (grooved/incised) c. EkSa 36:1948 (incised tooth) d. EkSa 13:5717 (decorated bone) e. CR 73:46 f. CR 73:42 g. EkSa 36:6011a h. EkSa 36:6011b i. EkSa 36:1902  40  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  and two lines on the opposite edge). In form it is similar to the “sap scraper” (Stryd 1973:392; Pl 35), “gaming pieces” (Morlan 1973:Pl 19), cut antler rectangles (Campbell 1968:40) and incised bone objects (Shinkwin 1979:115, Pl 31) that form part of the “rather distinctive Kavik artifact type” (Campbell 1968:40). Stryd’s inference of sap scrapers is based on morphological similarity to ethnographic specimens (Stryd 1973:392; Teit 1909a, Fig. 235c; 1909b: Fig. 275). One other bone specimen (Figure I-21, e) recovered from CR 73 (EkSa 35), is small and fire-blackened, 15.0 mm long, 6.0 mm wide, and 3.0 mm thick. It has one deep, longitudinal groove incised on one face. One incised bone specimen from the Bear Lake site (EkSa 36, Figure I-21, i) was recovered in seven fragments from the historic component and has been reassembled. All fragments are soot-blackened on some areas. Figure I-23, k illustrates this fully reconstructed with front, back, and side views (Figure I-23 is repeated as Figure 45 in the main volume). The re-assembled specimen (Figure I-21, i, Figure I-23, k) is both perforated and incised and measures 96.5 mm long; the width varies from 11.5 to 14.0 mm, and thickness is 3.0 mm. It has a circular perforation at the narrower end and one face has diagonal lines intersecting to create a series of “diamond shapes” that are filled-in with incised lines running parallel to the length of the bone. Figure I-21, i shows the assembled front view. The whittled specimen (Figure I-21, a) of bone from the Bear Lake site (EkSa 36) is a small, rounded fragment (15.0 mm long, 5.0 mm wide, and 4.0 mm thick) that is whittled on one end to taper but not to a point. The incised tooth from the Bear Lake site, EkSa 36, (Figure I-21, c; Figure I-23, j) is hollow and incised with one curved line with two diagonal lines within its curve. The tooth is 14.0 mm long, 6.0 mm wide, and 3.0 mm thick and, as reported in the faunal analysis, is either a porcupine or beaver incisor. 33. Bone Fish Spear Points (Leister Prongs)  BPNT  n=6  Fragments of bone leister prongs were recovered at only one site, the Shields site (EkSa 13), and represent at least five points (Figure I-22, a-e; Figure I-23, a-h). Leisters are fish spears with two flexible, barbed side prongs designed to pierce and retrieve fish from above. They were used from platforms, holes in the ice, or from canoes, especially at night with torchlight (Rostlund 1952:105-112, 293-295; Teit 1900:252). Specimens from the Shields site are unilaterally barbed and many show evidence of burning. One unique point (Figure I-22, a) exhibits two unilateral barbs and 4 notches (not unilateral) and has a design of incised dots spiralling around the shaft. Three of the other specimens exhibit extended barbs (with the larger part of the barb extending beyond the lateral edge of the point) (Figure I-22, b-d) and one has two enclosed barbs (with the larger part of the barb within the lateral edge of the point) (Figure I-22, e). One specimen with nine extended barbs (Figure I-22, b), recovered in fragments, has been re-assembled and, although there may be fragments missing, the length of all four sections is 316.5 mm. The tip is straight and exhibits facets on six sides coming to a point. Another point with very similar attributes was also recovered. The proximal end tapers below three small notches, one pointing up, one down and one perpendicular to the lateral edge of the shaft. The points are similar to the unilaterally barbed points reported by Stryd (1973: Fig. 41, a-d) and, like the points reported by Morlan (1973: 278-287) at the Klokut site, they are variable in form and size. They do not have the “lenticular” barbs reported by Campbell (1968) for the Kavik site. 41  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Figure I-22 Bone Fish Spear Points (Leister Prongs) (BPNT) a. EkSa 13:5346 b. EkSa 13:2161, 2141, 2144, 2143, 2149, 2155, 2148, 2153, 2158, 2159, 2156, 2145, 2146 c. EkSa 13:2142, 2152, 2151, 2162, 2154 d. EkSa 13:2166, 2157, 1563 e. EkSa 13:3605  Table I-31 Bone Points: Metric Data Artifact # Figure I- # Length EkSa 13: 5346 22-a 172.0 EkSa 13: 2161 et al., 2143 et al. 22-b 316.5 EkSa 13: 2151 et al., 2154, 2150 22-c 173.3 EkSa 13:1563 et al. 22-d 83.0 EkSa 13:3605 22-e 51.5  C N  Width 7.0  C Y  Thickness 6.0 - 5.0  Weight 6.79  N  5.0 -12.0 Y  5.0 - 6.5  13.40  N N N  5.8 -10.0 Y 9.0 Y 8.0 Y  4.5 - 6.0 5.0 3.5  5.36 2.64 1.51  The six bone point tips, including the two mentioned above, all vary in method of manufacture. One tip (Figure I-22, c) has five facets, creating a flat-sided tip rather than a rounded one. The tip of the specimen with enclosed barbs (Figure I-22, e) is bifacially ground to produce a flattened point with rounded tip. Two point fragments were also recovered.  42  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Figure I-23. Illustrations of decorated artifacts from Bear Lake and Shields sites. (Repeated in the main volume as Figure 45) Leister Prongs: a. EkSa 13:2156 b. EkSa 13:2162 c. EkSa 13:2166 d. EkSa 13:2142 e. EkSa 13:3605 f, g. EkSa 13:5346 h. EkSa 13:2143 Horse Hardware: i. EkSa 36:5837 Incised Tooth: j. EkSa 36:1948 Decorated bone: k. EkSa 36:1902  34. Harpoon points and fragments  TPNT  n=3  Three fragments of bone or antler harpoons were recovered at the Shields site (EkSa 13), including two composite toggling channelled valves (Figure I-24, a-b). EkSa 13:5347 is the best example (Figure I-24, b). EkSa 13:2274 (Figure I-24, a) is only a “likely” example that may be the broken tip of some other object. Figure I-24, c (EkSa 13:3203 [Figure 44 in main text]) is the base of a harpoon with bilateral line guards, such as found on “Marpole-Style” unilaterally barbed harpoons (Matson and Coupland 1995:205). Composite toggling harpoons were fastened with a line around the middle of the valve (below the bulge in Figure I-24, b) and “toggled” or turned when the fish pulled the harpoon off the shaft. Figure I-24, c would not “toggle”. The missing upper part of Figure I-24, c would have barbs and the line would have been tied between them and the line guards which are the two protuberances visible. Harpoons used for freshwater fishing had heads that detached from the harpoon 43  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Figure I-24. Bone and Antler: Harpoon Points, Awls, and Beamers. Harpoon Points (TPNT): a. EkSa 13:2274 b. EkSa 13:5747 c. EkSa 13:3203 Bone Awl (BAWLT): d. EkSa 13:5713 Scapula Beamer(BEAM): e. EkSa 13:3260  shafts but were attached by a line so that fish could be retrieved (Rostlund 1952:105). The current use of “gaffs” at Henry’s Crossing continues this technology for salmon fishing today (Burnard-Hogarth, Chapter 2, main text). Table I-32 Harpoon points and Fragments: Metric Data Artifact Number Figure # Length C Width C Thickness EkSa 13: 2274 24-a 61.1 N 13.2 Y 5.8 EkSa 13:5347 24-b 45.1 N 8.5 Y 5.0 EkSa 13: 3203 24-c 96.9 N 27.2 Y 8.9 35. Bone Awl  BAWL  Weight 3.42 1.43 14.21  n=1  One bone awl with broken tip and use-wear polish but no modification was recovered at the Shields site (EkSa 13) (Figure I-24, d). It is 160 mm long, 21.5 mm at the widest part, 7.1 mm thick, and weighs 12.32 grams. 44  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia 36. Scapula Beamer  BEAM  Appendix  n=3  Three scapula beamers were recovered at the Shields site (EkSa 13) (Figure I- 24, e) that are similar to the unornamented beamers which functioned as hide scrapers reported by Morlan at the Klo-kut site (Morlan 1973:305-307). Stryd (1973:391-2) also reports six such items made from deer scapulas. All specimens from the Shields site are very worn, broken at the working edge and distal end, and two are broken along the lateral margin. Lengths (incomplete) range from 16.0 to 20.5 mm, widths (incomplete) range from 26.0 to 44.4 mm, and thickness ranges from 3.8 to 17.5 mm. Paull (1984) tested EkSa 13:3260 (Figure I-24, e) at four loci for blood and fat and at one of those four for fat and lignin. All of the loci looked like blood specks and three were positive for blood and fat. The fourth loci was negative for these and starch but positive for lignin. Whether the blood and starch are the result of the function of the tool or because the object is bone is unclear. CR 73 / EkSa 35 Assemblage Unique Items The following artifact types were recovered only at EkSa 35 (CR 73), a housepit site, near Brittany Creek, that has been truncated by the Chilko River. The site is about three hundred and fifty years old (SFU 15: 360+/-80 BP). In addition to the waisted stones, adze flakes, notched slate, polished pebbles and pebble with ochre described below (Figure I-20, e-k), the excavation also yielded two specimens of incised bone, one Kavik point, one side-notched point, one utilized flake of quartz, and one small, bifacially retouched flake of obsidian (previously described). 37. Waisted Stone  WAST  n=3  Three flat, oval cobbles exhibit bifacial flaking at the mid-section to create a waist and have the appearance of crushing but not polish at the waist. Two complete specimens (Figure I-20, i-j) and one smaller size fragment were recovered and these may be net-sinkers. On one granite specimen (Figure I-20, i) large, coarse, flakes are removed from both edges to create the waist; the flake removals are unifacial on one edge and bifacial on the other. The other complete specimen (Figure I-20, j) is fine-grained basalt and exhibits bifacial flaking of both edges to create the waist. Table I -33 Artifact CR 73:41 CR 73:83 CR 73:108  Waisted Stones: Metric Data Figure Length C Width 20-j 62.7 Y 43.3 20-i 87.9 Y 41.6 21.2 N 20.5  38. Adze Flake  C Y Y N  ADZEf  Thickness 13.5 16.0 8.7  Weight 60.30 96.56 5.16  n=2  At CR 73 (EkSa 35) two fine-grained greenstone flakes with ground and polished dorsal surfaces were recovered during the excavation and have been identified as adze flakes (Figure 45  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  I-20, e-f). In his report on the Lochnore-Nesikep area, Sanger reported fragments of nephrite celts with grinding, bevelling and grooving (1970:89). Table I-34 Artifact CR 73:6 1 CR 73:109  Adze Flakes: Metric Data Length C Width C 26.1 N 12.0 Y 13.7 Y 9.0 Y  39. Polished Pebble  Thickness 2.5 2.1  POLP  Weight 0.86 0.14 n=2  Two small, highly polished pebbles of fine green stone were recovered during the excavation of the CR 73 (EkSa 35) housepit. One is ovoid in shape (Figure I-20, h); the other is triangular. Table I-35 Artifact CR 73:37 CR 73:100  Polished Pebbles: Metric Data Length C Width C Thickness 30.1 Y 13.5 Y 6.8 19.0 Y 14.8 Y 7.0  40. Pebble with Ochre  OCHP  Weight 3.42 3.61  n=1  One rounded igneous pebble with ochre on one end was recovered in the excavation of CR 73 (EkSa 35) (Figure I-20, k). The pebble is 35.9 mm long, 26.5 mm wide, 14.8 mm thick and weighs 21.02 grams. 41. Notched/Incised Slate  NOSL  n=1  One fragment of slate was recovered in two pieces on the surface of CR 73 (EkSa 35) (Figure I-20, g). It exhibits a continuous zig-zag pattern incised into the edges. Historic Artifact Assemblage 42. Historic Artifacts: Bear Lake Site (EkSa 36)  HIST  The following details on the historic artifacts from the Bear Lake site (EkSa 36) are largely taken from the report prepared by Rod Heitzmann (2001). All artifacts date to the mid-nineteenth century (the historic lodge has bark ring tree-ring dates of AD 1851 and AD 1877) and relate to clothing and personal items, cooking and food, guns, horse tack, and hardware. Most items exhibit considerable wear or damage. Clothing and Personal Artifacts n = 13 Clothing and personal items consist of one religious medal, five buttons, and seven beads. The religious medal is a round, thin, silver-plated medal 15.4 mm in diameter with a broken cast metal hoop for attachment at one end (Figure I-25, a [Figure 46 in main text]). It 46  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Figure I-25. Historic Artifact Assemblage(HIST) Religous Medal: a. EkSa 36:1895 Buttons: b. EkSa 36:1890 c. EkSa 36:1960 Beads: f. EkSa 36 1961 & 3008 g. EkSa 36:2777 Misc. Metal: l. EkSa 36:3975 m. EkSa 36:1893 Gun Related: p. EkSa 36:3006 (Gun Flint) Horse Related: r. EkSa 36:5837 (Round Brass) Other: t. EkSa 36:1897 (Threaded Gray metal)  Appendix  d. EkSa 36:1918 e. EkSa 36:1944 i. EkSa 36:3964 j. EkSa 36: 1790 k. ELP 32-1:159 n. EkSa 36:1994 o. EkSa 36:1932 q. EkSa 36:1885, 1886, 1887 (Lead Sprue) s. EkSa 36:1902 & 1904 (Buckle) u. CR 28:40 (Rolled copper tube)  appears that when the hoop broke, a small hole was drilled close to the rim at the opposite edge. Corrosion has effaced the image and the inscription around the margin, however, the image appears to represent Christ with an upraised hand across the chest (The Sacred Heart symbol). The five buttons represent four types: two are white glass, typically used on shirts or underwear (Figure I-25, b); one three-part metal button has a cast eagle on the front and a single loop on the back for attachment, a style commonly used for coats (Figure I-25, c); one metal button back may be from a cloth-covered button likely used for a coat (Figure I-25, d); and one flat, two-part button with copper face and iron back was common on pants and dresses (Figure I-25, e). The three-part metal button (Figure I-25, c) consists of a front, back and a single loop. The obverse of the front is cast with an eagle, facing left; the reverse is impressed “SCOVILLS & . . . “, identifying this button as having been produced after 1840 when the Scovill Manufacturing Company of Waterbury, Connecticut became known as 47  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Scovills & Company. Buttons with this label were probably made between 1840 and 1850. The seven glass beads include two white drawn seed beads (Figure I-25, f) usually used on moccasins or clothing, and five larger beads including three dark blue wire wound beads: one large (11.1 mm in diameter) and two medium size (7.4 and 7.9 mm in diameter) (Figure I-25, g-i); one red wire wound bead of medium size (7.1 mm diameter) (Figure I-25, j); and one dark blue, drawn, faceted, hexagonal bead (5.9 mm diameter) (Figure I-25, k). Cooking and Food Related Artifacts n = 63 Most of the artifacts in this category are fragmentary. Cooking implement fragments include parts of a minimum of four thin walled, tinned iron vessels. Fragments of two tinned iron pots were recovered: one pot had an outward rolled rim and handle lug, the other had an inward rolled rim. The crimped rim for a container with slip-on lid was also recovered. Other kitchen related items include a can key and strip from a sealed food container (Figure I25, l), 43 strips of metal from tin cans, cut into varying lengths and widths, possibly for other uses such as tinkling cones or repairing other metal objects (Figure I-25, m-o), and several pieces of a wider, circular metal band, possibly used to secure stove pipes. Gun Related Artifacts n=4 One fragment of a gunflint (Figure I-25, p) is likely from a British source dating from the nineteenth century. Three droplets of lead sprue (Figure I-25, q) are possibly the result of the manufacture of lead balls or shot. One unidentifiable gun part, consisting of a threaded base of grey metal, was also recovered. Horse Tack and Related Artifacts n=4 Two artifacts may be decorations from horse tack or saddles: one is a fragment of an oval-shaped leather cut-out with stitching around the outer rim and two large holes on opposite sides near the rim, likely for the attachment of leather tassels or strips. The other is a round, dome-shaped brass decorative piece with an etched star on the face (Figure I-25, r, Figure I-23, i). It has folded-over tangs and small holes along the lower edge for attachment to leather saddles or harness. A third artifact, of rectangular cross-section grey metal, was recovered in two pieces and is probably a buckle from a horse harness or pack (Figure I-25, s). Hardware Related Artifacts n=4 One common machine-made nail with square cross-section and length of 32 mm was recovered (not illustrated). These nails were commonly used in the mid-to-late nineteenth century as wood fasteners. Three segments of chain links were recovered: two are from heavy iron chain link and one is from a light gauge iron chain link. Unidentified Artifacts n=1 One unidentified artifact (Figure I-25, t) is the base of a round, threaded grey metal object with a diameter of 22 mm. It has a circular, 14.2 mm diameter hole in the base and the other end has been cut. Its function is unknown.  48  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia 43. Historic Artifacts: Other Sites  Appendix  HIST  One rolled copper tube (Figure I-25, u) was recovered at CR 28 (EkSa 98). Made from a flattened piece of copper coiled to form a tube, it measures 61.7 mm in length and 8.9 mm in maximum diameter. The method of manufacture is not like two “rolled copper tubes” from sites in southwest Yukon (Workman 1978: 347; Pl 15) or one copper tube, identified as possibly a bead, from the Dixthada site (Shinkwin 1979:104, Pl 28), all of which have long sides meeting and hammered together. However, it may have functioned similarly as a bead or tinkler for attachment to clothing (Workman 1978:347).  49  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  OBSIDIAN SOURCE ANALYSES Martin Magne On the basis of macroscopic characteristics and relative proximity of the source, we can be fairly certain that most of the obsidian lithics collected and excavated at Eagle Lake were obtained from Anahim Lake and vicinity, notably the Obsidian Creek source (Nelson and Will 1976). This obsidian is most often opaque black in colour, develops a silvery hydration cortex, and is found as small cobbles that are very often reduced with bipolar techniques. In the course of our excavations at the Shields site (EkSa 13), and during our examination of materials from Chinlac (Borden 1952), we noticed some pieces of obsidian which did not fit our notions of what Obsidian Creek materials should look like, and thought it best to have source analyses done to verify their origin. From Chinlac we noticed a black with red streaked obsidian microblade core fragment, which looks like Glass Buttes, Oregon obsidian. In obsidian, colour is no clue at all to source (Carlson, personal communication 1983). This piece, apparently not noticed by Borden, was catalogued in 1952 as a “lamellar flake” (CH: 729), and was found in the turf level of House III at Chinlac. The artifact itself is unusual since no microblades were found at Chinlac. From the Shields site (EkSa 13) we excavated several flakes of green, slightly bubbly obsidian from House 2 in Layer B3. And from House 5 were excavated several flakes of bluegrey obsidian from Layer B2. We had no good idea of where these materials could be from, and Mt. Edziza was considered a good possibility, if only because we knew obsidian from there to be quite varied in colour. The three samples were submitted to Dorothy Godfrey-Smith of Simon Fraser University for source analysis. The method employed was X-ray fluorescence, which is a nondestructive and accurate method of determining obsidian source locations when known reference samples are at hand. The method is detailed in Nelson, D’Auria and Bennett (1975), and the same procedure was employed by Godfrey-Smith with the exception that the analyses were run for 10 minutes rather than 5 minutes. A total of 15 elements were characterized in the analyses. Somewhat surprising results were obtained in that they did not fit our preconceived notions at all. The Chinlac microblade core is derived from Anahim 1, that is to say, Obsidian Creek. The green obsidian flakes from the Shields site, Housepit 2 are from Ilgachuz #1, and the blue-green flakes from Housepit 5 are from Ilgachuz #3, which are both sources with unknown precise locations somewhere in Ilgachuz Mountains north of Anahim Lake (see Apland 1979). Thus we can say that obsidian at Eagle Lake was obtained from three source locations: Obsidian Creek, which was sourced for the Chinlac microcore only, but is highly probable for most of the Eagle Lake materials, and Ilgachuz #1 and #3, which were sourced for Shields site materials. It is possible indeed that some of the black obsidian from Eagle Lake was obtained from other sources, since some from a site at Alexis Creek was sourced to Mt. Edziza (Bussey 1983; Godfrey-Smith 1984).  50  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  FAUNAL ANALYSIS Linda Roberts and Martin Magne The analyses of mammal and fish remains from three excavated sites in the Eagle Lake region were undertaken to reveal faunal subsistence patterns in prehistoric and historic times. Different subsistence practices may result from changes in local fauna or be brought about by the fur trade and introduction of European goods such as guns and metal implements as well as different cultural practices. PPT and Athapaskan occupants of the region may have utilized salmon, lake fish, and land mammals differently. Elk (Cervus elaphus) disappeared from the area prior to 1900 and the growth of moose populations in the area is relatively recent. Although McT. Cowan and Guiguet (n.d.:378) state “Prior to 1920 there were virtually no moose south of the Hazelton-Prince George line” Spalding (1990) points to historical evidence that prior to 1840, moose was present south of that line, although probably not as far south as Eagle Lake. So moose probably ought to be absent from all collections, and elk should be present at the Shields and Boyd sites, but perhaps not in the historic component at Bear Lake. Fish remains pose an interesting problem, since the Chilcotin subsistence round, to the degree that it is known, stresses the importance of lakefish such as trout, whitefish, suckers and kokanee. Thus we might expect more of these present in the Bear Lake site than in the PPT assemblages. Regardless of what is reported ethnographically, the empirical archaeological record will become the more accurate record of late precontact of faunal resource use patterns of which this report is an initial stage. Although changes in subsistence patterns through time were expected to be revealed mainly through comparison of the remains between the Bear Lake, and the Shields and Boyd sites, significant differences might be observable within the sites. For the protohistoric period at Anahim Lake, Stewart (1978) found substantial numbers of Caribou remains, but Stewart (1978:24) and Wilmeth (1978:143) only modest evidence for moose (one worked antler specimen and an ulna and acetabulum). Stewart presents convincing evidence that Caribou habitat changed dramatically in the historic period because of increasing population and that these habitat changes were favorable for deer and moose (Stewart 1978:51-52). Investigation of such changes is most feasible at the Bear Lake site, where two hearths were excavated, each from a different component of the site. The remains were examined, analyzed and largely interpreted by Roberts, with Magne providing the research orientation and final interpretations. Research Methods The faunal bone from the three sites was identified as closely as possible to genus and species. Anatomical portion was noted even if specific identification was not possible. A description of the piece stating condition (charred, calcined, not burned, weathered, proportion of fragment remaining, fusion/ non-fusion, butchering, carnivore chewing marks, staining, cut marks, deliberate shaping, etc.) was also included. The decorated and shaped artifacts were removed from the analyses and are described in the artifact section of the larger report, however cut and butchered bone remains are included in this faunal section. 51  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  All of the excavated bone was included, with the exception of 1/2 of the remains excavated from the Feature J cachepit (or about 1/4 of the entire pit) from the Bear Lake site, and the remains which are included in floatation samples taken from all sites. The remaining portion of Feature J has been stored at UBC as an example of the articulated salmon vertebrae feature. All of the classifiable bone was counted and weighed. To reduce the time involved, much of the unclassifiable bone (class uncertain) was not counted, and was only weighed. The analysis maintained tabulations of the bone from individual units, levels, layers and sublayers, and was later condensed to the units desired for analysis. Total bone frequencies (NISP) for the three sites, sorted by identifiable class, are shown in Table I-36. Bear Lake Site (EkSa 36) Fauna The principal questions which formed the framework of the analysis at the Bear Lake site have to do with the differences between historic and prehistoric components, whether the various features identified as such were correctly assigned, and functional differences between the different historical features. The specific questions are as follows: 1. Are there significant differences in the remains from hearth Features G (historic) and I (prehistoric)? Does Feature G evidence more fur-bearing mammals? Are there elk in Feature I and moose in Feature G? Is there evidence of utilization of different elements of animals? 2. Are the Feature I Separate materials most similar to Feature I or Feature G? Can they be interpreted as the result of disturbance of Feature I, or as the result of periodic cleaning out of Feature G? 3. What species and elements are present in Feature A? Could these represent materials discarded from one of the hearth features? 4. Is Feature G best interpreted as the result of continuous usage, or of varying seasonal usage? 5. What are the differences between the hearth remains and those found in the floor area of Feature B? 6. What salmon elements are present in the historic Feature J cache? Are salmon head parts present, indicating local processing of salmon? Are salmon elements found elsewhere at the site? Does Feature J contain other fish or mammal elements? 7. What species and elements are present in Feature H? How do these compare with remains from Feature B? Is there any indication of the function of Feature H? 8. Does the definite precontact layer (Bf) contain faunal remains that are markedly different from the contact period occupation?  52  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  FAUNAL CLASS Large mammal Medium-large mammal Medium mammal Small-medium mammal Small mammal Mammal Osteichthyes Class Uncertain Artiodactyl Cervidae Cervus elaphus Odocoileus hemionus Medium carnivore Canis latrans Ursus americanus Martes sp. Martes pennanti Mustela vison Gulo gulo Mustela sp. Lynx sp. Large carnivore Leporidae Marmota caligata Tamiasciurus hudsonicus Castor canadensis Beaver/porcupine Ondatra zibethicus Rodentia Small rodent Mustelidae Catostomus sp. Salmoninae sp . Onchorynchus sp. Gavia immer Anas sp. Bucephala sp. Dendragopus sp. Avies Mollusca TOTALS TOTAL =  BearLake 1 337 169 81 6 97 1770 380+ 10 148 8 9 2  SITE Shields 27 1814 4 17 15 3471 331+ 22 17 8 5  Boyd 87 1 3 1 19 16+ 5 11 1  1 3 1 1 1 3 77 1 59 4 1 3 5 10 1 1  1  1 3 4 2 1  5  1  462 17  216 2  5 2 3 9 1 3347+  2 11 5 6321+  150+  9818+  Table I-36. Faunal class frequencies for the Bear Lake, Shields, and Boyd sites.  53  Appendix  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  For purposes of the analysis, we grouped the different proveniences into nine sets, grouped into three loose groups, prehistoric assemblages, the Eagle Lake Phase fauna (Lithic Scatter, Feature I, Feature A, Layer Bf), historic assemblages, the Lulua Phase fauna (Feature G, H, J, B, Feature B Outside) and unclear (Feature I separate). “Feature B” did not include inclosed features and the last two were defined as Feature B Outside (units extending beyond the historic lodge walls, not including features) and Feature I Separate (units adjacent to Feature I with FCR and bone, which appear to represent disturbance of Fea. I upon construction of the historic lodge in 1877). Feature D, the roasting pit, contained no faunal remains. There were a total of 3347 pieces of bone from this site as well as an uncounted amount of unclassifiable bone (Table I-37). The total weight of the bone was 1,498. 3 grams. Very generally this site has more bone which is charred and calcined in proportion to unburned bone than the other two sites. Bear Lake is notable for its variety of animals. The deer remains are represented mostly by antler fragments, and no moose or elk are present. There are more carnivores and mustelids than at the other sites, and there are no sucker fish but instead abundant salmon vertebrae. More cut bone (15 pieces) are present than at the other sites. Following is a brief description of each of the nine areas noted above, and a comparison of the areas where appropriate. Historic faunal assemblages Feature G (Hearth in Historic Lodge, Feature B) Hearth Feature G contained 756+ bones that weighed 463. 3 grams. Most of the bone was either charred or calcined, however 141+ pieces were unburned. This feature is characterized by a comparatively large variety of animals, including several members of the Mustelid family and lynx (Lynx sp.). There are some deer (Cervidae) and a large amount of bone identifiable to small through medium-large mammal. Fish are well represented and include some salmon. A few birds, including one of the diving ducks (Bucephala sp.) are present. There is also evidence of butchering marks. Both fisher (Martes pennanti) and wolverine (Gulo gulo) are represented by one element each. There were a few pieces of bone that could be identified only to Martes sp. or Mustela sp. The lynx remains are all foot bones (front and rear), except for two fore-arm (ulna) fragments, one of which is shaped into a pointed awl and is shown in the artifact photos. The medium carnivore identifications are likely lynx but fragmentation due to calcination is too great for more positive identification. These fur-bearers demonstrate an intensive involvement in the fur trade in the 1870s. The beaver/porcupine identifications are based on incisor fragments. No further identification to either animal is present at this location, and note that one (untallied here) beaver/porcupine incisor is incised with lines, as described by the ethnographers for gambling die (see artifact descriptions). The rodentia identification (a phalanx) is likely a mouse- sized animal. The cervid/artiodactyl identifications are based on eight metapodial fragments, two phalanges, one sesamoid, one antler fragment and one mandibular condyle. The fish (Osteichthyes) are represented by skull, vertebrae, rib and fin (ray) fragments. A few vertebrae and one skull (articular) are sub-Family Salmoninae. Both the articular and 21 of the 22 vertebrae were large (ca. 2-4 kg or 5 - 9 lb.) fish. There is one tiny Salmoninae vertebra which could have been from a trout or kokanee or another small salmon species. 54  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  FAUNAL CLASS  BEAR LAKE SITE AREA OR FEATURE Lithic Fea.A Fea.G Fea.I Fea.H Fea.B Fea.B Fea.I Fea.J Scatter Out Sep  Large Mammal Medium-large mammal Medium mammal Small-medium mammal Small mammal Mammal Osteichthyes Class uncertain Artiodactyl Cervidae Cervus elaphus Odocoileus hemionus Mustelidae Ursus americanus Martes sp. Martes pennanti Mustela vison Gulo gulo Mustela sp. Lynx sp. Medium carnivore Leporidae Marmota caligata Castor canadensis Beaver/porcupine Rodentia Small rodent Catostomus sp. Salmoninae sp. Onchorynchus sp. Bucephala sp. Avies Mollusca TOTALS TOTAL = 3347+  Appendix  1  95 129 1 42 6 6 11 27 1 261 49+ 12+ 94+ 2 12  75 4 7  2 1 2  17 6 3  78 8  18 3+ 3 18  6 47 21 173 6 13+ 149+ 24+ 1 109 3  59 19 26  10 2  172 1118 31+ 5+ 4 6  8 1 3 1 1 1 3 39 6  9  6 1  4 1  19 1  1 1 3 1  3 1  23  1  3 4  1  16  2  23 2 1  153  1  1 56+ 26+ 756+ 150+ 48+ 533+ 126+ 364+ 1288+  Table I-37. Faunal class frequencies for Bear Lake site surface and excavated features. There is one uncommon small fish which is potentially identifiable, but could not be identified due to lack of a suitable comparative specimen. Cut marks and/or evidence of butchering are present on one deer phalanx as superficial slashes at the distal end on one side. Two fish bones are cut and chopped, which is a feature common on historic sites. One medium- large mammal, one medium mammal and one class uncertain have slight cuts to their exterior surfaces. One class uncertain had two parallel lines across its surface that may have been decorative, but are not like the other decorated items from the site. 55  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  One interesting item in Feature G is a sockeye salmon otolith that was found by E. Carrie in a flotation sample from the feature. This is the only otolith found even though 10 flotation samples were examined by Carrie with this element in mind. Otoliths are elements of fish ears which are valuable because they can be identified to species, used to age the individual, estimate its size, and if sectioned exhibit growth lines much like clam shells that can be read for seasonality information. The otolith is burned and fragile, and although it is mounted for sectioning, personnel at the Canada Fisheries scale and otolith laboratory in Vancouver (E. Yole) expressed the opinion that it would not take well to sectioning. The individual is confidently estimated at four years of age. Figure I-26 is a photograph of the medial surface of the otolith (from the left side of a skull, and Figure I-27 is a photograph of the medial surface of left and right modern sockeye otoliths, collected from salmon heads at Adams River.  Figure I-26.  Bear Lake Otolith  Figure I-27. Adams River Sockeye Otolith  Feature B (Historic Lodge, not including Features G, I, J) Feature B has 533+ pieces of bone weighing 137. 8 grams. Just over half of the bone by count is charred or calcined. This area of the site contains a moderate amount of mammal bone. The fish are abundant and there are several Salmoninae present. The apparent abundance of cervid is due to a mass of antler chips, 108 of such from Unit 39. There is only one other deer identification of an accessory phalange. There is no avian bone. The lynx here are represented by two right tibiae fragments (which fit together), one left and one right fibulae, one carpal and one phalanx. Several pieces of bone are cut. The one Mustela vison (American mink) skull and mandible have cuts around the eyes as if from skinning out the skull. There were also cuts to the right and left occipital condyles as if from decapitating and cuts to the inferior borders of each mandible, as if from skinning. One medium mammal right rib is cleaved diagonally at the neck, one medium-large mammal extremity shaft fragment has a superficial cut, and one medium-large mammal piece is shaped very roughly to a “V”. Feature H (Second Historic Lodge) Feature H contains 48+ bones weighing 23. 2 grams. All of the bone is charred or calcined except a few pieces. There is one specific identification to Leporidae. The rest of the material consists of small to large mammals, a few fish fragments, two bird fragments and some class uncertain. One bone from Feature H had superficial hatching on its exterior surface.  56  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Feature J (Cache Pit within Feature B) Feature J is a cachepit containing almost entirely fish bone. The total count is 1288+ bones weighing 53. 2 grams, which could be multiplied by about four to represent the entire feature. Almost all of this bone is not burned, including one mammal, 1117 fish, and 153 Salmoninae. Of the fish, only one tooth was found burned. The remaining charred/calcined material is either mammal or class uncertain, all of which are very tiny pieces as if they are accidental, and these are perhaps sweepings from the floor of the lodge. The anatomical portions of fish which make up this cache are almost all ribs and rays (1000 by count). There are a few small skull pieces (n = 16) which are in poor condition and are not identifiable to species. All of the Salmoninae identifications (153) are based on vertebrae from medium to large fish, which given the location are probably sockeye and Chinook salmon. Prehistoric (Eagle Lake Phase) Assemblages Lithic Scatter The 56+ pieces of bone weigh 3. 7 grams and all are charred and/or calcined. Fragments were identified as mammal or class uncertain. Feature A (Burned Rock Midden) The 26+ pieces of bone weigh 6. 3 grams and all are charred and/or calcined but for three pieces. As well as some mammal identifications, there are also one unburned fish vertebra and one unburned clam-type (Pelecypod) fragment. The shell fragment is thick enough for it to likely be a marine shell. Feature I (Prehistoric Hearth in Unit 54) Feature I contained 150+ pieces of bone that weigh 475. 0 grams. Most of the bone is charred and calcined, however, 24 pieces are not burned. Feature I is characterized by a substantial weight of medium-large mammal bone and Cervid/Odocoileus sp. material. A few lynx bones are present as are a trace of Canis sp. (dog/coyote size) and beaver (Castor canadensis). Very few fish bones are present and only one identification was made to Salmoninae. Only one bird bone is present. The cervid/artiodactyl bones are all sesamoids, accessory phalanges, metapodials and distal phalanges fragments. The more specific Odocoileus sp. identifications are based on nearly complete proximal, middle, and distal phalanges and two distal epiphyses from metapodials. The nine pieces of lynx are represented by eight foot bones (phalanges, metapodials and calcaneus) and one scapula fragment. One rib fragment from a small-medium mammal is cut through the dorsal end at the head. This kind of cut/cleaving is usually in association with historic material, and its association with Layer B2f, above the intact Feature I, is likely indicative of its association with the historic occupation. Feature I Separate (Units 30, 31, 42, 44, 52) Feature I Separate has a total of 364 bones weighing 252. 6 grams. Less than half of the number is charred/calcined bone, with 199 pieces being unburned. This area of the site is characterized by a substantial weight of medium-large mammal, a small amount of deer and only one carnivore, a lynx. There is an abundance of fish fragments. Salmoninae were 57  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  comprised of 22 vertebrae and one skull piece. The two Onchorynchus sp. identifications are both skull pieces. Only one bird identification was made. The deer identifications are based on accessory phalanges, sesamoids, phalanges, and antler fragments. The lynx is represented by one left radius fragment, one left ulna fragment, and three left tibiae (which all fit together). The rest of the bones are foot bones from front and rear paws. There is one medium-large mammal fragment of a femur with superficial hatchings near the linea aspera. It should be noted here that the Feature I/Feature I Separate and Feature B Outside areas of the site have perhaps not been split into entirely satisfactory analytical units. The problem is the disturbance of the prehistoric component by the southeast end of the historic lodge, and which layers are mixed or not. This would require looking at the faunal remains by layers as well as excavation unit and/or feature. This issue is investigated by the “Precontact Layer Bf” section below. Feature B Outside (Units 55, 58 through 62) Feature B Outside contained 126+ bones weighing 83. 2 grams. All of the bone except for three pieces is either charred or calcined. None of the bone appears to have been cut. There is a moderate amount of medium-large mammal bone and a very small amount of fish, deer, lynx, and bird. More than 1/2 of the bone by weight is class uncertain. The material in these units in the layers above Bf appear to represent discard from the historic Feature B occupation and is likely not disturbed precontact material. Precontact Layer Bf (Units 52,54,55,58,59,61,62) These units are definitely outside of the Feature B lodge. The faunal remains found within Layer Bf, which is the layer inferred to be contemporaneous with Feature I are tabulated separately in Table I-37. Only a total of 166 pieces of bone are from this provenience. Their frequency profile differs significantly from that represented by historic Features G and B added together. The main difference is that the precontact layer has proportionately far more medium-large mammal ( 58% vs 10%), which is likely mostly deer. Fish in general (Osteichthyes) are more common in the historic occupation (37% vs 0.04%), which may indicate a difference in season of occupation, a shift in resource use, or both. Salmon are identified in the historic occupation but not in Layer Bf. Both occupations contain lynx, though far higher frequencies in the historic occupation, but only the precontact layer contains a certain identification of beaver. Comparison of Bear Lake Site Areas and Features Lithic Scatter / Feature A These two areas are very similar by virtue of the paucity of material contained within them and by the generally calcined nature of the bone. Feature A differs in that it contains one fish and one Pelecypod fragment and that a tiny amount of bone was unburned. Feature I / Feature I Separate These areas appear to be sufficiently different to keep them as two separate areas. There is a lot more fish, salmoninae and lynx in Feature I Separate than in Feature I. Feature I has much more deer than does Feature I Separate. One final noticeable difference is that there is proportionately far more charred/calcined bone in Feature I than in Feature I separate. 58  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Feature I / Feature G (Prehistoric and Historic Hearths) These two areas yield very nearly the same amount of material by weight, even though Feature G is almost four times the size of the excavated portion of Feature I. By count (excluding class uncertain), however, there are almost four times as many pieces in Feature G. In general, Feature G has more fish, Salmoninae, lynx, and a greater variety of Mustelids. Each area has roughly the same proportion by count of unburned bone. Furthermore, Feature I has quite a bit more deer bone, and Feature G contains the bulk of the cut/butchered bone. General In all Feature I Separate appears to be more closely related to Feature G in both the kinds of remains and their condition, while Feature I itself is similar to Feature B Outside, and there are too few remains preserved in Feature A, Feature H, and the lithic scatter to allow good comparisons. The material from Feature I Separate is also similar to the Feature B (inside) material in variety and ca. 50/50 burned/unburned ratio. Feature I is prehistoric as indicated by the radiocarbon date, lithics present, and some, but, fewer, fur-bearers were exploited in this earlier Eagle Lake Phase occupation, fish were less important, and deer more important. Feature I Separate appears to be the result of historic house- cleaning. Note that neither moose nor elk were recovered from any Bear Lake site collection. The most reliable precontact Eagle Lake Phase data are from the Layer Bf and Feature I tabulations, although the combined unit tabulations (Feature I, Feature B Outside, Feature I Separate) differ from Bf mainly in having proportionally far more fish, including salmon. Feature B Outside and Feature I Separate are thus likely the mixed remains of the two occupations. If we compare the most abundant faunal remains found in Feature B with the Layer Bf and Feature B Outside and Feature I Separate combined tabulations, as shown in Figure I-28 (which is also reproduced as Figure 41 in the main text), Feature B is much more 90 80 Deer 70  Fish Class uncertain  Percent  60 50 40 30 20 10 0 I+B Out+I Sep  Fea B % (B+G)  All Layers  PreContact % Layer Bf Only  Figure I-28. Comparison of Historic and Prehistoric Bear Lake Fauna. (In this tabulation it is assumed that both medium mammal and Artiodactyl are deer.) 59  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  similar to the combined tabulations than with Layer Bf with the latter having much more deer. In terms of precontact Eagle Lake to historic Lulua Phase differences, both occupations trapped fur-bearing mammals, with an apparent shift to lynx and mustelids in contact times. There appears to have been a shift as well from hunting deer in the precontact occupation to fishing in contact times. Plateau Pithouse Tradition Sites. The general questions for the Shields and Boyd sites has to do with any differences from the Bear Lake components, and similarities with other PPT assemblages. Specific questions are: 1. Are there significantly different distributions of types of faunal remains between the two major analytic strata, Layer A, surface, and Layers B+? 2. Are there different distributions of remains between the housepits? Did House 2 at the Shields site serve a different function from Houses 1 and 5? 3. Are the species and elements common to all the pithouses? 4. Are lake fish represented to any degree, what is their proportion to salmon, and can kokanee be identified? 5. Are moose or elk present? 6. What are the major differences and similarities of the remains between the Boyd and the Shields? And between these and the Bear Lake site? In addition, originally we asked “Are there faunal remains in Feature A at the Boyd site that exhibit different species and/or elements than those from the housepits?” but not enough remains were recovered to investigate this question. The Shields Site (EkSa 13) The Shields site had three housepits (Houses 1, 2, 5) excavated by 10, 1 m x 1 m units to depths approaching 1 m. The housepits are treated here as single component occupations, with the exception that the surface and layer A materials are analyzed separately. The reasons for this are that we often saw bald eagles in the trees at and around the site consuming fish, leaving small accumulations at the trees bases, cattle bones occur in many places in the forest fringe around the lake, and because contemporary camps were located nearby. Housepit 2 contained a possible hearth feature, and deposits here were not as deep as Houses 1 and 5. House 2 may not be an actual house but is perhaps a processing feature of some sort. The site is also located near to Eagle Lake, and as is the Boyd site, so the relative emphasis on lake fish versus river fish is an important question. Furthermore the artifact assemblage at the Shields site includes several antler points, which are possibly leisters. These artifacts are absent at the Boyd site, and perhaps different emphases in faunal remains could shed some light on the function of these implements. It was expected at the time of analysis 60  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  that the Shields site faunal remains would more closely resemble the Boyd site materials on the basis of geographical locational similarities and cultural (PPT) similarities, although they may be closer in age to the prehistoric Eagle Lake Phase component at Bear Lake. In general, the surface and Layer A portions of the site have only some medium-large mammal bone, a trace of deer and a concentration of sucker fish (Table I-38). Layer B and below, on the other hand, have the greatest amount of medium-large mammal bone of any site. It is the only site with any of the following: elk, bear, marmot, muskrat and loon. It has none of the Mustelid and Carnivore type of identifications present at the Bear Lake site. At the Shields site there is much rabbit bone, plenty of sucker fish and few Salmoninae. Cut marks are present on nine bones. The top and lower layers of each of the three housepits are discussed separately below. SHIELDS SITE HOUSES: UPPER / LOWER LAYERS FAUNAL CLASS HOUSE 1 HOUSE 2 HOUSE 5 Large mammal / 10 3 / 11 /3 Medium-large mammal 8 / 803 12 / 855 / 136 Medium mammal /2 /2 Small-medium mammal / 14 /3 Small mammal / 11 /4 Osteichthyes Class Uncertain Artiodactyl Cervidae Cervus elaphus Odocoileus hemionus Ursus americanus Large carnivore Leporidae Marmota caligat Tamiasciurus hudsonicus Castor canadensis Beaver/porcupine Ondatra zibethicus Rodentia Small rodent Catostomus sp. Salmoninae sp. Gavia immer Anas sp. Dendragopus sp. Avies Mollusca TOTALS TOTAL = 6321+  1170 / 647 1502 / 1179 7+/ 150+ 51+/ 114+ /9 / 10 /8 1/1 /1 /1 / 54 /1 1/ /3 /1 /1 /1 11 / 60 / 11 /1  /2 /3 145+/ 1805+  1/8 /5  1 / 25 / 9+ /4 /2  /3  3/2 /3  /5 /9  232 / 157 /6 /4 /2 1/1 /5 /1 1805+/ 2379+  2/  /4 /1 3 / 184+  Table I-38. Faunal class frequencies for Shield Sites houses by major layers.  61  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Shields House 1: Surface and Layer A In these upper layers, House 1 is represented by 145 bones weighing 20. 8 grams. More than 1/2 of this weight is due to the abundance of fish remains. There is a trace of mammal bone and one deer phalanx, and one squirrel femur which is likely intrusive. Sucker fish are abundant and should be either Longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus) or Largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus). Nearly all of the bone (n = 130) by count remained unburned. Shields House 1: Layer B and Below This part of House 1 contains 1805+ pieces of bone weighing 945. 2 grams. The large mammal bone is likely elk, as there are a few elk remains that were positively identified in this assemblage. There is an abundance of medium-large mammal bone, a large amount of rabbit (n = 46), and many fish remains. Both suckers and Salmoninae are present. Just over 1/2 of the bone by count was not burned. The 20 deer elements are represented by a variety of bones. There were four antlers, one petrous tympanic, five teeth, one ulna, one calcaneus, one sesamoid, and six phalangeal elements. The positively identified elk material is represented by one right mandible fragment and seven lower incisors. One bear is represented by one phalanx, and the large carnivore identification is likely bear, but the piece (a second phalanx) is too incomplete to allow positive identification. Most of the larger body parts of the abundant rabbit are represented. No tiny bones such as carpals, tarsals and phalanges were noted, and there are probably at least three rabbits represented. Only traces of marmot, beaver, and loon were observed. A single muskrat element was identified. There are three mollusc fragments of the bivalved sort represented. Only one of these is thick enough to be considered a marine shell. The sucker are represented in the identifications by skull pieces only, unlike the surface/Layer A remains. Vertebrae are present that could be from suckers, but identification of these parts was not possible. All of the Salmoninae identifications are from vertebrae. Of these, nine pieces are from medium-large fish, however two pieces are tiny and could be from trout or kokanee. There are three bones with cut marks. One large mammal bone like an innominate or scapula is cut or cleaved so that its general shape is very nearly square. This kind of cleaving is usually found in association with historic material, and is very unusual here except for the relatively high amount of worked bone and antler found at the site. A second large mammal bone, likely a femur, had superficial hatchings near the area of the supraconylid fossa. The third bone was a medium-large mammal tooth with very fine cuts across the enamel surface in a way not due to natural wear. Shields House 2: Surface and Layer A This portion of the house has 1805 bones weighing 251. 4 grams. Although more mammal bone is present here than in the same area of House 1, here too the majority of the bones are fish. Over 4/5 of the weight of the bone is comprised of fish, both Salmoninae and suckers. There is one artiodactyl rib, 2 leporidae thoracic vertebrae, one rabbit humerus and one grouse (Dendragapus sp.) ulna. The surface/Layer A of House 2 is similar to that of House 1 in that nearly all of the bone by count remained unburned, including all of the fish and sucker remains. None of the bone is cut or butchered. 62  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Shields House 2: Layer B and Below In this portion of the house are contained a total of 2379+ pieces of bone that weigh 1129. 8 grams. The majority of the bone is medium-large mammal, fish and class uncertain. The distribution and variety is very similar to the lower layers of House 1, except for the scarcity of rabbits. Also, many more fish are present in these layers at House 2 than at House 1. Just less than 1/2 of the bone has remained unburned, and in comparison to House 1, some of the sucker and other fish bone is burned. There is a trace of rabbit and several pieces each of marmot, beaver or porcupine, and muskrat (n=9). There were a few loon and duck bones and one grouse. One bivalve Pelecypod is present and it has a very thin shell. Again the sucker identifications are based on skull fragments though several vertebrae are present which could suit that size of fish. The few Salmoninae identifications are all made from vertebrae from medium-large fishes. Although elk is not specifically identified from this housepit, it is likely that the large mammal bone is from a large cervid. Six bones had cut marks. Of these, four medium-large bone fragments have very narrow grooves or striations across their surface. One fish bone is cut through the bone in a way typical of historic associations. One class uncertain bone is marked with striations and was calcined. Shields House 5: Surface and Layer A This area of House 5 contains very little fauna. One bone was identifiable to fish and the other two to sucker. Their total weight is 2. 7 grams, and none of these are burned. Shields House 5: Layer B and Below This part of House 5 has much less bone that the other two housepits at this site. There are a total of 184 pieces of bone weighing 211. 5 grams. There is some medium-large mammal and some deer. The fish are very few and there are no identifications to sucker or Salmoninae. There are a few bird fragments. One very heavy shelled pelecypod fragment suggests by its mere thickness that it must be from a marine bivalve. The Artiodactyl/ Cervid identifications are based on five phalanges and one accessory phalanx and none could be positively identified as to species. None of the materials have cut marks. General Discussion House 5 appears to be quite different from housepits 1 and 2, lacking the variety and abundance of mammal and fish bone. Overall, House 2 does not seem to be a special purpose feature area. As was expected, elk are present at this site, but unfortunately no definite identifications of kokanee are possible. In comparison to the Bear Lake site, the Shields site lacks the fur-bearers, contains an abundance of suckers and less cut bone. There appears to have been a heavy reliance on fish from the lake at this site, and the high proportion of unburned bone in the top layers indicates that these may be intrusive, but the possibility that some were originally located on the roof of the house cannot be ruled out.  63  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  The Boyd Site (EkSa 32) The Boyd site of five housepits depressions of which Houses 1 and 2 each had two 1 m x 1 m units excavated. There is a firecracked rock feature (Feature A) near the surface of House 2 that was likely deposited at a time considerably later than the original structure. As at the Shields site, the stratigraphy was not always very distinctive (although it was more distinct than the Shields site), and the only differentiation maintained here is that between surface and Layer A, combined together, and the lower Layer B strata. Only four 1 m x 1 m units were excavated at the Boyd site, and as a result the raw frequencies and weights of bone classes are considerably less than those at the Shields and Bear Lake sites. The surface/Layer A zone is marked by a proportionately high incidence of deer bone, and there is very little other bone from which to draw interpretations. The Layer B and below zone also has very little bone, and most is medium-large mammal or class uncertain. Cut marks are present on four bones. The frequencies of bone classes by site area are shown in Table I-39. Boyd House 1: Surface and Layer A The top layers of House 1 have 24 bones weighing 108. 3 grams. There is some mediumlarge mammal bone and a few deer identifications. Only one small fish bone is present. By count just over 1/2 of this bone is unburned, though by weight nearly all is unburned. The deer is represented by fragments of a left and right mandible, a right hyoid and one lumbar vertebra. There are also some medium-large mammal identifications of rib fragments BOYD SITE HOUSES: UPPER / LOWER LAYERS FAUNAL CLASS HOUSE 1 HOUSE 2 Medium-large mammal Medium mammal Small-medium mammal Small mammal  11 / 16 /1 /2 /1  Osteichthyes Class Uncertain  1 / 18 8 / 4+  3+/ 1+  Cervidae Cervus elaphus Odocoileus hemionus  2/1  2/  2/  9/  Canis latrans Leporidae Castor canadensis  /1 /3  TOTALS TOTAL = 150+  24 / 47+  10 / 50  /2 /1  24+/ 55+  Table I-39. Faunal class frequencies for Boyd Site houses by major layers.  64  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  that could belong to a deer. Cut marks are present on the deer lumbar vertebra which is cleaved or cut off both on anterior and posterior surfaces, through the articular process and a portion of the body. This kind of cutting would be expected to have an historic association. Boyd House 1: Layer B and Below Here there are a total of 47 bones weighing 37. 4 grams. There are very few mediumlarge mammal bones and a trace of smaller mammals. There are several fish, a trace of deer, Canis sp., and rabbit. There are no identifications of sucker fish, Salmoninae, birds or molluscs. Less than 20% of the bones were unburned in this context, and there were no cut marks observed on the bones. The identification to deer is based on one antler fragment, that to Canis sp. on one talus, and the three rabbit bones are one each of a humerus, ulna and tibia. Boyd House 2: Surface and Layer A This portion of the site is very much like that of House 1. There are 24+ bones weighing 382. 5 grams. There are more deer remains present here than at House 1, and there are no fish. Nearly all of the bone is unburned. The deer remains are represented by parts other than foot bones. The fragments include three left scapulae, one left innominate, two left femora, one left humerus, two vertebrae, one right mandible, and one right occipital condyle. There are at least two Odocoileus hemionus individuals represented, based on the presence of two left glenoid cavities from the scapulae. At least two deer elements have cut marks. One left scapula has cut marks to both the dorsal and ventral surfaces. One right mandible is cut deeply at a break in the mid-body of a mandible below M2. This particular cut looks as if it were from a steel knife. One mediumlarge mammal rib has superficial and deep cuts to the ventral surface in a series of hatchings perpendicular to the length of the rib. Boyd House 2: Layer B and Below This zone of House 2 contains 55+ bones weighing 100. 6 grams. There are more medium-large mammal bones than at House 1 of this site, and there are no fish or deer remains. There is a trace of rabbit and beaver. All of the bone is either charred or calcined. The two rabbit bones are a scapula and a maxilla, and the one beaver bone is a phalanx. None of the bone has any cut marks. Comparison of Bear Lake, Shields, and Boyd Sites Fauna It appears that our suspicions about the surface and Layer A zones of the two housepit sites were justified. The proportion of unburned bone in the upper layers at both sites is high. The Shields site top layers contain many unburned fish, while at the Boyd site these contain many deer remains. The incidence of “historic-like” cut bone is almost exclusive to the top layers at both sites and the historic Lulua Phase component at Bear Lake. The question about the presence of moose and elk is answered in a way that provides support for our previous archaeological interpretations. No moose is present anywhere, supporting the statements by McT. Cowan and Guiguet (n.d.), Spalding (1990) and our interpretations. Elk was securely identified only at the Shields site. We would not expect elk in the historic Lulua component at the Bear Lake site and it is not present there. No elk 65  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  remains were identified at Anahim Lake. The Shields site Layers B and below exhibit many more fish than the Boyd site, have many suckers and some salmon while the Boyd site has none, and also contain elk, muskrat, beaver, various birds, bear, molluscs, and many more rabbits. Overall, the fauna are much more varied at the Shields site than at the Boyd site, but of course, the sample is larger as well. In relation to the Bear Lake site, the Shields site is more similar to the Boyd site, but the Bear Lake site fauna is more varied than either. Indications are of an increasing diversification of the subsistence resource base through time in the region. In the historic Lulua Phase at the Bear Lake site, lynx and Mustelids appear to replace muskrat, marmot, rabbit, and beaver as sources of furs. The marmot may indicate exploitation of alpine areas as marmot skins were an important pre-contact trade valuable (Teit 1909b:783). One of the most useful results of the faunal analysis is the apparent composition of “Layer I Separate” and its relationship to the hearth Features G and I at the Bear Lake site. The complex, though relatively shallow, soil strata have been difficult to interpret, but by means of the faunal associations we can state with some confidence that much of Feature I Separate is derived from the interior of the historic Lulua Phase Feature B lodge structure, since its fauna are much more similar to that area than to the earlier, precontact Eagle Lake Phase Feature I hearth fauna (Figure I-28). Similarly Feature B Outside layers above Layer Bf appear to originate from inside Feature B. The precontact Eagle Lake Phase occupation is represented by Feature A, the lithic scatter, Feature I, and Layer Bf fauna. Although these are relatively low in frequency, there are some clues to changing faunal use patterns, namely there appears to have been a shift in fur bearers acquired (beaver earlier, lynx and mustelids later) and in principal subsistence fauna (deer, earlier, fish, later). In summary then, the PPT period is characterized by a near balance between mammal and fish acquisition. There is also a wide variety of terrestrial and aquatic animals, suggesting quite a full use of the resources available. During the precontact Chilcotin period (Eagle Lake Phase) there is an emphasis on mammal acquisition, marked by a lack of species variety, and it appears more land based than the PPT period. Fish acquisition is less at this time than at any other time. By the historic Chilcotin period (Lulua Phase), fish acquisition became proportionately more frequent than either of the two preceding periods, although this is largely attributable to the presence of Feature J, the cachepit in this component. Whereas the PPT occupational period took many suckers, none are present in the historic Chilcotin period. This may be, though, the result of difference in duration of occupation of winter dwelling sites between the two ethnic groups, as large numbers of suckers were taken in the spring, long after the Chilcotin would have abandoned their winter dwellings, but conceivably while the PPT winter village was still occupied. In comparison with the prehistoric Chilcotin period there is an increase during the historic component in the variety of mammals, with an emphasis on fur bearing mammals, including a change in the species of fur bearers that were taken. As with the Bear Lake fauna, Stewart noted Chilcotin usage of a wide variety of small mammals at Anahim Lake. In addition, the Eagle Lake region’s overall pattern of increased fish usage through time was noted by Stewart (1978:53) for the Anahim Lake sites, all of which were within circa 100m of Anahim Lake. Although no salmon are present in those sites, trout and suckers make up a large proportion of the fish remains (Anahim Lake does 66  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  not have significant salmon resources). In contrast to our findings, Stewart reported numerous Caribou remains and no certain deer or Elk. Finally Stewart found significant changes in the treatment of fur-bearing mammals in the historic period, with decreasing use of hares, increasing use of muskrats, as well as changes in butchering patterns through time consistent with the introduction of the historic fur trade.  67  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  NOTES ON CAMBIUM-STRIPPED LODGEPOLE PINE Martin Magne Apart from occasional references in the ethnographic literature, I first became aware of the practice of removing cambium from coniferous trees through the report by Anne Eldridge (1982), who described living spruce and pine trees bearing evidence of cambium removal in the Liard River-Lower Post region of northern B.C. On a casual trip to Eagle Lake in the winter of 1982, several such trees were noted on the east end of Eagle Lake near to where the UBC archaeological field school posted camp, and I decided to make an effort to obtain data from these features in the future. Data were obtained on 24 stripped (or culturally-modified) trees in the Eagle Lake region in 1983, not including some 20 trees observed in Quadrats G1 and G6, but are found in five other locations. One stripped tree was observed at Quadrat 19:1 near the Chilko River, three in a small ravine on the east end of Eagle Lake, three at Canoe Crossing at site EkSa 5, three  Figure I-29. A typical cambium-stripped lodgepole pine tree (1983). 68  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Figure I-30. Close-up of cut marks on cambium-stripped tree (1983). near the Bear Lake site, and 12 at about the midpoint of the east end of Eagle Lake at a location which will be called Henry’s Camp. Another two were recorded at site EhRv 2 in the Taseko Lakes region (Magne 1984), and many more are present there. Given the activities of porcupines, bears, birds, disease and other factors, how do we know that these trees have been modified by humans? The most telling characteristic is the presence of cut marks on the inner bark, and often on the outer bark, of the trees. The cut marks are most often at breast height, usually form an upside down “V” at the top of the cut, are often cut around small branches on the tree, and often terminate the strip at the bottom of the cut (Figures I-29 and I-30). Two trees were observed in the small ravine area that had been stripped starting at a height of 4.5 meters above the ground. This is unusual, most strips starting at about 1 meter to 1.5 meters above ground level. Several variables were recorded for each tree, including cardinal orientation of the strip, length of the strip, width of the strip, elevation above ground of top of strip, elevation of bottom of strip, tree diameter, and number of visible cut marks. Two 3/8 inch increment cores were taken of each tree: one from the strip through the center, and another from the opposite side, through the outer bark to the center. It was intended to mount, sand and read 69  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  these cores to provide age of the tree, age at stripping and thus age of the stripping activity, but this was not done. Marion Parker took one-inch diameter cores from the three trees near the Bear Lake site, to attempt seasonality readings from the changes in growth due to the trauma of the stripping, but this does not appear feasible due to the changes in growth as the tree attempts to heal. All of the recorded trees are lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), although one stripped trembling aspen was observed on the east side of Eagle Lake. Apart from the two exceptional examples noted above, the strips are between 40 cm and 140 cm in length, and between 8 cm and 17 cm in width (Maximum dimensions). Tree diameters (at a point half-way down the strips) range from 14 cm to 35 cm, and there is slight bimodality here, with a group of trees between 14 and 17 cm in diameter, only two between 17 and 23 cm in diameter, and 16 trees between 24 and 35 cm in diameter. Eleven of the 24 trees have strips oriented due north, another five are oriented northeast, two are oriented east, six are oriented southwest through west to northwest, and the two tall-stripped trees (which are each only 14 cm in diameter) are stripped completely around their circumference, almost like barber-pole designs. Thus the preferred orientation of the strips is north to northeast, with again slight bimodality, centering on west (Figure I-31). 9 8  number of sites  7 6 5  19:1 N=1  Bear Lake N=3  Elap Camp Ravine N=3  Henry’s Camp N = 12  Canoe Crossing N=3  EhRv2 N=2  4 3 2 1  0  N  NE  E  SE  S  SW  W  NW  circumferential  magnetic orientation  Figure I-31. Histogram of orientations of stripped areas on lodgepole pine trees. A total of 92 cut marks were observed on the trees, with 50 of these occurring on north facing strips, 20 on northeast facing strips, and the circumferentially-stripped trees totalled about 20 visible cuts. There does not seem to be any association of cut mark orientation with the width or length of the strips. At present, it is not known during what season the stripping takes place, nor precisely why it takes place, although Lane (1953:43) clearly places it in the late winter/early spring “starvation” period, and Teit (1909b:781) notes that lodgepole pine cambium was “much relished”. As noted above, some informant testimony has been obtained indicating that cambium is sometimes given to children. Obviously, the mere presence of the trees limits the 70  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  time depth of a possible in-depth study, and it is unlikely that physical evidence of trees older than about 80 years could be obtained. Furthermore, recent pine-beetle infestations of pine forests of the interior are currently destroying nearly all pine trees, so the information will not be around for much longer than say 5 to 10 years. The only age information apart from that provided by Parker, was obtained from a standing but wind-broken tree at Henry’s Camp. This tree was cut, the rings counted, and an age of 11 or 12 years was obtained for the cut, the tree being about 22 years at the time of the stripping. This matched informants’ testimony that the site had been occupied about 10 years ago, when the cambium had been fed to children. Informal experimentation informed us that the lodgepole cambium is quite sweet in late spring, and loses its quality through the summer. Young trees appear to have sweeter cambium than older ones, though both of these observations cannot be taken as conclusive. One can only speculate at present that the reason for north-northeast preference for cut orientation is also related to the quality of the cambium. Although the information obtained was not conclusive, preliminary investigation of the stripped trees at Eagle Lake showed that yet another aspect of traditional subsistence practices can be studied in the region. Future research should attempt to more precisely date the specimens, obtain a larger sample, and interview informants for their knowledge of the practice. This should be related to other subsistence practices, since on their own the trees have actually not much to offer. In 1984 I had written that any future work should take place within the next five years before the trees are completely destroyed by the current pine beetle infestation. Since that time not only have culturally-modified trees (CMTs) studies become a mainstay of British Columbian archaeology but spreading beetle-kill has destroyed many of these trees. Visits to Eagle Lake in 2000 and 2001 to locate the trees recorded above resulted in failure, although some other CMTs informally located in the 1980s were found. From the state of these I conclude that the recorded trees have died, fallen, and their bark has fallen off. Concurrently, however, studies of CMTs have become a standard archaeological practice in CRM archaeology which in interior B.C. is largely driven by the forest industry. Although most of the studies remain exercises in inventory, their potential to contribute to greater anthropological knowledge is best exemplified by Prince (2001). In a study of CMTs in the Nechako Plateau (west of Prince George, B.C.), Prince was able to demonstrate strong relationships between cambium usage and salmon availability. His research indicates that pine cambium was more important to northern interior B.C. diet than is commonly believed.  71  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  References cited for Appendix I Apland, Brian 1979 Reconnaissance survey in the Rainbow Mountains region of west-central British Columbia. In Annual Report for the Year 1976: Activiites of the Provincial Archaeologist’s Office of British Columbia and Selected Research Reports, edited by Bjorn Simonsen, pp. 14-36. Heritage Conservation Branch of British Columbia, Victoria. Bakewell, Edward F. and Anthony Irving 1994 Volcanic Classification in the Pacific Northwest: Petrographic and Geochemical Analysis of Northwest Coast Artifacts. Northwest Anthropological Research Notes 28(1):29-37. Borden, Charles 1952 Results of Archaeological Investigations in Central British Columbia. Anthropology in British Columbia 3: 31 - 43. Boudreau, Norman J., editor 1974 The Athapaskans: Strangers of the North. National Museum of Man, Ottawa. Bussey, J. 1983 Alexis Creek archaeological investigations. Points West Consultants Ltd. report to Heritage Conservation Branch of British Columbia, Victoria. Campbell, J.M. 1968 The Kavik site of Anaktuvuk Pass, Arctic Alaska. Anthropological Papers of the University of Alaska 14: 32 - 42, Fairbanks. Clark, Donald W. 1975 Archaeological Reconnaissance in Northern Interior District of Mackenzie: 1969, 1970, and 1972. National Museum of Man Mercury Series, Archaeological Survey of Canada Paper No. 27, Ottawa. Cowan, Ian McTaggart and Charles Guiguet n.d. The Mammals of British Columbia. British Columbia Provincial Museum Handbook No. 11, Victoria. (1965 revision according to Acknowledgements). Dumond, Donald 1978 Alaska and the Northwest Coast. In Ancient Native Americans, edited by J. Jennings, pp. 43 - 93. W.H. Freeman and Sons, San Francisco. Eldridge, A. 1982 Cambium resources of the Pacific northwest: an ethnographic and archaeological study. Unpublished ms. Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby.  72  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Godfrey-Smith, D. and J. M. D’Auria 1984 New data on obsidian exchange routes in western Canada and Ontario. Paper presented to the 17th annual meeting, Canadian Archaeological Association, Victoria. Heitzmann, Rod 2001 Report on Eagle Lake Historical Artifacts. Report on File, Laboratory of Archaeology, University of British Columbia. Judge, W. James 1973 PaleoIndian Occupation of the Central Rio Grande Valley in New Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. Lane, Robert 1953 Cultural relations of the Chilcotin Indians of west central British Columbia. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle. Loy, Thomas and G.R. Powell 1977 Archaeological Data Recording Guide. British Columbia Provincial Museum Heritage Guide No. 3. Victoria. Ludowicz, Deanna 1980 Artifact Classification. In The Eagle Lake Project: Report on the 1979 Season, R.G. Matson, M. Magne, D. Ludowicz, and D.L. Pokotylo, pp. 62-112. Laboratory of Archaeology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. MacDonald, George 1968 Debert: A Paleo-Indian site in Central Nova Scotia. Anthropological Papers No. 16. National Museums of Canada, Ottawa. Magne, Martin P.R. 1984 Taseko Lakes prehistory project: report on a preliminary survey. Report to B.C. Heritage Trust and the Nemiah Valley Indian Band Council. Laboratory of Archaeology, University of British Columbia. Vancouver. 1985 Lithics and livelihood: Stone tool technologies of Central and Southern Interior B.C. National Museum of Man Mercury Series, Archaeological Survey of Canada, No. 133, Ottawa. Magne, Martin P. R. and R. G. Matson 1982 Identification of “Salish” and “Athapaskan” side-notched projectile points from the Interior Plateau of British Columbia. In Approaches to Algonquian Archaeology, edited by M. Hanna and B. Kooyman, pp. 57-79. University of Calgary Archaeological Association, Calgary.  73  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  1984 Athapaskan and Earlier Archaeology and Big Eagle Lake, British Columbia. Laboratory of Archaeology, University of British Columbia,Vancouver. 1987 Projectile Point and Lithic Assemblage Ethnicity in Interior British Columbia. In Ethnicity and Culture, edited by Réginald Auger, Margaret Glass, Scott MacEachern, and Peter McCartney, pp. 227 -242. The University of Calgary Archaeological Association, Calgary. Matson, R.G. 1976 The Glenrose Cannery Site. National Museum of Man Mercury Series, Archaeological Survey of Canada, No. 52, Ottawa. Matson, R.G. and Gary Coupland 1995 The Prehistory of the Northwest Coast. Academic Press, Inc. San Diego. Matson, R.G., L. Ham, and D. Bunyan 1984 Prehistoric settlement patterns at the Mouth of the Chilcotin River, B.C. Report to Heritage Conservation Branch, Victoria. Laboratory of Archaeology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Matson, R. G., Martin P. R. Magne, Deanna Ludowicz and D. L. Pokotylo 1980 The Eagle Lake Project: Report on the 1979 Season. Report to Heritage Conservation Branch, Victoria. Laboratory of Archaeology, University of British Columbia. Matson, R.G. and David Pokotylo 1998 Chilcotin Plateau. In Archaeology of Prehistoric North America: An Encyclopedia, edited by Guy Gibbon, pp. 146-148, Garland Publishing, New York. Morlan, Richard E. 1973 The Later Prehistory of the Middle Porcupine Drainage, Northern Yukon Territory. National Museum of Man Mercury Series, Archaeological Survey of Canada Paper No. 11, Ottawa. Nelson, D.E. and G. Will 1976 Obsidian sources in the Anahim Peak area. In Current Research Reports, edited by R. L. Carlson, pp. 151 - 154. Department of Archaeology Publication No. 3, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby. Nelson, D.E., J.M. D’Auria and R.B. Bennett 1975 Characterization of Pacific Northwest Coast obsidian by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Archaeometry 17: 85 - 97.  74  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Paull, William 1984 Organic Residue Analysis of Stone and Bone Tools. In Athapaskan and Earlier Archaeology at Big Eagle Lake, British Columbia, M. Magne and R.G. Matson, pp. 239-266. Pokotylo, David and Donald Mitchell 1998 Prehistory of the Northern Plateau. In Handbook of North American Indians. Vol. 12, Plateau, edited by Deward E. Walker, Jr., pp. 81-102. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Prince, Paul 2001 Dating and Interpreting Pine cambium collection scars from two parts of the Nechako River drainage, British Columbia. Journal of Archaeological Science 28(3): 253-263. Richards, Thomas H. and Michael K. Rousseau 1987 Late Prehistoric Cultural Horizons on the Canadian Plateau. Department of Archaeology Publication No. 16, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby. Rostlund, Erhard 1952 Freshwater Fish and Fishing in Native North America. University of California Publications in Geography, Volume 7. University of California Press, Berkeley. Rousseau, Michael K. and Thomas H. Richards 1985 A culture-historical sequence for the South Thompson River-Western Shuswap Lakes Region of British Columbia: the last 4000 years. Northwest Anthropological Research Notes 19(1):1-32. Sanger, David 1970 The Archaeology of the Lochnore - Nesikep Locality. Syesis, Vol. 3, Supplement 1. Victoria. Shinkwin, Anne D. 1979 Dakah de nin’s Village and the Dixthada Site: A Contribution to Northern Athapaskan Prehistory. National Museum of Man Mercury Series, Archaeological Survey of Canada Paper No. 91, Ottawa. Spalding, David J. 1990 The Early History of Moose (Alces alces): Distribution and Relative Abundance in British Columbia. Contributions to Natural Science 11:1-12, Victoria. Stewart, Frances L. 1978 Vertebrate Faunal Remains from the Potlatch Site (FcSi-2) in South Central British Columbia. National Museum of Man Mercury Series, Archaeological Survey of Canada Paper No. 82, Ottawa.  75  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Stryd, Arnoud 1973 The Later Prehistory of the Lillooet Area, British Columbia. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Archaeology, University of Calgary, Calgary. Teit, James A. 1900 The Thompson Indians of British Columbia. Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History, No. 2, Part 4:163 - 392. New York. 1909a The Shuswap. Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History, Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Memoirs, Vol. 2, Part 7: 443 - 758. New York. 1909b Notes on the Chilcotin Indians. In The Shuswap. American Museum of Natural History, Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Memoirs Vol. 2, Part 7: 759 - 789. New York. Wilmeth, Roscoe 1978 Anahim Lake Archaeology and the Early Historic Chilcotin Indians. National Museum of Man Mercury Series, Archaeological Survey of Canada Paper No. 82. Ottawa. Workman, William B. 1978 Prehistory of the Aishihik-Kluane Area, Southwest Yukon Territory. National Museum of Man Mercury Series, Archaeological Survey of Canada Paper No. 74. Ottawa.  76  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  77  Appendix   Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix II:  SUBSIDIARY SURVEY AND TESTING R.G. Matson  Table of Contents Chilko River Survey  3  Tested Riverside Sites  6  Mouth of Chilcotin Testing  16  Potato Mountain Testing Program  18  References cited  25  1  Appendix  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Figures Figure II-1 Map of EkSa 5, the Canoe Crossing site - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 7 Figure II-2. Location of ElRw 4, “Quiggly Holes” - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8 Figure II-3. Map of ElRw 4, Quiggly Holes - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 9 Figure II-4. Location of CR 64 (EkSa 34), CR 73 (EkSa 35) and CR 92 (EkSa 33) - - 10 Figure II-5. Map of Chilko River 92 (EkSa 33), the Brittany Creek site - - - - - - - - - - 12 Figure II-6. Map of Chilko River 64 (EkSa 34) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 13 Figure II-7. Map of Chilko River 73 (EkSa 35) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 14 Figure II-8. Map of The Fishtrap Lake Site (84-27; EkSb 37) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 15 Figure II-9. Contour Map of EkRo 48 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 17 Figure II-10. EkRo 48 Excavation Floor Plan - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 17 Figure II-11. Locations of Potato Mountain sites - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 18 Figure II-12. The Mountain Fan Site (P8-3, EjSb 39) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 19 Figure II-13. The Mountain Pond Site (P8-1, EjSb 54) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 20 Figure II-14. The Middle Mountain Site (EjSb 52) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 21 Figure II-15. Potato Mountain Artifacts - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 22 Figure II-16. Profile of Roasting Pit A at P2-9 (EjSb 33) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 23  Tables Table II-1. Summary of Chilko River Survey - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 Table II-2. Chilko River Excavation and Collection Artifact Summary - - - - - - - - - - 11  2  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Chilko River Survey In addition to the quadrat survey at Eagle Lake, we also carried out a non-collection survey along the upper end of the Chilko River, mainly to locate sites that could contribute to resolving cultural history questions regarding the Pre-Plateau Pithouse Tradition, i.e., the period prior to 3000 B.P. Since there appears to be a concentration of sites along the rivers on the Plateau, we thought this would be the best area to survey to attempt to find a stratified non-house pit site with evidence indicating a separable early component. The absence of house pits was desired because the presence of house pits usually means that the deposits are highly disturbed (Wilmeth 1977). The procedure we developed was to survey both sides of the river, focussing on the immediate river banks and lower, open terraces. We used the same cultural forms as on the quadrat survey and produced equivalent sketch maps, but usually did not do any collection. Our intensity of survey was also less than that on the quadrats, as measured by the distance between searcher. On the other hand, more attention was spent on sites that looked like they might have significant depth of deposit. Those sites that looked like they might have a significant depth of deposit were later tested. The area surveyed was the Chilko River, from near its outlet to about 30 km downstream (northward). In addition to this, the area at Bidwell Creek, the “Quiggly holes” site, was also mapped and tested, about 25 km (15 miles) further downstream from the end of the continuous survey zone. We also extended the survey to the shores of Chilko Lake adjacent to the outlet, and actually began our survey there. In all 105 Chilko River sites were located, of which six had been previously recorded, several by the quadrat survey. The distance from the river that was surveyed was variable, and often dependent on the landform and amount of ground coverage, with broad open terraces surveyed even if they extended some hundred meters away from the river. In an idiosyncratic survey carried out in 1997 (Klassen and Ridington 1998) that included some areas that we surveyed along the Chilko River, a housepit site (with 5 housepits) was discovered that we apparently had missed (EkSa 142). On inspection (Klassen and Ridington 1998:129-131) it turns out that we found an adjacent site (CR #9; EkSa 116) closer to the river and the housepit site (EkSa 142) actually began more than 100m from the river in a lodgepole and aspen forest. So this “error” appears to be more a limitation of the survey technique than an survey error since the site was not on an open area adjacent to the river. As we will point out later, housepit sites are located up to 3 km away from the Chilko River according to our data – a finding Klassen and Ridington (1998:83 “two kilometres “) agrees with – so a riverside survey will miss those that are not adjacent. What this means is that there are clearly more housepit sites along the Chilko River than we located; those that we may have missed, and those further from the river than we searched, and EkSa 142 is an example of the latter. We will also report on another “near Chilko River” housepit site located by Klassen and Ridington (1998) in another context.  3  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Chilko River Survey Results The Chilko River survey was primarily intended to discover stratified sites with regional culture history significance with a minor goal of extending our knowledge of sites in the area. Some 105 sites were recorded from the outlet of Chilko Lake to 30 km downstream, on both banks of the river. What was sought was a stratified site that was not a housepit site, and so would not be disturbed prehistorically. In this relatively large number of sites no such reasonably good culture history site was found. This was disappointing, but not too important in the end for the major goals of the project. A number of sites from the Chilko River Survey were tested and three charcoal samples were radiocarbon dated. Microblades were located at none of the sites in the Quadrat or Chilko River Survey and only two probable atlatl points found. One would have to estimate that we have little evidence of material older than 3000 B.P. The Chilko River Survey is also valuable in terms of giving us a full picture of the nature of site distributions along the Chilko River, the environment with the highest density of sites in the area and verifies the general picture obtained from the quadrats. Because the riverside area was densely occupied prehistorically and because of the less detailed recording criteria and the lack of collecting, 103 separate sites (two sites were later joined with others after further analysis) were found in a relatively small time. As is seen in the accompanying table (Table II-1) most sites had pit features with over 340 cachepits reported and an average of about one and a half house pits per site. The survey also included over a dozen lithic scatter sites which were almost invariably found on low open terraces immediately adjacent to the river and often with historic fish camp remains similar to Quadrat 19 site 1. These are almost surely prehistoric salmon fishing camps. The sites very neatly fit into the three categories listed, house pit, cachepit or riverside fishing sites. The ratio of cachepit to house pit sites appears to be about the same as found on the Quadrat survey, slightly more cachepit sites than house pit sites (18 to 16 in the 1979 quadrat survey, 50 to 37 in the Chilko River survey). Lithic scatters were proportionally more common on the quadrat survey. The number of house pits per house pit site is more than twice as many on the river survey as on the Quadrat survey (means 4.0 to 1.9) as might be expected given the importance of salmon and the PPT pattern of multiple pithouses close to salmon streams which is the expected Pre-Athapaskan pattern in this area. It should be noted that the 37 house pit sites recorded in this 30 km stretch is a minimal estimate, given our concentration on open areas close to the river. In fact, Klassen and Ridington (1998) recorded three other house pit sites in the same stretch, albeit further from the river than we surveyed. Today 40 house pit sites are known in that 30 km and many more undoubtedly exist. We thus have an minimum estimate of 1.33 house pit sites per km of river and an minimum estimate of 5.3 house pits per km of river (4.0 x 1.33). The mean number of house pits per house pit site along the Chilko River (4.0) is very similar to that found in the MOC quadrat survey. Depending on how one treats the repeatedly sampled quadrat (either 41 or 44 MOC housepits) , and whether one uses the 50m or 100 m of no surface visible site criteria for definition of separate site ( 9 or 12  4  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia Total Number of Sites Type House pit Cachepit Lithic scatter Single Artifact  No. 37 50 13 3 103  Number of House pits per House pit site: Mean Median  5.0 2.0  4.0 2.0  Number of House pits per All Types site: Mean 1.44 Median 0.0 Interquartile 0-1  Number of Cachepits per Cachepit site: Mean Median  Appendix  Site Size, in Square meters:  Number of Cachepits per All Types site:  Mean 5023 Median 300 Interquartile 15-1700  Mean 3.4 Median 2 Interquartile 1-3 Table II-1, Summary of Chilko River Survey  MOC house pits sites) the mean number of house pits at MOC ranges from 3.4 to 4.9, a distribution which includes the Chilko River estimate. As far as we can tell, the size of house pit sites along the Chilko River and MOC are the same. In contrast to the larger number of house pits per house pit site along the Chilko River than in the Quadrat survey, the mean number of cachepits per cachepit site is 5.0 along the river compared to the nearly identical 4.79 for the cache pit sites discovered during the 1979 Quadrat survey (and 3.8 for the combined 1979 and 1983 survey results). So, although the house pits occur in larger concentrations along the river, the cachepits occur in the same size groups. If we compare these numbers with those found at MOC, we see more similarities then differences. A total of 99 cachepits on 21 cachepit sites were found in the MOC quadrat survey for a mean of 4.8, not significantly different from the Chilko River survey or the 1979 Eagle Lake Quadrat survey. At the MOC, however, we divided the cachepit sites into three locational variants, Ravine Cachepits sites (mean of 5.2 cachepits), Ecotone cachepit sites (mean of 2.8) and Riverside Cachepit sites (mean of 11.7). One might argue that it is the last class that should be compared with the Chilko River cachepit sites, but since only three such sites are found at the MOC (with 23, 3 and 9 cachepits), the apparent difference in size in not significant. So the reliable numbers are very similar between the three areas. Some sites did not fit in with this three part classification. One was tested, Chilko River site 64, and will be discussed below. Another was a recently abandoned sweat lodge which not only fit informant descriptions (see section by L. Burnard-Hogarth in Chapter 2 of the main text) but also solved the mystery of small piles of river cobbles found in Quadrat Q19. In general the survey gave us an increased sample of some of the most common sites found in  5  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  the quadrat survey and verified the pattern found near Chilko River using the more intensive quadrat technique. Specifically, we previously listed six site types expected for the PPT, three of which we expected to be relatively near the Chilko River, winter pithouse villages, riverside fishing sites, and near-river cachepit sites. These three site types include almost all of the sites found along the Chilko River. The relatively large numbers of house pits found close together near the river are expected only in the PPT settlement pattern, confirming its presence along the Chilko River. The numbers of both house pit and cachepit sites and the number of the pits present are close to that seen in the MOC survey, much closer than between the respective quadrat surveys. In both surveys the riverside fishing site are less common than the other two site types. These observations indicate that the area immediately adjacent to the Chilko River is the most appropriate to compare with, and the most similar to, the MOC Grassland Quadrats and indicate the strong presence of the PPT along the upper Chilko River. The other cache pit and riverside site types are associated with both the PPT and the expected Athapaskan settlement patterns. The large numbers of those two and the house pit site classes confirm the pattern based on the smaller numbers found during the quadrat survey, particularly the very small numbers of riverside fishing sites, as only two quadrats, Q 12 and Q 19 actually had riverside areas present. This site class is discussed in more detail below under EkSa 5, the Canoe Crossing site. The extent of the Chilko River survey on either bank depended on the topography. The survey area in some cases included wide lower terraces extending as much as 500 meters and in other steep, almost canyon like areas, only extending to 50 meters. The drawbacks of this approach were discussed earlier in the methodology section when we reviewed Klassen and Ridington’s (1998) overlapping survey. In spite of the relatively large number of sites we discovered none of these that we investigated further turned out to have clear potential to contribute to our knowledge of the Pre-PPT. Two places with multiple buried soil horizons were found but no archaeological material was found at either location. Of these sites, the ones that appeared to be best suited for culture history work were tested. A total of six sites were tested and a very brief description of each follows below. With the benefit of both hindsight and 20 years more experience, the choice of sites for testing no longer appears optimal. In all cases 1 m x 1 m units were used in excavation. Further details of the testing are available in Matson et al. 1980.  Tested Riverside Sites Some fourteen riverside lithic scatter sites were located during the Quadrat and the Chilko River surveys. They shared a number of characteristics (that is most of these sites, had most of these characteristics). These included (by definition) extensive lithic scatters along the Chilko River that are extensive in size and quantity relative to other sites found in the study area. These lithic scatters were located along low level, open, grass covered terraces. Although the absolute height of the terraces varied, these sites were always located on the lowest terrace available that is not currently being seasonally flooded. Very frequently, including EkSa 5, they were used in the 1980s by the Chilcotin as late summer fishing camps. They also very frequently had obvious fish resources adjacent; at EkSa 5, a spawning ground  6  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  for Chinook salmon existed immediately in front of the site, more typical would be some sort of constriction in the river. At three or four of these sites, house pits were found, but never in the lithic scatter, usually in timber and usually further from the river than the lithic scatters. Along with these characteristics all four tested had very shallow cultural deposits. All these sites appear to be prehistoric salmon fishing sites. In view of their shallowness of deposits, their frequent use today as aboriginal fishing sites and as camping sites for others, this group of sites appears to have a troubled future. EkSa 5; The Canoe Crossing Site, CR 2 This was the first site to be tested. Located at Canoe Crossing, a wide slow moving (relatively speaking that is) part of the river just four kilometres downstream from Chilko Lake, this site includes two adjacent concentrations of housepits, that included a total of 70 cultural depressions as well as a large lithic scatter located on a grass covered terrace next to the river (Figure 5, main text, and II-1). It was on this terrace that the four 1 x 1 m test units were placed. 125 0.79  L  Base Line  100 0.72  Chilko River  0.80  75 Lodgepole Pine  0.84  Road  0.80  S  L  S 50 e in eP  l  po  S 0.80  e dg Lo  S L  25 0.76  N  0.40 0.20  15 metres  0  Datum set at 0.00 m  Figure II-1. Map of EkSa 5, the Canoe Crossing site.  7  in e le P epo  magnetic  0.60  g Lod  L Lodgepole Pine S Salix Bush Excavation Downslope 0  0.80  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Very little material was recovered from these units, which were excavated in 5 cm, levels to a maximum depth of 19 cm. Such artifactual material as was recovered (42 items) was found in the top most sandy soil layer, and none in the gravel layers underneath. The sandy layer was usually less than 10 cm deep. In view of the size of the Canoe Crossing site, including many house pits in another portion of the site and of the size of the lithic scatter, which extends more than 200 by 60 meters, the shallowness of the deposit is disappointing. Unfortunately, shallow deposits appears to be the usual case for this type of site. A total of 28 house pits and 42 cachepits were identified at this site. A total of 10 house pit depressions were over 10m or more in diameter, with three (E, F1, and I) having the largest diameters of 14 m indicating that this is likely a Lillooet site, although this would need to be confirmed by dating. It is not, however, as good as case the next site discussed. In any event, it is one of the largest PPT sites along the Chilko River.  123o50’W  ElRw 4 (Quiggly Holes; Bidwell Creek Site) This site is much like that at Canoe Crossing, being the other very large site known in this area prior to our investigations. This site was actually to the north of our continuous survey area, and had a total of 169 pit features in the area we mapped (Figures II-2 and II-3). Lithic scatters existed in the terraces between the housepits and the river and on a large slump deposit between the river and terraces. A total of three 1 by 1 metre units were excavated, one on the lowest terrace and two on the “slump” next to the river. The material recovered  0 360  3000  0  0 34  00 32  1189  ElRw 4 0 320 400 3  1190  N  hi lk R iv o er  00 36  Surveyed Lots  C  Bidwell Cre  1km 0 Contour Interval = 200 ft  ek  ALEXIS CREEK  00  51o55’N  36  0  Ch i  50 km  er Ri v  ive r  Ch ilko  340  Eagle Lake  R  0  ti n  3600  lco  ElRw 4 N  Taseko R.  Tatlayoko Lake  Chilko Lake Taseko Lakes  Figure II-2. Location of ElRw 4, “Quiggly Holes”  8  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  T9 T1 T8  T2  Appendix  3 2  1  T5  T7  T6 T3  T4  T10  Chilko River  N magnetic  T11  0  T2  60 m  Terrace Cultural Depression Excavation Unit  Figure II-3. Map of ElRw 4. Quiggly Holes. was relatively evenly distributed among the three units, but with only a single excavation unit (No. 3) having cultural material to a depth of 20 cm. Several good looking radiocarbon samples were also collected from this unit, as well as a few pieces of bone. One of the radiocarbon samples was assayed (SFU 16) and gave a date of 280+/- 80 B.P. This site then is similar in many ways to EkSa 5, consisting both of a large series of house pits including some of very large size (17m in diameter according to Klassen and Ridington 1998, three of 15m in diameter according to our 1979 records), and a riverside lithic scatter site. The actual number of house pits present is unclear, as there is a large number of 4-5m in diameter depressions that do not appear to be root roasting pits, but without testing it is unclear what function they have. Both Quiggly Holes and Canoe Crossing were used in the 1980s as fishing sites and have been historically. While these groups of large house pits ought to be Pre-Athapaskan and thus dates from them ought to pre-date the Chilcotin, the lithic scatter site locations, if not used today by Chilcotin, were until recently and one might expect were also used previously by non-Athapaskans. A date from the lithic scatter area can only be associated with one of the other cultural traditions by artifact associations, which are not present in sufficient numbers by the test excavations done. The site of EIRw 4 is located at the downstream end of what the river rafters call the “white water mile” and a nice but small calm pool exists there. This pool is what is used today by the Chilcotin and poles and dry rock holding pens are found along the pool as well as fish drying camps located up on the terraces. In addition to the Quiggly Holes site itself, there are several other sites in the area, some of which were recorded by Klassen and Ridington (1998). The Quiggly Holes site, itself, a very large site, with the presence of  9  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  enormous house pits, at least 15 meters in diameter, its good condition and dramatic setting make it ideal for an archaeological park. Its size would make any comprehensive archaeological investigation a task of overwhelming magnitude. It is both the largest and most impressive site in the area, and as such does have extra importance. Chilko River No. 92, EkSa 33, the Brittany Creek Site. This site, near the mouth of Brittany Creek, is another riverside lithic scatter site. In 1979 about half of it was surface collected as well as two units excavated in natural layers to a maximum depth of 10 cm where sterile was found (Figures II 4, II-5 and Table II-2). In 1985 the rest of the site was collected (Alexander and Matson 1987). The collection and excavation were done to obtain comparable data with Quadrat 19 of the Quadrat survey, particularly for the lithic analysis as well as for possible culture history work. The material recovered (Table II-2) was not numerous, but a single charcoal sample was obtained as well as several small bone fragments. A date of 860+ 80 BP (SFU 14) was obtained from this sample. As one expects this site was located on a low grassy terrace, and the cultural material was all in the surface sandy material which lay on a sterile gravel layer. Although not located at an obvious fishing location, historic fish camps indicate that it has been used as one recently. This site appears to be typical of riverside lithic scatter sites with abundant surface material but little depth. Of interest is the presence of a stemmed Kavik point found in the surface collection (See Ormerod, Appendix I). A multiple side notched point was also found on the surface, indicating presence of both projectile point traditions. The radiocarbon date indicates the presence of a Pre-Chilcotin occupation, as suggested for ElRw 4. It also confirms the probable mixed nature of the site and lack of substantial time depth. 124o 15’ W  CR92 CR73 CR64  Brittany Creek  Henry’s Crossing N  5000  0  38 00  e Lak  36 00  Eagle  iver Chilko R  5000  5 km  36 00  Br  3800  itt an yC re ek  contour interval = 1000ft  CR 64  CR 92  3800  CR 73  0 380 124o 05’W  er  N Marsh Lake  o ilk Ch  R iv  51o46’N  0 1 km Contour Interval = 200 ft  00 40  = site  Figure II-4. Location of CR 64 (EkSa 34), CR 73 (EkSa 35) and CR 92 (EkSa 33).  10  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Artifact Class Bifaces  Canoe Quiggly Crossing Holes EkSa 5 ElRw 4 0 1  Brittany Ck. CR 92-EkSa 33 Exca. Excav. S. Coll. Q19-1 0 17 0  Appendix  EkSa 34 EkSa 35 CR 64 CR 73 0 0  Small Points  0  5  2  12  0  0  2  Bifacially Ret. Flakes  0  7  0  23  0  1  1  Pieces Equ.  0  1  0  53  0  0  0  Unifacial Ret. Flks, Narrow Ang.  0  2  0  19  0  0  0  Unifacial Ret. Flakes, Stp. Ang. Heavy Duty Cutting/Scrap.  0  1  0  3  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  Cortex Spall Tool  0  1  0  12  0  0  0  Utilized Flakes  0  8  0  15  0  10  1  Misc. Tools, etc  0  1  0  19  1  0  16  Basalt Debitage  35  1023  242  1687*  35  43  39  Obsidian Debitage  7  36  93  649*  12  0  21  Bipolar Debitage 0 3 0 16* 0 1 0 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Total Tools 0 27 2 174 1 11 20 Total 42 1079 337 2526 48 55 80 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Miscellaneous Tools, Etc., includes 1 drill in ElRw4, 1 piece of ground slate in Q 19-1, 2 pieces of decorated slate, 5 quartzite flakes, 3 “waisted” stones, 2 incized bones frag., 2 polished pebbles, and 2 celt fragments in CR 73, see Table 35 (main text) for EkSa 33. * Figures from Table 33 (main text). Flakes less than 5mm in greatest dimension deleted for this set only.  Table II-2. Chilko River Excavation and Collection Artifact Summary  11  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia 0  10  Appendix  20  historic fish camp  G5  G6  historic fish camp  40  60  F6  F7  E7  f ste ep s lo  E6  bo tto mo  E5  10  0  120  Z5  60  Z6  Z7  0 10  140  160  60  1 met er dro p  lower terrace with willow and swamp birch  top of slope  pe  80  F5  60  60  Chilko River  EU 1 EU 2  higher lodgepole pine covered terraces N  0 10 80  80  0 historic cache of gaff poles  20 m 1983 survey grid extension of 1983 grid contour interval = 20 cm datum ir arbitrary  Figure II-5. Map of Chilko River 92 (EkSa 33), the Brittany Creek site. Quadrat 19, Site 1 (EkSa 27) The archetype of the riverside lithic sites was also tested. This was the only site located on the quadrat survey which appeared to have any Pre-PPT culture history potential. In addition it was desired to try to obtain some dateable material from this site. Three units (Figure 23, main text) each 1 by 1 metre were excavated to sterile which was 10 cm with one exception, an ash feature which went to 25 cm. As seen in Table II-2, not much material was recovered, but 3 charcoal samples were recovered, as well as a few bone fragments. The best charcoal sample was sent off but when combusted turned out to be too small to date. In general none of the riverside lithic scatter sites showed the culture history potential that we had hoped for, although other useful information was obtained. In addition to the riverside lithic scatter sites two other sites were also tested, each one in some way unique. Chilko River 64 (EkSa 34) This site located north of Marsh Lake (Figure II-4) was immediately adjacent to the river on a small alluvial terrace in front of a basalt lava flow. Site 64 was partially cut by the road, but was noteworthy in that large mammal bones were present. Two 1 x 1 metre units were excavated (Figure II-6) yielding 44 pieces of debitage and two tools. Large mammal bone were present, however, to the extent of about 230 gms. These appear to be either elk or deer (most likely) bones, all well fragmented. In addition to the flakes and bone, abundant fire fractured rock was also recovered. In excavation unit 1 a concentration of fire fractured rock and bone was discovered in the south west corner.  12  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  A  Aspen Tree  J  Juniper Tree  L  Lodgepole Pine  0  5  Appendix  10 metres  N  Fence Downslope  magnetic  Excavation Unit  L  J  A  Datum Road  Chilko River  Figure II-6. Map of Chilko River 64 (EkSa 34). In general the obvious interpretation of this site as a marrow processing site seems to be supported. Certainly this site is very different from any of the others excavated and a shallow deposit (maximum 17cm). Again the cultural deposit was in relatively fine alluvium on top of sterile gravels. (Although in this case more fines were found mixed with the gravel than at other sites). Chilko River 73 (EkSa 35) While surveying the Chilko River, a house pit truncated by the river was found near Brittany Creek (Figure II-4). In the exposure several burned pieces of wood were noted. In view of the possibilities of dendrochronological dating and the dating of at least that house pit using radiocarbon we excavated four 1 by I metre units. This site was excavated using natural layers (Figure II-7). The projectile points included one stemmed point (possible Kavik or Klokut point) and a triangular side point with an indented base. Both of these styles are found in Athapaskan sites but not in recent Salish sites (Magne and Matson, 1982,1987; Matson and Magne 2004; Chapter 5, main text). Besides lithic artifacts, abundant fish bone and some large bone was recovered. The main purpose of the excavation was amply fulfilled as no less than 17 samples  13  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Chilko River S L  Approximately 2 metre drop  slope  L L  90  cr es  t  S  m  80  ri  tic  70 60  m 50  ne ag  40  0  1 metre  40  contour interval = 10 cm 60  edge of track  elevations are below datum  50  L  S  salix  L  lodgepole pine 1979 excavation 1985 excavation  Figure II-7. Map of Chilko River 73 (EkSa 35). of charcoal were recovered for possible radiocarbon dates as well as two possible dendrodate samples. In none of the four units was the cultural deposit very deep, with the units in the centre of the house pit hitting sterile (gravel again) within 10 cm, but with up to 25 cm of deposit seen near the rims. One of the radiocarbon samples has been processed, giving a date of 360+80 BP (SFU 15), well within-the expected range of the Athapaskan migration, and likely within the range of living tree chronologies. Both of the large “dendrodate” samples were not datable. Although the sample from this site is very limited, the information we obtained in 1979 is in an agreement with what would be expected for a Chilcotin occupation. For this reason the site was re-excavated in 1985 (Alexander and Matson 1987), with two additional 2 one by one meter units but only three more lithics and several additional radiocarbon samples were added to those recovered in 1979. Fishtrap Lake site (EkSb 27, T 84-27) The lithic scatter collected at the Fishtrap Lake site (EkSb 37 or 84-27) is located on a small knoll on the north shore of Fishtrap Lake (Figure II-8) near Quadrat G 20 (Q44) (Figure II-5). In 1985 we decided to collect this site which had been located and mapped during 1984 ethnoarchaeological investigations (Alexander et al. 1985). Down slope and to the southeast of the scatter are numerous other historic and prehistoric features which may be part of the same site. They include the remains of three cabins, an outhouse, a storage cellar, two corrals,  14  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  three drying racks, numerous other historic structures and artifacts, and a second, smaller lithic scatter. Two roasting pits were located in the area of the lithic scatter (Figure II-8). Except for a few historic artifacts there is no evidence of historic activities in the area of the large lithic scatter.  A4  A3  A2  B  A1  road  B2  B3  B1  EU 1  1984 1985  C4  N magnetic  B4  C3  C2  C1  C 0 collected in 1 m square units  10 m  B cultural depression  datum  slope  trees  Figure II-8. Map of The Fishtrap Lake Site (84-27; EkSb 37). There are three important resource locations near this site. To the south is an area typified by numerous small lakes and rugged terrain that has large, dense patches of balsamroot sunflower and was also used in the historic period for the hunting of deer and elk. Northwest of the site, in what is now a dry part of Eagle Lake, is a large historic weir which was used to catch spawning sucker (Catostomus sp.). Finally, to the east is another weir on the stream draining Fishtrap Lake which was used to catch spawning kokanee and the mouth of this stream is also the location that the mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) spawned. A single 50 cm x 50 cm unit was excavated that revealed a 5 cm cultural layer underlain by sterile aeolian silt. Only 49 small flakes were found in the excavation. No charcoal for radiocarbon dating was recovered. A total of 2075 catalogued items were recovered from the site, 29 of which were historic artifacts. The majority of the lithic collection (72.1%) were less than 1 cm in maximum dimension, much smaller than most other surface collections and only 28 were retouched tools. Of the 28 tools, bifaces (18) are more common than unifaces (10) including four Kamloop side-notched points or fragments.  15  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Summary of Chilko River Testing Programme Some generalizations can be made about these sites. In none was there any indication of a reasonably deep deposit as sterile was located in all units within 25 or 30 cm with 10 cm being the more usual situation. In none was there any indication of antiquity in that neither microblades nor atlatl points were recovered although 14 small points or fragments were, The only evidence of “stratification” was seen at ElRw 4 where groups of different size housepits suggested progressive occupation of the area. In addition to ElRw 4 and EkSa 5, EjSa 11 (aka CR # 1) actually at the outlet of Chilko Lake is a likely member of the Lillooet Phenomenon. In 1979 we found 18 housepits there with the largest diameter (rim crest) of 14 m, with likely others destroyed by development of a road and an air strip. Ridington and Klassen (Ridington and Klassen 1998; Klassen 2002) report on mitigations efforts after the site was further damaged by the Department of Fisheries and Ocean, who have buildings on the site, and who apparently destroyed surface evidence, at least, of five cultural depressions and damaged others (1998:ii). This site is also a likely Lillooet member. Although the original mitigation effort did not include radiocarbon dating, Ridington and Klassen (1998; Appendix C:237,238) report on two projectile point that are pre-Kamloops, Plateau Horizon, the time of most of the Lillooet phenomenon, supporting such an interpretation. Klassen (2002) reports on later testing and two dates of approximately 2000 BP that are discussed in the dating section. In short none of the sites tested during the Chilko River survey was suitable for further work for the purposes of discovering more about the period prior to the PPT in this area. This does not seem to be a problem with respect to the main goals of the project as old appearing material was absent on this quadrat survey as well. It looks as if the vast majority of the material falls within the last 2000 years, the period of interest. The Pre-PPT culture history problems are important, but the Eagle Lake project will not make much of a contribution toward them.  Mouth of Chilcotin Testing In addition to the survey, four minor excavations were carried out in 1974. First, a previously known and collected site (by the O.F.Y. project, Mohs 1973) EkRo 48, had a small housepit tested with five 1 x 1m units (Figures II-9 and 11; Figure 20 main text) revealing a well-preserved floor, with a number of artifacts on it. Two charcoal samples were dated; 870+/- 80 B.P. (GaK 5326) and 1450+/-75 B.P. (GaK 5327), with the latter on the floor. Since two Kamloops side-notched points (Appendix V; Table 3) were found during this excavation, the first date is more apt to be valid for the last occupation of this house. The older date indicates an occupation in the Plateau Horizon (Richards and Rousseau 1987), an occupation that is confirmed by the presence of large barbed points found in MOC collections, including one from EkRo 48 (Matson et al. 1984:169), which are markers of this Horizon. Two similar units were also placed in a housepit on site EkRo 31 (Quadrat 4-1), but no clear floor was present, and one unit appeared to be highly disturbed, although abundant archaeological material was present (Appendix V:Table 3). The presence of five Kamloops side-notched arrow points, though, indicates occupation in the last 1200 years. The combination of these two minor excavations supports the surface collection indications that the PPT occupation is concentrated in, or at least continues strongly into, the Kamloops  16  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  -56 -52 -36  -54  -38  -5 0  -40  -48 -46  -44 -42  -44 -42  -40 -38-40  -44  -42  -36 -34  -42  -50  Excavated House Pit  -36  -38  -40  -36 -3 8 -40  -40  -40  -40 -42  -36  -34  -32  -38  -36  -60  -50  -30  N -30  EkRo 48 -4  Contour Interval = 0.2 m  0  -50  Elevations are below local datum  0  5  10 m  Figure II-9. Contour Map of EkRo 48. (This is repeated in the main text as Figure 20) 3.4  4 Bark  Elk antler butt  DEPRESSION  Core  Charcoal Rock  Antler  Red Clay, presumed burned roof fill Root  3 tine  2 N  0  6  1m  Bone  Contour interval = 0.2 m 0  Metres below site datum  3.0  4.0  1.0 West Wall Unit 2  2.0  3.0  4.0  West Wall Unit 3  Unexcavated Sterile Pit house fill, brown sandy loam with specks of red clay  1  ?  Hammerstone  3.6  Beaver pelvis  Hammerstone with pitch  3.8  3.8  3.6  3.4  EkRo 48  North Wall Unit 6 5.0 5.0 East Wall Common Wall Unit 4 Units 1 & 6  Rodent  ?  Excavated sterile, hard packed, light gravelly, clay silt  Figure II-10. EkRo 48 Excavation Floor Plan.  17  Presumed Burrows  6.0 3.0  4.0  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  culture. Three 1 meter units were also excavated into site EkRo 18, a site of very large and deep housepits (Figure 21, main text). This is believed to be part of the “Lillooet” Phenomenon, explored by Stryd (1974; Stryd and Lawhead 1978) and Hayden (2000, 2001) in the Lillooet area. This complex in the Lillooet are is very large sites of very large and deep housepits dating between 900 and 1500 years ago (Hayden and Ryder 1991; Lenert 2001) . Some sites, even in the Lillooet area, have modest numbers of these very large pithouses (the Bell site in Stryd and Lawhead 1978). EkRo 18 stands out in the MOC as having uniquely large and deep housepits, and we wished to discover if it dated to the same time as similar sites in the Lillooet area. We also had hopes that we may be able to get a dendrochronological cross date with material from Lillooet. Only a modest amount of material was recovered (Appendix V: Table 3), but a radiocarbon date of 1290+ 80 BP (GaK 5325) did confirm the same time frame. Wood that may be dateable through dendrochronological techniques was also obtained. In the end it was judged that EkRo 18 was the local variant of the Lillooet phenomena.  Potato Mountain Testing Program The Mountain Fan site (EjSb 39), on a small remnant of a fan at the base of Middle Mountain (Figure II-11), not only had the densest lithic scatter, but also had a number of culture components, and was the only deposit of depth discovered. Some parts of the site (Figure II12) have no vegetation or soil over the alluvial gravels while, on other areas of the site, grasses, kinnikinnik and small shrubs cover aeolian deposits of more than 40 cm in depth. Lingfield Creek is currently ca. 5 m below the site. Fish Lake  contour interval = 500 ft 2 km  gf ie ld 6000  60 00  500 0  Lin  60 00  1  Cr ee k  0  Cottongrass Lake  700  0  Lingfield Lake EjSB 26  EjSb 3  EjSb 33  Echo Ridge site Dunlop Lake  Mountain Pond site Middle Mountain Mtn. Fan site  Echo Lake  N 600 0  0 500  Middle Mountain site Gillian Lake EjSb 50 00 60  00 50  Figure II-11. Locations of Potato Mountain sites.  18  ss i Pa  esh Ch es Ch  reek hi C  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia 11 x  UNIT A1  x12  wp n kin  wp 10 x  ik ikin  bare ground  13 x 14 x 15 x  wp  af  8x  B wp wp 6 x  16 x  9x  EU2  wp  17 x  18 x  7x  wp  pe s lo  wp  ep ste  EU3 af  Appendix  wp  wp  inik nik kin x4  1x  wp  EU5  5  x20  wp  A 2 x  kin  3x  wp whitebark pine  x  19 x  j  wp  ba 2 re x gr 1x oun 3 x d wp  inik  46 47 x x 42 x 45 x 41 x x 44 40x x 39 43 38 x x x35 31 x x34 x 37  j  UNIT A2 4 x  nik  21 x  EU4  af  wp x22 wp alpine x9 wp wp 20 fir x x10 juniper x17 12 wp x EU1 15 18 x 11 x x x j 6 x artifact 16 x location 14 x13 cultural A depression whitebark pine x23 bare ground wp whitebark pine 26 36 x 25 x x x af alpine 30 x x fir 24 27 j juniper 6 x 5 xx x 7 8  15% slope  k kinnikinik bare ground  alpine fir  excavation unit  kin  inik  x  k  wp  N wp  5m  0  nik  29 x x 32  lop  s 30%  e  wp  Figure II-12. The Mountain Fan Site (P8-3, EjSb 39). Five units were excavated at the site. Two 50 cm X 50 cm test units were initially dug at the site to test the depth of the cultural deposits and check the artifact density. These tests revealed three cultural horizons but a generally low artifact density. Since it is the only known stratified site in the study area and since each cultural horizon contained large quantities of charcoal, two additional 1 m X 1 m units were excavated where the soil deposition was greatest. Radiocarbon samples from the two lowest layers produced dates of 960 + 80 BP (WSU 3374) and 2220+ 80 BP (WSU 3375), stratigraphically in order.  19  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  An additional 50 cm X 50 cm unit was also placed in the center of one of the small depressions on the site which confirmed its identification as a roasting pit. This roasting pit has an accumulation of 27 cm of firecracked rock and charcoal in the center indicating a relatively deep initial pit and the charcoal produced a date of 1680+90 BP (WSU 3380). On the surface it appeared to be a shallow, moderately sized pit with an inner rim diameter of 100 cm and a rim crest to rim crest diameter of 240 cm. Evidence indicates that the pit was lined on the bottom with a rock pavement and the cooking fire constructed in the pit rather than outside. A total of 426 items were catalogued from the Mountain Fan site: 397 flakes and 27 retouched lithic artifacts; 221 flakes and 20 of the tools from the surface. No points were found at the site, and most (23) of the retouched artifacts were unifacial. The relatively high frequency (6.3%) of retouched artifacts and non-basalt artifacts (6/27) and lack of evidence of primary lithic reduction (only 2 flakes had any cortex) indicate that curated tools were common. The Mountain Pond Site This site (EjSb 54 or P8-1 or 84-14, Part 6) is on a mid-slope bench on the west side of Middle Mountain overlooking Lingfield Creek, the Mountain Fan site, and a large, open area to the west (Figure II-11). It is in a Parkland environment with an open area of grassy meadow fringed with stunted alpine fir on the west. A small, shallow melt-water pond is located 23 m to the east. The site consists of a lithic scatter and 18 cultural depressions representing both cache and roasting pits (Figure II-13). 10% gentle slope  slight hollow P O N L M  Alpine Fir  K J I H G  x13  x14 x17 x18  Alpine Fir  Q  x  x10  x4 7  x9  x2  Whitebark Pine  Whitebark Pine  Alpine Fir  x 1  Whitebark Pine  A 23 m to small pond  N  Alpine Fir Alpine Fir  x3  EU1  x8  gent  x5 B  Whitebark Pine  EU2  le slo  Alpine Fir x15 x11 x x 16 12  C  10 %  Alpine Fir  D  pe  F E x6  R  5m  0 x7 J  x 20  artifact location cultural depression  Figure II-13. The Mountain Pond Site (P8-1, EjSb 54). It is in the area traditionally used by the Redstone band during the historic period and, in fact, a few tin cans were collected from the site indicating a recent occupation. Two 50 cm X 50 cm units were excavated at the site to test the depth of cultural deposits and artifact  20  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  densities. These revealed a low artifact density and a thin (ca. 3 cm) cultural deposit over sterile aeolian silts. Only 317 lithics were recovered from the site. There is little evidence of primary reduction at the site. Only four retouched artifacts and no points were recovered. Middle Mountain This site (EjSb 52 or 84-14, Part 4), located at an elevation of 1920 m (6320 ft) is near the top of Middle Mountain at the south end of the Potato Mountain Range (Figure II-11). A large lithic scatter and 12 cache pits were found at the site. The site is in a parkland (alpinesubalpine ecotone) environment consisting of an open area bordered on the north and south by small clusters of stunted alpine fir. In some places the surface is bare of vegetation with weathered bedrock exposed, while in other spots grasses or kinnikinnik are established. There is a small melt-water pond ca. 30 m to the northeast and a good overview of alpine and parkland areas to the south. Ethnoarchaeological evidence indicates that this area was traditionally used by the Redstone band as well. They camped on Middle Mountain during the late summer while they collected and processed mountain potatoes, hunted and processed deer, and participated in an Indian-only rodeo near Lingfield Lake. An historic camp is present at the south end of the Middle Mountain site with a hearth, possible drying rack, tin cans, and glass. A1  A2  N Contour interval = 20 cm Datum is arbitrary 5m  0  B  Alpine fir 220  EU1 C  A  B1  D  EU2  EU3  14 0  18 0  B3  B2  C3  C1  C2 F G H I J K  D2  D1 Pine L  Figure II-14. The Middle Mountain Site (EjSb 52).  21  20  60  E  100  140  EU5 EU4  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  In addition to being mapped and surface collected (Figure II-14) five units were excavated on this approximately 27 m X 42 m site. Two adjoining 75 cm X 75 cm units bisected a cache pit, and two adjoining 50 cm X 50 cm units were placed where surface lithic concentrations were high. An additional 1 m X 1 m unit was excavated in a spot with a heavy grass cover. All units revealed ca. 10 cm of cultural deposit underlain by bedrock or glacial till. No charcoal for radiocarbon dating was recovered. A single cache pit (Feature A) was excavated at the site with a 75 cm X 150 cm unit which bisected the pit. No artifacts, firecracked rock, or useful charcoal samples were recovered. Excavations confirmed surfacial impressions of a small, shallow pit. The inner rim diameter is only 70 cm and the depth from the rim crest to the bottom of the pit is only 14 cm. A total of 1013 items were catalogued from the site including 154 historic artifacts (primarily glass fragments). There is little evidence of primary reduction at the site. Forty-six (5.4%) are retouched artifacts, with a predominance of unifaces (35). The relatively high frequencies of retouched artifacts and non-basalt artifacts indicates high use of curated tools. Four points or point bases were found, all corner- or side-notched points (Figure II-15, l-o) indicating Kamloops horizon (1200 - 1000 B.P.) and Plateau horizon (2400 - 1200 B.P.) occupations.  Figure II-15. Potato Mountain Artifacts. Other Tested Roasting Pits P2-3 (EjSb 26) is a ‘B’ site, a member of a class of sites within the forest fringe that typically had only one or two roasting pits in contrast to sites in more open areas which typically had  22  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  more roasting pits and included cache pits. Two of the ‘B’ sites were tested in 1985. P2-3 site is located in the forest ca. 50 m above the open slope to the east of Lingfield Lake (Figure II11) on a small bench above the high, steep bank of a small unnamed stream. The site consists of two large roasting pits. Roasting pit A was tested with a 75 cm X 100 cm unit which extended from the center of the pit to the rim crest. The excavation was done in natural layers and all material screened with 1/4 inch mesh. Although no artifacts were recovered, numerous radiocarbon samples were collected, one of which produced a date of 450 +/- 70 B.P. (WSU 3376). Prior to excavation the pit appeared to be a large (140 cm inner rim) pit but relatively shallow in comparison (27 cm) to its width. Excavation confirmed this impression and revealed a high concentration of firecracked rock (ca. 140 lbs or 57 kg) in the unit. Reuse of the pit after initial abandonment is indicated in the rim profile by the presence of a sterile, light-coloured rim underlain by a thick layer of soil with substantial fire-cracked rock and charcoal. P2-9 (EjSb 33) is also a type ‘B’ site located ca. 65 m further up slope from P2-3 (EjSb 26). It also is next to the same small stream and consists of only two large roasting pits. Feature A was excavated in the same manner as Feature A at P2-3. No artifacts were found but one of many radiocarbon samples from the pit was dated to 615 + 80 BP (WSU 3373). At the ground surface the pit was very large (245 cm inner rim diameter) for Potato Mountain and relatively shallow (31 cm) for its size. A high concentration of firecracked rock (ca. 85 lbs or 39 kg) was found in the unit. A profile, similar to that found at the previous site (Figure II-16) indicates that this pit was also reused. sw corner  nw corner  0 10  20 30  40  Unexcavated Organic debris  50  Dark brown silt Yellowish brown silt Fire cracked rock  60  Figure II-16. Profile of Roasting Pit A at P2-9 (EjSb 33). Echo Ridge (EjSb 12 or P6-1) is a very large site with 342 cultural depressions recorded within the quadrat and many more observed outside, a definite type ‘A’ site. These depressions are on top of a Parkland Ridge which runs parallel to the west shore of Echo  23  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Lake (Figure II-11). Three roasting pits and one cache pit were tested at this site. All four pits were excavated in the same way as with the previous two sites. No artifacts were found. Radiocarbon samples were removed from two of the roasting pits providing dates of 1710 + 90 BP (WSU 3372) and 1910 + 50 BP (WSU 3381). However, there was not enough charcoal in the other two pits for an adequate sample. Nevertheless, the third roasting pit was also dated with a charcoal sample from a pile of firecracked rock and charcoal adjacent to and, presumably, cleaned from the roasting pit. This date of 100 + 60 BP (WSU 3378) suggests a recent use for the pit which is in keeping with the shallow soil deposition in the depression. However, it is possible that the charcoal may date a natural forest fire since it was not deeply buried. The shape and content of the three excavated roasting pits varied considerably. One pit had very little firecracked rock (ca. 30 lbs or 14 kg) and only small flecks of charcoal but was the one with a large concentration of firecracked rock and charcoal beside the pit. The second pit had moderate quantities of firecracked rock (50 lbs or 23 kg) and charcoal (enough to date) but the rock was generally small in size. The third pit contained large quantities of firecracked rock (143 lbs or 69 kg) and charcoal with many very large rocks. The cache pit at the site contained no charcoal or firecracked rock and only had 13 cm of deposits at the center of the pit. This evidence suggests a relatively recent use of the pit. No firecracked rock was found nearby to indicate its possible use as a roasting pit. Upon excavation, this cache pit was found to have uneroded walls and nearly vertical sides with a rounded bottom, in marked contrast with the more hemispheric shape of most roasting pits. Radiocarbon dates from six of the roasting pits tested provided dates ranging from 100 + 60 BP (WSU 3378) to 1910 + 50 BP (WSU 3381). The high density of sites and pit features agrees with the Chilcotin accounts of the importance of this area. If we extrapolate from our sample to our sampling frame we arrive at a point estimate of about 400 sites, with about 770 roasting pits and 2400 cache pits for the south end of the Potato Mountain alpine zones. Moreover, excavation indicates substantial reuse of the roasting pits, suggesting that this pit estimate is a low estimate for number of root roasting episodes. These large numbers of sites and features, together with the radiocarbon dates indicating that the excavated roasting pits were only in use during the last 2,000 years, point towards a substantial number of people using the area at any one time.  24  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  References cited in Appendix II Alexander, Diana and R.G. Matson 1987 Report on the Potato Mountain Archaeological Project (1985). Report prepared for the Heritage Conservation Branch of B.C. (Permit No. 1985-11), Victoria. Alexander, Diana, Robert Tyhurst, R.G. Matson, and Linda Burnard 1985 A Preliminary Ethnoarchaeological Investigation of the Potato Mountain Range and the Eagle Lake Area. Report prepared for the Heritage Conservation Branch of B.C. (Permit No. 1984-14), Victoria. Hayden, Brian (Editor) 2000 The Ancient Past of Keatley Creek. Volume 1: Taphonomy. Archaeology Press, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby. (Editor) 2001 The Ancient Past of Keatley Creek. Volume 1I: Social Economic Interpretation. Archaeology Press, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby. Hayden, Brian and June M. Ryder 1991 Prehistoric Cultural Collapse in the Lillooet Area. American Antiquity 56(1):50-65. Klassen, Michael A. 2002 Chilko Lake Housepit Site (EjSa 11): Archaeological Investigations 2001 (Permit 2001-251). Heritage Resource Centre, Ministry of Community, Aboriginal & Women’s Services, Victoria. Klassen, Michael and Amber Ridington 1998 Chilko River Archaeological Inventory Sample Study: Phase I (1997). Report under Permit 1997-214, Archaeology Branch, Ministry of Small Business, Tourism and Culture, Victoria. Lenert, Michael 2001Calibrated Radiocarbon Dates and Culture Change: Implications for Socio-Complexity in the Mid-Fraser Region, British Columbia. Northwest Anthropological Research Notes 35(2):211-228. Magne, M. and R.G. Matson 1982 Identification of “Salish” and “Athapaskan” side-notched projectile points from the Interior Plateau of British Columbia. In Approaches to Algonquian Archaeology, edited by M. Hanna and B. Kooyman, pp. 57-79. The University of Calgary Archaeological Association, Calgary.  25  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  1987 Projectile Point and Lithic Assemblage Ethnicity in Interior British Columbia. In Ethnicity and Culture, edited by RéginaldAuger, Margaret Glass, Scott MacEachern, and Peter McCartney, pp. 227 -242. The University of Calgary Archaeological Association, Calgary. Matson, R.G., L. Ham and D. Bunyan 1984 Prehistoric settlement patterns at the Mouth of the Chilcotin River, B.C. Report to Heritage Conservation Branch, Victoria. Laboratory of Archaeology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Matson, R.G. and Martin P.R. Magne 2004 Identifying Athapaskans at Eagle Lake, British Columbia. In Ancient and Historic Lifeways in North America’s Rocky Mountains, Proceedings of the 2003 Rocky Mountain Anthropological Conference, Estes Park, Colorado, pp. 23 - 37. Edited by Robert H. Brunswig and William B. Butler. Department of Anthropology, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado. Matson, R. G., Martin P. R. Magne, Deanna Ludowicz and D. L. Pokotylo 1980 The Eagle Lake Project: Report on the 1979 Season. Report to Heritage Conservation Branch, Victoria,. Laboratory of Archaeology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Mohs, Gordon 1973 EkRo 48, A Preliminary Site Report. MS on file, Reading Room, Laboratory of Archaeology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Richards, Thomas H. and Michael K. Rousseau 1987 Late Prehistoric Cultural Horizons on the Canadian Plateau. Dept. of Archaeology Publication No. 16, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby. Ridington, Amber and Michael Klassen 1998 Archaeological Site EjSa-11, Chilko River, B.C. Archaeological Impact Assessment. Report on Permit 1997-266, Archaeology Branch, Ministry of Community, Aboriginal & Women’s Services, Victoria. Stryd, Arnoud 1974 Lillooet Archaeological Project: 1974 Field Season. Cariboo College Papers in Archaeology no. 1. Kamloops. Stryd, Arnoud and Stephen Lawhead 1978 Reports of the Lillooet Archaeological Project Number 1. Introduction and setting. National Museum of Man Mercury Series, Archaeological Survey of Canada 73, Ottawa.  26  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia Wilmeth, Roscoe 1977 Pit-house construction and the disturbance of stratified sites. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 1: 135 - 150.  27  Appendix  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  28  Appendix   Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix III: ANALYSIS OF EAGLE LAKE FLOTATION SAMPLES Elizabeth Radomski  Table of Contents Methodology  2  Material Found  2  Identifed Seeds  3  The Bear Lake Site: EkSa 36  3  The Boyd Site: EkSa 32  6  Quad 19, Site 1  8  Henry’s Crossing, East and North of Bridge  9  Conclusions  9  References cited  13  Tables Table III-1. Constituents Parts of EkSa 36 Flotation Samples - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 Table III-2. Constituents Parts of EkSa 13, 32 and other Flotation Samples - - - 7 Table III-3. Charred Seeds from All Samples - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 11 Table III-4. Uncharred Seeds from all Samples - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -12  1  Appendix  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Introduction A total of 26 flotation samples (Table III-1 and III-2) were taken from Eagle Lake sites in the 1979 and 1983 seasons. Of these, 17 (Nos. 1-17) were from the Bear Lake site (EkSa 36), 3 (Nos. 26-28) from the Boyd site (EkSa 32), 4 (Nos. 29-32) from the Shields site (EkSa 13), one from Henry’s Crossing, and one from Quad 19, Site 1. Methodology All the samples had been previously floated in 1983, except for the Henry’s Crossing sample. A number of the samples were refloated either because of a large amount of mold encasing the sample or because the sample still was compacted clay. I was unable to find any information regarding where the samples were floated or how. I passed the samples through four geological sieves, 4mm, 2mm, 0.5mm, and 0.15mm. The charcoal, bone, root material, and pebbles were only sorted out of the 4mm and 2mm mesh sizes and as a result, the weights given on Tables 1 and 2 are only a representative sample. The seeds were found in all four mesh sizes. Both 100% of the heavy and light fractions were sorted. The Henry’s Crossing sample was taken from the middle of a hearth and was mainly composed of ash, therefore I sorted 25% of the sample without floating it. I tried to identify all of the charred seeds. The identification was facilitated by examining the botanical forms (see Appendix IV for this and for plant names) from all the Eagle Lake sites to provide a base for the identification. The seed manuals of Martin and Barkley (1961) and Montgomery (1977) were used in identification although some of the seeds that were not represented within their books were found within the botanical collection in the UBC Laboratory of Archaeology. However, I could not find the seeds for many of the plants that were named on the Eagle Lake Archaeological Project botanical forms. In addition, it is very difficult to identify charred seeds as their morphology changes during the heating process depending on the temperature and duration. Material Found Quite a variety of material was found from all the sites. I have listed what was found and their weights in Tables III -1 and III-2. Tables III-3 and III-4 outline the number and types of charred and uncharred seeds found. The charcoal was not identified as in most cases since the pieces were too small. However, each one of the samples had charcoal present. The burnt/unburned needles and burnt/unburned cone parts were mostly from lodgepole pine and spruce trees. The cone scales themselves can be easily identified. I have labelled a category “tissues” as this was a type of material I could not identify. I assume that it could be either a resin or sap from the trees which has been burnt as in most cases, the material is quite shiny. Although Wollstonecroft (2000) identifies a berry meat as in her “tissues,” the type I found did not look like hers. In most samples, debitage was found in the form of pressure flakes. The materials were chert, basalt, granite, and a very ugly igneous other. A number of obsidian pieces were also found which were grey, green, and black. In one sample, I found a piece of what seems to be a quartz crystal fragment. In a number of the samples, leaves were found. I did not include them in the charts. Soopalalie, kinnikinick, and pussytoes were the most common and abundant. This shows 2  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  (along with the number of uncharred seeds) that modern intrusions were more than just rodent feces for these samples. The bones recovered from the samples were both mammalian and fish. In the flotation log, I have identified whether a sample had one or the other, but in most cases, it was both. The fish were identified with the help of the comparative collection in the Laboratory of Archaeology. I was able to discern both kokanee (land-locked salmon) and a trout (either rainbow or steelhead). The mammal bones, however, lacked distinguishing characteristics for identification. A number of pieces of larger mammalian teeth were found but none intact enough for identification purposes. Chunks of long bone were present as well as possibly pieces of rodent or bird long bones. The bone itself was an array of colors from white to blue to black. I assume that this is an indication of the intensity by which they were heated as well as how long they have been in the ground. Because of the fragile nature of seeds, many that were found lacked all distinguishing characteristics and were labelled desiccated. I only included charred seeds in this category. I have also included the category of “sclerotia.” These come from the fungus genus Sclerotinia and are common with some plant fungal pathogens. These are roundish balls with corrugated surfaces either encased in very fragile material or protruding with hairs and vary in sizes. The sclerotia act like seeds and allow the fungus to survive for several years in the soil, however, what was found in these samples could be considered archaeological due to depth and time duration. I believe that through further study, the sclerotia can indicate what types of root crops were present or processed within features. Identified Seeds A total of 24 types of charred seeds were identified and 17 types of uncharred seeds. The scientific and common names are found in the botanical forms in Appendix IV. The seeds that survived were generally those which had a very hard surface which included the berries but mostly the marshy plants such as the sedges and bulrush types. I grouped a number of seeds together into families and genera at it was difficult to make a definite species level identification. The Chenopodiaceae family, in this case, consists of two types of plants whose seeds look alike, sea-blite and lambs quarters. Both were found in abundance in the area of each of the sites. Dandelions (Asteraceae) and grasses (Gramineae) were grouped into general families as well as the pea (Leguminoseae) and the buckwheat (Polygonum sp.). Most of the other seeds were defined down to a species level and a select few were specifically identified. The Bear Lake Site: EkSa 36 Sample 18 from Feature I was not sorted as it was used for radiocarbon sample (Beta 148106). Sample 18 was from Feature I, a boat shaped hearth located in the centre of the inferred prehistoric house of the Eagle Lake Phase. Sample 19, a sample from the historic Feature J interior cachepit (Lulua Phase) was not sorted either since it has been previously disassembled for faunal analysis of its contents.. Sample 4 was divided into A and B as two samples were labelled 4 and a full record was present for only one, even though their material seems to show that they were not a single sample split into two. Sample 12 does not exist physically or in the records. 3  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia Samples Seed No.  Appendix  1  2  3  4a 4b  5  6  7  8  9  10 11  13 14 15 16 17  Burnt  15  13  1  2  1  0  3  18  12  2  24  5  3  5  6  10  6  UnBurnt  18  22  3  2  5  6  3  21  23  25  51  16  10  0  2  0  0  Dessicated  3  1  1  0  0  0  13  16  11  12  5  4  5  16  0  8  4  Sclerotia  8  46  30  22  34  27  34  35  79  54  60  7  2  6  1  22  7  Constituent  Charcoal  0.17 0.14 0.13 0.22 0.24 0.40 6.44 4.53 1.73 2.49 0.31 0.90 4.92 0.38 11.06 0.22 1.54  Bone Total <.01 0.12 <.01 Root/OrgMat 1.42 1.03  <.01 <.01 2.31 2.07 <.01 10.8 6.39 3.65 4.60 0.13 14.0 3.23 0.1 1.95 0.85 0.82 1.68 1.60 1.19 1.12 2.45 0.76 2.63 0.47 0.10 4.24  Burnt Needle 0.03 0.02 <.01 Unburnt Nee  Insect pts  <.01 <.01  Peebles/FCR 99.06  Debitage  <.01 0.04 <.01 <.01 <.01 0.03 0.04 <.01 <.01 <.01 <.01  <.01  <.01 0.02 <.01  <.01 <.01 0.25 <.01  143 376  317  0.04 1.36  Unburnt cone  0.14 0.11 0.04 0.09 0.13 <.01 0.08  <.01  <.01  59.4 18.0 23.9 1.35 81.9  0.42  2.43  0.45 <.01 0.97 1.04 1.81 0.18 10.1 <.01 0.06 <.01  0.04 0.03 0.16  Burned cone 0.08 0.06 <.01  <.01 0.04  0.10 <.01  <.01 <.01  <.01  <.01 0.19  <.01 0.24 <.01  0.08 <.01  <.01  Tissues Quartz Cry.  <.01  Clay Pipe?  0.64  Quartz/Mica  <.01  <.01  0.16 0.25  Obsidian Rodent Fec.  2  6  2  1  <.01  16  SortedWeight  Light  10.9 13.2 0.90 2.03 14.7 7.20 16.0 68.9 11.7 6.31 8.87 16.3 6.90 12.6 18.0 3.68 1.23  Heavy  54.0 119. 70.4  0.0 196  325 26.5 186 35.0 158. 260. 109. 0.0 33.3 61.01 12.4 32.0  Table III-1. Constituents Parts of EkSa 36 Flotation Samples (in counts and grams)  4  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Prehistoric Eagle Lake Phase Samples Layer A, Feature E Feature E was situated at the bottom of layer A and is the hearth feature which produced a date of 415 +/- 115 BP (BGS 2263). Sample 1 was taken from the middle of a black ring of soil that was located on top of Layer B, which was a yellowish matrix. Sample 2 was taken adjacent to 1. Quite a bit of FCR and roots were present as well as both charred and uncharred seeds. The most abundant charred seeds were wild strawberry, Rubus sp., Chenopodiaceae, and bristly stickseed. Layer A2 Feature D (Roasting Pit) Both sample 4s came from this layer. They had a high concentration of small pebbles and 4A had a very small amount of charcoal where as 4B had a high concentration. However, each had only one seed, a strawberry, and an elderberry. Sample 5 also came from the roasting pit and is located beside sample 4. I think that sample 4B is adjacent to this sample, but not 4A. No charred seeds were present within this sample. Sample 9 also came from this feature which had high amounts of charcoal and FAR. A carbonized pine nut was found within this feature. This sample is close to sterile and underneath it is a rock pavement. Only two charred seeds were found, Rubus sp. and mares tail. A number of uncharred grass seeds were also found. Prehistoric Lodge (Feature I) related. Sample 14 is from Unit 52, next to the Feature I hearth and had a black silty matrix with an abundance of bone. A charred bulrush seed and three strawberry seeds were found. Sample 13 is also adjacent to the Feature I hearth, from Unit 44. An abundance of charcoal and bone were present within sample 13. Only three charred seeds were found, kinnikinick, Chenopodiaceae, and a buckwheat, in this sample. This sample most likely, but not certainly, includes spill from Feature I, as four pieces of debitage were present. Historic Lulua Phase Samples Historic Lodge (Feature B) Sample 3 was taken from the rim/edge of the lodge (Unit 21) that was found to lie over burnt soil and a charcoal matrix. It could be possible roof fill material. The sample was a clayey/silty matrix with quite a bit of sand and small pebbles. Only one Chenopodiaceae seed was found in this sample. Sample 6 was taken from Unit 23 beyond the north edge of the inferred lodge since this area had a small amount of charcoal present. Only 2 Chenopodiaceae seeds were found and one unidentified charred seed. Sample 15 is from Unit 56 on the northeast-edge of the lodge and contained 3 charred kinnikinick and one Sisymbrium seeds. Sample 16 was also within Feature B, from Unit 39 at the southern edge of the lodge. This had small amounts of charcoal and burnt antler present as well as elderberry, kinnikinick, and salal seeds. Sample 17 was from Unit 47 within Feature B and just northwest of the Feature G hearth. This was a bone concentration that was underlying the eastern end of a large carbon 5  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  concentration which might be spill from the hearth. Sample 17 only had six charred kinnikinick seeds present. Feature G Hearth Samples 7 and 8 come from Unit 24 and are from the edge what was later identified as Feature G, the main lodge hearth. These samples are adjacent to each other. Fish bone fragments were seen within this feature which consisted of a reddish brown matrix and charcoal. Both samples were full of both charcoal and fish and mammal bone. Thirty charred seeds in total came from this feature, including kinnikinick, Chenopodiaceae, fireweed, and mares tail. Feature G proper, was an ash/bone hearth feature composed of two layers (B and B1). Sample 10 (Unit 25, Layer B) was an ashy matrix consisting of numerous bone fragments. I found what looks to be a fish cranial bone. This sample had to be refloated as the 1983 attempt resulted in a big clump of clay. Nine charred strawberry seeds were found and 8 “berries.” These are seeds that look like small berries and I could not properly identify them. I included them in the master list as they were present both charred and uncharred in a large numbers (eight and six respectively). Sample 11 was also from Feature G (Unit 26, Layer B1) and was ashy and full of bone. It had one Saskatoon berry seed and 3 kinnikinick seeds present. However, it had an abundance of bone and fish teeth as well as an abundance of burnt needles. In addition to these samples, Sample 17, discussed above, may also contain material that was originally part of Feature G. Feature J Cachepit Feature J was the cachepit in Unit 53, within the historic lodge boundaries. Articulated fish remains were found within this feature. Sample 19 included fins, vertebrae, and a tail as well as the tissue connecting the vertebrae. This was a sample of hard compact clay/silt.  The Boyd Site: EkSa 32 Throughout both of the house pits of this PPT site, an abundance of artifacts and calcined bone was present. House Pit 1, Layer B3 Sample 26 was taken from just above the living floor surface and large burnt antler pieces had been recovered from this area. It was a dark blackish matrix that contained charcoal. The fill above the sample area had a marked concentration of fire-altered rock. This sample was taken from two locations. Only two charred kinnikinick seeds were recovered. House Pit 2, Feature A, Layer B3 Samples 27 and 28 were taken from Unit 3. Sample 27 was from the central part of the hearth feature A. Many roots of grass were noted and there was calcined bone throughout as well as a few flakes. Sample 28 was taken from outside the central portion of the hearth, but still within the burnt B3 layer which had calcined bone present. Nine seeds in total were 6  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  EkSa 32 Seed No.  EkSa 13  Appendix  Henrys  Quad 19  Crossing  Site 1  26  27  28  29  30  31  32  Burnt  2  2  7  5  2  16  1  1 frag  62  UnBurnt  1  3  0  0  8  9  0  0  4  Desiccated  2  0  0  0  7  3  1  0  13  34  305  286  51  132  421  289  3  8  Charcoal  0.84  <.01  <.01  0.21  0.29  0.43  0.16  1.01  Bone  0.39  7.95  3.01  2.76  6.2  2.42  4.60  1.98  0.12  Root/OrgMat  0.78  1.72  1.93  2.8  0.63  0.50  13.01  n/a  0.23  <.01  0.01  Sclerotia Constituents  BurntNeedle  <.01  Insect Pts.  <.01  <.01  <.01  <.01  <.01  <.01  Peebles,etc. 81.75  87.10  102.2  611.9  742.0  18.26  197.8  8.14  4.39  9.25  3.65  0.15  4.56  Debitage  2.58  UnburntCone Burnt Cone  0.06  1.18  <.01  <.01 0.92  Tool (?)  <.01 <.01  2.21  Mica 0.05  <.01  <.01  <.01  0.35  <.01  <.01  Ochre  <.01  <.01  1  29  0.54  Land Snail  <.01  AquaticShell MetallicMat.?  4.09  <.01  Tissues  Obsidian  3.57  <.01 <.01  <.01  RodentFeces Sorted Wght  Light Heavy  1.79  5.62  0.85  5.41  2.89  3.37  5.99  n/a  4.39  48.48  103.86  111.68  26.29  742.0  18.46  58.40  n/a  20.78  Table III-2. Constituents Parts of EkSa 13, 32 and other Flotation Samples (in counts and grams)  7  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  found from within this hearth and they included wild strawberry, kinnikinnick, and a saskatoon berry seed. The Shields Site: EkSa 13 House Pit 2, Feature B, Layer B1 Samples 29 and 30 were taken from the hearth Feature B that contained a large amount of fire-altered rock. Sample 29 was taken from the centre of the hearth (Unit 4) where lots of pebble gravel and root disturbances were present. In addition, a large number of in situ artifacts were found. Sample 30 (Unit 3) is from a part of the hearth where a large amount of ash, calcined bone, and flakes were present. Both samples only yielded seven charred seeds. These included four from the Chenopodiaceae family and a kinnikinick seed. House Pit 2, Layer B1-g Sample 31 was taken from this layer which was outside of the hearth area (Unit 3) and had a high concentration of calcined bone and fish fragments (quoted from the field notes). In the area of the sample, a large ant colony was present. Twelve Chenopodiaceae family seeds were found in this sample, which was the most abundant out of all the samples. House Pit 2, Feature D, Layer BA Sample 32 was taken from the hearth feature D that contained a large amount of firealtered rock and calcined bone fragments. Bone and ash were concentrated in this area and a hard packed, cooked matrix surrounded the feature. Only one seed was found in this sample and it was a charred kinnikinick. The sample was full of small pieces of calcined bone leading to the conclusion that the feature resulted from a very high temperature fire which would have incinerated most seeds. Quad 19, Site 1 Feature A Quad 19 was classified as one large site composed of many differing types of depressions and lithic scatters. but a member of the PPT. Most depressions (14) were classified as cache pits and four were classified as roasting pits but the latter without the usual amounts of fire altered rock and charcoal as one would expect. Three of the pits were located on the terrace overlooking the Chilko River whereas Feature A was located deeper in the forest. Feature A is a large pit with a well-defined rim located beside a lithic scatter. The diameter of the rim is approximately 2 meters and approximately 0.25 meters deep. This feature is inferred to be a roasting pit. Fire altered rock and traces of charcoal are present. In the field notes, there is mention of no evidence of ash within this feature yet the flotation sample was labelled Ash Feature and is full of ash. In the notes, small pockets of light grey soil are noted, maybe this is the interpretation of the ash deposits. Also, there is no mention of where the sample came from, in what area of the feature or at what depth. This sample was collected in 1979 and floated in 1980. There is no indication as to where it was floated or how. There were three plastic bags containing material and I classified them as light fraction, heavy fraction, and debris according to weight and composition. The light and heavy fractions, however, contained the same types of material, so I am assuming that the actual light and heavy fractions had been combined and then split for an unknown 8  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  reason. The debris was a bag of silty, sandy, ashy material with clumps of that material. 100% of the sample was sorted. In the field notes, there was no mention of rodent activity or any site/feature disturbances. Many pieces of what seems to be rodent feces was taken out of the sample. This would indicate a quite active rodent population. Therefore, the macrobotanical remains that have been recovered could also have been brought in or disturbed by the rodents. The field notes mention that a forest fire occurred in that area 80 years ago as well a historic burning was present on top of this feature. Therefore, the charred macrobotanical remains and fire-altered rock may have been products of these two events. Small amounts of debitage and a minute piece of obsidian were found which could be directly related to the lithic scatter beside the pit. An abundance of both charred and uncharred seeds were found within this sample, far more than the other samples. The main kind of uncharred seeds were those that could blow into the area. The most abundant burnt seed was fireweed. Turner (1978) outlines that fireweed was a staple in the diet of an Interior Native. Moreover, fireweed was a commonly used wrapping material in roasting, indicating the use of this feature in roasting. Eleven kinnikinick seeds were found as well as 8 charred grass seeds. Henry’s Crossing East and North of Bridge This sample was collected in 1983 from a then present day hearth to see what macrobotanical remains could be found. The sample was not floated as a large amount of fragile tissue was present throughout and would be destroyed if floated and the ash was easily screened out. What I labelled tissue is a very spongy, shiny black material that was both attached to some bone fragments and present in large clumps. I assume it is a resin from the burnt wood or more likely cellular material from fish or mammalian entrails or meat. This is a more likely possibility because of the presence of bone encased in this material. Only one seed fragment was found and it is from the Chenopodiaceae family. A charred lodgepole pine bud was found but the remaining charcoal pieces are too small to make identification. From the large amount of ash present within the sample, I am assuming that any plant or wood material would have been disintegrated and reduced to ash. The tissue may be present as a result of throwing the garbage material from cleaning the fish and/or mammal into the fire after the meat was cooked and eating completed. Conclusions Some of the features identified as hearths (Features E.G) appear to share some characteristics such as relative amounts of burnt vs. unburned material, relative amounts of charred Arctostaphylos sp. and Fragaria sp. seeds, although Feature G is high in charred Rubus sp. and in unidentified berries and Feature E is high Leguminoseae. Feature G of course contains a great number of bone fragments. Feature D, the other certain feature at Bear Lake, a roasting pit, is high in Aster and Gramineae but surprisingly low in relative amounts of burnt material not including charcoal. Feature D not surprisingly is the feature with the most amount of pebble/clay/FCR material, give the great quantity of large FCR that was excavated from it. Analysis of flotation samples from the Eagle Lake project has provided additional 9  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  insights into site occupation and the functions of various features, particularly at the Bear Lake site. Most of these are in keeping with how the features were interpreted initially, although some of the “hearths” appear to be questionable. Given the shallow depths of the sites and post-depositional processes, such as cryoturbation, rodent activity, root action, and wild fires, the true significance of burnt vs. unburned material, the presence of various berries, grasses or other seeds, is difficult to determine. The current analysis, though, should serve for comparative services in future investigations in the interior of British Columbia.  10  Amelanchier alnifolia Arctostaphylos uva-ursi berries Chenopodiaceae family Cornus canadensis Cyperus sp. Epilobium angustifolium Euphorbia esula Fragaria virginiana Gramineae family Hippuris vulgaris Helianthus sp. (?) Juniperus sp. Lappula echinata Lathyrus ochroleucus Polygonum sp. Ribes cerum Rosa sp. Rubus sp. Sambucus racemosa Scirpus sp. Sisymbrium sp. Solidago sp. Symphoricarpos albus Vaccinium sp. Vicia sp. unidentified TOTALS sclerotia  1  2  3  2  2  4  3  4a 4b 5  1  6  2  7  8  4  7  4 1 1 4  2  9  10 11  2 8 1  1 3  13 14 15 16 17 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 H  1  3  1  2  6  2  1  2 1  1  1 3  1 1  12  1  4  1 1  4  2  1  1  1  9  3  2  2  1 1  5  1 1 1 1  5  1 1  1  1  1  2  1  1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 15 13 1 2 1 0 3 18 12 2 24 5 8 46 30 22 34 27 34 35 79 54 60 7  2 0 3 2  H Henrys Crossing Q Quad 19, Site 1 T - Totals  Table III-3. Charred Seeds from All Samples (numbers present)  11  1 5 6  2 6 1  1 0 10 6 22 7  0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 2 7 5 2 16 1 1 34 305 286 51 132 421 289 3  T  3 50 8 6 41 4 6 1 16 26 1 23 8 8 3 2 2 1 6 2 2 1 1 1 8 5 1 1 3 3 1 3 2 2 8 16 62 224 8 1873 11  1 1  Q  Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Asteraceae fam. berries Bromus tectorum Carex sp. Eleocharis palustris Gramineae fam. Lappula echinata Leguminoseae fam. Lonicera sp. Potentilla sp. Ribes cerum Rosa sp. Rubus sp. Scirpus sp. Symphoricarpos albus Vaccinium sp. unidentified Totals  1  2  3  3  1 3  1  3  4a 4b 5  6  7  8  9  10 11  6  8 6 1  13 14 15 16 17 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 H  Q  T  4 4  2 26 6 3 10 1 29 5 43 4 4 1 10 10 5 1 5 67 232  2 1  2  1  6  2  1  1 3  1 12 2  1  2  4  3  7  4  4  5  1  3  1  1  11 1 1 2 1  2  1  1  3 2 3 1 2 8  2  2  7 1 0 1 2  2  1  1 1 3 4 18 22 3  1 2  1 5  6  3  3 1 3 12 2 14 7 5 21 23 25 51 16 10 0  H Henrys Crossing Q Quad 19, Site 1 T - Totals  Table III-4. Uncharred Seeds from all Samples (numbers).  12  2  0  0  1  1 3  0  0  7 8  3 9  0  0  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  References cited Brayshaw, T. Christopher 1996 Trees and Shrubs of British Columbia. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver. Hastorf, Christine A. and Virginia S. Popper, eds. 1988 Current Paleoethnobotany: Analytical Methods and Cultural Interpretations of Archaeological Plant Remains. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Marles, Robin J. 2000 Aboriginal Plant Use in Canadas Northwest Boreal Forest. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver. Martin, Alexander C. and William D. Barkley 1961 Seed Identification Manual. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. Matson, R.G., M. Magne, D. Ludowicz, and D.L. Pokotylo 1980 The Eagle lake Project: Repost on the 1979 Season. Laboratory of Archaeology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Montgomery, F.H. 1977 Seeds and Fruit Plants of Eastern Canada and Northern United States. The University of Toronto Press, Toronto. Parish, Roberta, Ray Coupe, and Dennis Lloyd 1996 Plants of Southern Interior British Columbia. Lone Pine, Vancouver. Pearsall, Deborah M. 1989 Paleoethnobotany: a Handbook of Procedures. Academic Press, San Diego. Turner, Nancy J. 1978Food Plants of the British Columbia Indians: Part II Interior Peoples. British Columbia Provincial Museum, Victoria. 1995Food Plants of Coastal First Peoples. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver. 1998Plant Technology of First Peoples in British Columbia. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver. Wollstonecroft, Michelle M. 2000The Fruit of their Labour: A Paleoethnobotanical Study of Site EeRb 140, A Multi-Component Open-air Archaeological Site on the British Columbia Plateau. Unpublished Master’s thesis, Simon FraserUniversity, Burnaby. 13  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  14  Appendix   Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Appendix IV: FIELD RECORDING FORMS FOR EAGLE LAKE AND TASEKO  Table of Contents  Cultural Form  2  Botanical Form  3  Physiographic Form  5  Layer Form  6  Feature Form  7  1  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Cultural Form (Filled out for each site and quadrat).  2  Appendix  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Botanical Form (First side); Filled out for each site and quadrat.  3  Appendix  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Botanical Form (Second side).  4  Appendix  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Physiographic form (filled out for each site and quadrat).  5  Appendix  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Layer Form (for Excavation).  6  Appendix  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Feature Form (for Excavation).  7  Appendix  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  8  Appendix   Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix V: DATA TABLES AND FIGURES Table of Contents Figures Figure V-1 Location of Taseko Lake Quadrats...................................... 2 Figure V-2 Taseko Lake Quadrat Sketch Maps: Quadrats S1-S6........... 3 Figure V-3 Taseko Lake Quadrat Sketch Maps: Quadrats P1-P3; J1,J2.. 4 Figure V-4 MOC Grassland Quadrats 1-6............................................. 5 Figure V-5 MOC Grassland Quadrats 7-12............................................ 6 Figure V-6 MOC Forested Quadrat sketch maps................................... 7 Figure V-7 MOC Forested Quadrats locations on aerial Photograph.... 8 Figure V-8 Eagle Lake Quadrat Sketch Maps: a Quadrats G1, G2, G7, G18 and G19................................. 9 b Quadrats G4, G5, G6, G9, and Quads 2 & 3.................... 10 c Quadrats G11, G12 and Quads 7, 12 &13......................... 11 d Quadrats G3, G13, G14, G16, G 17 & Q 17..................... 12 e Quadrat Q 19..................................................................... 13 f Quadrat G20 (Q44)............................................................ 14 Figure V-9 Pit Features per Quadrat by Distance from River.............. 15 Figure V-10 Location of Eagle Lake Quadrats........................................ 16 Figure V-11 MDS of Quadrat Sites by Environment.............................. 17 Figure V-12 Tested sites on Potato Mountain......................................... 18 Figure V-13 North End of Potato Mountain.......................................... 19 Figure V-14 East-West EkSa 36 Feature B Profile................................... 20 Figure V-15 North Wall EkSa 36 Feature J Cachepit Profile................. 20 Figure V-16 Profile of Unit 1, Boyd Site................................................ 21 Figure V-17 Profile of Units 9 & 10, Housepit 1, Shields Site................ 21 Figure V-18 Excavations of Housepit 5, Shields Site.............................. 22 Figure V-19 West Wall Profile of Unit 3, Shields Site............................. 22 Figure V-20 West Wall Profile of Unit 6, Shields Site............................. 23 Tables Table V-1 Table V-2 Table V-3 Table V-4 Table V-5 Table V-6 Table V-7 Table V-8  MOC Cultural Data from Quadrats....................................... 24 MOC Cultural Data from Excavations................................... 26 Eagle Lake Quadrat Interquartile Ranges................................ 27 Eagle Lake Botanical and Physiographic Codes....................... 28 Eagle Lake and Taseko Quadrat Environmental Data............. 30 Eagle Lake and Taseko Site Environmental Data..................... 31 Eagle Lake and Taseko Site Cultural Data............................... 33 Projectile Point Attributes....................................................... 35  1  Appendix  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  70  0  7000  750  00  Appendix  600  7500  0 500  450  7000  650  0  6500  50 00  6500  0  0  4500  S1  S2  6500 7500  an m st a L  6000  60  5500  00  00  55  5500  50 00  5500  00  55  S3  6500  700  7000  S4 7000  00  00  50  60  80  00  00  75  8500  8000  6500  6500  70  00  J1  S6  ake  P3  5000  Yo hett a Lak e  5500  00  60  J2 5000  L em Fish  0  y alle nV  550  S5  0  550  G un  a ett Yoh  6000  5000  k ee Cr  0  7000  450  55  00  7500  6500  ko Lake  P1  7500  6500  4500  0  7000  4500  00  50  P2  5500  5000  N  0  7000  1  2  3 km  Contour Interval :500 feet  Figure V-1. Location of Taseko Lake Quadrat.s  2  6000  6000 6000  650  5500  0  Tase wer Lo  6000  6500  Tuzcha Lake  7000  500 0  6000  500  0  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  SITE 1 il  ra et  dry intermit t  am  SITE 2 g  t st en  ream  Trembling Aspen and Pinegrass  Open slopes:grasses balsam root, onion, some lodgepole pine  SITE 3  Tuzcha Lake Dry Marshes North end of sand spit  SITE 4 Road New  True North  True North  R  oa  O  ld  Lastman Lake  QUAD S1 0  50  100m  Slope Direction  SITE 1  d  Tree Line  Lodgepole Pine  QUAD S4  Dry Marsh  0  50  Slope Direction  100m  Relatively Open  SITE 1  Lastman Lake  Recently Bulldozed Road  Tree Line  Spruce and Sphagnum Marsh  SITE 2  Dense Lodgepole Pine, Englemann Spruce SITE 3  Very Wet Marshes, Abundant Beaver Acttivity  Esker  Lakeside Marsh  Lodgepole Pine, some Englmann Spruce, Subalpine Fir  Spit  SITE 5  Fishem Lake  SITE 4 True North  True North  Englemann Spruce, Subalpine Fir, Dense Undergrowth QUAD S2 0  50  QUAD S5 100m  Slope Direction  Tree Line  Marsh  0  50  Slope Direction  100m  Steep Slopes, Engleman Spruce, Subalpine Fir, Lodgepole Pine  Fishem Lake  Tree Line  Marsh  Spit from east side of Lake  Spruce, Sphagnum Marsh  Englemann Spruce, Subalpine Fir, Densse Undergrowth  Moderate to Steep Slope  True North  True North  0  50  100m  Slope Direction  Tree Line  Spruce, Sphagnum Marsh QUAD S6  Lodgepole Pine  QUAD S3  Unserveyed Islands  Sphagnum Marsh  0  50  100m  Figure V-2. Taseko Lake Quadrat Sketch Maps, Quadrats S1-S6.  3  Slope Direction  Tree Line  Marsh  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Lodgepole Pine  N  x B.C. Service Centre Marker dated 1966  SITE 4  Marsh with Sphagnum Spruce, Heracleum Equisetum, Birch, Willow  Steep Slope  Rock Face w Ne  SITE 2  New  il Tra  SITE 1  e nc Fe  Plywood Cabin  SITE 3  Olsen's House True North  Alder Marsh Tuzcha Lake QUAD P1 0  50  Yohetta Lake  Slope Direction  100m  Mod  Aspen, Lodgepole Pine  Tree Line  erate  to S  teep  Marsh  Slop  True North  e  Roc k Fa  ce  Alder Marsh, some Willow QUAD J1  Lord River Hunting Lodge  0  50  100m  Slope Direction  Marsh  Road  Fishem Lake  SITE 1  Bridge  Aspen, Pinegrass, Lodgepole Pine  R 0  50  100m  QUAD P2  e avin pR  Airstrip Slope Direction  Dee  True North  Tree Line  Open Area, Grasses, Balsam Root, Onion, Some Lodgepole Pine, and Whitebark Pine  Yohetta Lake S  Dense Alder, Willow Marsh  Steep  Lodgepole Pine on Dry Land  Steep  s  Slope  p Dee  Very Wet Area  Rav  True North  QUAD J2 0  50  100m  Slope Direction  Tree Line  e  Slop Moderate to Steep  True North  Lodgepole Pine on Dry Land QUAD P3 0  50  100m  Slope Direction  Tree Line  Aspen, Lodgepole Pine  ine  Aspen  Englemann Spruce, Subalpine Fir  Marsh  Figure V-3. Taseko Lake Quadrat Sketch Maps, Quadrats P1-P3 and J1 and J2.  4  s  Slope  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Figure V-4. MOC Grassland Quadrats 1-6.  5  Appendix  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Figure V-5. MOC Grassland Quadrats 7-12.  6  Appendix  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Figure V-6. MOC Forested Quadrat sketch maps.  7  Appendix  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Figure V-7. MOC Forested Quadrats locations on aerial Photograph.  8  Appendix  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia Aspen  Aspen and Shrub  ad Ro  +  Aspen  mag.N  Feature A  Bulldozer Push  Ai rst  Pole Cache Pit  mag.N  T T T T  mag.N  1 Biface Flake 0  25m  T  Bench  SITE 2 Outhouses  Large 2 Basalt Core  B Cache Pits  Pole  Feature C  Feature A xxx xx x  A  T Peg Uprooted Peg  50cm  rip  Doug Boyd's House and Corral  Post Drying Rack  Gaff Pole  Metal Washtub 0  SITE 4  T  Aspen and Shrub  Cache Pit  x Firecracked Rock  ad  SITE 3  C  Hearth  SITE 3 Doris's Campsite  Young Aspen  Sh ru  2r  h  b  Survey Marker  SITE 1  SITE 4  tc  Ro  Di  T  Aspen and Shrub  Appendix  Dump Cut Trees  0  Aspen  25m  Garbage  1r SITE 1  Trail  Eagle Lake  SITE 1  mag.N  Lodgepole Pine  Ted Abbott's House Bulldozer Push  Trail  Grid A-2  Jay Petal's Camp  r QUAD G2  0  50 Trail  Lodgepole Pine and Aspen  Old Shoreline  Airstrip  Road  r Offsite  Slope Direction  Tree Line  100m  6 5 4  1190m  Old Shoreline  3 r 1  Aspen and Lodgepole Pine SITE 1  2  SITE 1 Lodgepole Pine  1 mag.N mag.N  14  QUAD G18 (Q32)  Eagle Lake 0  50  Tree Line  100m  20 14 9 6 10 7 13 11 8 1 18 17 12 5 3 Grid 19 15 4 2 33 2530 24 16 34 3126 27 2221 37 32 43 52 36 48 49 35 50 15 44  r Grid B-1  Slope Direction  0 Cultural Depression mag.N  mag.N  1,2... Artifact Locations A  13 Artifact Locations  r  Offsite  QUAD G7 0  50  100m  Tree Line  Slope Direction  r Offsite  1,2... Location of Stripped Trees  Old Shoreline  QUAD G1  SITE 3  Aspen  oreline Old Sh  2 r  Lodgepole Pine and Aspen SITE 2 1r  Eagle Lake  SITE 1  mag.N  mag.N  0  50  100m  Tree Line  QUAD G19 (Q34)  R oa d  Aspen  Stripped Trees  0  Cattle Trail  50 Road  Road  100m Old Shoreline  Tree Line  Cultural Depression  Slope Direction  r  Offsite  Slope Direction  Figure V-8a. Eagle Lake Quadrat Sketch Maps: Quadrats G1, G2, G7, G18 and G19.  9  Grid A-1  A 13 2 11417186 7 1 12 3 8 5  Lodgepole Pine  20m  B-1  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  SITE 2  SITE 1 Lodgepole Pine  Sh or e  lin e  Spruce Swamp  SITE 1 O  g  Lodgepole Pine en  d an  d Lo  e ol ep  Pi  ne  ld  Eagle Lake  10 SITE 1  p As  Rock  mag.N  6  2 7 4 5  8 1  9  3  mag.N 0  5  10m QUAD G5  QUAD G4 0  50  Tree Line  100m  Cultural Depression  0  Slope Direction  50  Tree Line  100m  Slope Direction  Cultural Depression  Rock  Old Shoreline 1,2...Artifact Locations  Spruce Swamp  Marsh  6  ne Pi le n po pe ge As d Lo and  Lodgepole Pine and Douglas Fir  1  5  4  SITE 1  r  2  Eagle Lake  8  rel ine  mag.N Lodgepole Pine and Douglas Fir  dS ho  ne Pi ole en ep Asp g d Lo and  Ol  mag.N  0 0  50  100m  Tree Line  1,2.... Location of Stripped Trees  QUAD G9 (Q31)  QUAD G6 Slope Direction  50  Tree Line  100m  Cultural Depression r Offsite  Old Shoreline Road  Fire Cracked Rock  Stripped Trees  Slope Direction  Cultural Depression Site 1 Site 3 Grid A-1 Grid C-2  Lodgepole Pine and Aspen  Site 4 Site 10 Grid A-1  Eagle Lake  o Sh Old  e lin re  Site 9 Grid C-2  SITE 2  SITE IV Site 9 Grid A-1 Site 9 Grid B-2  m 1190  Aspen  100m  Tree Line Old Shoreline  Site 7  Lodgepole Pine and Aspen  SITE 4  50  SITE II  mag.N  QUAD 2 0  Site 6  Site 8  SITE 1  SITE 3  Site 5  Site 10 Grid A-2  Site 9 Grid B-1  Aspen  Aspen  Grid B-2  Grid B-3 Site 2  SITE III Site 10 Grid A-3  mag.N  SITE I  QUAD 3 Slope Direction Cultural Depression  0  50  100m  Tree Line  Road  Cultural Depression  Slope Direction Small Cache Pit Depression  Figure V-8b. Eagle Lake Quadrat Sketch Maps: Quadrats G4, G5, G6, G9, and Quad 2 & 3.  10  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  SITE 2  12 20 m  r  SITE 1 Lodgepole Pine and Aspen Lodgepole Pine and Aspen 12 20 m  mag.N Marsh  mag.N  2  Eagle Lake SITE 1 Grid B-2  QUAD G11 (Q14) 0  50  100m  Tree Line  Cultural Depression  Lithic Scatter  Old Shoreline  SITE1 Grid B-2  Feature A  17  1,2.... Artifact Locations  15 14  SITE 1 Grid A-3  Feature H,I  QUAD G12 (Q16) SITE 1 Grid X-3  11 12 5  Feature B,C  Feature N  SITE 1 Grid A-3  3 Lithic Scatter  Feature J  SITE 1  4 Lithic Scatter  r Offsite  Feature M,L  1  1 2 00 m  Feature F,G  50  Marsh  SITE 1 Grid X-3 Lodgepole Pine and Aspen  SITE 2 0  Feature A,B  Lodgepole Pine and Aspen  1251m  mag.N  50  100m  Lodgepole Pine and Aspen QUAD 7  0  50  100m  Tree Line  Chilko River  Small Cache Pit Depressions  Cultural Depression  Slope Direction  Lodgepole Pine and Aspen  Lodgepole Pine and Aspen  SITE 2 Lodgepole Pine Spruce and Aspen  Marsh  Lodgepole Pine and Aspen SITE 1  mag.N  SITE 1  Marsh QUAD 12 0  1190m  50  100m  Tree Line  Marsh  Slope Direction  Cultural Depression Lodgepole Pine Spruce and Aspen  Small Cache Pit Depressions  mag.N  QUAD 13 0  50  100m  Tree Line  Slope Direction  Cultural Depression  Figure V-8c. Eagle Lake Quadrat Sketch Maps: Quadrats G11, G12 and Quads 7, 12 &13.  11  100m  Slope Direction  Tree Line  7 3 2 13 10 8 9 1 54 3 8 7 612  Feature D,E,K  0  6  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia #+ + #+ + +  Appendix 1190  QUAD G14 (Q20)  m  corral  SITE 1 3  2 SITE 1 5 8 64 1 9 7 15 12 10 11 13 14  0  m  11  Lodgepole Pine and Aspen  e Pin le n po pe ge As d Lo and  10 m 90  e Pin ole gep pen Lod nd As a  Eagle Lake  Marsh  Site 1  mag.N  mag.N QUAD G3 (Q22) 0  50  Eagle Lake  Tree Line # Fire Cracked Rock 1,2... Artifact Locations  100m  Old Shoreline  Cultural Depression + Tin Can  Grid E-1  11 4 2 56 15 9 12 7 10 1413 83  Grid D-1  Eagle Lake  SITE 2 Aspen  0 mag.N  horeline  11 12 10 13 4 9 714 Grid 1 2 6 8 15 5 316 34  Eagle Lake  SITE 2 Grid A-2 Grid A-1 SITE 1 r r Grid A-2 + Grid A-3  C-1  Grid B-1  Ol d  SITE 2 Grid A-1  Lodgepole Pine Cottonwood and Aspen  A-1  SITE 1  Grid B-1  0  ++ + ++  50m  SITE 3  SITE 3  #  50m  1,2...  Artifact Locations  SITE 2  SITE 1  Grid B-1  SITE 2 Grid B-2  mag.N  Aspen  0  50m QUAD G17 (Q27)  QUAD G16 (Q26) 0  50  Tree Line  100m  Historical Site  SITE 2  SITE 2  1  Grid B-1 Grid A-1  O  SITE 2 SITE 2 rr SITE 1  6 54 2 7 1 3  1 5 2 4 510 13 39 11 12 Grid 8 2 1 6 7 15  mag.N  Slope Direction  Grid C-1  Aspen S ld  Marsh  Tree Line  100m  SITE 3  Grid E-1 SITE 3 Grid D-1 1 r  50  Cultural Depression  Aspen  2 4 rrr 3  0  Road  Slope Direction r Offsite  Cultural Depression + Tin Can  Old Shoreline  Log Gate  0  50  Campfire  100m  Tree Line  + Tin Can r Offsite  # Notched Log  Historic Site  Slope Direction Cultural Depression  Old Shoreline  SITE 1  20 m  Lodgepole Pine and Aspen  1251 m  12  Grid A-1 SITE 1 Grid B-1  Douglas Fir, LodgepolePine and Aspen  50m  0 Douglas Fir  Cultural Depression SITE 2  1190m  Lodgepole Pine and Aspen  12  m  SITE 3  SITE 3 SITE 1  Lodgepole Pine and Aspen  50m  0  SITE 5  mag.N  Cultural Depression  SITE 4  Douglas Fir, LodgepolePine and Aspen  mag.N  QUAD G13 Lodgepole Pine (Q18) 0  50  51  100m  Tree Line  QUAD 17  Slope Direction  Cultural Depression 0  Road  50  100m  Tree Line  Slope Direction  r Offsite  Figure V-8d. Eagle Lake Quadrat Sketch Maps: Quadrats G3, G13, G14, G16, G 17 & Q 17.  12  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Lodgepole Pine Spruce and Aspen SITE 1 Chilko River  Chilko River  Lodgepole Pine Spruce and Aspen  mag.N Lodgepole Pine Spruce and Aspen  0  50  100m  QUAD 19 Slope Direction  Tree Line  Lodgeple Pine Spruce and Aspen  ilko  Grid A-1  Grid A-2  er Riv  Aspen  Ch  SITE 1 Firecracked Rock  Lodgeple Pine Spruce and Aspen  Grid B-2  Grid B-3  mag.N  Firecracked Rock  Aspen C-4C  C-4A  C-4B  Aspen  Grid B-1 Lodgepole Pine and Aspen  C-3C  C-3A  C-3D  C-3B  Grid C-2  Grid C-1  Historical Site  C-4D Grid D-2  D-3C  Grid D-1  D-4A D-3A Lodgepole Pine and Aspen  Excavation Units  D-4C D-4D  Firecracked Rock D-3B  Aspen D-4B E-4C  D-3D E-3C Aspen  Chilko River E-4A 0  15  30  45  E-4A 60m  E-2C  Tree Line Artifact Collection Location  Figure V-8e. Eagle Lake Quadrat Sketch Maps: Quadrat Q 19.  13  QUAD 19 SITE 1 Slope Direction  Cultural Depression  Firecracked Rock  Excavation Units  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia SITE 2  22 21 2019 18 24 23  9 5 7 8 64 2 1  16  17  3  15  Fallen Logs  13 14  10  mag.N  11 12 1 2  4 3 5  6  10m  0 SITE 3  7 Fallen Log  0 1,2... Site Locations  8 11 9 12 15 13 14 17 18 16 10 19 20 21 23 22 24  26 27 25  10m Tree Line  Road  QUAD G20 (Q44)  SITE 1  SITE 10  SITE 4 SITE 11  SITE 7  SITE 2  Road  SITE 5  SITE 3  SITE 6  Lodgepole Pine and Aspen  SITE 8 mag.N  SITE 9 Fish Lake Fish Lake 0  50  100m  Tree Line  Slope Direction  Cultural Depression  Stripped Trees  Figure V-8f. Eagle Lake Quadrat Sketch Map: Quadrat G20 (Q44).  14  Appendix  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  12  20  3  16  No. of Pit Features  Appendix  7 18  12  19 8  27  2 13  4 32 20 1 0 0  25  22  26 17 21 4  9  14  31 -28 34  10  5  11 6 8  5000  24  33 10,000  Metres from Chilko River  Figure V-9.  Pit Features per Eagle Lake Quadrat by Distance from Chilko River.  15  16  G2  G1 40 00  N  42  6  G3  4000  G12  G18  3  ke le L a  4000  17  13 LL3  11  10 0  5600  00  0 400  Figure V-10. Location of Eagle Lake Quadrats.  16  4200 4200  6200  00  60  124o 15' W  00  6400  66  46 00 500 0 52 00 54 00  00  52  0 440 0 480  00  56  Potato Mtn.  00  51o40' N  5  5800  54  9  ek Cre 40  28  4800  00  ld fie  Lin  g  460  50  7  SS  4  51o40' N  PS4  4200  4400  33  25  2  2  12  LL  Eag  19  4000  G7  G5  G20  EkSa 32 G1 4 G17 EkSa 13 EkSa 36  G19  G10  G11  G6  G13  4400  24  G16  G9  R iv er  Ma  gn  etic  G8 00  G4 38 00  G15  4  1 mile  Appendix  Chilko  2 km  0  4000  0  124o 15' W  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Aspen/Pinegrass Community  2  Q3-1 G17-1  Q2-4  Q2-1  Grassland Sites  Q2-2  Forested Sites  G16-1 G18-1 G2-1 G19-1 G2-2  High Exposure 1  G11-2  G5-2 S1-4 G13-2  G2-4  G2-3  Q19-1  Q13-1  G13-6 Q12-1  G6-1  G16-2  Q13-2  G13-1  S4-1 Q7-1  G12-1  G13-3  Q2-3 S1-2  G14-1 S5-1 G13-4  G11-1  G3-1 G7-1  S1-3  P2-1 G4-1  S5-3  Q3-4  Low Exposure  P1-3 Q3-2  Q3-3  S5-5  Q7-2  S1-1 S5-2  G9-1 G5-1  Eagle Lake and Taseko Lakes Sites n=66 Eagle Lake grassland quadrats  P1-1  P1-2  S5-4 P1-4  J1-1  Lodgepole Pine Community  G1-1 G13-5  Eagle Lake forested quadrats Taseko Lakes quadrats  Figure V-11. MDS of Quadrat Sites by Environment.  17  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Fish Lake  contour interval = 500 ft 1  2 km  6000  60  00  500 0  Lin  gfi e ld  60 00  Cr ee k  0  Appendix  Cottongrass Lake  700  0  Lingfield Lake EjSB 26  EjSb 3  EjSb 33  Echo Ridge site Mountain Pond site Dunlop Lake Mountain Middle Mtn. Fan site  Echo Lake  N 60 00  0 500  Middle Mountain site Gillian Lake EjSb 50 00 60  00 50  Figure V-12. Tested sites on Potato Mountain.  18  i esh h C es Ch  reek hi C  ss Pa  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  0  site  2 km  area surveyed  Appendix  trail  contour interval = 500 ft 600 0  ? 7000  5000  6000  19  18  Ki  lle r  21  W hi te 20  0 600  22  Ma nV alle y  5000  23  0 600  24 Deer  Lake  7000  600 0  6000  Figure V-13. North End of Potato Mountain.  19  N  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia D  EU 30  A B2f/B3  Appendix  EU 54  EU 44  B2 Bf  B  EU 54  EU 55  EU 59  E  B2 B2f/B3 A  Bf B A sandy silt (10YR4/4) B2 silty clay (7.5YR4/4) B2f/B3 silty sand (10YR4/4) Bf sand (10YR3/2) B sand (10YR5/4) hearth feature 1, firecracked rock, bone (10YR6/8)  0 60 cm root 0 firecracked rock Scale in centimetres rock with 2 times vertical exaggeration surface vegrtation duff  20  Figure V-14. East-West EkSa 36 Feature B Profile, “D” and “E” on Figure 34 main text.  A B2  B3  B3  C  Unexcavated 0  20 cm  charcoal stained sand (10YR2/1)  A (10YR4/3) B2 (10YR5/3) B3 (7.5YR5/4)  fish bone layer  C (10YR6/3) bark  sandy fill with charcoal flecks (10YR5/4) rose tinged soil patch (7.5YR5/4)  wood surface vegetation and litter  Figure V-15. North Wall EkSa 36 Feature J Cachepit Profile.  20  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia East Wall  A  B2 B3  B3b  C  Unexcavated  South Wall  A B2 B3 B3b Unexcavated 0  20 cm A (10YR2/1) B2 (10YR5/4) B3 (10YR4/2)  C B3b (10TR3/1) C (10YR5/3) root firecracked rock  root material grey soil (10YR5/1) surface vegetation basalt flake  Figure V-16. Profile of Unit 1, Boyd Site.  EU 10  EU 9 A B2  B2b B3 B3 B3b  a B2c  C  0  20 cm A dark silt/sand B2 sand/gravel (10YR3/3) B2b sand/gravel (10YR2/1) B2c sand/gravel (10YR4 /3)  B3 gravel (10YR3/1) B3a sandy silt (10YR3/1)  Unexcavated root  B3b compact sandy silt (10TR6/3)  firecracked rock  B3b gravel lens (10TR3/3  surface vegetation  C sand/gravel (10YR3/3)  Figure V-17. Profile of Units 9 & 10, Housepit 1, Shields Site. 21  Appendix  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Figure V-18. Excavations of Housepit 5, Shields Site.  Figure V-19. West Wall Profile of Unit 3, Shields Site. 22  Appendix  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Figure V-20. West Wall Profile of Unit 6, Shields Site.  23  Appendix  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia Table V-1a. Symbol  BIFA  Appendix  Definitions of Artifact codes for Tables V-1b and V-2 Description for Table V-1b  Correspondence with Table V-2 Types  Biface Knives  Large and Very Large Triangular Bifaces  SMPT Small Projectile Points  Simple SN, Multiple SN & Small Tri. Bif.  UNIN Unifacially retouched flakes, Narrow Angle Narrow angle retouched flakes VITB Vitreous basalt debitage GRNB Granular basalt debitage CHRT Chert debitage OTER Other (not chert or basalt) debitage UTIL  Utilized flakes  Utilized flakes  NAUN Narrow Angle Uniface  Narrow Angle Uniface  UNIW Unifacially retouched flakes, wide angle  Wide angle retouched flakes  PEEQ Pieces esquillees  Stone wedges  HDCS Heavy duty cutting scraping tools  Heavy duty cutting and scraping tools  PEBB Pebble tools  Pebble tools  RBIF Bifacially retouched flakes  Bifacially retouched flakes  CSNW Cortex spalls with no wear  Cortex spalls exhibiting no wear  CSPL Cortex spalls with edge polish  Cortex spalls with edge polish  CSCE Cortex spalls with chipped edges  Cortex spalls with chipped edges  CSCR Cortex spall cores  Cortex spall cores  SCRP Scrapers  Scrapers  LGPT Large Points  All point types except for those in SMPT  CORE Cores  Cores  PROJ Projectile point fragments  Projectile point fragments  HAMM Hammerstones  Hammerstones  ANVL Anvil stones  Anvil stones  FCRK Fire-cracked rocks HSPS Housepits  Housepits  CSPS Cachepits  Cachepits 24  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 F2 F2  Unin Uniw Hdcs Pebb Peeq Rbif Naun Scrp Anvl  1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 1  Core Util  Proj  Smpt  Bifa  Hamm  Site  Quad  Table V-1b. MOC Cultural Data from Quadrats and Quadrat sites. Lgpt Fcrk Grnb  1  1  1  5 14 8  3 1 2 1 1  4  4  1 3  2  1  1  5 17 5 18 1 2  2 14 2 1 1 1  4 10 1 1 9 1 1 1  2  2  7  6  1  1  1  1  4 1  1 1 1  5  1  2  3  2 1 8  Chrt  Oter Hsps Csps Cscr Cspl Cscw Csnw  p 1  3  Vitb  3  3 15 2 2 16 1 1 1 20 5 2 1 6 3 3  2 1 1 11 1 5 1 1 2 5 23 1 3 10 9 9 1 4 6  p  3  2  3 4 1 1  p 3 p 2 p 36 p p p  50 2  29  77 p 86  3  3 1  1  p 48 29 182 7 158 173 1379 8 43 2 5  2  2  1  46 3 30  590 9  2 1 2  8 1  4  5 1  1 1  3 1  3  6  1  8  3  5 1 4  1  2 1  1 1  4  1  1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2  4 6 10 1 1 10 7  2 15 2 1 4  3  2  24 3 2 9 2  4  2 1  p 92 35  37 10  20 96  3 1  3 1  1 1  2  5  1  2  1  1  1  p 18  3  13  2  1  p  1 7 4 5 8 6 3 4  7 1 2  1  6  1  1  8  2  5  p 12  25  6  8 1 4 8 2 5 10 2 3  10 2  6  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Table V-2. Excavated artifacts from Mouth of the Chilcotin (Table XXIII of Matson et al. 1984)  Artifact Class Description  EkRo 18  EkRo 48  EkRo 31  Simple Side-notched Points  0  2  5  Large Triangular Biface  0  0  1  Large Biface point tips  1  0  1  Small Triangular Point(base)  0  0  1  Stemmed Point  0  0  1  Bifacially retouched flakes  0  2  0  Large biface medial fragment  1  0  0  Scrapers  1  0  2  Drill  0  1  0  Narrow angle unifacially ret. flakes  5  2  2  Wide angle unifacially ret. flakes  4  1  4  Utilized flakes  2  2  1  Cortex spall tools with edge polish  0  1  4  Stone wedges  0  9  0  Hammerstones  0  2  0  Cores  0  1  0  Heavy duty cutting & scraping  0  3  1  Worked antler  1  2  0  Beads  2  0  0  Dentalia  0  0  2  Bird bone tube fragments  0  0  2  Birch bark rolls  +  -  -  Square Nails  0  0  2  26  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Table V-3. Interquartile ranges and medians of frequencies of Eagle Lake cultural features, by quadrats. Median Confidence Intervals from Campbell 1967, Upper Quartile Confidence Intervals after Conover 1971:3.2.  CULTURAL FEATURE  PERCENTILE  QUADRAT TYPE  25  50(95% C.I.)  75(95% C.I.)  1 0 0  1 (1-2) 0 (0-2) 1 (0-1)  2 (1-4) 2 (0-4) 2 (1-4)  GRASSLAND FORESTED ALL  # CULTURAL 0 DEPRESSIONS 0 0  0.5 (0-2) 0 (0-5) 0 (0-1)  3 (1-6) 5 (0-21) 4 (1-17)  GRASSLAND FORESTED ALL  # SITES  # HOUSE PITS  0 0 0  0 (0-1) 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0)  1 (0-2) 0 (0-3) 0 (0-2)  GRASSLAND FORESTED ALL  # ROASTING PITS  0 0 0  0 (0-1) 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0)  1 (0-1) 0.5 (0-4) 1 (0-1)  GRASSLAND FORESTED ALL  # CACHEPITS  0 0 0  0 (0-1) 0 (0-4) 0 (0-1)  1 (0-3) 4 (0-14) 3 (0-13)  GRASSLAND FORESTED ALL  # LITHICS  0 0 0  2 (0-37) 0 (0-0) 0 (0-1)  49 (7-211) 0 (0-4) 7 (0-85)  GRASSLAND FORESTED ALL  0 0 0  0 0 0  GRASSLAND (n=22) FORESTED (n=21) ALL (n=43)  # CULTURALLY 0 MODIFIED 0 TREES 0  27  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Table 4a. Method of coding environmental information from field forms to binary format shown in Tables V- 5 and 6; Botanical Data. COLUMNS  ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES COMMUNITIES  1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9 - 10 11 - 12 13 - 14 15 - 16  Grassland Douglas fir Douglas fir and grassland Douglas fir and kinnikinnik Lodgepole pine Trembling aspen - pinegrass Trembling aspen - rose Engelmann spruce TREES  17 18 19 20 21 22 23  Betula sp. Populus tremuloides Pseudotsuga menziesii Populus trichocarpa Pinus contorta Picea engelmanni Picea glauca SHRUBS  24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36  Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Artemisian sp. Amelanchier alnifolia Juniperus sp. Vaccinium sp. Penstemon sp. Betula sp. Ribes sp. Cornus sp. Salix sp. Shepherdia canadensis Rosa sp. Alnus sp.  28  Appendix  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia Table V- 4b. Method of coding physiographic information from field forms to Binary data (Tables V-5, 6). COLUMNS 37 38 2 2 39 40 41 42 2 2 2 2 43 44 45 46 2 2 2 2 47 48 49 2 2 2 50 51 52 2 2 2 2 2 53 54 55 56 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 57 58 58 2 2 2 60 2 1 61 62 63 2 2 2 2 2 64 65 66 67 2 2 2 2 68 69 70 2 2 2 2 2 71 72 73 2 2 2 2 2 77 78 79 80 (Alphanumeric)  PHYSIOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENTAL Exposure amount  VARIABLES slight very  Exposure direction S W N E  0= No Data, 1 = absent, 2 = present  Slope direction S W N E Slope amount Flat Gentle Steep Position Crest Midslope Toe Elevation Low Medium High Very high Soil type Aeolian Alluvium Gravel till Water table High Low Overview amount Low Moderate High Overview direction S W N E Fresh Water Distance < 100 m 100 - 500 m > 500 m Standing water distance  Identification  < 100 m 100 - 500 m > 500 m Quad or site abbreviation  29  .  Appendix  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Table V-5. Eagle Lake and Taseko Quadrat Environmental Data, Coded perTables 4a and4b. Communities  Trees  Shrubs  Physiographic  COL.1234567890123456 7890123 4567890123456 2211221122111111 1121211 2111111112221 2211111111112211 1212221 2222111212222 2211221111111111 1211211 2222121212221 2211221122111111 1221211 2222111212221 2211111111221111 1212221 2221111212222 2211111111221111 1221212 2122111212222 2211111111111111 1211211 1222111212121 2222111122221111 1211211 2222121112221 2211111122111111 1221211 2222111112221 2211111122221111 1221221 2222122112221 2211111111221111 1211221 2122121212221 2211111122221111 1211221 2222122112221 2211111122112211 1221211 2212122212221 2211111111221111 1211211 2222122112221 2211221111111111 1221221 2222122112221 2211111111221111 1212211 2212122212221 2211111111221111 1212211 1221121212221 2211111122221111 1211211 2222121212221 2222221111111111 1212221 2222111212222 2222111122111122 1212221 2222111212222 EAGLE LAKE GRASSLAND QUADRATS 1111111111221111 1111111122221111 1122112222111111 1122111122111111 1111111122111111 1111111122221111 1111111122221111 1111111122111111 1111111122111111 1111111122221111 1111111122111111 1111111122221111 1111111122111111 1111111122221111 1111111122111111 1122111122111111 1122111111111122 EAGLE LAKE FORESTED  2212222 2121211112221 1211211 2221121111221 1222211 2111121112221 1111211 1122211222221 1211121 2121111112221 1211211 2221111112221 1222222 2221121112221 2212221 2121111112222 2212221 2121121112221 2211221 2111121112221 1212222 2111111212221 1212211 2221121212221 1211221 2112121112221 1211221 2122122112221 1211211 2212122111221 1212221 2222122112222 1111221 1111112221222 QUADRATS  1111111122221111 1211211 1111111122111111 2211222 1111111111111122 1111222 1111111122111111 1211211 1111111122112211 1211222 1111111122111122 1111221 1111111122111111 1211221 2211111122111111 1211222 1111111111111122 1211122 1111111122111111 1211221 1111111111221111 1211221 TASEKO LAKES QUADRATS  2112111111221 2122211212222 2212112212222 2121111212222 2122112211222 2122111111222 2121111211221 2122212212222 2121112112222 2112111211221 2122111112222  Quadrat  7890123456789012345678901234567890123 1221121112222221222111212212112122122 1221121111211111221111221222112211211 1221122112221122221121221222212211211 2122112111221221122111212111221221211 1221122111122221221111222212112211211 1221122111211221221111222211112211211 1221122111122112221111221222112211211 1221122112221222122111211222112122122 2121121211221211221111212212112122122 1221122112221111211112221221122211211 1221112112221211221111211222222211211 1221112112221221221111221222212221221 2111121112221221221112212111111221122 1221122112221221221112211222222122122 1221122112221111221111222212112221211 1211121112221122221121221222212211211 1212212211221122221121121221222211211 1211121112221111221111211222211221211 2121121112221122221112221222122211211 2121111121221111221112222212112211211  G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 G8 G9 G10 G11 G12 G13 G14 G15 G16 G17 G18 G19 G20  1212211221221111221111222212212211211 1211221211122111221112212212222221211 1211122112221122122111211221222122122 1211212111221221122211221222222122211 2112112111211111122111211222211122122 1211121121221111122111212212112122211 1211121122221111122111222111111211211 1212211221221221122211221222221122211 2111211121221111221111222211221221211 1212111211122111221112121221221211211 2111212111221111221111222211221211211 1211121112221111221111211221222122122 1222122211122211211112121222212221211 1221112111221221122121221222212211211 1211211121221222221121221221211122221 1211121122122222122111221222212211211 2112211221122211122211222111111211211  Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q9 Q10 Q11 Q12 Q13 Q17 Q19 Q24 Q25 Q28 Q33  1211222111122221122112211222112211211 1212111211221221122112222211211211211 2121122111211221122112222111111211211 1212212111211111122111221221222211211 2122112111211111122111222111111211211 2111121112122221122112222111111211211 1221122111221111122112222111111211211 1222112111221122122112222212211211211 2111211121211122122212222111111211211 1221112111221122122212222212211211211 1222112111122221122212211222211122211  TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TP1 TP2 TP3 TJ1 TJ2  30  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Table V-6. Eagle Lake and Taseko Site Environmental Data, Coded as per Tables 4a and 4b. Table 6a, Eagle Lake Site Environmental Data. COMMUNITIES  TREES  SHRUBS  COL.1234567890123456 7890123 4567890123456 1111112222111111 1221211 2111111112221 1111111111222211 1211212 2121111211222 2211111111221111 1211111 2211111111221 2211111122221111 1211112 2211111111221 2211111111221111 1212221 2121111112221 2211111111111111 1111111 1221121111121 1111221122111111 1221222 2222111212221 2211111111111111 1111111 1211111111111 1111111111221111 1211211 2211111211221 1111111122221111 1211211 2121111212221 2211111111112211 1211211 1222111212121 1111112211111111 1121211 2221111111221 1111111111221111 1211211 2211121111121 2211111111111111 1111111 2221111111121 2211111111111111 1211211 2221111111221 1111111122221111 1211211 2112121112221 1111111111112211 1211211 1111111111221 1111111122221111 1211211 2211111111221 1111111122111111 1221211 2212111112221 1111111122111111 1122121 1211211111221 1122111111111111 1221211 2121111111221 1111111122221111 1211211 2111111111121 1111111111221111 1211211 2111111212221 1111111111221111 1211111 1221121111121 1111111111221111 1211111 2221111112221 1111111111221111 1211211 2112121111221 1122221111111111 1212221 2222111212222 1111111122221122 1212221 2222111212222 1111111122221111 1211211 2121111111221 1111111122222211 1211211 2121111111221 1111111111221111 1211211 2111111112221 1111111122221111 1211222 2121111212221 1111111122221111 1211211 2111111111221 2211111122111122 1211221 2111111111221 1111111122111122 1211221 2111111111221 2211111122111111 1211211 2111111111221 EAGLE LAKE GRASSLAND QUADRAT SITES 1111111111112211 1211212 2121111111221 1111111111221111 1211221 2111111112221 1111111111221111 1211121 2111111112221 1111111111221111 1211111 2111111112211 1111111111221111 1211211 2111121111221 1111111122111111 1211211 2211121111211 1111111122221111 1211211 1111121111221 1111111122111111 1211211 2111121111211 1111111122111111 1211211 2111121111221 1111111122221111 1211211 2111111111221 1111111122111111 1211211 2111121111221 1111111122221111 1211211 2121111112221 1111111111221111 1211221 2111111112221 1111111122111111 1212221 2222121211221 EAGLE LAKE FORESTED QUADRAT SITES  PHYSIOGRAPHIC  ---  QUADRAT - SITE 7890123456789012345678901234567890123 1221122112221211122121212212112122122 G1-1 2121111111211111211111222212112211211 G2-1 1221122111211111211111222222222211111 G2-2 1221122111211111211111222222222211111 G2-3 2121122111211111211111222212112211111 G2-4 1221122112221221221121221222222211211 G3-1 2122112211211221221111212212211211211 G4-1 1221112211122211221121211222112211211 G5-1 2121121221221221221121212121221211111 G5-2 2121122112211122221121211222112211111 G6-1 1221122112122122221121211222112211111 G7-1 1221112112221211221111211222112122221 G9-1 2122122112221221122111221222212221122 G111 1221212111221122221111221222212211211 G112 1221112111221221122111221222222211211 G121 1211222211221122221112122211122221211 G131 2121121112221122211112112212112221211 G132 2112221122211122122112112111111221211 G133 2111221122211211221112112111111221221 G134 1221111112122221221111212111111221122 G135 2111221112211122221111212211112211122 G136 2122222111211122221122112111111122122 G141 1221111211211122221112221222112211211 G161 1221112111221211221111221221211211211 G162 1211211121221122221122121222222211211 G171 1211121112221122221111221221112122211 G181 2121121112221122221112221222122211211 G191 2111212111221221221112212211222211211 G201 2121211121211211221111212111212221111 G202 2121122111221211221121212112211221111 G203 2121111122211221221111212111121221211 G204 2121121221221221221121212111121211221 G205 2121121221211111221111212111121211111 G206 2121112111112221221111212112111221221 G207 2121112111112221221111112112111211211 G208 2221121111211111221111212112111221111 G209  2111121211221122221112121221222211211 2112211221211122221112212211221211221 2112211221211221122111212211222221221 2111211121221221122112121222222221211 2111221112211122221112112211222221211 2111221121221221221112112111111122122 1221111121211221221112112111111122122 2111211121211122221112112111111122221 1222221121211111122112122212112221221 1212121212221221122111212211212122122 1212211121221122211111222211221221221 2111212111221211122112212211222221211 2112211221222122221111212111111211211 2111221221211211221112111222221211211  31  Q2-1 Q2-2 Q2-3 Q2-4 Q3-1 Q3-2 Q3-3 Q3-4 Q7-1 Q7-2 Q121 Q131 Q132 Q191  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Table V- 6. Eagle Lake and Taseko Site Environmental Data, Coded per Table V- 4a and 4b. Table V- 6b, Taseko Site Environmental Data.  COMMUNITIES  TREES  COL.1234567890123456 7890123 1111111122111111 1211221 1111111111221122 1211221 1111111111221111 2211221 1111111111221111 1211211 1111111122111111 1211211 1111111122112211 1211212 1111111122111111 1111211 1111111122111122 1211221 1111111122111111 1211211 1111111122111111 2211211 1111111122111111 1211221 1111111122111111 1211211 1111111122111111 1211221 1111111122111111 1211221 2211111122111111 1211222 1111111122111111 1211221 TASEKO LAKES QUADRAT SITES  SHRUBS 4567890123456 2111111111221 1111111111221 2111111112221 2122111111221 2121111212222 2112111111221 2111111111221 2211111111221 2111111111211 2112111111221 2121111211221 2112111111221 2112111111221 2112111111221 2122212212222 2112111211221  PHYSIOGRAPHIC  QUADRAT -SITE 7890123456789012345678901234567890123 2112211221122221122112212111221122122 S1-1 2121211112221221122112222111111122211 S1-2 2121211122211221122112222111111221211 S1-3 2111222112211221122112222111111221211 S1-4 1212122111211122122121221222122211211 S4-1 2121211211211122122112212111211211211 S5-1 2121211211211211122111212111121221211 S5-2 2122112111211122122111222212211211211 S5-3 2121111211211221122111211111111221221 S5-4 2112111111211122122111211111111221221 S5-5 1221122111221221122111222212112211211 P1-1 1221111212221211122111211221112211211 P1-2 2111211121221122122111212111121221221 P1-3 2121211112122221122111212111112221221 P1-4 1222112111221122122112222212211211211 P2-2 1212122111122221122111212212212211111 J1-1  32  ---  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Table V- 7. Eagle Lake and Taseko Site Cultural Data. SIZE 36000 81 7500 5625 3750 150 30 48 3 140000 1000 10 81 160 3750 1500 9 48 81 15 81 42 5 9375 800 5000 2000 20000 2250 480 200 2750 750 32 800 28  # PITS 0 1 0 0 3 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 10 1 3 1 1 1 2 1 0 6 4 0 11 0 1 1 4 4 2 5 1  # HPTS 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 5 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0  # RPTS 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1  # CPTS 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 3 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 2 0 3 0 1 1 3 4 2 5 0  # # TOOLS FLAKES 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 4 2 83 0 0 1 8 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 2 11 5 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 108 2 0 37 407 0 2 0 0 3 119 15 73 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Eagle Lake Grassland Sites  33  # # # FCR HISTORIC CMT’s SITE 0 0 10 G1-1 0 0 0 G2-1 0 500* 0 G2-2 25* 15* 0 G2-3 0 0 0 G2-4 0 0 0 G3-1 100* 0 0 G4-1 0 0 0 G5-1 0 0 0 G5-2 0 0 19 G6-1 0 0 0 G6-1 100* 0 0 G9-1 10* 0 0 G11-1 0 0 0 G11-2 0 0 0 G12-1 0 0 0 G13-1 100* 0 0 G13-2 0 0 0 G13-3 0 0 0 G13-4 0 1 0 G13-5 0 0 0 G13-6 100* 0 0 G14-1 0 0 0 G16-1 0 0 0 G16-2 100* 100* 0 G17-1 1000* 30* 3 G18-1 0 0 0 G19-1 1000* 0 0 G20-1 0 0 0 G20-2 0 0 0 G20-3 0 0 0 G20-4 0 0 0 G20-5 0 0 1 G20-6 0 0 0 G20-7 0 0 0 G20-8 100* 0 0 G20-9  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Table V- 7. Eagle Lake and Taseko Site Cultural Data, Continued. # # # # SIZE PITS HPTS RPTS CPTS 104 2 0 1 1 9 1 0 0 1 9 1 0 0 1 9 1 0 0 1 250000 34 16 0 18 9 1 0 0 1 1500 3 2 0 1 5250 6 3 0 3 250000 14 2 1 11 200 2 1 0 1 2580 21 1 6 14 625 3 0 0 3 30 1 0 0 1 40000 18 0 4 14 Eagle Lake Forested Sites 45 2 700 2 14 1 3000 6 6000 0 500 4 80 4 1000 2 9 1 200 1 2400 0 4 1 7 0 9 1 200000 110* 10000 9 Taseko Sites  0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 50* 0  2 2 1 6 0 2 4 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 10* 9  SIZE = SQUARE METERS ;  0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 50* 0  # # TOOLS FLAKES 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 57 1065  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 50* 0  0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 2 20 0 0 0 1000* 0  * = APPROXIMATE  .  34  # # # FCR HISTORIC CMT’s SITE 100* 0 0 Q2-1 0 0 0 Q2-2 0 0 0 Q2-3 0 0 0 Q2-4 800* 0 0 Q3-1 0 0 0 Q3-2 0 0 0 Q3-3 0 0 0 Q3-4 100* 0 0 Q7-1 0 0 0 Q7-2 1000* 0 0 Q12-1 0 0 0 Q13-1 0 0 0 Q13-2 400* 5* 1 Q19-1  200* 200* 100* 600* 0 200* 400* 0 100* 0 0 100* 0 100* 9000* 900*  0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 100* 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0  S1-1 S1-2 S1-3 S1-4 S4-1 S5-1 S5-2 S5-3 S5-4 S5-5 P1-1 P1-2 P1-3 P1-4 P2-1 J1-1  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Table V-8. Projectile point data set, n = 87, regional and ethnic codings also shown. Definition of attributes are in main text Table 23; weight in .1 gms, measurements in .1 mms. Point Cat No 1 MC1 MCR9:34 2 MC2 EkRo15:44 3 MC3 EkRo16:AF 4 MC4 EkRo15:40 5 MC5 EkRo-:694 6 MC6 EkRo48:282 7 MC7 EkRo15:20 8 MC8 EkRo6:1 9 MC9 EkRo16:108 10 MC10 EkRo48:75 11 MC11 EkRo16:682 12 MC12 EkRo48:13 13 MC13 EkRo16:10 14 HC1 HC- No Cat 15 HC2 L1:I-975 16 HC3 J38:II-5 17 HC4 J38:II-9 18 HC5 J41-1 19 HC6 EeRj1:1194 20 LL1 EeRk16:1-7 21 LL2 EeRl41:27 22 LL3 EeRl40:68 23 LL4 EeRl40:37 24 CH1 CH:765 25 CH2 CH:800 26 CH3 CH:374 27 CH4 CH:463 28 CH5 CH:377 29 CH6 CH:780 30 CH7 CH:971 31 CH8 CH:1161 32 CH9 CH:420 33 CH10 CH:1912 34 CH11 CH:775 35 CH12 CH:655 36 CH13 CH:368 37 CH14 CH:406 38 PU1 FlRs1:1490 39 PU2 FlRs1:2784 40 PU3 FlRs1:0253 41 PU4 FlRs1:0188 42 PU5 FlRs1:1222 43 PU6 FlRs1:2526 44 PU7 FlRs1:2469 45 PU8 FlRs1:1083 46 PU9 FlRs1:1409 47 PU10 FlRs1:2976 48 PU11 FlRs1:0797 49 PU12 FlRs1:2763 50 PU13 FlRs1:2966 51 AN1 FcSi201:20 52 AN2 FcSi201:284 53 AN3 FcSi201:305 54 AN4 FcSi201:846 55 AN5 FcSi201:898 56 AN6 FcSi201:973  Weit 207 138 71 61 68 182 125 88 55 83 62 71 96 50 70 30 40 30 50 141 192 112 111 235 115 111 135 98 118 93 80 74 92 78 102 79 108 110 110 210 190 60 50 100 180 110 70 140 110 140 220 70 80 50 380 100  Male 339 272 184 207 233 296 272 229 202 231 189 222 222 203 210 180 204 152 214 269 368 242 177 387 268 287 280 253 274 227 212 235 214 205 248 246 212 236 260 278 318 231 220 328 289 263 213 243 219 288 311 212 232 165 482 248  Blle 240 167 106 145 148 201 195 158 127 156 117 132 147 120 129 107 133 99 124 177 222 199 190 274 180 150 178 140 189 140 120 162 153 103 124 140 108 167 143 187 207 170 162 233 200 184 115 155 130 222 240 127 151 85 351 162  Blwi Bawi Newi Blth Neth Bath Mnde Mnwi Nopo Anti Depc BaleRegion 173 184 91 39 33 26 41 51 74 50 0 99 1 136 127 86 30 31 31 29 36 62 60 0 105 1 122 157 89 31 28 24 20 25 58 52 0 78 1 103 120 75 30 33 28 16 31 70 39 0 62 1 85 127 63 32 33 34 17 53 64 48 0 85 1 187 190 70 45 46 31 56 35 72 53 0 95 1 127 148 85 37 35 29 22 35 72 58 0 77 1 132 148 96 32 32 28 19 33 69 48 0 71 1 122 161 72 26 25 21 31 25 64 57 0 75 1 116 133 76 23 27 30 21 30 67 46 0 75 1 128 164 98 24 23 22 19 32 62 57 0 72 1 96 120 76 30 33 30 11 32 60 40 0 90 1 134 160 103 37 37 34 15 21 66 52 0 75 1 102 140 72 27 19 16 18 26 59 50 0 83 2 100 142 84 29 30 29 12 31 61 43 0 81 2 110 128 74 27 27 24 23 29 59 54 0 73 2 100 124 63 31 32 29 21 34 66 38 0 71 2 99 124 71 24 25 20 17 24 65 55 0 53 2 104 134 67 29 25 24 22 41 58 47 0 90 2 127 147 92 35 37 38 22 33 59 47 0 113 2 174 205 73 41 35 32 45 60 82 50 0 83 2 141 157 68 26 23 21 27 39 71 56 0 70 2 120 153 94 25 29 26 21 33 50 58 0 89 2 130 126 91 45 47 35 21 52 75 35 23 113 3 108 120 91 39 37 30 12 23 69 37 0 88 3 118 131 81 36 34 28 25 40 62 57 6 137 3 121 136 99 41 38 33 14 29 72 57 17 102 3 110 109 86 36 37 36 15 28 56 49 0 113 3 104 105 73 39 35 26 17 31 69 44 0 85 3 118 127 86 35 35 38 20 43 64 64 0 87 3 111 123 86 31 32 30 16 37 57 50 0 92 3 119 112 84 29 26 20 18 30 70 53 0 73 3 121 122 95 30 29 27 15 28 72 69 0 61 3 110 121 85 29 31 29 16 34 53 58 0 102 3 122 150 99 32 28 26 17 33 57 53 0 124 3 104 114 86 25 26 26 11 40 63 48 0 106 3 126 150 88 42 43 47 21 51 51 65 0 104 3 130 122 95 32 29 24 18 29 78 50 0 69 4 137 145 95 37 35 27 21 54 56 52 0 117 4 159 149 115 61 38 31 21 48 80 50 0 91 4 155 143 84 42 37 31 38 41 67 48 0 111 4 104 106 66 30 29 25 18 28 74 40 0 61 4 85 100 62 31 26 17 10 43 76 34 6 58 4 123 120 80 34 20 24 21 30 79 43 0 95 4 139 126 85 52 46 39 24 51 73 42 0 89 4 125 115 77 39 26 19 19 28 70 40 0 79 4 110 125 80 29 29 22 18 37 60 50 0 98 4 118 147 89 43 42 33 13 29 64 42 0 88 4 133 158 91 41 35 32 23 41 59 50 0 89 4 146 90 85 34 31 27 28 49 79 45 8 66 4 202 191 96 45 34 24 46 39 79 48 0 71 5 99 131 74 38 40 34 12 27 62 41 8 85 5 103 116 83 33 29 29 12 28 65 35 0 81 5 90 118 62 30 30 29 15 35 53 49 6 80 5 208 228 120 47 47 32 43 44 75 49 17 131 5 129 127 98 34 34 25 11 23 65 38 0 86 5  35  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Table V-8 Continued. Point Cat No  Weit Male Blle Blwi Bawi Newi Blth Neth Bath Mnde Mnwi Nopo AntiDepc Bale Reg  57 EL1 ELP19:1:454 54 58 EL2 ELP19:1:24 45 59 EL3 CR98:7 50 60 EL4 CR98:8 71 61 EL5 ElRw4:1356 68 62 EL6 ElRw4:1357 98 63 EL7 ElRw4:1675 101 64 EL8 ElRw4:1677 116 65 EL9 CR73:40 103 66 EL10 CR92:1014 53 67 EL11 ELP32:1122 140 68 EL12 EkSa36:3072 200 69 EL13 EkSa13:1058 160 70 EL14 CR32:1 341 71 EL15 CR9:1 68 72 EL16 ELP32:1194 67 73 EL17 T84-27:491 41 74 EL18 ELP19-1:1461 71 75 EL19 ELP19-1:641 36 76 EL20 ELP19-1:175 85 77 EL21 CR28:2 65 78 EL22 ELP19-1:148 90 79 EL23 ELP19-1:163 96 80 EL24 ELP19-1:244 80 81 EL25 EkSa36:4981 145 82 EL26 CR98-6 60 83 EL27 CR98-2 55 84 EL28 CR98-1 60 85 FL1 EIRv3:39 24 86 FL2 EIRv1:1 115 87 FL3 EIRv9:1 26  196 171 180 224 209 229 239 214 220 185 275 327 292 379 168 202 174 238 162 225 199 242 218 173 312 203 229 175 179 236 136  138 106 127 122 136 168 133 122 110 136 176 199 190 288 95 103 133 168 94 144 133 183 127 113 214 132 175 106 119 189 102  124 111 109 92 124 120 135 120 123 121 126 141 120 165 90 114 88 113 77 114 110 114 110 126 166 115 102 116 83 135 100  153 136 104 121 134 112 113 119 132 90 147 157 153 163 140 140 102 131 118 124 120 119 142 132 202 104 104 137 103 134 106  90 95 71 69 71 102 72 85 80 83 84 96 81 98 92 68 78 85 62 75 75 78 70 82 86 65 62 86 49 100 77  27 23 30 32 30 36 35 48 36 28 38 52 41 67 25 26 20 24 15 25 24 24 34 26 25 22 19 23 19 31 22  36  26 19 29 28 30 33 31 43 37 26 33 47 38 50 29 28 22 24 23 29 24 21 33 22 26 23 17 27 20 38 21  25 9 23 27 25 27 22 47 32 25 31 46 35 35 28 22 17 21 23 20 20 20 25 18 22 16 16 23 19 38 19  22 11 23 15 29 24 31 22 23 20 27 21 23 27 11 38 8 21 20 25 17 21 31 28 53 24 21 23 18 17 17  21 23 30 55 33 51 34 58 46 29 26 32 31 40 48 49 23 38 33 41 25 30 53 25 47 33 43 37 29 38 42  70 64 79 55 66 73 56 58 57 73 65 63 66 76 64 51 72 71 58 64 67 76 65 72 69 65 76 61 73 80 75  52 53 49 40 58 42 47 68 64 50 38 35 45 58 57 54 48 47 56 45 46 45 55 60 52 44 32 58 59 62 62  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 7 0 20 0 0 0 0 0 18 7 0 0 0 0 16 0 0  58 65 53 102 73 61 106 92 110 49 109 128 102 109 72 95 44 69 65 85 56 71 82 44 78 62 39 44 64 65 61  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  37  Appendix  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  38  Appendix   Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Appendix VI: TREE RING DATING OF EAGLE LAKE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SAMPLES Marion L. Parker (Edited by R.G. Matson)  The archaeological tree-ring samples analyzed in this study were collected as part of The Eagle Lake Project conducted by the University of British Columbia. The excavation sites are in the Eagle Lake (also known as Choelquoit Lake) area and the project was directed by R.G. Matson. Two reports (Magne and Matson 1984; Matson et al. 1980) and Chapter 1 of the main text describes the archaeology of the area and included in Matson et al. (1980) is a useful description of the natural and cultural environment by Deanna Ludowicz. Of the 40 archaeological tree-ring samples, all are lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) except for one hardwood sample. Although the samples generally appeared to be of poor quality for dendrochronological analysis, dates were obtained from 12 of them. This demonstrates that lodgepole pine can be used for tree-ring dating and that trees growing in the Eagle Lake area produce ring series that are sensitive enough for dendrochronological studies. Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and lodgepole pine samples were taken to provide a “living-tree” chronology for crossdating with the archaeological tree-ring material. These samples are 5 mm increment cores from living trees and cross -sectional disks from recently cut trees and windfalls. One Douglas fir windfall provided a chronology extending back to 1380 AD. The lodgepole pine chronology derived from trees at Goosenob Lake proved to he most useful for crossdating with the archaeological samples.  Methods Although the main method used in dating was the comparison of measured ring widths, ring density was visually observed and used to find or verify crossdating. The annual ring widths of both the living trees and the archaeological samples were measured with an eyepiece micrometer used in a low-power binocular microscope. The methods used to remove growth trends and summarize the ring series are described by Parker et al. (1981). The tree-ring indices used in this report are of “C” type, i.e., a digital filter is used to remove all fluctuations greater than 10 years in length and accentuate the year to year variations. To verify the dating, tree-ring chronologies from other areas were compared with the Eagle Lake data. If these chronologies were not already of the “C” type, they were converted to that form by running them through the digital filter standardizing procedure. In almost all tree-ring dating that has been done in Canada, a computer crossdating technique has been used (Parker 1967, 1970; Parker et al. 1983, 1984). This method uses correlation and computer techniques to find the best crossdating fit (or establish if there is crossdating) between a dated tree-ring series and an undated tree-ring series. If crossdating is considered to be present between two ring series, that crossdating can be objectively 1  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  measured and verified by this computer dating program, known as the Shifting Unit Dating Program (SUDP). SUDP was used to find cross-datlng between the archaeological tree-ring composite chronologies and the living-tree chronologies in this study.  Analysis of the Archaeological Tree-Ring Samples The archaeological tree-ring samples submitted for analysis in 1983 consist of charcoal and rotten wood excavated from EkSa 36 (Figure VI-1, Figure VI-2b) and EkSa 32, and a crosssectional disk from a fairly well-preserved beam from Lingfield Creek Lodge (Figure VI-2a, c, d). Tree-ring dates ranging from cutting dates of 1851 to 1877, were obtained for 11 of the 35 samples from EkSa 36. The wood sample from Lingfield Creek Lodge dated at 1890 with a very variable outside surface. The four charcoal samples from EkSa 32 are very fragmentary and none contained enough annual rings to provide a tree-ring date. Data for the dated samples are presented (Table VI-1) to assist in the evaluation of why dates were obtained from some samples but not others. The twelve archaeological tree-ring samples dated are generally not very well preserved and contain short ring series. However, the reliability of these dates is illustrated (Figures VI3,-14) by computer crossdating and by comparison of broken-line plots of ring-width indices. The procedure used to obtain the dates in this case is as follows: 1. All samples were examined under a low-power binocular microscope and those that showed any possible chance of being dated were selected for further study. 2. As each sample was examined, it was prepared by sanding (in the case of wood) or with a scalpel or razor blade (in the case of charcoal). 3. Using both ring density and ring width, crossdating was observed under the microscope, for eight samples from EkSa 36, i.e., the tree-ring patterns of width and density for any one matched all of the other seven, but calendar year dates were not known at that time. 4. Arbitrary dates were assigned and ring widths were measured. 5. Arbitrary dates were assigned also to the annual rings of the Lingfield Creek Lodge samples and its ring series was measured. 6. The ring series were standardized and ringwidth indices of the “C” type (Parker et al. 1981) were produced for all of these samples. 7. A composite chronology was built from ring series of five of the eight EkSa 36 samples. 8. Using the Shifting Unit Dating Program (SUDP), this five tree composite was crosated with the Lingfield Creek Lodge sample. 2  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Figure VI-1. a. Preparing a tree-ring sample for removal from an excavation unit at EkSa 36. b. An excavated roasting pit (Feature D) at EkSa 36. 3  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Figure VI-2. a. A cross-sectional disk of a construction beam from Lingfield Creek lodge. Ring-width measurements were made of three radial blocks sawn from this disk. b. A example of good-quality archaeological sample excavted from EkSa 36. This sample (Dendro 30) consists of both charcoal and wood. c. A 5 mm core from a living lodgepole pine tree growing near the roasting pit shown in Figure VI-1b, is resting on th disk from Lingfield Creek lodge. The arrows mark the annual rings formed in 1840 and 1850 and the crossdating between these two samples for that decade is apparent for both width and density. d. The arrow points to a fire scar on the Lingfield Creek lodge disk. The annual ring damaged by fire was formed in 1811. 4  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia Sample Number  Tree-Ring Date  Appendix  Provenience and Comments  Dendro 11  1822+p – 1873B  Unit 21, Layer B2; Mostly dirt; shell of charcoal and rotten wood; pith present; small rings; probably limb: 16 cm long, 5 cm wide.  Dendro 29  1817+p – 1860v inc.  Feature H, Unit 27, Layer B1; Rotten wood and large rings on inside of sample, charcoal andsmall rings on outside; small rings difficult to count; pith present; 39 cm long, 7 cm wide.  Dendro 30  1832p – 1877B  Feature H, Unit 27, Layer B1; Fairly well preserved; pith present; 29 cm long, 8 cm wide.  Dendro 31  1848+p – 1877r  Feature H, Unit 27, Layer B1; Pith present; 43 cm long, 8 cm wide.  Dendro 33  1822+p – 1877rB  Feature H, Unit 29, Layer B1; Much dirt; very fragmentary; 19 cm long, 7 cm wide.  Dendro 35  1832+p – 1877r  Feature H, Unit 29, Layer B1; Very fragile: good chronology; pith present; 19 cm long, 7 cm wide.  Dendro 54  1823 inc. – 1851B inc.  Unit 32, Layer B3; Consistsof wood, rotten wood andcharcoal; bark present; 7 cm long, 5 cm wide.  Dendro 72  1823+p – 1851vv  Unit 40, Layer B3; Charcoal and rotten wood; pith present; 18.5 cm long, 8 cm wide  Dendro 77  1830 inc. – 1877+vv  Unit 45, Layer B3; Mostly dirt with thin shell of charcoal and rotten wood. Small but complacent rings; measured to 1865, ring count to 1877; 27 cm long, 11 cm wide.  Dendro 93  1848 inc. – 1877rB  Unit 57, Layer B3; Mostly dirt; flat grain; not completely charred; 29 cm long, 12 cm wide.  Dendro 96  1813 inc. – 1858+vv  Unit 59, Layer BF; Charcoal and wood; about 25 rings in charcoal and an unknown number in rotten wood; 7.5 cm long, 4 cm wide.  Table VI-1. Dated tree-ring samples from EkSa36, the Bear Lake site. 5  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  9. Using SUDP again, the Lingfield Creek Lodge ring series was crossdated with a livingtree lodgepole pine chronology derived from trees located near Goosenob Lake which is near the EkSa 36 site. 10. The dating of the five samples from EkSa 36 and the Lingfield Creek Lodge sample was verified by a number of computer cross dating runs, using different combinations of archaeological tree-ring chronologies and comparing them with various living-tree chronologies derived from trees in the Eagle Lake area and other sites in the British Columbia Interior. Both broken line plot comparison and computer crossdating were used at this point. 11. The ring widths were measured on all other potentially useful samples and their ring series were compared with the various dated chronologies. 12. Some additional dates were obtained for a total of eleven from EkSa 36 plus the Lingfield Creek Lodge sample (Figures VI-3, -14).  Further verification of the dating of the twelve archaeological tree-ring samples was accomplished by crossdating the EkSa 36 11 tree summary, the Lingfield Creek Lodge sample and the 12 tree archaeological summary with a number of living-tree master chronologies from the British Columbia Interior. The broken-line plot comparison of this is shown in Figure VI-15. Summary and Conclusions Forty archaeological tree-ring samples from three sites in the Eagle Lake area were examined. Twelve tree-ring dates were obtained and this represents virtually all of the samples that are of dateable quality. Living-tree chronologies were built for lodgepole pine and Douglas fir. Observations and conclusions are: 1. Lodgepole pine can be used for tree-ring dating. 2. Trees growing in the Eagle Lake area are of adequate quality for dendrochronological purposes. 3. The archaeological tree-ring samples excavated are almost exclusively lodgepole pine . 4. Charcoal is much better preserved than wood at these open sites. 5. Samples treated with paraffin and gasoline were much better preserved than the untreated ones. 6. Both ring width and ring density are useful for cross-dating purposes. 7. Some Douglas fir trees live to be at least 600 years old in the area. 6  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Figures VI-3,-14. Presented in these figures are: (1) the results of the Shifting Unit Dating Program (SUOP); (2) the cross correlation value (r) of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd best fit in bargraph form; (3) a photograph of the archaeological tree-ring samples; and (4) a brokenline plot comparison of the individual sample compared with the composite chronology. In each of the twelve cases, an individual dated tree ring sample is compared with a summary of the twelve dated archaeological samples. The unit length used on SUDP was made equal to the length of measured ring width series of the individual sample; therefore, only one line of output is obtained. Each sample dated at the expected place with a high correlation. The symbols used with the inside dates are: year  no pith ring present.  p  pith ring present.  +p  pith ring present, but due to the difficult nature of the ring series near the center of the specimen, an exact date cannot be assigned to it. The date is obtained by counting back from the earliest dated ring.  +  the innermost ring is not the pith ring andan absolute date cannot be assigned to it. A ring count is involved.  The symbols used with the outside date are: B  bark present  c  the outermost ring is continuous around the full circumference of the specimen. This symbol is used only if a full section is present.  r  less than a full section is present, but the outermost ring is continuous around available circumference.  v  a subjective judgement that, although there is no direct evidence of the true outside on the specimen, the date is within a very few years of being a cutting date.  vv  there is no way of estimating how far the last ring is from the true outside.  +  ++  the nature of the dating is such that one or more rings may be missing near the end of the ring series. The presence or absence of rings cannot be determined because the specimen does not contain enough additional rings to provide an adequate check. a ring count was necessary due to the fact that beyond a certain point the specimen could not be dated.  The symbols B, c and r indicate cutting dates in order of decreasing confidence, unless a + or ++ is also present. The abbreviations used for the tree species are: DF Lpp  Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.)  7  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Figure VI-3. Dendro 11. Master Series: Eagle Lake Archaeological–12-Tree Summary Number of Ring Years = 79 Dated Interval = 1809 - 1887 Undated Series: Eagle Lake Archaeological – Dendro 11 EkSa 36 – Filter Number of values = 34 Interval (Arbitrary) = 1840 -1872 Unit length = 34 Undated Series unit  1  Increment = 1  Last Ring on Undated series unit  Last Ring-Year of Best-Fit on Master First Second Third  Correlation of Undated Series unit with Best-fit Master unit First Second Third  1873  1873  0.775  1879 8  1885  0.350  0.305  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Figure VI-4. Dendro 29. Master Series: Eagle Lake Archaeological–12-Tree Summary Number of Ring Years = 79 Dated Interval = 1809 - 1887 Undated Series: Eagle Lake Archaeological – Dendro 29 EkSa 36 – Filter Number of values = 39 Interval (Arbitrary) = 1821 -1859 Unit length = 39 Undated Series unit  1  Increment = 1  Last Ring on Undated series unit  Last Ring-Year of Best-Fit on Master First Second Third  Correlation of Undated Series unit with Best-fit Master unit First Second Third  1859  1859  0.841  1849 9  1886  0.324  0.240  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Figure VI-5. Dendro 30. Master Series: Eagle Lake Archaeological–12-Tree Summary Number of Ring Years = 79 Dated Interval = 1809 - 1887 Undated Series: Eagle Lake Archaeological – Dendro 30 EkSa 36 – Filter Number of values = 45 Interval (Arbitrary) = 1833 -1877 Unit length = 45 Undated Series unit  1  Increment = 1  Last Ring on Undated series unit  Last Ring-Year of Best-Fit on Master First Second Third  Correlation of Undated Series unit with Best-fit Master unit First Second Third  1877  1877  0.810  1861 10  1871  0.310  0.282  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Figure VI-6. Dendro 31. Master Series: Eagle Lake Archaeological–12-Tree Summary Number of Ring Years = 79 Dated Interval = 1809 - 1887 Undated Series: Eagle Lake Archaeological – Dendro 31 EkSa 36 – Filter Number of values = 29 Interval (Arbitrary) = 1849 -1877 Unit length = 29 Undated Series unit  1  Increment = 1  Last Ring on Undated series unit  Last Ring-Year of Best-Fit on Master First Second Third  Correlation of Undated Series unit with Best-fit Master unit First Second Third  1877  1877  0.852  1850 11  1845  0.460  0.396  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Figure VI-7. Dendro 33. Master Series: Eagle Lake Archaeological–12-Tree Summary Number of Ring Years = 79 Dated Interval = 1809 - 1887 Undated Series: Eagle Lake Archaeological – Dendro 33 EkSa 36 – Filtered Summary Number of values = 30 Interval (Arbitrary) = 1848 -1877 Unit length = 30 Undated Series unit  1  Increment = 1  Last Ring on Undated series unit  Last Ring-Year of Best-Fit on Master First Second Third  Correlation of Undated Series unit with Best-fit Master unit First Second Third  1877  1877  0.695  1845 12  1855  0.405  0.294  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Figure VI-8. Dendro 35. Master Series: Eagle Lake Archaeological–12-Tree Summary Number of Ring Years = 79 Dated Interval = 1809 - 1887 Undated Series: Eagle Lake Archaeological – Dendro 35 EkSa 36 – Filtered Summary Number of values = 43 Interval (Arbitrary) = 1835 -1877 Unit length = 43 Undated Series unit  1  Increment = 1  Last Ring on Undated series unit  Last Ring-Year of Best-Fit on Master First Second Third  Correlation of Undated Series unit with Best-fit Master unit First Second Third  1877  1877  0.832  1861 13  1871  0.406  0.346  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Figure VI-9. Dendro 54. Master Series: Eagle Lake Archaeological–12-Tree Summary Number of Ring Years = 79 Dated Interval = 1809 - 1887 Undated Series: Eagle Lake Archaeological – Dendro 54 EkSa 36 – Filtered Summary Number of values = 27 Interval (Arbitrary) = 1824 -1850 Unit length = 27 Undated Series unit  1  Increment = 1  Last Ring on Undated series unit  Last Ring-Year of Best-Fit on Master First Second Third  Correlation of Undated Series unit with Best-fit Master unit First Second Third  1850  1850  0.821  1882 14  1877  0.499  0.441  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Figure VI-10. Dendro 72. Master Series: Eagle Lake Archaeological–12-Tree Summary Number of Ring Years = 79 Dated Interval = 1809 - 1887 Undated Series: Eagle Lake Archaeological – Dendro 72 EkSa 36 – Filtered Summary Number of values = 25 Interval (Arbitrary) = 1825 -1849 Unit length = 25 Undated Series unit  1  Increment = 1  Last Ring on Undated series unit  Last Ring-Year of Best-Fit on Master First Second Third  Correlation of Undated Series unit with Best-fit Master unit First Second Third  1849  1849  0.779  1859 15  1842  0.333  0.322  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Figure VI-11. Dendro 77. Master Series: Eagle Lake Archaeological–12-Tree Summary Number of Ring Years = 79 Dated Interval = 1809 - 1887 Undated Series: Eagle Lake Archaeological – Dendro 77 EkSa 36 – Filtered Summary Number of values = 35 Interval (Arbitrary) = 1831 -1865 Unit length = 35 Undated Series unit  1  Increment = 1  Last Ring on Undated series unit  Last Ring-Year of Best-Fit on Master First Second Third  Correlation of Undated Series unit with Best-fit Master unit First Second Third  1865  1865  0.479  1874  1847  0.272  0.240  The ring series of Dendro 77 is of poorer quality (more complacent) than the others but the match is good enough to accept. 16  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Figure VI-12. Dendro 93. Master Series: Eagle Lake Archaeological–12-Tree Summary Number of Ring Years = 79 Dated Interval = 1809 - 1887 Undated Series: Eagle Lake Archaeological – Dendro 93 EkSa 36 – Filtered Summary Number of values = 29 Interval (Arbitrary) = 1849 -1877 Unit length = 29 Undated Series unit  1  Increment = 1  Last Ring on Undated series unit  Last Ring-Year of Best-Fit on Master First Second Third  Correlation of Undated Series unit with Best-fit Master unit First Second Third  1877  1877  0.809  1845  17  1855  0.355  0.350  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Figure VI-13. Dendro 96. Master Series: Eagle Lake Archaeological–12-Tree Summary Number of Ring Years = 79 Dated Interval = 1809 - 1887 Undated Series: Eagle Lake Archaeological – Dendro 96 EkSa 36 – Filtered Summary Number of values = 43 Interval (Arbitrary) = 1814 -1856 Unit length = 43 Undated Series unit  1  Increment = 1  Last Ring on Undated series unit  Last Ring-Year of Best-Fit on Master First Second Third  Correlation of Undated Series unit with Best-fit Master unit First Second Third  1856  1856  0.776  1866  18  1872  0.422  0.376  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Figure VI-14. Dendro 96. Master Series: Eagle Lake Archaeological–12-Tree Summary Number of Ring Years = 79 Dated Interval = 1809 - 1887 Undated Series: Lingfield Creek Lodge – Shortened Interval – Filtered Summary Number of values = 64 Interval (Arbitrary) = 1814 -1877 Unit length = 64 Undated Series unit 1  Increment = 1  Last Ring on Undated series unit 1877  Last Ring-Year of Best-Fit on Master First Second Third 1877 1887 1875  Correlation of Undated Series unit with Best-fit Master unit First Second Third 0.701 0.151 0.142  The ring series of the Lingfield Creek Lodge sample was compared with the composite chronology for the years 1814-1877, although the sample was actually measured to 1887. This was done so that the correlation comparison would be more comparable to those of the other samples. A ring count was made on this disk from 1887 to 1890 for a date of 1890 vv inc. 19  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  9. Using SUDP again, the Lingfield Creek Lodge ring series was crossdated with a livingtree lodgepole pine chronology derived from trees located near Goosenob Lake which is near the EkSa 36 site. 10. The dating of the five samples from EkSa 36 and the Lingfield Creek Lodge sample was verified by a number of computer cross dating runs, using different combinations of archaeological tree-ring chronologies and comparing them with various living-tree chronologies derived from trees in the Eagle Lake area and other sites in the British Columbia Interior. Both broken line plot comparison and computer crossdating were used at this point. 11. The ring widths were measured on all other potentially useful samples and their ring series were compared with the various dated chronologies. 12. Some additional dates were obtained for a total of eleven from EkSa 36 plus the Lingfield Creek Lodge sample (Figures VI-3, -14).  Further verification of the dating of the twelve archaeological tree-ring samples was accomplished by crossdating the EkSa 36 11 tree summary, the Lingfield Creek Lodge sample and the 12 tree archaeological summary with a number of living-tree master chronologies from the British Columbia Interior. The broken-line plot comparison of this is shown in Figure VI-15. Summary and Conclusions Forty archaeological tree-ring samples from three sites in the Eagle Lake area were examined. Twelve tree-ring dates were obtained and this represents virtually all of the samples that are of dateable quality. Living-tree chronologies were built for lodgepole pine and Douglas fir. Observations and conclusions are: 1. Lodgepole pine can be used for tree-ring dating. 2. Trees growing in the Eagle Lake area are of adequate quality for dendrochronological purposes. 3. The archaeological tree-ring samples excavated are almost exclusively lodgepole pine . 4. Charcoal is much better preserved than wood at these open sites. 5. Samples treated with paraffin and gasoline were much better preserved than the untreated ones. 6. Both ring width and ring density are useful for cross-dating purposes. 20  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Figure VI-15. Broken-line plots of two archaeological tree-ring chronologies (EkSa 36 and Lingfield Creek lodge) with four living tree chronologies. (Details of living tree chronologies are reported elsewhere.)  21  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  7. Some Douglas fir trees live to be at least 600 years old in the area. 8. Douglas fir trees generally live to be much older than lodgepole pine trees. 9. Dates were obtained from about one third of the samples examined. 10. Almost all of the undated samples were not of dateable quality because they contained too few rings. 11. Although many of the samples collected are of poor dendrochronological quality, the quality of the samples cannot be assessed easily in the field without damaging them. For this reason, almost all samples excavated should be submitted for dendrochronological analysis and saved or discarded by the dendrochronologist in the laboratory. 12. Tree-ring dates range from cutting dates of 1851 to 1877 for samples from EkSa 36. 13. The most common cutting date for EkSa 36 samples is 1877. 14. The Lingfield Creek Lodge beam dated at 1890 vv incomplete. 15. None of the four samples from EkSa 32 was of dateable quality. 16. Dating techniques used were visual comparison, broken-line plot comparison of ring-width indices, and computer cross-dating. 17. The Lingfield Creek lodge sample matched well with samples from living lodgepole pine trees. 18. The annual ring formed in 1811 on the Lingfield Creek lodge beam was damaged by a fire. 19. The summary chronologies of the Eagle Lake archaeological samples cross-date well with the living-tree chronologies in that area and crossdating with other more distant areas can be realized if computer crossdating is used. 20. Cross correlation comparisons were made for many combinations of archaeological and living-tree chronologies. This provides a basis for evaluating crossdating between species, areas, and other variables. 21. Six new living-tree chronologies were built for the Eagle Lake area. This furnishes a foundation for future tree-ring dating in the area and adjacent regions.  22  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank R.G. Matson for organizing this study and assisting in the dendrochronological field work and laboratory analysis. Marty Magne and other members of Matson’s crew gave me assistance in collecting tree-ring samples and providing facilities for the laboratory work. Benjamin Parker helped with the field work and Harold Sininons assisted in sample preparation. Randy Bruce provided the required computer programming. Tree species identification of the archaeological samples was done by Stan Rowe. Kim Lucas and Diane Schram are the two people who assisted most in the processing of the tree-ring samples and in manuscript preparation.  23  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  REFERENCES CITED Matson, R.G., M. Magne, D. Ludowicz, and D.L. Pokotylo. 1980 The Eagle Lake Project; Report on the 1979 Season. Final Report to S.S.H.R.C., Laboratory of Archaeology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Parker, Marion L. 1967 Dendrochronology of Point of Pines. Unpublished Master’s thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson 1970 Dendrochronological techniques used by the Geological Survey of Canada. In Tree Ring Analysis with Special Reference to Northwest America; edited by J.H.G. Smith and John Worrall. University of British Columbia Faculty of Forestry Bull. 7. pp. 56-66. (Also published in 1971 as Geological Survey of Canada Paper 71-25; 30 pp.) 1984 Tree-Ring Dating of the Cabin behind Hat Creek House. Contract report to: British Columbia Heritage Trust. 19 pp. plus Appendices. Parker, M.L., Paul A. Eramhall, and Sandra C. Johnston. 1983 Tree-Ring Dating of Driftwood from Raised Beaches on the Hudson Bay Coast. Climatic Change in Canada 3, edited by C.R. Harington, pp. 220-272 Syllogeus, No. 49. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada, Ottawa Parker, M.L., R.D. Bruce, and L.A. Jezas 1980 X-Ray Densitometry at the WFPL. Technical Report No. 10, Forintek Canada Corp. 18 pp. Parker, M.L., L.A. Jozsa, Sandra C. Johnston, and Paul A. Bramball 1981 Dendrochronological studies on the coasts of James Hay and Hudson Bay. Climatic Change in Canada 2, edited by C.R. Harington, pp. 129-188. Syllogeus. No. 33. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada, Ottawa. Parker, M.L., L.A. Jozsa, Sandra C. Johnston, and Paul A. Bramhall. In press. Tree-ring dating in Canada and the Northwestern United States. Paper presented at The Quaternary Dating Methods Symposium, May 22-24, 1981. Departmen. of Geography, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 11 pp. Schulman, Edmund 1956 Dendroclimatic Changes in Semiarid America. University of Arizona Press, Tucson. 24  Athapaskan Migrations: The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia  Appendix  Stokes, M.A., Linda Drew, and C.W. Stockton 1973 Tree-Ring Chronologies of Western America. 1. Selected Tree-Ring Stations. Chronology Series. 1. Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona, Tucson.  25  

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