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Online Companion to Same-Sex Desire in Early Modern England, 1550-1735: An Anthology of Literary Texts.. 2012

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 1 Author: Marie H. Loughlin, editor  Title: Online Companion to Same-Sex Desire in Early Modern England, 1550-1735: An Anthology of Literary Texts and Contexts  ABSTRACT:  Balancing long-overlooked and well-known works, Same-Sex Desire in Early Modern England, 1550-1735: An Anthology of Literary Texts and Contexts and its Online Companion comprise a collection of English texts about homoerotic love, relationships, desires, and sexual acts. The anthology’s core texts are selections from drama, fiction, romance, poetry, essays and translations. These core texts are carefully introduced and annotated, and supplemented with illuminating contextual material from other early modern disciplines such as law, medicine, and theology. Juxtaposing literary and non-literary representations of same-sex erotic desire, this anthology explores a rich tradition of works both celebrating and condemning same-sex erotic love. The Online Companion provides additional texts and critical resources, from classical translations to politically motivated satire to religious poetry to moral and theological treatises, as well as legal statutes.   SUMMARY:  Same-Sex Desire in Early Modern England, 1550-1735: An Anthology of Literary Texts and Contexts and its Online Companion comprise a collection of English texts dealing with same-sex erotic love, relationships, desires and sexual acts. Recent scholarship has explored extensively the nature and representation of early modern homoerotic relationships and sexual acts, but this anthology is the first devoted to their literary and non-literary representations in this crucial period when conceptions about sexuality and identity generally underwent massive change.  Carefully annotated, introduced, and contextualized with selections from texts in several early modern disciplines—such as theology, medicine, and the law—, the anthology’s literary works  come from a wide variety of genres. There are extensive selections from works in translation, drama, romance, fiction, poetry, and essays, focusing on a balance between the period’s well-known homoerotic works, such as Shakespeare’s Sonnets, and those which have remained much more obscure, such as Catherine Trotter’s heroic drama Agnes de Catstro. The anthology includes an Online Companion, offering further primary texts―including classical translations, politically motivated satire, religious poetry, moral and theological treatises, and legal statutes―as well as brief interpretive essays, and an up-to-date bibliography.  The selection of works from many different disciplines and genres makes Same Sex- Desire in Early Modern England, 1550-1735 and its Online Companion ideal for use in undergraduate courses in the areas of English literature, history, and gender studies. It offers graduate students and academics provocative intersections between canonical and non-canonical literary texts, and the general reader a perhaps unexpectedly rich tradition of texts both celebrating as well as condemning same-sex erotic love.    2 The print anthology includes:   Equal focus on texts dealing with male and female same-sex erotic love, relationships, desires, and acts.  Extensive selections from literary texts and texts from a wide variety of extra- literary disciplines, such as law, theology, philosophy, and medicine.  Helpful annotations and biographical headnotes.  Extensive general introduction placing the texts in their social, historical and cultural contexts, as well as in the context of modern questions about the nature of sexuality, desire, and selfhood.  Detailed section introductions, explaining same-sex erotic desire and relationships in terms of specific early modern disciplines (e.g., medicine, natural science, theology, crime and the law, and ethnography).  The Online Companion includes:   Extensive selections from literary texts and texts from a wide variety of extra- literary disciplines, such as law, theology, philosophy, and medicine, with a focus on translations from the classics.  Helpful annotations and biographical headnotes.  Brief critical essays on topics ranging from the representation of homoerotic love in Scripture to the homoerotics of seventeenth-century devotional poetry to early modern ideas about friendship to the reception of ancient homoerotic texts in early modern England.      1  Same-Sex Desire in Early Modern England, 1550-1735: An Anthology of Literary Texts and Contexts: Online Companion   TABLE OF CONTENTS  I. ADDITIONAL TEXTS  RELIGIOUS, MORAL, AND INSTRUCTIONAL WRITINGS  Jean Calvin (1509-1564)  -from Commentary […] upon the First Book of Moses Called Genesis (1554; Engl.   trans., 1578)  -from Commentary […] upon the Epistle of Saint Paul to the Romans (1539/40; rev.   edn., 1550; Engl. trans., 1583)  -from Commentary upon Saint Paul’s Epistles to the Corinthians (c. 1546; Engl.   trans., 1577) John Bale (1495-1563)  -from A New Comedy or Interlude, Concerning Three Laws of Nature, Moses, and   Christ, Corrupted by the Sodomites, Pharisees, and Papists (1548?; 2 nd  edn.,   1562)  -from Acts of the English Votaries (1546)  -from Acts of the English Votaries (Parts 1 and 2, 1551) Roger Ascham (1514/15-1568)  -from The Schoolmaster (1570) Philip Stubbes (c. 1555-?1610)  -from The Anatomy of Abuses (1583) Richard Baxter (1615-1691)  -from A Christian Directory (1673)  -from Reliquiae Baxterianae (1696) John Rainolds [Reynolds] (1549-1607)  -from Th’ Overthrow of Stage Plays (1599) George Lesly (d. 1701)  -Divine Dialogues (1678)   from “Fire and Brimstone; Or, the Destruction of Sodom”  MEDICAL AND PSEUDO-MEDICAL WRITINGS  Helkiah Crooke (1576-1648)  -from Microcosmographia (1615) Thomas Bartholin (1616-1680)  -from Bartholinus Anatomy (1663) Thomas Gibson (1648/9-1722)  -from The Anatomy of Human Bodies Epitomized (1682) Giles Jacob (1686-1744)  -from Tractatus de Hermaphroditis: Or, A Treatise of Hermaphrodites (1718)    2    CRIMINAL STATUTES AND PAMPHLETS  Sodomy Statutes (1533-1563)  -25 Henry VIII, Ch. 6 (1533-1534): “An Act for the Punishment of the Vice of   Buggery”  -2-3 Edward VI, Ch. 29 (1548): “An Act against Sodomy”  -1 Mary, Ch. 1 (1553): “An Act Repealing Certain Treasons, Felonies, and   Praemunire”  -5 Elizabeth, Ch. 17 (1563): “An Act for the Punishment of the Vice of Buggery” The ‘Preface’ to The Arraignment … of Humphrey Stafford (1607) Edward Coke (1552-1634)  -from The Third Part of the Institutes of the Laws of England (1644)   TRAVEL WRITING  Richard Hakulyt (1552?-1616)  Principal Navigations, Vol. 2 (1599)   -from “The Relation of the Navigation and Discovery which Captain    Fernando Alarchon Made” (composed, 1542?)   -from “A Relation of the Commodities of Nova Hispania, and the Manners of    the Inhabitants” (1572) Richard Head (c. 1637-1686?)   -from The English Rogue (1665; 1668)   THE CLASSICAL TRADITION IN TRANSLATION  Sappho (fl. 630 BCE) [Sappho’s ‘After-Life’]  Anacreontea (1 st  published, 1554)   The Works of Petronius Arbiter […] To Which is Added Some Other of the    Roman Poets (1714)     “Sappho’s Vindication”  Aristotle (384-322 BCE)   Rhetoric, Or, The True Grounds and Principles of Oratory (1686)    -from Book 1, Chapter 9  Lady Mary Chudleigh (1656-1710)   Poems on Several Occasions (1703)    -from “The Resolution”  Sir Aston Cokayne (1608-1684)   -A Chain of Golden Poems (1658)    “To My Wife’s Niece, Mrs. Elizabeth Pegge”  Henry Glapthorne (b. 1610)   -from Argalus and Parthenia (1639)  Robert Herrick (1591-1674)   -Hesperides (1648)    “Upon the Loss of His Mistresses”    “The Sadness of Things for Sappho’s Sickness” 3     “Upon Sappho, Sweetly Playing, and Sweetly Singing”    “The Head-Ache”    “To Sappho” [‘Let us now take time and play’]    “To Sappho” [‘Sappho, I will choose to go’]    “To Sappho” [‘Thou say’st thou lov’st me, Sappho; I say no’]    “Upon Sappho”  Anne Wharton (1659-85)   -The Temple of Death: A Poem    “To Mrs. A. Behn”  See also, Ovid [43 BCE-17/18 CE) [Ovid’s ‘After-Life’]  See also, Aelian (165/70-230/35 CE) [“Book 12, Chapter 19: Sappho”] Anacreon (c. 575-490 BCE)  Anacreon Done into English out of the Original Greek (1683)   -from “The Preface”   ‘Ode 3. Cupid, Or, The Cunning Beggar’  Poems and Translations (1689) by Charles Goodall (1671-89)   ‘Ode 2. The Letter Carrier’  The Works of Anacreon and Sappho (1713)   -from ‘The Life of Anacreon’ Theocritus (fl. early 3 rd  c. BCE)  Poetical Recreations (1688)   ‘A Paraphrase on the 23rd Idyll of Theocritus’ by Charles Goodall (1671-    1689)  Poems and Translations (1689) by Charles Goodall (1671-1689)   ‘A Paraphrase on the 23rd Idyll of Theocritus: To Idera’  The Idylliums of Theocritus (1684) translated by Thomas Creech (1659-1700)   ‘Idyll 12: A Welcome to a Friend’   ‘Idyll 22 (23): A Scorned Shepherd Hangs Himself; the Cruel Fair is Killed by    the Statue of Cupid’   “Idyll 26: An Advice to a Friend to be Constant in His Love”  Sylvae, or The Second Part of Poetical Miscellanies (1685)   “ΑΙΗΣ. Or, the Twelfth Idyll of Theocritus” Xenophon (c. 428-c. 354 BCE)  -from Hiero: Or, the Condition of a Tyrant (1713)  -from The Memorable Things of Socrates (1722) Translated by Edward Bysshe (fl.   1702-1714) Quintus Lutatius Catulus (c. 152-87 BCE)  Richard Lovelace (1617-1657)   -Lucasta: Posthume Poems (1659)    “As Once I Bad Good Morning to the Day”    “With Looks and Hands a Satyr Courts a Boy”        (by Hieronymus Vulpius Novocomensis) Cicero (106-43 BCE)  Tusculan Disputations (1561) translated by John Dolman (nd)   -from ‘Book 4’  Cicero against Catiline, in IV Invective Orations (1671), translated by Christopher    Wase (1627-1690)   -from ‘The Second Oration against Catiline’  -from Cicero’s Laelius: A Discourse of Friendship (1691)  4  Diogenes Laertius (c. 200-250 CE)  -Lives of the Philosophers (1696)   “The Life of Bion”   “The Life of Zeno” Virgil (70-19 BCE)  The Bucolics of Publius Virgilius Maro (1575), translated by Abraham Fleming (c.   1552-1607)    -“Eclogue 2”  The Bucolics of Publius Virgilius Maro, Prince of All Latin Poets (1589), translated   by A[braham] F[leming]    - The Second Eclogue of Virgil Entitled Corydon  Virgil’s Eclogues (1628), translated by William Lathum (fl. 1628-1634)    -from “To the Worthy Reader”   -from “The Preface of Lodovicus Vives to His Gloss upon His Eclogues”   “Alexis: Aegloga Secunda” (Alexis: The Second Eclogue)  Works of Virgil (1731), translated and annotated by Joseph Trapp (1679-1747)   -from “Preface to the Eclogues and Georgics” Works of Virgil, Containing His Pastorals, Georgics and Aeneis (1697), translated  by  John Dryden (1631-1700)    -from Aeneid, Books 5 and 9 Catullus (c. 84-54 BCE)  -from The Adventures of Catullus (1707) Horace (65-8 BCE)  The Odes of Horace (various translations between 1638 and 1730) Tibullus (55/48-19 BCE)  -from The Works of Tibullus, Containing His Love Elegies (1720) translated by John   Dart (d. 1730)    “To Priapus: Elegy 4” Ovid (43 BCE- 17/18 CE) [Ovid’s ‘After-Life’]  Alexander Radcliffe (b. c. 1653, d. in or before 1696)   Ovid Travesty: A Burlesque upon Ovid’s Epistles (1681)    “Sappho to Phaon”  Matthew Stevenson (d. 1684)   The Wits Paraphrased, or, Paraphrase upon Paraphrase in a Burlesque     on the Several Late Translations of Ovid’s Epistles (1680)     “Sappho to Phaon”  -from The Maid’s Metamorphosis (1600)  See below for another version of Metamorphoses’ tale of ‘Iphis and Ianthe,’ in   LITERATURE: REPRESENTING FEMALE SAME-SEX DESIRES AND RELATIONSHIPS,   Anonymous (translator, John Bourchier, 2 nd  Baron Berners, c. 1467-1533),   Huon of Bourdeaux (1515?; 1600) Martial (c. 40-104 CE)  -Epigrams (various translations between 1629 and 1698) Juvenal (c. 50/65-AFTER 130 CE)  Virgil’s Bucolics Englished. Whereunto is Added […] the Two First Satires of   Juvenal (1634), translated by John Biddle (1615/16-1662)    -“Satire 2”  Mores Hominum, The Manners of Men, Described in Sixteen Satires by Juvenal   (1660), translated by Sir Robert Stapylton (1607X9?-1669)    -“Satire 2” 5   -The Satires of Decimus Junius Juvenalis (1693), translated by various writers.   -“Satire 2”, translated by Nahum Tate (c. 1652-1715) Plutarch (c. 50-120 CE)  The Amorous and Tragical Tales of Plutarch (1567), translated by James Sandford   (fl. 1567-1582)    “Of a Boy That Was Rent in Pieces, Partly by Him That Offered     Violence unto Him, and Partly by His Father Rescuing Him”  Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans (1597), translated by Sir Thomas North    (1535-1603)    -from “The Life of Lycurgus”    -from “The Life of Alcibiades”    -from “The Life of Pelopidas”    -from “The Life of Demetrius” Petronius Arbiter (fl. 1 st  c. CE)  -from Satyricon (1694), translated jointly by William Burnaby (1673-1706) and an   anonymous colleague Aelian (165/70-230/35 CE)  Various History (1666), translated by Thomas Stanley (b. 1650)   “Book 1, Chapter 30: That Galetes Was Beloved of Ptolemy Not More for His    Beauty than His Prudence”   “Book 2, Chapter 4: Of the Friendship betwixt Chariton and Melanippus”   “Book 2, Chapter 31: Of Pausanias His Friendship with Agathon the Poet”   “Book 3, Chapter 9: Of Love”   “Book 3, Chapter 10: Of Lacedaemonian Friendship”   “Book 3, Chapter 12: Of Friendship amongst the Lacedaemonians”   “Book 7, Chapter 8: Of Alexander’s Grief at Hephaestion’s Death”   “Book 12, Chapter 7: Of Alexander and Hephaestion”   “Book 12, Chapter 14: Of Persons Excellent in Beauty”   “Book 12, Chapter 19: Sappho Lucian of Samosata (fl. 2 nd  c. CE)  Burlesque upon Burlesque, Or, The Scoffer Scoffed (1675) by Charles Cotton (1630-   1687)    -“Dialogue: Jupiter and Ganymede”  The Third Volume of the Works of Lucian (1711)    -from Dialogues of the Courtesans, translated by Thomas Brown     (1663-1704)      ‘Chelidonium and Drose’ Tatius [Achilles Tatius] (fl. 2 nd  c. CE)  The Most Delectable and Pleasant History of Clitiphon and Leucippe (1597),   translated by William Burton (1575-1645)    -from ‘Book 1’ and ‘Book 2’ Aristaenetus (fl. 5 th  or 6 th  c. CE?)  Letters of Love and Gallantry (1716?)   ‘Epistle 8: A Gentleman of the Horse and His Lord in Love’   LITERATURE: REPRESENTING MALE SAME-SEX RELATIONSHIPS AND DESIRES  Michael Drayton (1563-1631)  -from Piers Gaveston, Earl of Cornwall (1593) 6  Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593)  -from Dido, Queen of Carthage (1594) William Shakespeare (1564-1616)  -from Coriolanus (c. 1607-09) Thomas Heywood (1574?-1641)  Gynaikeion (1624)   -from ‘Book 5: Of Fair Women’ Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626)  Essays (1625)   “Of Friendship”   “Of Beauty” William Lathum (fl. 1628-1634)  Phiala Lachrimarum (1634)   “To the Right Honourable Thomas, Lord Bruce, Earl of Elgin”   -from “Elegia Introductoria Lachrymas Sequentes” Andrew Marvell (1621-1678)  -from The Last Instructions to a Painter (comp., c. 1667)  “An Elegy upon the Death of my Lord Francis Villiers” (comp. after 1648) Aphra Behn (c. 1645-1689)  -from The Amorous Prince, Or, The Curious Husband (1671)  Poems upon Several Occasions (1684)   “Our Cabal”  Lycidus, Or, The Lover in Fashion […] with a Miscellany of New Poems (1688)   “To Amyntas, upon Reading the Lives of Some of the Romans” Charles Goodall (1671-89)  -from Poetical Recreations (1688)   “The Penitent”  SEE ALSO ‘THEOCRITUS’ (FOR GOODALL’S TWO TRANSLATIONS OF ‘IDYLL 23 IN   POETICAL RECREATIONS (1688) and POEMS AND TRANSLATIONS (1689)] Anonymous.  ‘A Pastoral Dialogue Concerning Friendship and Love’ (1691)   (SEE Cicero, Cicero’s Laelius: A Discourse of Friendship, above) Thomas Ellwood (1639-1713)  Davideis: The Life of David, King of Israel (1712; 1722)   -from ‘Book 1, Chapters 1, 2, 3, 7’   -from ‘Book 2, Chapter 4’   -from ‘Book 3, Chapter 4’ Thomas Gordon (d. 1750)  -from The Conspirators, Or, The Case of Catiline (1721)   LITERATURE REPRESENTING FEMALE SAME-SEX DESIRES AND RELATIONSHIPS  Anonymous (translator, John Bourchier, 2 nd  Baron Berners, c. 1467-1533)  Huon of Bourdeaux (1515?; 1600)   ‘Chapters 164-172’ Ludovico Ariosto (1474-1533)  Orlando Furioso (1591), translated by Sir John Harington (1580-1612)   -from ‘Book 25, stanzas 19-61’  7  Edmund Spenser (1552?-1599)  -from The Faerie Queene (1590, 1596)   -Book 3, canto 1, stanzas 20-67 [The Malecasta-Castle Joyous Episode]   -Book 3, canto 6, stanzas 43-53 [The Garden of Adonis]   -1590 Book 3, canto 12, later cancelled stanzas 43-47 [The Joining of    Scudamour and Amoret]   -Book 4, canto 1, stanzas 1-16 [Britomart’s Combat for Amoret] Arthur Maynwaring? (1668-1712)  -from ‘A New Ballad’ (1708)  -from The Rival Duchess, Or Court Incendiary (1708) See also Aphra Behn, -from Poems upon Several Occasions, ‘Our Cabal,’ LITERATURE:  REPRESENTING MALE SAME-SEX DESIRES AND RELATIONSHIPS   II. ESSAYS  THE CLASSICAL TRADITION IN TRANSLATION ‘Classical Writers, their Early Modern Reputations and Translations’ (Anacreon; Catullus; Cicero; Homer; Horace; Juvenal; Lucian; Martial; Ovid; Petronius; Plutarch; Sappho; Theocritus; Virgil; Xenophon) SPECIAL TOPICS IN EARLY MODERN HOMOEROTIC LITERATURE ‘David and Jonathan in Early Modern Literature’ ‘The Homoerotics of Seventeenth-Century Devotional Poetry’   III. ONLINE BIBLIOGRAPHY   IV. PREFACE  The works selected below are meant to complement and supplement those that appear in the print anthology Same-Sex Desire in Early Modern England: An Anthology of Literary Texts and Contexts, 1550-1735 (Manchester UP, 2014). As a result, the texts do not aim at being either representative of the range of writing, or comprehensive in their coverage of genres or authors. For contextualizing introductions that treat religion, law, medicine, private correspondence, the classical tradition in translation, and much more, readers should consult the print anthology.   V. ANNOTATIONS AND GLOSSARY  For proper names that occur frequently throughout the Online Companion, readers should consult the glossary in the print anthology. These names include the following: figures from classical mythology and literature (such as Apollo, Achilles, Danae, Elysium, the Furies, etc.), historical figures from classical antiquity (such as Socrates, Plato, and Heliogabalus), as well as Biblical figures (such as David and Jonathan). All other people, places, and things, as well as early modern historical and literary figures are identified in the footnotes.    8  REFERENCE WORKS. Unless otherwise noted, headnotes and annotations rely on the following:  1. DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND PHRASES: Oxford English Dictionary (2 nd  online edn.; accessed 2010); E. Knowles’ Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (online edn., 2006); E. Partridge’s Dictionary of Slang (ed., P. Beale, 8th edn., 2002); G. Williams’ Dictionary of Sexual Language and Imagery in Shakespearean and Stuart Literature, 2 vols. (1994).  2. CLASSICAL, LITERARY, AND HISTORICAL FIGURES: Oxford Classical Dictionary (3 rd  edn., 1999); G. Speake’s Penguin Dictionary of Ancient History (1994); Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (1984); B. Radice’s Penguin Who’s Who in the Ancient World (1973); J. Lemprière’s Classical Dictionary (1788; rept., 1994).  3. THE BIBLE AND CHRISTIANITY: HarperCollins’ Bible Dictionary (gen. ed., P.J. Achtemeier, rev. edn., 1996); W.R.F. Browning’s Oxford Dictionary of the Bible (1996); Harper’s Bible Commentary (gen. ed., J.L. Mays, 1988); Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (ed., F.L. Cross and E.A. Livingstone, 2 nd  rev. edn., 1983).  4. SAME-SEX LOVERS IN HISTORY:  J.G. Younger’s Sex in the Ancient World, from A-Z (2005); Who’s Who in Gay & Lesbian History: From Antiquity to World War II (ed., R. Aldrich and G. Wotherspoon, 2002).  5. EARLY MODERN ENGLISH SOCIETY, HISTORY, AND CULTURE: Marcel De Cleene and Marie Claire Lejeune’s Compendium of Symbolic and Ritual Plants in Europe. 2 vols (1999-2003); L.W. Cowrie’s Wordsworth Dictionary of British Social History (1996); M.B. Picken’s Dictionary of Costume and Fashion: Historic and Modern (1985; rept., 1998); The Diary of Samuel Pepys. Vol. X. Companion (ed., R.C. Latham and W. Matthews, 1971); M.P Tilley’s Dictionary of the Proverbs in England in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (1966); C.W. Cunnington’s Dictionary of English Costume (1960); Calendar of State Papers, Domestic series [of the Commonwealth] 1649-1660 (ed., M.A.E. Green, 1875-1886); Pliny’s Natural History 2 vols. (trans., P. Holland, 1601).  6. BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION ON EARLY MODERN FIGURES: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (DNB: online edn., accessed 2011); Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage (ed., C. Mosley, 107 th  edn., 3 vols., 2003); Alumni Cantabrigiensis 4 vols. (ed., J. Venn, 1922-7); The Eton College Register, 1441-1698 (ed., W. Sterry, 1943).  Unless otherwise noted, references to Greek and Latin texts are to the standard Loeb editions.   1  AELIAN (165/70-230/35 CE), RHETORICIAN, TEACHER, AND WRITER.   Aelian’s most famous work is his Varia Historia, a miscellany that brings together a wide variety of material, ranging from moralizing anecdotes concerning kings, philosophers, poets, and other noteworthy individuals to biographical sketches to strange facts about animals and the natural world to descriptions of customs, food, and drink. His moral didacticism―his favouring of those tales and anecdotes that would be ‘improving’ for the reader―made him popular among later Christian writers. There were two English translations of Aelian’s Various History in sixteenth-century England, one by Abraham Fleming (1576) and the other by Thomas Stanley (1665).   THOMAS STANLEY (b. 1650), TRANSLATOR.   Son of the far more famous classical scholar, translator and poet, Thomas Stanley (1625-1678), the younger Thomas entered Pembroke College, Cambridge in 1665, and published his Claudius Aelianus, His Various History in the same year.     From VARIOUS HISTORY (1666) 1   […]  BOOK 1, CHAPTER 30: THAT GALETES 2  WAS BELOVED OF PTOLEMY 3  NOT MORE FOR HIS BEAUTY THAN HIS PRUDENCE  King Ptolemy loved a youth named Galetes. He was very beautiful, but of a mind transcending his form, which Ptolemy frequently testified of him, saying, “O thou sweet of disposition! Thou wert never author of harm to any, but on the contrary hast done several good offices to many.”  On a time, this youth rode forth with the King, and beholding afar off some malefactors led to execution, he readily said (speaking to Ptolomey): “O King, since it is our chance to be on horseback according to some good genius 4  of those wretches, come, if you please, let us spur on and overtake them that we may appear to the unhappy men as the Dioscuri, 5  preservers and succourers (so those gods are called).”  Ptolemy, much pleased with his sweet disposition and proneness to mercy, embraced him, and not only saved the malefactors, but confirmed and increased the affection he bore him.       1  The 2 nd  edition. 2  Galetes   sometimes, the name is given as ‘Galestes.’ 3  Ptolemy   Ptolemy VI, king of Egypt (reigned, 180-145 BCE). Aelian seems the sole classical source for this relationship. 4  good genius   guardian spirit. 5  Dioscuri   Castor and Pollux, sons of Leda, legendary founders of Rome, famed protectors of sailors, and emblems of perfect fraternal and homoerotic love. See ‘Glossary,’ print anthology. 2   BOOK 2, CHAPTER 4: OF THE FRIENDSHIP BETWIXT CHARITON AND MELANIPPUS, 6  AND THE TYRANT’S7 MERCY TOWARDS THEM  I will relate to you an action of Phalaris not agreeing with his disposition, for it expresseth a great humanity, and therefore seemeth not to suit with him. Chariton, an Agrigentine, loved Melanippus passionately, who was also an Agrigentine, of a sweet disposition and excellent form. Phalaris had injured this Melanippus in a certain business, for he, having brought an action against a favourite of Phalaris, the Tyrant commanded him to surcease the suit. He not obeying, the Tyrant threatened him with death unless he submitted, so being compelled he gave over the cause. And the judges under Phalaris nulled the proceedings, which the young man taking ill, said that he was wronged, and discovered his resentment thereof to his friend, praying him to join him in a plot against the Tyrant, intending also to engage some other young men, whom he knew proper and ready for such an attempt. Chariton seeing him enraged and enflamed with fury, and knowing that none of the citizens would join in the design for fear of the Tyrant, said that he also had formerly the same intention, and should ever be ready above all things to free his country from slavery; but it was dangerous to communicate such things to many persons, wherefore he entreated Melanippus to consider it more deliberately, and to permit him to find out an opportunity proper for the attempt. The young man yielded. Chariton thereupon undertook the whole business himself, not willing to engage his friend in it, that if he were taken and discovered, he alone might bear the punishment, and his friend not share in the danger. He provided himself of a falchion 8  to assault the Tyrant when he should see a fit occasion. This could not be carried so privately but that he was apprehended by the guard, watchful of such things. But being carried to prison and tortured to make discovery of his complices, 9  he courageously endured the torment. But this continuing a long time, Melanippus went to Phalaris, and confessed that he was not only a conspirator, but author of the treason. The King demanding the cause that moved him to it, he declared the whole business from the beginning: how he was obstructed in his suit, and that this was it which provoked him. The Tyrant wondering hereat set them both at liberty, but commanded them immediately to depart, not only out of all cities belonging to the Agrigentines, but quite out of Sicily. Yet he allowed them to receive the full benefit of their estates. These and their friendships Pythia 10  afterward commended in these verses:  To men, true patterns of celestial love, Blest Chariton and Melanippus prove.  The God 11  calling this love of theirs ‘a divine friendship.’      6  Chariton and Melanippus   These classical male lovers were famous, each being willing to suffer death for the other; their love became proverbial. See Athenaeus, The Deipnosophists, 13.601A-B, 601E-605D. 7  the Tyrant’s   Phalaris, tyrant of Agrigentum in Sicily (reigned c. 570-554 BCE).  ‘Tyrant’ was not necessarily an insulting label, but a title (like king or emperor), although Phalaris was reportedly given to torturing his subjects unmercifully at the slightest suspicion of disloyalty. 8  falchion   sword. 9  complices   i.e., accomplices. 10  Pythia   priestess and prophetess of the sun-god Apollo at his famed shrine (Delphi). 11  the God  Cupid, god of love. 3  BOOK 2, CHAPTER 31: OF PAUSANIAS HIS FRIENDSHIP WITH AGATHON THE POET. 12   There was a great friendship between Pausanias a Ceramean and Agathon the poet. This is generally known, but I will relate what is less common. On a time the two friends came before Archelaus. He observing the frequent differences 13  betwixt Pausanias and Agathon, and thinking that one friend despited 14  the other, asked Agathon what was the reason that he had such frequent quarrels with him who loved him so well. He answered, “O King, I will tell you. It is not that I am froward15 towards him, neither do I this through rusticity; 16  but if I understand anything of behaviour, as well by poetry as other things, I find that the greatest pleasure of friends is after some falling out to be reconciled; and I am of opinion that nothing can happen to them more delightful. Therefore, I make him partake often of this pleasure, by falling out with him frequently. For he is overjoyed when I end the difference and am reconciled; whereas if I should use him always alike, he would not understand the difference.” Archelaus (as they say) commended this answer. It is reported that Euripides 17  the poet also exceedingly loved this Agathon, and in favour of him composed his tragedy entitled Chrysippus. 18  But this I cannot certainly affirm, yet know it to be attested by many.   BOOK 3, CHAPTER 9: OF LOVE.  Who is able to fight with a lover that [is] not a lover himself, and when the business is to be decided by the sword? For he who loves not always shunneth and denieth a lover, as being himself profane and uninitiated with the god. 19  He dares as much as the courage of his soul and strength of his body will bear, yet fears the other as one transported with divine fury, animated not by Mars only, which is common to both, but likewise by Love. For they who are excited with other of the gods, whereof one (as Homer sayeth) rageth equal with Mars; they, I say, which are possessed only with one, fight with as much courage as one god inspireth, but the servants of Love being inflamed with Mars and Love, serving both deities, have (according to the opinion of the Cretans) a double share of courage. But none therefore finds fault if a soldier who fights only by instigation of one god, refuse to encounter with him who is assisted both by Mars and Love.     12  Pausanias and Agathon    Virtually nothing is known about Pausanias (fl. c. 425 BCE), outside of what is revealed in Plato’s dialogues, Symposium and Protagoras.     Agathon   (c. 450-399 BCE), poet and dramatist. Although Agathon’s works have been lost, he is a speaker, along with Pausanias, in Symposium and Protagoras. They are most famous for having had a lengthy (it would appear life-long) love relationship, with Pausanias apparently accompanying Agathon when the poet went to live in Macedon, clearly hoping for patronage from King Archelaus (c. 413-399 BCE), a well-known supporter of poets and dramatists. 13  differences   disagreements, arguments. 14  despited   treated with contempt. 15  froward   perverse, unreasonable. 16  rusticity   lack of manners or sophistication. 17  Euripides   famous Greek dramatist (c. 480-406 BCE). Reportedly, Euripides was in his early seventies at the time, while Agathon was in his forties. 18  In Chrysippus (of which only fragments remain), Laius, king of Thebes, is a guest in the palace of Pelops, king of the Peloponnese. Laius falls in love with Pelops’ young son, Chrysippus, kidnaps, and rapes him. The boy later kills himself out of shame. 19  the god  Cupid, god of love. 4  BOOK 3, CHAPTER 10: OF LACEDAEMONIAN FRIENDSHIP. 20   Of the Lacedaemonian Ephori 21  I could relate many excellent things said and done. At present, I shall only tell you this: if amongst them any man preferred in friendship a rich man before another that was poor and virtuous, they fined him, punishing his avarice with loss of money. If another that were a virtuous person professed particular friendship to none, they fined him also, because being virtuous he would not make choice of a friend, whereas he might render him he loved like himself, and perhaps divers; 22  for affection of friends conduceth much to the advancement of virtue in those whom they love, if they be temperate and virtuous. There was also this law among the Lacedaemonians: if any young man transgressed, they pardoned him, imputing it to want of years and experience, yet punished his friend, as conscious and overseer of his actions. 23    BOOK 3, CHAPTER 12: OF FRIENDSHIP AMONGST THE LACEDAEMONIANS. 24   Friendship among the Spartans was truly innocent: if anything unlawful happened, both persons must either forsake their country or their lives.   BOOK 7, CHAPTER 8. OF ALEXANDER’S GRIEF AT HEPHAESTION’S DEATH.  When Hephaestion died, Alexander cast into the pyre his arms, and gold and silver, to be burnt with the dead body, as also a vest of great esteem among the Persians. He likewise caused all the chief soldiers to be shaved, himself acting a Homerical passion, and imitating his Achilles. 25  But he did more eagerly and fiercely, laying waste the castle of the city Ecbatana, and throwing down the wall. As to the shaving of his hair, he did in my opinion like a Greek, but in throwing down the walls, he expressed his mourning like a barbarian. He also changed his vest, giving all over to grief, love, and tears.  Hephaestion died at Ecbatana. It is reported that these things were intended for the burial of Hephaestion, but that Alexander used them dying, before the mourning was over for the young man.       20  Lacedaemonian   Spartan. 21  Ephori   the five powerful magistrates who enforced Spartan law. 22  and perhaps divers   i.e., the older Spartan man might not simply inspire his younger male beloved to emulate the older’s virtues, but this relationship might inspire others as well to imitate the older man and perhaps the younger as well. 23  conscious and overseer of his actions   the friendship between an older Spartan warrior and his younger counterpart was  central to Sparta’s military; the older man was the younger’s mentor and (frequently) his lover, and was responsible for the younger’s training in war and civic responsibility. 24  See Plutarch’s discussion of male friendship and love among the Spartans (Lacedaemonians) in The Life of Lycurgus (excerpted in Plutarch, Online Companion). 25  a Homerical passion ... Achilles   Alexander highly honoured Homer’s Iliad and had publicly opined his lack of a ‘Homer’ to memorialize his great deeds. For Achilles’ deep grief over the death of his lover Patroclus, and its expression in Patroclus’ elaborate funeral games, see Homer, Iliad, Book 23 (excerpted in the print anthology, pp. 148-52). 5  BOOK 12, CHAPTER 7: OF ALEXANDER AND HEPHAESTION.  Alexander crowned the tomb of Achilles, and Hephaestion that of Patroclus, signifying that he was dear to Alexander as Patroclus to Achilles.   BOOK 12, CHAPTER 14: OF PERSONS EXCELLENT IN BEAUTY.  They say that the most amiable and beautiful amongst the Greeks was Alcibiades, amongst the Romans, Scipio. 26  It is reported also that Demetrius Poliorcetes 27  contended in beauty. They affirm likewise that Alexander, son of Philip, 28  was of a neglectful handsomeness, for his hair curled naturally and was yellow, yet they say there was something stern in his countenance. Homer speaking of handsome persons compares them to trees:   “—he shoots up like a plant.”   BOOK 12. CHAPTER 19: SAPPHO.  Sappho the poetess, daughter of Scamandronymus, is (by Plato, son of Aristo) reckoned among the Sages. 29  I am informed that there was another Sappho in Lesbos, a courtesan, not a poetess. 30   26  Publius Cornelius Scipio (later, Scipio Africanus), one of Rome’s most successful generals. The historian Livy mentions that Scipio’s physical beauty joined with his confidence and dignity to make him an object of awe, even among those he had conquered. 27  Demetrius Poliorcetes   i.e., Demetrius I of Macedon (reigned, c. 294-288 BCE). For Plutarch’s ‘Life of Demetrius,’ which emphasizes his beauty, see Online Companion. 28  Alexander son of Philip   i.e., Alexander the Great. He was famously beautiful. 29  Sages   the legendary Seven Sages of Greece were a group of early philosophers and statesmen, particularly famed for their practical wisdom in the realms of politics and social relations. 30  For this ancient division of Sappho into two figures (the excellent poet and the licentious woman), see the headnote to selections from Sappho’s works in the print anthology, pp.153-54, 161. 1  ANACREON (c. 575-490 BCE), GREEK POET. For a brief biography of Anacreon, additional poems, and a brief account of his reception, translation, and reputation in early modern England, see the print anthology, pp. 145-6 and p. 187-90.   EDITIONS: For selected early modern and modern translations of Anacreon’s verse and the Anacreontea,  see the essay ‘Anacreon’ in “Classical Writers, their Early Modern Reputations and  Translations” (Online Companion)   ANACREON DONE INTO ENGLISH OUT OF THE ORIGINAL GREEK (1683) 1    From THE PREFACE  The great inducement that drew on my genius 2  to this bold attempt was the desire of communicating to the world those hidden sweets, that pretty diversion, that long time lay undiscovered in this author; as also the tempting pattern set by the inimitable Mr. Cowley, where he has rendered part of this author so lively in an English dress that I began to esteem it of almost equal beauty with the original. But when I considered the loss of those many insinuating advantages the author had over the ears of his auditors, to whom the inaccessible graces of that language, the delicacies of his wit and style, dished up with all the tickling art of music, could not but yield a very pleasant gust; and now that the same copied out in a less copious tongue and without that additionary beauty of the attuning harp, which was customary in those days, should equally relish with us; I am apt to conclude next of kin to an impossibility.  To supply, therefore, these defects, I have in a looser method, but according to the aforementioned pattern, Englished this author with a parallel fancy of my own here and there interwoven, but as I dare aver nothing derogatory to the sense of the author. And however this method may seem to some to be only the wanton sallies of a ranging fancy, 3  and the too licentious play of a poetical mind, yet I can easily satisfy myself that ’tis nothing but what is authorized by Mr. Cowley, nothing but what is adapted to his model […]  […]   Neither do I look upon this to indulge too much liberty, but only to grant a freer range to sense and reason. I profess myself an utter enemy to the too narrow tie of a verbal translation, and when I chance to spy an author of this kind who has slavishly confined himself to the least particle of his original, methinks it looks as if not only the motion of the body (according to Descartes’ opinion) but that of the mind too was performed by mechanism. 4  All his uneasy production seems so forced, so much strived for, as if his wit, like the goddess of it, could not be produced without the labour of the brain; 5  and this,  1  Translated by Francis Willis, Abraham Cowley, John Oldham, Thomas Wood, and S.B. Oxford: J. Lichfield. For further information on the translators, see the print anthology. 2  genius   natural aptitude or inclination; characteristic disposition. 3  sallies   outbursts.      ranging fancy   wandering, rambling, or undisciplined imagination. 4  not only … mechanism   For the French philosopher Rene Descartes’ mechanical philosophy as applied to the composition and function of the human body, see Treatise on Man (1664). 5  as if his wit … goddess of it … brain   Athena, goddess of wisdom, sprang fully formed from the forehead of her father, Zeus, king of the gods. 2  methinks, is the ready way of burlesquing both himself and the author.  […]  Thus far I apologized for those licenses I have here indulged myself; and that no one after this might cavil at the design of this piece, where vice seems to be so gaudily apparelled on purpose to draw over some to be its proselytes, I would have the reader know that this is far from the intent of the author, who only designed it as an innocent recreation to divert the mind after it has been teased with the long fatigue of business, and to fill up those vacant hours appropriate to mirth; and also with insinuating delight to please the ladies, for whom great part of this book (viz. that product, those enamouring features of love so prettily delineated by this author) was peculiarly intended, in rendering which the only thing I have to glory in is, that whereas I have had such enticements to use a wantonness of speech, and in the plainness of language to display the ladies naked, yet I have been so decently modest as not to admit of one expression that may adulterate the chastest thoughts of a nun, or exact a blush from the most reserved of that sex. I shall only now desire the ladies favourably to accept this, and bless it with their approbation; then I shall be exempted from the fear of any ill-natured critics, being well assured that as for the generality of men they are so much theirs, so much bound in complacence to will and nill 6  the same, that to dislike what the ladies approve were in some measure to contradict themselves. From these, therefore, I beg that my applause may be uttered with all the emphasis of a smile; yet this alas would be too much, and only render me more unhappy; I should then begin to envy even my own work, and account it my happier rival; nor could I propose to myself any other means of satisfaction than by wishing they would by a kind metonymy accept the author for his book.             S.B. 7  […]   ODE 3. CUPID OR THE CUNNING BEGGAR 8   O’er all when night had silence spread, Chained down by sleep and all lay dead; When moon and stars below did rest, With former watchings much oppressed; When even thought in peace was lain, And the old Nothing seemed to reign: A pretty boy at door did wait, And me for lodging much entreat, Complaining long of cold and wet. “I am,” says he, “a fatherless And hungry child in much distress. My mother to some neighb’ring town  6  will and nill   i.e., agree and disagree. 7  S.B. remains unidentified. 8  For the original Greek with a modern prose translation, see Greek Lyric, 2.33, pp. 202-205. For another translation contemporary with this one, see Charles Goodall’s “Ode 1. Love” in Poems and Translations (London, 1689). Robert Herrick’s version of this poem, “The Cheat of Cupid: Or, The Ungentle Guest,” downplays its homoerotic content by modifying Cupid’s helplessness and deleting the speaker’s appreciative description of Cupid’s beauty, his labelling of Cupid as Ganymede, and his hugging and kissing of the little winged god. See Hesperides (London, 1648), pp. 26-27. 3  To beg relief for us is gone, Left me and innocence alone. Good sir, if the kind gods you love, Let me, poor me, your pity move.” ’Twas here he stopped, and down his face Methought the tears did flow apace; His formal cant I soon believed, 9  And thought that I his tears perceived. Compassion came from every part, And pleaded strongly in my heart; My heart, which its own ills desired, And even I myself conspired. I rose and struck a light, then straight With pious haste unlocked the gate; (So headlong to our fate we fly, So fond are we of misery). I saw the youth, ’twas wondrous fair; His eyes did like two stars appear; His limbs upon each other shone, And made a constellation; But heats as yet I must not feel, With wings he did himself conceal, (For know with pomp and leisure he Prepared at length to murder me). His darts and bow did seem around To hang, as play-things newly found; Destruction then with kind intent I modishly did complement. 10  I warmed his hands with mine, but see Two fires did back upon me flee, For though more cold than flint he came, He had like that a secret flame. His hair was wet, but even then Some glimmering beauties did remain; At length the curls in order lay, O’er which (that led my soul away) Millions of little loves did play. I called him ‘Ganymede,’ I’d swear That Cupid was not half so fair. Nay, that I might my kindness shew, I think I hugged and kissed him too. Cheered thus, warm life came up again, And all in every part did reign; All discontent and cares did cease, His bow-strings th’ only thing amiss; So prettily he straight forgot  9  cant   given the adj. ‘formal’ (i.e., ‘seeming or hypocritical’), the trans. perhaps refers to ‘cant’ as the special phraseology of a religious sect (gesturing to the boy’s soon-to-be-revealed identity as ‘the god of love’); however, it could refer to the speech or phraseology of beggars (which the boy is certainly employing here). 10  modishly   fashionably. 4  Each grave and unbecoming thought. “Let’s try,” says [he] (affecting straight A meekly look, the greatest cheat), “Let’s try; if ’gainst my bow th’ unkind Heav’ns rage and malice have design’d.”    Here to the head the dart was drawn, And here the mighty god was shown; For (Oh) in my unwary breast Death and the fatal steel did rest! Impatient sense and nature dies, And love alone a life supplies. The grinning boy augments my pain, With drolls and scoffs he wounds again. 11  “Landlord,” he cries, “my bow you see Is much above an injury. All ills against your heart were meant, Kind ills which heav’n and Cupid sent. And you to me that warmth did give, A double gift do back receive; I grant (my gratitude to prove) That thou shalt scorch and burn with love.”    CHARLES GOODALL (1671-89), POET. For further information about Charles Goodall and other selections from his poetry, see the print anthology, pp. 384-99. See also his translations of Theocritus in the Online Companion.   From POEMS AND TRANSLATIONS (1689)   ODE 2. THE LETTER-CARRIER  “Tell me, amiable dove,12 Thou great ambassador of love, A spokesman fit for amorous Jove, Tell me, tell me, why such hast? 13  Whither is’t you fly so fast? Where didst thou thy breath perfume? From what spicy country come? From whence, with thy mercurial wing, Dost thou these heavenly odours bring? Swimming through th’ ambitious air, Proud to kiss thy wings so fair, Leaving a scent of sweetness there. Tell me who it is will be  11  drolls   jests, mocking words. 12  dove   one of the emblematic birds of Venus, goddess of love and sexual desire. 13  hast   i.e., haste. 5  So honoured with thy company?” The dove replied, “What would I give, Poor dove, for a preservative From coxcombs so inquisitive? 14  Pray, what are my concerns to you? But since ’tis your desire to know, And meddlers will not be said ‘no,’ (Save me, ye gods; for what offence Must I be killed by impertinence?) I am” (and then she curbed her head,15 Her tail, fan-like, by feathers spread, And walked in state, and clapped her wings, And did a hundred pretty things, To show her pride) “Anacreon’s dove, And manage the affairs of love With his Bathyllus, that dear boy, (Oh, happy state that I enjoy!) Lovely Bathyllus, he that can By one sweet look ev’n conquer man; Can by the magic of his eyes Over all things tyrannize; Victorious beauty of all Greece, The whole creation’s masterpiece; The pride of Nature, and the fire That raises Venus’s desire, Whom though she envy, she must still admire; Could make a Stoic change his mind, 16  Fixed as the sun, turn like the wind, And in Love’s school more pleasures find Than in his former hermite’s cell, Principles dark and deep as hell. To Venus once I did belong; 17  She sold me for a trifling song. Oh, happy I, that used to run From place to place, from sun to sun, Managing the intrigues of love With Mars and half the gods above, With her seraglio of gallants, 18  That by turns supplied her wants, Am servant to Anacreon, Who loved by all, yet loves but one.  14  coxcombs   fools; interfering busybodies. 15  curbed   curved, bent. 16  Could ... mind   Stoic philosophers of ancient Greece advocated control of the passions; in the early modern period, they were popularly believed to have embraced celibacy. However, it is just possible that the reference is to the fact that some Stoic philosophers advocated that men should love older youths capable of philosophic discussion rather than uneducated and socially-raw adolescent boys. See Diogenes Laertius, ‘Life of Zeno,’ Lives of the Eminent Philosophers. 17  To ... belong   See n12. 18  seraglio   harem. Venus had sexual affairs with many of the Greek gods, including Mars (god of war), Mercury (messenger of the gods), Bacchus (god of wine), and Neptune (god of the sea). 6  And as you see me now, I bear His letters to his lovely fair; 19  This the perfume that scents the air. He promises to set me free; Excuse me for such liberty: No other freedom would I crave, Than name and nature of a slave; Nor other slavery can I dread, Than being, as he tells me, freed. For to what purpose should I fly, And ramble in the spacious sky, By famine, net, or arrow die? Sit starving on a mountain’s top, Or coo on barren trees, and hop, In fear of death, from bough to bough, I know not where, I know not how; Either die for want of meat, Else haws, and chaff, and vetches eat: 20  Nor safety in that wretched fare, ’Ware birdlime, turtle, and the snare.21 Where puddle-water is the best, A hollow tree the softest nest; To hear owls’ music, nor that long;22 She’ll make one dance unto her song. Is this the freedom I have lost? Is this the freedom others boast? I by my master now can stand, Peck crumbs out of Anacreon’s hand; And have my little Ganymede To give me wine, whene’er I need. I in a merry mood, can sup Wine out of Anacreon’s cup; His own pure, choice, delicious wine, So smooth, so sparkling, and so fine! Which he keeps purposely to treat Bathyllus with, when they two meet. When I get drunk, I clap my wings, And dance, whilst my Anacreon sings. And when I am a sleepy grown, Upon his harp I lay me down: Music and I can there agree In one united harmony; Both make our master melody. Peace and concord is, in brief, The perfect sum of my whole life,  19  fair   beautiful beloved (a term most often used of women in the period). 20  haws   fruits of the hawthorn tree, or the heads of wild grasses.    chaff   husks of corn or grain.    vetches   a grain grown as fodder. 21  ’Ware   Beware.     birdlime   a sticky substance smeared on branches to catch young birds. 22  owls’ music   i.e., the unmelodious screeching of owls (traditionally, the owl was a bird of ill-omen). 7  Free from danger, noise, or strife. Farewell. But now too late I must repent, That like yourself I’m grown impertinent: For when I’m gone, you’ll say you took me wrong, To be a dove with a crow’s prattling tongue.”23     From THE WORKS OF ANACREON AND SAPPHO, DONE FROM THE GREEK BY SEVERAL HANDS (1713) 24    THE LIFE OF ANACREON  […] We can’t expect many particulars of his life, because he seems to have been a professed despiser of all business and concerns of the world. And since he designed his whole age merely for one merry fit, it were rather a piece of civility than of injustice in the world to let it be entirely forgotten.  Thus far we may be certain: that wine and love had the disposal of all his hours. And if to divert himself he engages in so delightful a study as poetry, perhaps his intention was rather to pay his respects to some other deities than to compliment the Muses. Ovid himself, though one of the freest livers upon record, yet could censure Anacreon’s verses as of a looser humour 25  than his own:  Quid nisi cum multo Venerem confundere vino, Precepit Lyrici Teia Musa Senis?  Venus with Bacchus madly to confound Was all the wise advice the Teian Lyre could sound.   His tippling 26  was as famous in the world as his poetry, and when we find his statue in Pausanius ’habited27 like a lyric professor, we hear at the same time that it was better distinguished by the posture of a drunkard. 28   As to the other part of his profession—love—he appears to have been equally enamoured of both sexes, and to have shown as great a veneration for Cupid as he did for Venus. Aelian indeed is very angry if we suspect Anacreon of any dishonesty towards the train of fine boys whom he admired. But the general cry runs too loud against the poet in this point, that there’s no need of his own       , to prove that he loved his minions 29  on no better account than he did his mistresses.  23  The crow, another ill-omened bird in early modern England, is conventionally contrasted with the dove, emphasizing the former’s ugliness and the latter’s beauty. 24  This anonymous translation (the preface is signed G.S.) acknowledges that it is based on the 1683 translation Anacreon Done into English out of the Original Greek, excerpted above and in the print anthology, pp. 187-90. 25  looser humour    more licentious tenor. 26  tippling   habitual drinking of alcohol. 27  ’habited   clothed, dressed; perhaps, more generally, ‘presented.’ 28  Pausanius … lyric professor   The geographer Pausanius (fl. 2nd c. CE) says that Anacreon’s statue on the Acropolis in Athens represents him as a drunk in his posture (Description of Greece, trans. W.H.S. Jones, 1.25.1). 29  minions   [male] lovers; the early modern connotations are uniformly more contemptuous than is the case with 8   Hermesianax, as he is cited in Athenaeus, gives an account of Anacreon’s amours with Sappho. But Athenaeus himself refutes the story, by observing that Sappho and Anacreon could not possibly be contemporaries; the lady living under Alyaetes, father to Croesus, and the gentleman under Cyrus and Polycrates. But ’tis grown a common wish that they had flourished in the same age and country; and had by some nearer relation improved the happy agreement of their temper and wit.  […]   What became of him after the Athenian voyage, 30  or where he passed his last minutes is not on record. But, as his own verses confess his great age (though not the effects of it), so Lucian reckons him among the long-livers, allowing him fourscore and five years. 31   The manner of his death was very extraordinary. For they tell us, he was choked with an unlucky grape-stone, which slipped down, as he was regaling on some new wine. […]  […] it cannot be esteemed a meaner happiness that he has escaped the more dangerous disturbance of the critics. Indeed both the blessings are in great measure owing to himself; one, to the condition of his life; the other, to that of his writings. For as the careless and unconcerned freedom of his manners hindered him from being drawn into the business of the world, so the beautiful negligence and sweet gaiety of his odes have kept him from ever forming an ungrateful field for learned quarrels and encounters.  The masters of controversial philology are utterly disappointed when Anacreon falls under their canvass. He deprives them of all their common places of talk. They can produce no tedious labours on the occasions of his poems, because they were all perfect humours. 32  They can neither dispute what examples he followed, nor who have followed his examples, because the natural delicacy of his pieces disdains a copier, as much as it did a pattern […]    the word ‘mistress.’ 30  Anacreon reportedly went to Athens to serve Hipparchus, son to the tyrant Pisistratus. 31  fourscore and five   85. 32  perfect humours   i.e., the poems all represent simply the humours (dominant or driving passions/inclinations) of the situations and/or persons depicted. 1  LUDOVICO ARIOSTO (1474-1533), ITALIAN POET.  Born in Lombardy, author of satires and dramatic comedies, Ariosto is most famous for his influential romance, the epic chivalric poem Orlando Furioso (1532).   JOHN HARINGTON (1580-1612), COURTIER, WRITER, AND TRANSLATOR.   Reportedly, Harington’s translation of Orlando Furioso was a ‘command’ performance, ordered by Elizabeth I when she discovered he had already distributed his version of the work’s more erotic sections among her ladies-in-waiting. Its first, sumptuous edition (1591) was followed by two more (1607, revised; 1634).  Sometimes remembered as the popularizer of the first English ‘water-closet’ (through his Metamorphosis of Ajax [1596]), Harington was also an accomplished poet: his satirical epigrams were frequently copied and circulated throughout the seventeenth century.   EDITIONS: Ariosto, Ludovico. Orlando Furioso. Translated into English Heroical Verse by Sir John  Harington (1591). Ed. and Intro. Robert McNulty. Oxford: Clarendon, 1972.    ORLANDO FURIOSO (1591)   From BOOK 25  [Ricciardetto tells a story about his sister, the knight Bradamante. They are twins, so similar in appearance that they are often mistaken for each other.]   19 ‘It happened (as in part I touched before) My valiant sister passing through a wood Was hurt with certain Saracens so sore 1  As had her cost almost her vital blood, Which wound to cure her tresses short she wore, For so as then her surgeon thought it good. The wound once cured for which her head was polled, Abroad to go again she waxed bold.  20 ‘And having travelled till the heat of day All clad in armour as her manner was,  1  Saracens   Muslim warriors. 2  At noon she took occasion to make stay Fast by a wat’ry stream as clear as glass, And putting off her helmet, down she lay Upon a pleasant bank well-clothed with grass, And sleep at last her heavy eyes did close, The place inviting her to take repose.  21 ‘Now while she did there fast asleep remain There happened to arrive unto that place The daughter of Marsilio, king of Spain, 2  That there by chance was hunting in the chase, And seeing signs of manhood very plain With that her sweet and amiable face, As horse and sword and target all of steel, 3  A little amorous passion she doth feel.  22 ‘And taking then my sister for a man, As by all circumstances well she might, She offers her all court’sy that she can And asked her if in hunting she delight; And then to choose a standing they began, 4  And finding one far off from others’ sight, She opened more plainly that affection That had her heart already in subjection,  23 ‘And save her maiden modesty forbad, She would the same in words have plainly told. Howb’it with sighs, with rueful looks and sad,5 And silent signs, she doth her grief unfold; And when she thus long time discoursèd had, Surprised with hope, she could no longer hold, But steps to her and gives her such a kiss As that alone shows what her meaning is.  24 ‘My sister at the first doth think it strange  2  daughter of Marsilio   Fiordispina (identified by name in stanza 32). 3  target   shield. 4  standing   a concealed place from which to shoot game. 5  howb’it    howbeit. 3  That such a suit should unto her be made, And finding she had ta’en her in exchange, She thinks it best (before she further wade Or let the t’other’s humour further range)6 Tell troth, for thus she doth herself persuade, ’Tis better to be known a lady gentle Then to be deemed a base man and ungentle, 7   25 ‘For what could be more cullen-like or base8 Or fitter for a man were made of straw, 9  Than standing in a fair young lady’s grace To show himself a cuckow or a daw 10  And lose occasion both of time and place? My sister therefore that this ill foresaw And knew she wanted that that her should aid 11  Told her by circumstance she was a maid;  26 ‘And thus she told her how the worthy fame Hippolyta and stout Camilla won 12  In deeds of arms moved her her mind to frame To do the like while others sewed and spun, And that she thought it to her sex no shame To do as women of such worth had done. She told her this in hope this would appease her, But this alas did so much more disease her.  27 ‘For why, the fancy was so firmly fixed13 That in her mind she had before conceived By means of speech had passèd them betwixt That sore it griev’d her to be thus deceived.14 Before, her fear with some good hope was mixed,  6  humour   inclination. 7  ungentle   discourteous. 8  cullen-like   despicable. 9  for ... straw   i.e., if a man were only the counterfeit image of one (unmanly). 10  cuckow     cuckoo.     daw   jackdaw.    Both mean ‘fool.’ 11  wanted   lacked. 12  Hippolyta   a queen of the Amazons, a mythic race of fierce female warriors.        Camilla  warrior queen of the Volaci. 13  For why   because. 14  sore   deeply. 4  But now ev’n hope itself was her bereaved, And this is one extremest point of grief, Still to despair and hope for no relief.  28 ‘He that had heard her woeful plaint and moan Must needs have greatly at the same been grieved: “Ah woe is me,” she said, “that I alone Should live in such despair to be relieved. In passéd times I think there hath been none, In time to come it will not be believed, That love should make by such a strong infection One woman bear another such affection.  29 “O Cupid, if thou didst my state envy And that thou had’st a mind me to torment, To send such pains as others more do try At least methink thou should’st have been content. Shall in so many ages none but I Yield of so uncouth love such precedent? 15  The female with the female doth not wish To couple, nor in beast, nor fowl, nor fish.  30 “I sole am found in earth, air, sea, or fire, In whom so strange a wonder thou hast done. On me thou show’st the power of thine ire And what a mighty conquest thou hast won. The wife of Ninus had a strange desire To join in copulation with her son; 16  Fair Myrrha by her sire was made a mother And made Adonis both her son and brother; 17   31 “Pasiphae, except it be a tale, Was bulled enclosèd in a wooden cow; 18  Yet in all these the female sought the male,  15  uncouth   unheard of; also ‘strange, distasteful.’ 16  wife of Ninus … son   See ‘Semiramis,’ Glossary (print anthology). 17  Myrrha   daughter of Cinyras, king of Cyprus. She secretly seduced her father, and when he realized what had happened he tried to kill her. She gave birth to Adonis, and was then changed into the myrrh tree. 18  bulled   mounted sexually by a bull. See Pasiphae (Glossary, print anthology). 5  But Nature doth my fancy disallow; No, Daedalus could not remedy my bale, 19  Nor art can frame nor sense imagine how: This knot Dame Nature hath so firmly knit It cannot be dissolved by any wit.”  32 ‘Thus Fiordispina fair (so was her name) In piteous sort her woeful state doth wail. My sister unto her her speech doth frame As chiefly to her comfort might avail, And wished her this unbridled will to tame, Sith Nature could not suffer it prevail, 20  And that she would let that desire be daunted 21  Which possibly by no means could be graunted.  33 ‘All this but all in vain my sister said To seek that fancy from her mind to wrest. She that for comfort cared not, but for aid, Doth more and more herself vex and molest. Now night grew on as they together stayed What time all creatures seek repose and rest. The lady prays my sister for her sake A lodging at her castle then to take.  34 ‘To this request doth Bradamant assent,  And so together to that place they came Where I (but that you did my harm prevent) Should have been cast into the burning flame. 22  She that all kindness to my sister meant By many outward court’sies showed the same And caused her to wear a woman’s weed23 That men might know that she was one indeed.   19  Daedalus   here, the emblem of the ingenious inventor, one whose creations circumvent natural limitations. See ‘Daedalus,’ Glossary (print anthology).     bale   injury, wound. 20  sith   since. 21  daunted   vanquished. 22  Where ... flame   Ricciardetto’s interlocutor is Rogero, who has just saved the young knight from being burnt alive at the castle of Marsilio (Fiordispina’s father); Marsilio is enraged when he discovers Ricciardetto’s deception of his daughter. 23  weed   apparel. 6   35 ‘For why the semblance false she saw before24 Of manly shape to her was so pernicious, She would now see her in those weeds no more, The rather eke lest folk should be suspicious 25  (If she had been as showed the weed she wore) Lest that they two did live together vicious; 26  She further was by physic rules assured That contraries by contraries are cured, 27   36 ‘But nought could salve that sore nor ’suage her woes.28 That night they lay together in one bed, But sundry and unlike was their repose. One quiet slept, the t’other’s troubled head Still waking, or if she her eyes but close, That little sleep strange dreams and fancies bred: She thought the gods and heav’n would so assist her Into a better sex to change my sister.  37 ‘As men tormented with a burning fever Do dream with drink they ’suage their grievous thirst, But, when they wake, they feel their thirst persever And to be greater than it was at first, So she whose thoughts from love sleep could not sever Did dream of that for which she wake did thirst, But waking felt and found it as before, Her hope still less and her desire still more.  38 ‘How fervently did she to Macon pray? 29 What vows did she unto her prayer annex If so by mighty miracle he may  24  For why   Because. 25  eke   also. 26  vicious   wickedly. 27  She … cured   It was a commonplace of ancient and early modern medicine (physic) that a disease (for example) could be cured by using medicines characterized by qualities in opposition to those of the disease itself (so that a disease characterized by ‘heat’ could be cured through applying medicines composed of plants and herbs defined as ‘cold’). 28  ’suage   assuage. 29  Macon   the Prophet Mohammed (Marsilio is Saracen [Muslim] king of Spain). 7  Her bedfellow turn to a better sex? Now near approached the dawning of the day When she in vain herself doth grieve and vex, And so much more her passion grew the stronger Because my sister now would stay no longer.   [After hearing from Bradamante the tale of Fiordispina’s passion, Ricciardetto decides to impersonate his sister to gain access to Fiordispina. When they are alone together, Ricciardetto tells Fiordispina the following story to account for his present masculine sex.]   43 ‘Love was my councillor that me advised; My meaning secret I to none impart. This was the stratagem that we devised, 30  This was the plot, the cunning, and the art: To go in Bradamante’s clothes disguised, And for a while to play the woman’s part. I knew my face my sister’s so resembling Would be the better help for my dissembling.  44 ‘The day ensuing ere it yet was light I took my way, my love and fancy guiding. I there arrived an hour before ’twas night, Such hap I had, such haste I made in riding. 31  No sooner came I in the servant’s sight, But well was he of me could carry tiding; They look (as princes oft to give do use) Some recompense for bringing so good news.  45 ‘Straight out she came and met me half the way, And took me fast about the neck and kissed me, And told me how in this my little stay 32  In anguish great and sorrow she had missed me; Then she did cause me alter mine array, 33  In which with her own hands she doth assist me.  30  we   i.e., Love and Ricciardetto. 31  hap   luck, good fortune. 32  little stay   brief absence. 33  array   clothing. 8  A caul of gold she set upon my crown, 34  And put on me a rich and stately gown,  46 ‘And for my part to help the matter, I Did take great heed to all I did or said. With sober cast I carried still mine eye, And bore my hands before me like a maid. My voice did serve me worst, but yet thereby Such heed I used my sex was not bewrayed. 35  And thus arrayed, my princess led me with her Where many knights and ladies were together.  47 ‘My look and clothes did all them so beguile36 They all had thought I had a woman been, And honour such was done to me that while As if I were a duchess or a queen; And (that which made me oftentimes to smile) Some youths there were of years and judgement green That cast upon me many a wanton look, My sex and quality they so mistook.  48 ‘At last came meat, both store of flesh and fish, What kinds of both to tell I overslip. 37  I maidenly taste here and there a dish, And in the wine I scant do wet my lip. The time seemed long that stayed my wanton wish, And still I doubted taking in some trip. 38  When bedtime came, she told me I must be Her bedfellow, the which well pleasèd me.  49 ‘Now when the maids and pages were all gone, One only lamp upon the cupboard burning, And all coasts clear, thus I began anon:  34  caul   netted cap or headdress, often richly decorated.    crown   head. 35  bewrayed   betrayed, revealed. 36  beguile   deceive. 37  overslip   i.e., let pass by without description or comment. 38  And still I doubted taking in some trip   i.e., And I was constantly afraid of ‘slipping up’ and revealing my true gender. 9  “Fair dame, I think you muse of my returning,39 And cause you have indeed to muse thereon, For yesterday when I did leave you mourning, I think both you and I did think as then We should not meet again till God knows when.  50 “First let me tell you why from you I went, Then why I come hereafter I shall show. Dear lady (thus it was) I did lament Your fruitless love on me was placed so, And though I could have ay been well content 40  To wait on you and never part you fro, Yet since my presence did but make you languish, I thought mine absence ’minish would your anguish;  51 41  “But riding on my way I somewhat strayed As fortune and adventure did me guide, And lo I heard a voice that cried for aid Within a thicket by the riverside. A satyr taken had a naked maid And with a twisted cord her hands had tied, And in his usage seemed so to threaten her As if he would have killed her straight and eaten her. 42   52 “I rushed to them with naked sword in hand And death to him and freedom I did give her, She diving underwater out of hand.” ‘Unrecompensed thou shalt not me deliver,’ Quoth she, ‘for I will have you understand I am a nymph that dwell here in this river, And for this court’sy I do much regard you And am well able richly to reward you.    39  muse of  wonder at, ponder upon. 40  ay   always. 41  HARINGTON’S MARGINAL NOTE: This is a frivolous tale, devised by him to blear [deceive, blind] her eyes, and therefore it is not requisite it should be probable, though Castelvetro, an Italian writer, found fault with this because, he sayeth, it should have had more probability. 42  straight   immediately, at once. 10  53 ‘Ask of me what you list, and I will give it,43 For I upon the elements have pow’r. I can with charms bring down the moon, believe it; 44  I can ’suage storms and make fair weather low’r;45 What is so hard but my skill can achieve it? To drain the sea or build in air a tow’r? Yea ev’n with simple words (and if I will) I can enforce and make the sun stand still.’  54 “Whenas the nymph had made me this great offer46 (Lo, lady, what great love to you I bare) I neither asked with gold to fill my coffer Nor victory of which some greedy are; This favour only I demanded of her: To make me able to assuage your care, Nor named I any means for fear of erring, The only way and means to her referring.  55 “No sooner this request to her I told But in the crystal stream again she dived And sprinkled me with drops of water cold Which to my skin no sooner were arrived But I was changed from that I was of old, And of my former state I was deprived. I felt, I saw, yet scant believe I can, That of a woman I was made a man;  56 “And saving that ev’n now I am so nigh you As you may quickly prove my tale not feigned, Else you might think I said it but to try you. 47  Now lo, since I for you this wish obtained, Ask what you please, I nothing shall deny you, Enjoy that which my love for you hath gained.” ‘When I had pleaded thus and she had hard it,48  43  list   desire. 44  bring ... moon  Traditionally, witches have power over the planets. 45  low’r   look threatening. 46  whenas   when. 47  try   test. 11  On sight of evidence she gave her vardit. 49   57 ‘As one whose state is overwhelmed with debt By lending or by spending out of measure That looks each hour when prowling shreeves will fet 50  Himself to ward and of his goods make seasure, 51  If some unlooked for gain he hap to get 52  By some man’s death or by some trovy treasure,53 Is so surprised with joy he scant doth know If true it be or if he dreamèd so,  58 ‘So she that now did see and feel and touch That which she long had longèd for in vain, It overfilled her mind with joy so much It seemèd in a trance she did remain. Therein her incredulity was such As to resolve her I did take much pain. “If these be dreams,” quoth she, “for these dreams’ sake I ever wish to dream and never wake.”  59 ‘Not sound of drum, of trumpet, or of fife, Nor warlike instrument of any sort Did sound alarum to our friendly strife, But dovelike billing followed lovely sport. This battle hazards neither limb nor life. Without a ladder I did scale the fort And stoutly plant my standard on the wall, And under me I made my foe to fall.  60 ‘If that same bed were full the night before Of tears, of plaints, of anguish and annoys, 54  No doubt but now it had in as great store Both smilings, sports, and solaces and joys.  48  hard   heard. 49  vardit   verdict. 50  shreeves   sheriffs.     fet   fetch. 51  ward   prison.     seasure   seizure. 52  hap   chance. 53  trovy treasure   treasure trove. 54  plaints   complaints, lamentations.     annoys   vexations, troubles. 12  No ivy doth embrace the pillar more Than she did me, nor apes can find more toys 55  Than we young fools did find to make us merry, Till joy itself of joy did make us weary.  61 ‘The thing twixt us did secret long remain, And certain months this pleasure did endure Till some had found and told it to my pain As you well know that did my life assure; Yet I confess great grief I still sustain Not knowing how her safety to procure.’ This Ricciardetto to Rogero told, And all the while their journey on they hold. 56   55  apes can find more toys   ‘Toys’ seems to refer to ‘amorous play;’ female apes were well-known for clasping and hugging their newborns. 56  HARINGTON’S MARGINAL NOTE: The end of the tale of Fiordispina.   1  ARISTAENETUS (fl. 5 th  or 6 th  c. CE?), LETTER WRITER.   Nothing is known of this ancient Greek author, and he has until recently been confused with Aristaenetus of Nicaea (d. 358 CE). His only extant work remains his two-volume collection of fictional letters; however, given the work’s heavy reliance on passages from writers such as Lucian, Plato, and Philostratus, some critics have suggested that it should be considered a patchwork or compilation rather than an original work, and that the ‘author’ may very well never have existed. The following anonymous translation is dedicated to the writer Eustace Budgell (1686-1737), early contributor to The Spectator and The Tatler.    LETTERS OF LOVE AND GALLANTRY. WRITTEN IN GREEK BY ARISTAENETUS (1716?) 1     EPISTLE 8: A GENTLEMAN OF THE HORSE AND HIS LORD IN LOVE  ECHEPOLUS TO MELESIPPUS    ‘Gods! The sprightliness of his air! How gracefully his sits the horse and moves the reins! He is swift in the course, and beautiful at the ring, 2  untamed by the softness of passion, the very son of Venus, the wish and delight of the fair world!’  The gallant youth hearing the harangue: ‘Forbear,’ he says. ‘You are impertinent in your praises, and displease me with your raptures. The god of love has a superior conduct: I am under his care, he guides my hand, and advances my speed. Discover, 3  I charge 4  you, your skill in the chariot of love; there sing with the most dissolving accent, be melting in your voice, and amorous in your expression.’  I began a song of my own, and applied it to the occasion: ‘My lord,’ says I, ‘I thought to discharge my service to you without a blemish to my character, but (your lordship will excuse me) if you carry your charms always about you, no wonder if you are exposed to danger. The Loves, 5  your rivals, will be envious, and affront your hopes, and you must not take it amiss, for they divert themselves in afflicting the tender goddess, their mother.’  1  The title continues: “Discovering the Air of Courtship and Address among the Quality of Greece.” The title page epigram claims “―This book will show / How women loved a thousand years ago.” 2  at the ring   i.e., when he galloped towards the suspended ring in a tournament; men competed to carry away the ring on the point of their lance. 3  Discover   Declare, Reveal. 4  charge   command. 5  the Loves   putti (little winged attendants of Venus, goddess of love). 1  ROGER ASCHAM (1514/15-1568), TEACHER, SCHOLAR, AND WRITER.   Educated at St John’s College, Cambridge (BA, 1534; MA, 1537), and a protégé of a number of famous English humanists, including John Cheke, Ascham became a fellow of Cambridge University, and spent much of his life in scholarly and university circles. Tutor to Princess Elizabeth, later queen, Ascham’s published works gained him important patrons and royal attention. He is perhaps most famous for his educational treatise The Schoolmaster (1570), which pioneered the system of double-translation as a method of learning to read, write, and speak Latin, the language of international scholarship and diplomacy.  EDITIONS: Ascham, Roger. ‘The Scholemaster’ in Roger Ascham: English Works. Ed. William Aldis  Wright. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1904; rept., 1970. 171-302.    From THE SCHOOLMASTER (1570)   THE SECOND BOOK  […]  I had once a proof hereof, 1  tried by good experience, by a dear friend of mine, when I came first from Cambridge to serve the Queen’s Majesty (then Lady Elizabeth), lying at worthy Sir Ant[hony] Denny’s in Cheston.2 John Whitney, a young gentleman, was my bedfellow, who willing by good nature and provoked by mine advice, began to learn the Latin tongue, after the order declared in this book. We began after Christmas. I read unto him Tully De Amicitia, 3  which he did every day twice translate out of Latin into English, and out of English into Latin again. About St Laurence-tide after, 4  to prove how he profited, I did choose out Torquatus’ talk De Amicitia, in the latter end of the first book de finib.5 because that place was the same in matter, like in words and phrases, nigh to the form and fashion of sentences as he had learned before in De Amicitia. I did translate it myself into plain English, and gave it him to turn into Latin, which he did so choicely, so orderly, so without any great miss in the hardest points of grammar, that some, in seven year[s] in grammar schools, yea and some in the universities too, cannot do half so well. This worthy young gentleman, to my greatest grief, to the great lamentation of that whole house, and specially to that most noble lady, now Queen Elizabeth herself, departed within a few days, out of this world.  And if in any cause a man may, without offense of God, speak somewhat ungodly, surely it was some grief unto me to see him hie 6  so hastily to God as he did. A court full of such young gentlemen were rather a paradise than a court upon earth. And though I had never poetical head to make any verse in any tongue, yet either love or sorrow (or both) did wring out of me then certain careful thoughts of my goodwill towards him, which in my mourning  1  a proof hereof   i.e., of the efficacy of the pedagogical method of double-translation, where a student would translate a work from Latin into English and then back again into Latin. 2  Sir Ant[hony] Denny’s in Cheston     At the house of the courtier Sir Anthony Denny (1501-1549) at Cheshunt. 3  Tully De Amicitia    Marcus Tullius Cicero’s famous treatise on friendship: Laelius, or Of Friendship. See selections in the Online Companion. 4  About St Laurence-tide after    i.e., after August 10 th . 5  Torquatus’ talk … de finib.   The Italian poet Torquato Tasso (1544-1595) wrote Dialogue on Friendship. 6  hie   go. 2  for him, fell forth more by chance than either by skill or use into this kind of misorderly 7  meter:  Mine own John Whitney, now farewell, now death doth part us twain, No death, but parting for a while, whom life shall join again. Therefore, my heart, cease sighs and sobs, cease sorrow’s seed to sow, Whereof no gain, but greater grief and hurtful care may grow. Yet, when I think upon such gifts of grace as God him lent, My loss, his gain, I must a while with joyful tears lament. Young years to yield such fruit in court, where seed of vice is sown, Is sometime read, in some place seen, amongst us seldom known. His life he led Christ’s lore to learn, with will to work the same; He read to know, and knew to live, and lived to praise his name. So fast to friend, so foe to few, so good to every wight, 8  I may well wish, but scarcely hope, again to have in sight. The greater joy his life to me, his death the greater pain, His life in Christ so surely set doth glad my heart again. His life too good, his death better, do mingle mirth with care, My spirit with joy, my flesh with grief, so dear a friend to spare. Thus God the good, while they be good, doth take and leaves us ill, That we should men our sinful life in life to tarry still. Thus we well left be better reft, in heaven to take his place, 9  That by like life and death at last we may obtain like grace. Mine own John Whitney again farewell, a while thus part in twain, Whom pain doth part in earth, in heaven great joy shall join again.  […]   7  misorderly   irregular in terms of its scansion. 8  fast    loyal, steadfast.     wight   creature. 9  reft   bereaved. 1  SIR FRANCIS BACON (1561-1626), LAWYER, MP, PUBLIC SERVANT, EARLY SCIENTIST, AND WRITER. Born the son of Sir Nicholas Bacon, important advisor to Elizabeth I, Frances Bacon followed in his father’s footsteps, taking on many important offices in his career, including solicitor-general, lord keeper of the Great Seal, and lord chancellor. His works include not simply his famous Essays (1597; revised and enlarged editions, 1612 and 1625), but the influential Advancement of Learning (1605) and New Atlantis (1626). A dedicated and learned humanist, as well as a proponent of the new sciences, Bacon died after having contracted some kind of virus during experiments concerning refrigeration and the preservation of food.  Editions:  The Oxford Authors: Francis Bacon. Ed. Brian Vickers. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1996.  The Works of Francis Bacon. Ed. James Spedding. 7 vols. (London, 1857-59)  ESSAYS (1625) 1   OF FRIENDSHIP    It had been hard for him that spoke it to have put more truth and untruth together in few words than in that speech, ‘Whosoever is delighted in solitude is either a wild beast or a god.’2 For it is most true that a natural 3  and secret hatred and aversation 4  towards society in any man hath somewhat of the savage beast, but it is most untrue that it should have any character 5  at all of the divine nature, except it proceed not out of a pleasure in solitude but out of a love and desire to sequester a man’s self for a higher conversation:6 such as is found to have been falsely and feignedly 7  in some of the heathen―as Epimenides the Candian, Numa the Roman, Empedocles the Sicilian, and Apollonius of Tyana 8―and truly and really in divers9 of the ancient  1  Bacon published his first version of Essays in 1597 (reprinted 1598, 1606, and 1616), and it contained 10 essays; in 1612 he published a second edition, enlarging the work to 38 essays; and finally in the third edition of 1625, it contained 58 essays. 2  Aristotle, Politics (1.2.1253a3). However, Aristotle makes this point in the context of his argument that the state is a creation of nature and that she has implanted in men a social instinct, making him an innately political animal. 3  natural   indwelling, innate. 4  aversation   i.e., aversion. 5  character   characteristic. 6  conversation   social intercourse. 7  feignedly   a synonym for ‘falsely.’ 8  Each of these ancient figures had a reputation either for ascetic practices and / or magical powers: Epimenides the Candian (fl.  6 th  c. BCE), ascetic and magician; after falling asleep for better part of 6 decades he woke with prophetic abilities; Numa Pompilius, legendary Roman king, had a reputation for promoting peace and piety, and was famed for his mystic communication with the divine; Plutarch, however, reports that Numa only pretended to have intimate communication with the gods as a method of encouraging the Romans to go along with his founding of Rome’s religious rites and institutions (Plutarch, ‘Life of Numa Pompilius,’ 1.183-5); Empedocles the Sicilian (fl. 492-432 BCE), philosopher, orator, poet; many ancient legends presented Empedocles as possessing mystic, semi-divine powers; Apollonius of Tyana (b. c. 4 BCE), philosopher. Philostratus’ Life of Apollonius details this wandering 2  hermits and holy fathers of the Church. But little do men perceive what solitude is, and how far it extendeth. For a crowd is not company; and faces are but a gallery of pictures; and talk but a tinkling cymbal, where there is no love. 10  The Latin adage meeteth with it a little: 11  ‘Magna civitas, magna solitudo,’12 because in a great town friends are scattered, so that there is not that fellowship, for the most part, which is in less 13  neighbourhoods. But we may go further, and affirm most truly that it is a mere 14  and miserable solitude to want 15  true friends, without which the world is but a wilderness. And even in this sense also of solitude, whosoever in the frame 16  of his nature and affections is unfit for friendship, he taketh it of the beast, and not from humanity.  A principal fruit of friendship is the ease and discharge 17  of the fullness and swellings of the heart, 18  which passions of all kinds do cause and induce. We know diseases of stoppings and suffocations 19  are the most dangerous in the body, and it is not much otherwise in the mind: you may take sarza to open the liver, steel to open the spleen, flower of sulphur for the lungs, castoreum for the brain, 20  but no receipt 21  openeth the heart but a true friend, to whom you may impart griefs, joys, fears, hopes, suspicions, counsels, and whatsoever lieth upon the heart to oppress it, in a kind of civil shrift or confession. 22   It is a strange thing to observe how high a rate 23  great kings and monarchs do set upon this fruit of friendship whereof we speak: so great, as they purchase it many times at the hazard of their own safety and greatness. For princes, in regard of the distance of their fortune 24  from that of their subjects and servants, cannot gather this fruit except (to make themselves capable thereof) they raise some persons to be, as it were, companions and almost equals to themselves, which many times sorteth to inconvenience. 25  The modern languages give unto such persons the  mystic’s magical and mystic powers. 9  divers   many; several. 10  talk … no love   1 Corinthians 13.1. 11  meeteth with it a little   i.e., is somewhat appropriate to it. 12  Latin, ‘Great city, great solitude’ (Erasmus, Adages, 2.4.54). 13  less   smaller. 14  mere   complete. 15  want   lack. 16  frame   composition, make-up. 17  ease and discharge   easing and releasing. 18  fullness and swellings of the heart   The heart was the figurative and literal seat of emotional turmoil. 19  diseases of stoppings and suffocations   i.e., those which involve the inhibiting or suppression of the circulation of the various fluids thought crucial to good physical and mental health in ancient and Renaissance medicine (e.g., the humours and the spirits). 20  Each of these remedies was a purgative or alterative, aimed at curing stoppages or obstructions in the organs here mentioned: sarza or sarsa is sarsaparilla, a plant from the tropical Americas; steel refers to iron or steel filings that were sometimes used in medicines; flower of sulphur refers to the mineral sulphur, ground to a powder and used to treat digestive problems; and castoreum or castor is a substance harvested from scent glands of beavers. 21  receipt   recipe (here, a set of directions for the preparation of a medicine). 22  civil shrift or confession   i.e., non-religious form of the sacrament of confession, whereby a penitent would confess his/her sins to a priest and receive absolution for them. 23  rate   value. 24  in regard of the distance of their fortune   i.e., as result of the fact that their station places them at such a distance from their subjects [that friendship is difficult, if not impossible]. 25  sorteth to inconvenience   results in more or less serious harm or injury. 3  name of ‘favourites’ or privadoes,26 as if it were matter of grace or conversation. But the Roman name attaineth 27  the true use and cause thereof, naming them participes curarum, 28  for it is that which tieth the knot. 29  And we see plainly that this hath been done, not by weak and passionate princes only, but by the wisest and most politic that ever reigned, who have oftentimes joined to themselves some of their servants, whom both themselves have called friends and allowed others likewise to call them in the same manner, using the word which is received 30  between private men.  L[ucius] Sulla, when he commanded Rome, raised Pompey (after, surnamed the Great) to that height that Pompey vaunted himself for Sulla’s over-match. For when he had carried31 the consulship for a friend of his against the pursuit 32  of Sulla, and that Sulla did a little resent thereat, and began to speak great, 33  Pompey turned upon him again, and in effect bade him be quiet, ‘for that more men adored the sun rising than the sun setting.’34 With Julius Caesar, Decimus Brutus had obtained that interest as he set him down in his testament for heir in remainder after his nephew. And this was the man that had power with 35  him to draw him forth to his death. For when Caesar would have discharged the Senate 36  in regard of some ill presages, and specially a dream of Calpurnia, this man lifted him gently by the arm out of his chair, telling him he hoped he would not dismiss the Senate till his wife had dreamt a better dream. 37  And it seemeth his favour was so great as 38  Antonius, in a letter which is recited verbatim in one of Cicero’s Philippics, calleth him venefica, ‘witch,’ as if he had enchanted Caesar.39 Augustus raised Agrippa (though of mean birth 40 ) to that height, as when he consulted with Maecenas about the marriage of his daughter Julia, Maecenas took the liberty to tell him, that ‘he must either marry his daughter to Agrippa, or take away his life: there was no third way, he had made him so great.’41 With Tiberius Caesar, Sejanus had ascended to that height as they two were termed and reckoned as a pair of friends. Tiberius in a letter to him sayeth, ‘haec pro amicitia nostra non occultavi,’42 and the whole Senate dedicated an altar to Friendship, as to a goddess, in  26  privadoes   Spanish, ‘intimates.’ 27  attaineth   achieves. 28  participes curarum   Latin, ‘Partners in care.’  The Emperor Tiberius used this phrase to describe his favourite Sejanus, who came close to usurping Tiberius’ authority over Rome (M. DiGangi, Homoerotics of Early Modern Drama, p. 109). 29  for … knot   i.e., unites them [i.e., the prince and his favourites]. 30  received   accepted [as the common usage]. 31  carried   won. 32  against the pursuit of Sulla   i.e., against Sulla’s attempts to achieve this Roman office for himself. 33  speak great   i.e., speak in such a way as to assert his superiority in the relationship; assertively. 34  Plutarch, ‘Life of Pompey,’ 1.1137-1139, 1144-46. 35  with   over. 36  discharged the Senate   i.e., temporarily adjourned the sitting of this governmental body. 37  With Julius Caesar … better dream   For these details about the relationship between Julius Caesar (100-44 BCE), Roman general and dictator and Marcus Junius Brutus (85-42 BCE), tyrannicide, see Plutarch, ‘Life of Julius Caesar,’ 2.1435-36. Caesar named Brutus his heir in case of the death of Caesar’s nephew and heir, Octavian (later the first Roman emperor Augustus) [63 BCE-14 CE]. 38  favour was so great as   i.e., his standing [with Caesar] was so established and firm that. 39  in a letter … enchanted Caesar   Philippics 13.11. 40  mean birth   lowly social origins. 41  Augustus … great’   Dio Cassius, Roman History, 54.6. 42  ‘haec pro amicitia nostra non occultavi’   Latin, ‘On account of our friendship, I have not hidden these things 4  respect of the great dearness of friendship between them two. 43  The like or more was between Septimius Severus and Plautianus, for he forced his eldest son to marry the daughter of Plautianus, and would often maintain 44  Plautianus in doing affronts 45  to his son; and did write also in a letter to the Senate, by these words: ‘I love the man so well, as I wish he may over-live me.’46 Now if these princes had been as a Trajan or a Marcus Aurelius,47 a man might have thought that this had proceeded of an abundant goodness of nature; but being men so wise, of such strength and severity of mind, and so extreme lovers of themselves, as all these were, it proveth most plainly that they found their own felicity (though as great as ever happened to mortal men) but as an half piece, 48  except they might have a friend to make it entire; and yet, which is more, they were princes that had wives, sons, nephews; and yet all these could not supply the comfort of friendship.  It is not to be forgotten what Comineus observeth of his first master, Duke Charles the Hardy; 49  namely, that he would communicate his secrets with none, and least of all, those secrets which troubled him most. Whereupon he goeth on and sayeth, that towards his latter time that closeness 50  did impair and a little perish his understanding. 51  Surely Comineus might have made the same judgment also, if it had pleased him, of his second master Louis XI, whose closeness was indeed his tormentor. The parable of Pythagoras is dark, 52  but true; ‘Cor ne edito’: ‘Eat not the heart.’53 Certainly, if a man would give it a hard phrase,54 those that want friends to open themselves unto 55  are cannibals of their own hearts. But one thing is most admirable 56  (wherewith I will conclude this first fruit of friendship), which is, that this communicating of a man’s self to his friend works57 two contrary effects: for it redoubleth joys and cutteth griefs in  [from you]’ (Tacitus, Annals, 4.40). 43  the whole Senate  … two   Tacitus, Annals, 4.74. 44  maintain   support. 45  doing affronts   offering insults or checks [to]. 46  For the relationship between the Roman emperor Septimius Severus (145/6-211 CE) and the Roman politician Gaius Fulvius Plautianus (d. c. 205 CE), see Dio Cassius, 76.14-16; and Herodian, History of the Roman Empire, 3.11-12. Historians generally agree that Severus’ patronage of Plautianus undermined the emperor’s position, particularly since the connection formed by the marriage of Plautianus’ daughter to Severus’ son earned the enmity of the empress and her faction. 47  Both the emperors Trajan (53-117 CE) and Marcus Aurelius (121-180 CE) had early modern reputations as learned and virtuous pagans; Trajan was an acknowledged patron of the arts and sciences, while Marcus Aurelius was the author of an important work of moral philosophy, the Meditations, much celebrated and translated in the early modern period. 48  half piece   that which is incomplete or unfinished. 49  Comineus   Philippe de Commines (Philippus Cominaeus, c. 1447-1511), French diplomat and writer whose Mémoires (1524) details his experiences at the court of Louis XI of France.     Duke Charles the Hardy    Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy (1433-1477). 50  closeness   reservedness [the quality of refusing to share one’s thoughts or feelings with another]. 51  perish his understanding   i.e., undermine or corrupt his reason. 52  The parable of Pythagoras is dark   i.e., the saying of the Greek philosopher Pythagoras (fl. c. 530 CE) is difficult to interpret 53  ‘Cor ne edito’  Latin, ‘Eat not the heart’   Attributed to the Greek philosopher Pythagoras (Diogenes Laertius, Lives, 8.18). 54  hard phrase   i.e.,  an expression that does prevaricate or soften its meaning. 55  want friends to open themselves unto   i.e., lack friends to confide themselves in. 56  admirable   capable of provoking wonder. 57  works   produces. 5  halfs. For there is no man that imparteth his joys to his friend, but he joyeth the more; and no man that imparteth his griefs to his friend, but he grieveth the less. So that it is in truth of operation 58  upon a man’s mind of like virtue59 as the alchemists use60 to attribute to their stone61 for man’s body: that it worketh all contrary effects, but still to the good and benefit of nature. But yet, without praying in 62  aid of alchemists, there is a manifest image of this in the ordinary course of nature. For in bodies, 63  union 64  strengtheneth and cherisheth any natural action, and on the other side weakeneth and dulleth any violent impression, and even so it is of minds.  The second fruit of friendship is [as] healthful and sovereign 65  for the understanding, as the first is for the affections: for friendship maketh indeed a fair day in the affections from storm and tempests, but it maketh daylight in the understanding out of darkness and confusion of thoughts. Neither is this to be understood only of faithful counsel, which a man receiveth from his friend; but before you come to that, certain it is that whosoever hath his mind fraught 66  with many thoughts, his wits and understanding do clarify and break up 67  in the communicating and discoursing with another: he tosseth 68  his thoughts more easily; he marshalleth them more orderly; he seeth how they look when they are turned into words; finally, he waxeth 69  wiser than himself, and that more by an hour’s discourse than by a day’s meditation. It was well said by Themistocles to the king of Persia, that ‘speech was like cloth of Arras, opened and put abroad,70 whereby the imagery doth appear in figure, whereas in thoughts they lie but as in packs.’71 Neither is this second fruit of friendship, in opening the understanding, restrained 72  only to such friends as are able to give a man counsel (they indeed are best); but even without that, a man learneth of himself, and bringeth his own thoughts to light, and whetteth 73  his wits as against a stone, which itself cuts not. In a word, a man were better relate himself to a statua or picture than to suffer his thoughts to pass in smother. 74   Add now, to make this second fruit of friendship complete, that other point which lieth more open 75  and falleth within vulgar 76  observation, which is faithful counsel from a friend.  58  in truth of operation   in the way it works effectively [on] 59  of like virtue   of the same quality. 60  use   are accustomed. 61  their stone    Alchemists (early modern chemists) were always in pursuit of the so-called philosophers’ stone, which could reportedly perform miraculous transformations of matter, and thus would be a cure-all for disease. 62  praying in   bringing in. 63  bodies   inanimate objects. 64  union   the bringing together of elements into a single compound. 65  sovereign   efficacious. 66  fraught   burdened; pre-occupied. 67  break up   break down [into constituent elements, in order to facilitate understanding]. 68  tosseth   moves [around]; manipulates. 69  waxeth   grows. 70  cloth of Arras   a type of French wall-hanging, ornately embroidered.     spread out   displayed. 71  Themistocles … whereby the imagery … in packs   Themistocles (c. 524-459 BCE), Athenian politician and general. See Plutarch, ‘Life of Themistocles.     packs   heaps [unsorted and confused]. 72  restrained   confined, limited. 73  whetteth    sharpens. 74  In a word … smother   i.e., ‘In short, a man would be better to talk to a statue or picture [i.e., something utterly inanimate and incapable of responding] than to allow his thoughts to remain stifled.’ Bacon clearly sees speech as indispensable to the clear delineation of ideas. Internal contemplation is insufficient. 75  lieth more open   is more obvious. 6  Heraclitus sayeth well in one of his enigmas, ‘Dry light is ever the best.’77 And certain it is, that the light that a man receiveth by counsel from another is drier and purer than that which cometh from his own understanding and judgment, which is ever infused and drenched in 78  his affections and customs. So as there is as much difference between the counsel that a friend giveth and that a man giveth himself, as there is between the counsel of a friend and of a flatterer. For there is no such flatterer as is a man’s self; and there is no such remedy against flattery of a man’s self as the liberty 79  of a friend. Counsel is of two sorts: the one concerning manners, the other concerning business. For the first, the best preservative to keep the mind in health is the faithful admonition of a friend. The calling of a man’s self to a strict account80 is a medicine, sometime, too piercing and corrosive. Reading good books of morality is a little flat 81  and dead. Observing our faults in others is sometimes improper 82  for our case. But the best receipt 83  (best, I say, to work, and best to take) is the admonition of a friend. It is a strange thing to behold what gross errors and extreme absurdities many (especially of the greater sort) do commit for want of a friend to tell them of them, to the great damage both of their fame and fortune. For, as St. James sayeth, they are as men that ‘look sometimes into a glass, and presently forget their own shape and favour.’84  As for business, a man may think, if he will, that two eyes see no more than one; or that a gamester seeth always more than a looker-on; or that a man in anger is as wise as he that hath said over the four and twenty letters; 85  or that a musket may be shot off as well upon the arm as upon a rest; 86  and such other fond and high imaginations, 87  to think himself all in all. 88  But when all is done, the help of good counsel is that which setteth business straight. And if any man think that he will take counsel, but it shall be by pieces, 89  asking counsel in one business of one man, and in another business of another man, it is well (that is to say, better perhaps than if he asked none at all), but he runneth 90  two dangers: one, that he shall not be faithfully counseled, for it is a rare thing, except it be from a perfect and entire friend, to have counsel given, but such as shall  76  vulgar   common, everyday. 77  Heraclitus … best’   “The dry light is the best soul which flieth out of the body as lightning doth out of the cloud, but that which is joined with the body being full of corporeal passions, is a gross vapour, dark and massy, and cannot flame, rise, or shoot out like lightning” (Plutarch, ‘Life of Romulus,’ 1.105).     Heraclitus (fl. c. 500 BCE), Greek philosopher, whose remaining fragments suggest a writer who adopted a style that aimed at provoking questions, gaining him the epithet ‘the obscure one.’ 78  drenched in    overwhelmed by. 79  liberty   here, the a friend’s privilege of speaking freely. 80  ‘To call someone to a strict account’ means ‘to hold them unflinchingly accountable for their actions, beliefs, and speech.’ 81  flat   unanimated, uninteresting. 82  improper   inappropriate. 83  receipt   direction. 84  St James … favour   James 1.23-24. 85  said over the four and twenty letters   i.e., the early modern alphabet (a tactic to gain time to think rather than striking out in anger, like the modern advice to ‘count to ten’ before reacting to some provoking word or action). 86  a musket … rest   i.e., a shooter might use his ‘arm’ rather than a tripod or other artificial support (‘rest’) to steady his rifle (‘musket’) for firing. 87  fond and high imaginations   foolish and exaggerated conceptions, notions. 88  all in all   completely self-sufficient. 89  by pieces   i.e., piecemeal. 90  runneth   risks. 7  be bowed and crooked 91  to some ends which he hath that giveth it; the other, that he shall have counsel given hurtful and unsafe 92  (though with good meaning 93 ), and mixed partly of mischief 94  and partly of remedy, even as if you would call a physician that is thought good for the cure of the disease you complain of, but is unacquainted with your body; and therefore may put you in way for a present cure, 95  but overthroweth your health in some other kind, and so cure the disease and kill the patient. But a friend that is wholly acquainted with a man’s estate96 will beware, by furthering any present business, how he dasheth upon other inconvenience. 97  And, therefore, rest not upon scattered 98  counsels: they will rather distract and mislead, than settle and direct.  After these two noble fruits of friendship (peace in the affections, and support of the judgment), followeth the last fruit, which is like the pomegranate, full of many kernels; I mean aid and bearing a part in all actions and occasions. Here, the best way to represent to life the manifold use of friendship is to cast 99  and see how many things there are which a man cannot do himself, and then it will appear that it was a sparing speech 100  of the ancients to say, that ‘a friend is another himself,’101 for that a friend is far more than himself. Men have their time, and die many times in desire of some things which they principally take to heart―the bestowing of a child, 102  the finishing of a work, or the like. If a man have a true friend, he may rest almost secure that the care of those things will continue after him. So that a man hath, as it were, two lives in his desires. A man hath a body, and that body is confined to a place, but where friendship is, all offices 103  of life are, as it were, granted to him and his deputy, for he may exercise them 104  by his friend. How many things are there which a man cannot with any face or comeliness 105  say or do himself? A man can scarce allege his own merits with modesty, much less extol them; a man cannot sometimes brook to supplicate 106  or beg, and a number of the like. But all these things are graceful in a friend’s mouth which are blushing107 in a man’s own.108 So again, a man’s person hath many proper relations 109  which he cannot put off. A man cannot speak to his son but as a father; to his wife but as a husband; to his enemy but upon terms, 110  whereas a friend may speak  91  bowed and crooked   perverted and twisted. 92  unsafe   unsound. 93  meaning   intentions. 94  mischief   harm, injury; perhaps, figuratively, ‘sickness, disease.’ 95  put you in way for a present cure    i.e., set you along the path to an immediate cure. 96  man’s estate   the condition of being an adult male; mature state of life. 97  dasheth upon other inconvenience   comes upon a different injury. 98  scattered   separate. 99  cast   reckon, calculate, make a mental list of. 100  sparing speech   i.e. one that underestimates. 101  ‘a friend is another himself’   This Latin proverb occurs in many ancient writers, most famously (perhaps) in Cicero’s Laelius: De Amicitia (‘Laelius: On Friendship’). See excerpts in Online Companion, pp. 7-8. 102  bestowing a child   i.e. ensuring his or her future (through a dowry, apprenticeship, guardianship, etc.). 103  offices   duties, responsibilities. 104  exercise them   fulfill them. 105  face or comeliness   modesty or handsomeness in action [generosity]. 106  brook to supplicate   i.e., bear to beg or ask meekly [for something]. 107  blushing   shameful, embarrassing. 108  How … own   Cicero makes this same point in ‘Laelius,’ Online Companion, p.9. 109  proper relations    i.e., specific relationships and responsibilities that are an aspect of his public and private roles in the world. 110  upon terms   i.e., on agreed-upon conditions (such as between enemies engaging in negotiations after a conflict). 8  as the case requires, and not as it sorteth with the person. 111  But to enumerate these things were endless; I have given the rule, where a man cannot fitly play his own part: if he have not a friend, he may quit the stage.  OF BEAUTY  Virtue is like a rich stone, best plain set; 112  and surely virtue is best in a body that is comely, 113  though not of delicate features; and that hath rather dignity of presence than beauty of aspect. 114  Neither is it almost 115  seen that very beautiful persons are otherwise of great virtue; as if nature were rather busy not to err than in labour to produce excellency. And therefore they prove accomplished, but not of great spirit; and study rather behaviour than virtue. 116  But this holds not always, 117  for Augustus Caesar, Titus Vespasianus, Philip le Bel of France, Edward IV of England, Alcibiades of Athens, Ismael the Sophy of Persia 118  were all high and great spirits, 119  and yet the most beautiful men of their times. In beauty, that of favour is more than that of colour, 120  and that of decent and gracious motion more than that of favour. That is the best part of beauty, which a picture cannot express; no, nor the first sight of the life. There is no excellent beauty that hath not some strangeness in the proportion. 121  A man cannot tell whether Apelles or Albert Durer were the more trifler; whereof the one would make a personage by geometrical proportions; the other, by taking the best parts out of divers faces, to make one excellent. 122  Such personages, I think, would please nobody but the painter that made  111  sorteth with the person   i.e., as it is appropriate to the particular circumstances, without any regard for the public or private roles of the friend he is addressing. 112  plain set   mounted in a simple setting. 113  comely   attractive; well-proportioned. 114  presence   deportment.     aspect   appearance. 115  almost   for the most part. 116  study rather behaviour than virtue   i.e., concentrate on improving their manners or outward appearance rather than their inner characters or virtues. 117  but this holds not always   i.e., this general principle is not always true. 118  Caesar Augustus   Octavius Caesar Augustus, emperor of Rome, nephew and heir to Julius Caesar; he defeated Mark Antony and became the sole ruler of the empire; the historian Suetonius notes that Augustus was handsome. Titus Vespasianus   Titus Flavius Vespasianus (39-81 CE), emperor of Rome (79-81), as well as a successful general. Philip le Bel of France   King Philip IV of France [1268-1314], also called the Fair (le Bel).     Edward IV of England (1442-1483), king, successful military strategist and general; he was handsome and unusually tall. Alcibiades of Athens   successful Athenian general; in his youth especially, he was reputedly very handsome, and sexually licentious, as well as an intimate friend and perhaps a lover of Socrates. In Plato’s Symposium (216-223), Alcibiades details his failed seduction of Socrates, who spends the night in the same bed as Alcibiades without succumbing to sexual temptation. Plutarch details Alcibiades’ bisexual propensities, and Socrates’ love for Alcibiades as demonstrated in the philosopher’s attentive guidance and education of the young man. See ‘Life of Alcibiades,’ Online Companion, pp. 4-8.     Ismael the Sophy of Persia   Ismail I (1487-1524), Shah of Iran and founder of the Safavid Empire, skilled military leader and conqueror of all of Iran; also a skilled poet. 119  high and great spirits    i.e., valiant and aspiring men. 120  In beauty … colour   i.e., a man’s beauty lies more in the cast of the face (the arrangement of its features) than in its complexion. 121  There … proportion   For this commonplace about the way beauty is always accompanied by some blemish, irregularity, or defect, see Cicero, De Inventione, 2.1.3. 122  A man cannot tell … excellent   Apelles   celebrated Greek painter; however, it is usually Zeuxis, another famous ancient painter, who is reported to have painted his famous picture of Helen of Troy by combining the best features 9  them. Not but I think a painter may make a better face than ever was, but he must do it by a kind of felicity (as a musician that maketh an excellent air in music) and not by rule. A man shall see faces, that if you examine them part by part, you shall find never a good, and yet altogether do well. If it be true that the principal part of beauty is in decent motion, certainly it is no marvel though persons in years 123  seem many times more amiable, pulchrorum autumnus pulcher; 124  for no youth can be comely but by pardon, and considering the youth 125  as to make up the comeliness. Beauty is as summer fruits, which are easy to corrupt and cannot last; and for the most part it makes a dissolute 126  youth, and an age 127  a little out of countenance; 128  but yet certainly again, if it light well, 129  it maketh virtue shine, and vices blush.  of five of the lovely virgins whom the commissioners of the painting, the people of Crotona, offered him as models. Albert Durer   Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528), painter and engraver, who offered models for drawing the human body in his De Symmetria Partium (1532).     divers   several, different. 123  in years   older (i.e., not youths). 124  Latin, “The autumn of beautiful persons is beautiful.” Plutarch attributes the saying to Euripides. See ‘Life of Alcibiades,’ 1.438. Cf. the excerpts in the Online Companion, Plutarch, p. 4. 125  youth   i.e., the youthfulness. 126  dissolute   licentious, given to luxury and sensuality. 127  age   i.e., an older person. 128  out of countenance   abashed, ashamed, discomfited. 129  light well   i.e., if it by chance alights on a virtuous or worthy person. 1  JOHN BALE (1495-1563), BISHOP OF OSSORY AND PROTESTANT POLEMICIST.   John Bale’s writings were always in the service of his Reformation political and religious commitments. Although he published many lengthy prose tracts, his plays, such as the moral history King John (c. 1538), remain his best known works. Spending time in exile on the Continent for refusing to compromise his Protestant convictions, Bale briefly served as bishop of Ossory (Ireland), and later (under Elizabeth I) took up Church office, but wrote little in his remaining years.  EDITIONS: Bale, John. The Dramatic Writings of John Bale, Bishop of Ossory. London: Early English  Drama  Society, 1907. ―. The Complete Plays of John Bale. 2 vols. Ed. Peter Happé. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer,  1985. (A New Comedy … Three Laws is in Volume 2).   From A NEW COMEDY OR INTERLUDE, CONCERNING THREE LAWS OF NATURE, MOSES, AND CHRIST, CORRUPTED BY THE SODOMITES, PHARISEES, AND PAPISTS (1548?) 1   NOTE ON THE TEXT: An intensely apocalyptic play, New Comedy draws on the medieval morality play’s allegorical characters, depicting the personified virtues of Natural Law, Mosaic Law, and Evangelium (Christian Law) corrupted by vices that Bale identifies with contemporary professions and institutions: Infidelity, Idolatry (a witch and a version of the Whore of Babylon, a common symbol of Rome and the papacy), Sodomy (a monk), Avarice (a lawyer), Ambition (a bishop), False Doctrine (a Catholic theologian, Pseudodoctrina), and Hypocrisy (a friar). Act 5 features the Justice of God (Vindicta Dei) driving away Infidelity, and God the Father speaking of the three laws restored, the arrival of the Law of Christ (Christi Lex) and Christian Faith (Fides Christiani), and the coming of the new Jerusalem. The defeat of Infidelity and the marriage of Bridegroom (Christ) and his Bride (the community of Christian believers) symbolize the victory of the Protestant Reformation. Concluding with a versification of the Ten Commandments, Bale asks God to deliver the true faithful from “the popish mire” and “hell fire.” The Catholic religious rites, doctrines and practices that Bale outlines below are all represented in strident, but entirely conventional, Reformist terms as idolatrous and blasphemous.   ACT 2  […]  NATURAE LEX. 2  God hath appointed me, Mankind to oversee, And in his heart to sit.  To teach him for to know In the creatures high and low, His glorious majesty,  1  The following selections are taken from the 2 nd  edition, 1562. 2  Naturae Lex   The Law of Nature (or Natural Law). 2  And on His name to call, Or power celestial, In his necessity; To think Him everlasting And wonderful in working, And that He createth all, Both govern and conserve From them He never swerve That to such faith will fall.  INFIDELITAS. Indeed here is good sport! But why do you resort Unto this present place?  NATURAE LEX. Man always to exhort To seek all health and comfort, Of the only God of grace. First in the hearts rejoice, And then with open voice, To worship Him alone. ’Knowledging His deity3 His power and eternity When he shall make his moan.  INFIDELITAS. I shall keep ye as well from that As my granddame kept her cat From licking of her cream.  NATURAE LEX. What will thou keep me fro? Tell me ere thou farther go: Methink thou art in a dream.  INFIDELITAS. From causing of mankind To give to God his mind Or his obedience.  NATURAE LEX. What is thy name? Tell me.  INFIDELITAS. Marry, ‘Infidelity,’ Which never will agree, To your benevolence.  3  ’Knowledging    acknowledging. 3   NATURAE LEX. Thou canst not keep me from man.  INFIDELITAS. Yet will I do the best I can To trouble ye now and than, 4  That ye shall not prevail. I will cause idolatry And most vile sodomy To work so ungraciously Ye shall of your purpose fail.  NATURAE LEX. I defy thee, wicked find, 5  With thy whole venomous kind! God putteth now in my mind To flee thy company.  INFIDELITAS. Ye are too blessed a saint, And yourself so well can paint That I must me acquaint With you; no remedy.  NATURAE LEX. Avoid, thou cruel enemy! 6  I will none of thee, truly, But shurn thy company 7  As I would the Devil of Hell.    [Exit.   INFIDELITAS. And are ye gone indeed? Small wittam be your speed! 8  Except ye take good heed, I will be next of your council.  Now will I work such mastery, By crafts and subtle policy, The Law of Nature to poison With pestilent idolatry, And with most stinking sodomy, That he shall have no foison. 9   4  than   i.e., then. 5  find   i.e., fiend (demon or devil). 6  avoid   ‘Be off!’ 7  shurn   shun. 8  Small wittam be your speed   ‘Little (or small) Wittam’ was proverbial for a place in which the inhabitants were stunningly stupid.     be your speed   i.e., be your success. 4   Where are these villain knaves, The Devil’s own kitchen slaves, That them I cannot see? I conjure you both here, And charge ye to appear, Like two knaves as you be.  SODOMISMUS. MONACHUS. 10  Ambo is a name full clean, 11  Know ye not what I mean, And are so good a clark?  INFIDELITAS. By Tetragrammaton, 12  I charge ye, appear anon, And come out of the dark.  SODOMISMUS.     [Intrant simul. 13  Have in then at a dash, With swash myry annet swash 14  Yet may I not be too rash, For my holy order’s sake.15  IDOLATRIA. NECROMANTIC. 16  Nor I soon by my troth, Cha caute a corage of sloth, 17  And such a combrous couth, 18  Ich wote not what to do. 19   INFIDELITAS. At Christmas and at Paske, 20  Ye may dance the Devil a maske, 21  Whilst his great cawdron plawe. 22  You such a pretty minion, 23   9  foison   abundance, plentiful crop. 10  SODOMISMUS. MONACHUS.    Sodomy, a monk. 11  Ambo   Latin, ‘both (of a pair or couple).’ 12  Tetragrammaton   the Hebrew four-letter name of God, generally transliterated as YHWH (Yahweh). 13  Intrant simul    ‘They enter at the same time’ (they = Sodomismus and Idolatria). 14  swash myry annet swash   an apparently nonsensical phrase, perhaps emphasizing Sodomismus’ braggart character? 15  holy order’s sake   i.e., for the sake of the religious order that he belongs to. 16  IDOLATRIA. NECROMANTIC.   ‘Idolatry, a witch.’ 17  Cha caute a corage of sloth   i.e., I have caught a heart of sloth. 18  And such a combrous couth   i.e., And such a troublesome reputation. 19  Ich wote   i.e., I know. 20  Paske   Easter. 21  maske   often part of courtly entertainments, where courtiers would appear masked to participate in a dance before the monarch. 22  cawdron plawe    i.e., cauldron bubbles [it is engaged in its typical activity]. 5  And you now in religion, Such two I never saw! Is not thy name ‘Idolatry’?  SODOMISMUS. Yes, an wholesome woman verily And well seen in philosophy. 24  Men’s fortunes she can tell. She can by saying her ‘Ave Mary’25 And by other charms of sorcery Ease men of toothache by and by, 26  Yea, and fetch the Devil from Hell.  She can milk the cow and hunt the fox, And help men of the ague and pox, 27  So they bring money to the box, 28  When they to her make moan. She can fetch again all that is lost, And draw drink out of a rotten post Without the help of the Holy Ghost; In working she is alone.  INFIDELITAS. Why, sometime thou wert an ‘he’!  IDOLATRIA. Yes, but now ych am a ‘she,’29 And a good midwife, perdie. 30  Young children can I charm With whisperings and whishings, 31  With crossings and with kissings, 32  With blazings and with blessings, 33  That sprites do them no harm. 34   INFIDELITAS.  23  minion   applied to the female ‘Idolatria’; ‘minion’ has many unsavoury connotations, often figuring a person kept to service sexually a social superior. 24  well seen    knowledgeable about, well read in. 25  Ave Mary   i.e., the Ave Maria or Hail Mary, a prayer particularly addressed to the Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ. 26  by and by   immediately. 27  ague   an acute, violent fever.     pox   syphilis and other sexually transmitted diseases. 28  money to the box   i.e., money into the church donation box. ‘Box’ was also a slang term for the ‘vagina,’ although Williams’ earliest citation is 1576 (1.141). 29  ych   I. 30  perdie   a mild oath: ‘by God.’ 31  whishings   shushings; a soft sound made to quiet a baby. 32  crossings   making the sign of the cross. 33  blazings   Given the context, perhaps a reference to the conventional form of blessing used in Catholic services on the feast day of St. Blaise, patron saint of throat illnesses: crossed candles would be placed against a person’s throat as a blessing was said. 34  sprites   spirits, ghosts. 6  Then art thou like to Clisthenes, To Clodius and Euclides, Sardinapalus and Hercules, 35  Which themselves oft transformed Into a woman’s likeness, With agility and quickness, But they had Venus’ sickness,36 As writers have declared.  SODOMISMUS. Let her tell forth her matter.  IDOLATRIA. With holy oil and water I can so cloyne and clatter 37  That I can at the latter Many subtleties contrive. I can work wiles in battle; If I do once but spattle, 38  I can make corn and cattle, That they shall never thrive.  When ale is in the fat, 39  If the brewer shall please nat, The cast shall fall down flat, 40  And never have any strength. No man shall tonne nor bake, 41  If I against him take, But lose his labour at length.  Their wells I can up dry, Cause trees and herbs to die And slay all pullerye, 42  Whereas men doth me move. I can make stoles to dance, 43  And earthen pots to prance, That none shall them enhance, And do but cast my glove. 44   35  Clisthenes   a man condemned by Aristophanes as effeminate and licentious.     Clodius Publius, a Roman of high rank who disguised himself in women’s clothes to gain access to Julius Caesar’s wife with the intent to seduce her.     Euclides   a native of Megara; when the Athenian government banned his people from Athens, Euclides dressed in women’s clothes to gain access to the city and attend Socrates’ lectures. For Sardinapalus and Hercules, see Glossary (print anthology). 36  Venus’ sickness   love sickness (erotomania), or syphilis (a sexually transmitted disease). 37  cloyne and clatter   deceive and babble idly. 38  spattle   spit. 39  fat   i.e., brewer’s vat. 40  The cast shall fall down flat   i.e., the batch of ale will spoil. 41  tonne   to fill a tunne or cask; thus, to brew. 42  pullerye   poultry. 43  stoles   robes, clothes. 7   I have charms for the plough And also for the cow, She shall give milk enow, 45  So long as I am pleased: Apace the mill shall go, So shall the credle do, 46  And the musterde querne also 47  No man therewith diseased.  INFIDELITAS. Then art thou fit for me.  […]  INDOLATRIA. I never miss but paulter, 48  Our Blessed Lady’s Psalter,49 Before Saint Sauers altar, 50  With my beads once a day. 51  And this is my common cast, To hear Mass first or last And the holy Friday fast, In good time mowt I say it. 52   With blessings of Saint Germyne 53  I will me so determine That neither fox nor vermin, Shall do my chickens harm. For your geese, seek Saint Legearde; 54  And for your ducks, Saint Lenarde, 55  For horse, take Moses’ yearde:56  44  And … glove   i.e., those who do nothing more serious than damage my glove shall find they do not prosper in the world. 45  enow   enough. 46  credle   i.e., cradle. Given the context, ‘credle’ may be a printer’s error for ‘tredle’ (treadle), a foot pedal used to operate a loom. It may simply be that Idolatria indicates her charms will even cause cradles to rock themselves. 47  mustard quern   a small hand-mill for grinding mustard seed. 48  paulter   recite indistinctly; mumble, babble. 49  Our Blessed Lady’s Psalter   A psalter is a book containing the Psalms arranged for devotional purposes; here, Bale is using the more specific meaning of ‘the Rosary,’ a set of prayers specifically devoted to the Virgin Mary. 50  Saint Sauers   uncertain, but perhaps St. Salvius (Sauve) of Amiens (d. c. 625 CE) or St Salvius (Sauve) of Valenciennes (d. c. 768 CE). 51  beads   i.e., the beads of the Rosary (n49 above). 52  mowt   might. 53  Saint Germyne   St. Germanus (Germain), bishop of Paris (d. 576 CE). 54  For your geese, seek Saint Legearde   i.e., for the sake of the health of your geese, invoke the aid of Saint Leger (Leodegarius), martyr and patron saint of eye problems. 55  And for your ducks, Saint Lenarde   probably, St Leonard of Limousin (11 th  c. CE), famous for curing the diseases of both people and animals. 56  Moses yearde   i.e., the rod (yearde) of the patriarch, Moses. 8  There is no better charm.  […]  For the cough take Judas’ ear,57 With the paring of a pear, And drink them without fear If ye will have remedy; Three sips are for the hyckock 58  And six more for the chyckock; 59  Thus may my pretty pyckock 60  Recover by and by. 61   […]  SODOMISMUS. Myself I so behave, And am so vile a knave, As nature doth deprave, And utterly abhor. I am such a vice truly, As God in his great fury Did punish most terribly In Sodom and in Gomorre. 62   In the flesh I am a fire, And such a vile desire, As bring men to the mire, Of foul concupiscence. We two together began, 63  To spring and to grow in man, As Thomas of Aquine scan, In the fourth book of his sentence. 64   I dwelt among the Sodomites 65  The Benjamites, and Madianites 66  And now the popish hypocrites Embrace me everywhere. I am now become all spiritual  57  Judas’ ear   Jew’s Ear, another word for the Elder tree; Gerard says that the tree’s “jelly” (sap or perhaps a clinging fungus?) cures mouth inflammations (Gerard’s Herbal, 1597). 58  hyckock   hiccup. 59  chyckock   chincough or hooping-cough, a largely childhood illness. 60  pyckock   peacock; figuratively, ‘a vain or conceited person.’ 61  by and by    immediately. 62  Gen. 19.1-29. 63  we two   concupiscence and sodomy. 64  Thomas Aquinas’ Commentary on the Sentences of Peter Abelard (Bk. 4). 65  Sodomites   inhabitants of Sodom (Gen. 19.1-29). 66  Benjamites  Jg. 19.20-26 relates an incident similar to the Sodomites’ demand that Lot give his male visitors to them for sex.     Madianites   the Midianites; they led the Israelites into idolatry (Num. 25.1-5). 9  For the clergy at Rome and over all For want of wives to me doth fall To God they have no fear.  The children of God I did so move That they the daughters of men did love, 67  Working such ways as did not behove, ’Till the flood them over went. With Noe’s son Cham I was half joined, When he his drunken father scorned 68  In the Gomorites I a[l]so reigned ’Till the hand of God them brent.  I was with Onan not unacquainted When he on the ground his increase shed, 69  For me his brethren Joseph accused As Genesis doth tell. 70  David once warned all men of us two. Do not as mules and horses will do. 71  Confounded be they that to images go, Those are the ways to Hell.  Both Essaye and Ezechiel, 72  Both Hieremy and Daniel 73  Of us the abominations tell, With the prophets everychon, 74  For us two God strake with fire and water, With battle, with plagues, and fearful matter, With painful exile, then at the latter, Into Egypt and Babylon.  As Paul to the Romans testify The Gentiles after idolatry Fell to such bestial sodomy That God did them forsake; Who followeth us, as he confess, The kingdom of God shall never possess, 75  And as the Apocalypse express Shall sink to the burning lake. 76   67  The children … love   See Gen. 6.1-2. 68  Noe’s son … scorned   See Gen. 9.20-22. 69  Onan’s coitus interruptus with his wife, his dead brother’s widow, circumvented the law that demanded he produce children with her to carry on his brother’s name (Gen. 38. 6-10).    increase   semen. 70  In Gen 37.2, Joseph accuses his brothers of “the most wicked crime” (Vulgate), according to Aquinas, sex with their cattle. 71  Ps. 32.9 warns people not to be like these animals that lack understanding and need to be governed by force. 72  Essaye and Ezechiel   the prophets Isaiah and Ezekiel, in the Biblical books that bear their names. 73  Hieremy and Daniel   the prophets Jeremiah and Daniel, in the Biblical books that bear their names. 74  everychon    everyone. 75  As ... possess   Rom. 1.24-29. 76  And ... lake   Rev. 14.9-11; 20.15. 10   We made Thalon and Sophocles Thamyras, Nero, Agathocles Tiberius and Aristoteles Themselves to use unnaturally. 77  I taught Aristo and Fulvius Semiramis and Hortensius Crathes, Hyliscus, and Pontius Beasts to abuse most monstrously. 78   INFIDELITAS. Marry, thou art the Devil himself!  IDOLATRIA. If ye knew how he could pelf 79  Ye would say he were such an elf, 80  As none under Heaven were else.  INFIDELITAS. The fellow is well decked Disguised and well necked, 81  Both knave-bald and pie-pecked; He lacketh nothing but bells. 82   SODOMISMUS. In the first age I began And so persevered with man, And still will if I can So long as he endure. If monkish sects renew And popish priests continue Which are of my retinue,  77  Thalon   unidentified.    Sophocles   ancient Greek tragedian; lover of the youth Demophon.     Thamyras Thracian poet-musician; traditionally, the ancient inventor of sodomy; lover of the boy Hyacinthus.     Nero See Glossary (print anthology).     Agathocles (b. 361 BCE), king of Syracuse, reportedly murdered by his male slave-lover, Menon.     Tiberius   Roman emperor (reigned 14-37 CE); reportedly enjoyed sex with both women and men.     Aristoteles   Aristotle (384-322 BCE), Greek philosopher; represents homosexual desire as natural in Nichomachean Ethics (7.5.3-5 and 8.4.1-2). 78  I . . . monstrously     Aristo   Aristo Ephesius who “joined with a female ass” (Burton, Anatomy of Melancholy,     Fulvius   Fulvius Stellus hated women, so he had sexual intercourse with a mare; it bore the lovely girl, Epona, goddess of horses.     Semiramis   See Glossary (print anthology).     Quintus Hortensius Hortalus? (114-50 BCE), sensual and indolent Roman orator.     Crathes   a shepherd who had sex with a she- goat and was subsequently killed by the jealous buck of the flock.     Hyliscus   unidentified.    Pontius   Pontius Pilate, Roman governor of Judaea who sentenced Christ to death, is sometimes depicted as ‘inflamed with lust’ by a fresco representing the famously lovely Atalanta and Helen of Troy (Burton 79  pelf   steal, rob, plunder. 80  elf   malicious spirit. 81  disguised   fantastically or extravagantly dressed.     well-necked   with a sturdy neck?     pie-pecked    an obscure term of abuse; perhaps, given the focus on Sodomismus’ appearance, referring to his rough, pock- mocked skin? 82  The fellow … bells   i.e., Sodomismus has all the appearance of a professional fool or jester, except for the bells that were traditionally attached to the jester’s cap or staff. 11  To live I shall be sure.  Clean marriage they forbid, Yet cannot their ways be hid, Men know what hath betid 83  When they have been in parell. 84  Oft have they buried quick 85  Such as were never sick; Full many a proper trick They have to help their quarrel.  In Rome to me they fall, Both bishop and cardinal Monk, friar, priest and all, More rank they are than ants. 86  Example in Pope July Which sought to have in his fury Two lads, and to use them beastly, From the Cardinal of Nantes. 87   INFIDELITAS. Well, you two are for my mind! Step forth and do your kind; 88  Leave never a point behind That may corrupt in man, The law writ in his heart. In his flesh do thy part;    [To Sodomismus. And his soul to pervart    [To Idolatria. Do thou the best thou can.  Here have I pretty gins, 89  Both broaches, beads and pins, With such as the people wins Unto idolatry. Take thou part of them here,    [To Idolatria. Beads, rings, and other gear, 90  And shortly thee bestere 91  To deceive man properly.  Take this same staff and scrip, 92   83  betid   happened. 84  they   the monks.     parell   danger [of being exposed]. 85  quick   alive. 86  rank   numerous. 87  Pope ... Nantes   Pope Julius II (d. 1513) reportedly raped two young gentlemen entrusted by Queen Anne, wife of Louis XII of France, to the cardinal of Nantes. 88  do your kind    i.e., behave in accordance with your nature. 89  gins   allurements, traps. 90  gear   stuff, trash, fripperies. 91  bestere   bestir: busy [oneself] about; make a vigorous effort to [do something]. 92  staff and scrip   the traditional accouterments of a wanderer or beggar: a scrip is a bag for carrying necessities. 12  With a God here of a chyppe, 93  And, good beldame, forward hyppe 94  To set forth pilgrimage. Set thou forth sacramentals, 95     [To Sodomismus. Say dirge and sing for trentals, 96  Study the Pope’s decretals,97 And mix them with buggerage. 98   Here is a stool for thee, 99  A ghostly father to be; 100  To hear, Benedicite, 101  A box of creams and oil. 102  Here is a purse of relics, 103     [To Idolatria. Rags, rotten bones, and sticks, A taper with other tricks, 104  Show them in every soil.  SODOMISMUS. I will corrupt God’s image, With most unlawful usage, And bring him into dotage, 105  Of all concupiscence.  IDOLATRIA. Within the flesh thou art, But I dwell in the heart, And will the soul pervart, 106  From God’s obedience.  […]  93  With a God here of a chyppe   ‘Chyppe’ ( or ‘chip’) perhaps refers here to a fragment of bread crust, a jeering glance at the Roman Catholic belief that the bread or wafer consumed during the Eucharist was transformed during the Mass into the actual body of Christ. For Protestant reformers, this belief was the height of idolatry. 94  A beldame is an aged matron, but also a hag or vile old woman.     hyppe   hobble along, limp. 95  sacramentals   Catholic ritual practices, such as carrying palms on Palm Sunday, placing ashes on a penitent’s forehead on Ash Wednesday, or saying grace before meals. 96  dirge   a hymn of mourning sung at a funeral mass.    trentals   thirty requiem masses, those said for the souls of the dead (and the payment required for them). 97  decretals   papal decrees or epistles. 98  buggerage   buggery (either sexual intercourse between members of the same sex; or between humans and animals). 99  stool   presumably to sit on while he hears confession. See n100. 100  ghostly father   a priest in his role as an individual’s spiritual guide; also, a priest who hears a penitent’s confession and offers absolution for his or her sins. 101  Benedicite   ‘Bless you.’ 102  box of creams and oil   substances used for the anointing of Catholics for various reasons (baptism, extreme unction, blessings). 103  relics    revered objects (e.g., pieces of a cloak, bones, or other bodily parts) that belonged to a saint. 104  taper   Catholic churches feature various holy objects, such as blessed candles (tapers), as aides to devotion and prayer. 105  him   mankind, humanity.     dotage   both passionate affection or attraction to (concupiscent actions and desires), and stupid, senseless affection or attraction to. 106  pervart   pervert. 13   INFIDELITAS. Now are these whoresons set forth. 107  It will be somewhat worth, To see how they will work, The one to poison the heart, The other the outward part, Ingeniously will they lurk.  The Law of Nature they will Infect, corrupt, and spill 108  With their abomination. Idolatry with wickedness, And Sodomy with filthiness, To his most utter damnation.  These two will him so use Ich one in their abuse 109  And wrap him in such evil That by their wicked cast He shall be at the last A morsel for the Devil.  Now underneath her wings, Idolatry hath kings, With their nobility. Both dukes, lords, knights, and earls, Fair ladies with their pearls, And the whole commonalty. 110   Within the bownes of Sodomy 111  Doth dwell the spiritual clergy, Pope, cardinal, and priest, Nun, canon, monk, and friar, With so many else as do desire To reign under Antichrist. 112   Detesting matrimony They live abominably And burn in carnal lust. Shall I tell ye farther news? At Rome for prelates are stews  107  these whoresons   i.e., Sodomismus and Idolatria. 108  spill   ruin, destroy. 109  Ich   Each. 110  commonalty   commonality (all the people of the nation). 111  bownes   boundaries; territorial borders. 112  Antichrist   a New Testament figure who appears largely in 1 and 2 John, as well as Revelation; often identified with Satan as the emblem of absolute opposition to Christ; Protestant polemicists like Bale represented Antichrist as the Pope or the Pope’s true spiritual ‘superior.’ 14  Of both kinds. This is just. 113   […]    From THE ACTS OF THE ENGLISH VOTARIES (1546) 114   THE PREFACE  […]  Their 115  saints in a manner were all unmarried. If any were married that would needs be saints, they were anon 116  compelled by oath, or by the way of penance, to leave their makes 117  to the occupying of others, the man his wife, and the woman her husband, as ye shall behold in this book by most plenteous examples. For matrimony hath ever been such a black bug in their synagogue and church that never would canonization serve yet where he was in place. 118   Notwithstanding, we are thoroughly ascertained by innumerable scriptures and arguments that matrimony is of God, and by their innumerable examples of filthiness that their vowed wifeless and husbandless chastity is altogether of the Devil. Since the glorious appearance of the Gospel have that sodomitical swarm or brood of Antichrist (that we call the ‘spirituality’) been oft times admonished of their fleshly errors by the manifest scriptures thereof, that they should [at] once repent their most horrible mischiefs, and grant unto marriage the freedom due thereunto. And what have they done, think you? Nothing else at all but laughed them to scorn, reproving them to be but fables and lies. […]  […]  MARRIAGE CONTEMNED 119  OF SATAN.  Thus Satan erected himself against God in that wicked generation which began first in Cain, 120  and hath ever since continued in the posterity. For this presumption God gave them clearly over, and left them to themselves with all their good intents and vows; whereupon they have wrought since that time filthiness unspeakable. Their chaste women, vestals, monials, 121  nuns and Beguines, 122  changing the natural use have wrought unnaturally.  113  prelates    high-ranking Roman  Catholic Church authorities (cardinals, bishops, archbishops).      stews / Of both kinds    i.e., brothels with both male and female prostitutes. 114  The title continues: “comprehending their unchaste practices and examples by all ages, from the world’s beginning to this present year, collected out of their own legends and chronicles. Learn herein (good reader) to prove [i.e., test] all spirits, and to judge false miracles, rebuking no Christian believer but those obstinate hypocrites only, which yet live after their pope’s old rule. Read, but laugh not.” 115  Their    i.e., the Roman Catholic Church’s. 116  anon   immediately. 117  makes   mates; spouses. 118  never … place     i.e., a person could never be canonized (be declared a saint) if he or she were married and remained married. 119  contemned   despised. 120  Cain   son of Adam and Eve, who murders his younger brother Abel out of jealousy that Abel’s sacrifice is more pleasing to God than his own. See Gen. 4.1-15. 121  monials   nuns living in enclosed orders (i.e., ones that never left their convents). 15  Likewise the men in their prelacies, priesthoods, and innumerable kinds of monkery, 123  for want 124  of women, hath brent 125  in their lusts, and done abominations without number, so receiving in themselves the just reward of their error. Of these most hellish and diabolical fruits, holy Saint Paul admonished the Romans in the first chapter of his epistle unto them, knowing aforehand that out of their corrupted Christianity should rise such a filthy flock as should work them everywhere. 126  But neither of Paul nor yet of Peter have the forewarnings availed, but those brockish 127  boors have gone freely forward without check till now of late days, wherein God hath given us a more pure sight to behold their buskelynges. 128  […]  […]  PRIESTS MARRIED AND UNMARRIED.  Now as concerning the priests of the Hebrews or Israelites for all these ages (which were the peculiar flock of God), they had all wives that were righteous among them, according to the religion that he first appointed them. Noe, Melchizedech, Abraham, Moses, Aaron 129  […] and such other were all married men and had children. The Scriptures report that these men were beloved with God, and that in holiness none were ever found like unto them. But neither was that for their vows nor yet for their good intents […] If any were chaste vowers that time the two priests that lusted after Susanna were of them (Daniel 13), 130  so were the wanton sons of Heli and Samuel 131  […] with such other like, which were afore God very reprobates, for despising his order, as well in that as in other things. Of such chaste vowers were there some, at the very time when Christ was born, both religious priests and Levites, which were most highly taken among them. 132  These, thinking marriage unholy, abstained from the use of women, but they spared not to work inexecrable filthiness among themselves, and one to pollute another. Zachary, a married priest and father of John [the] Baptist, a man for his marriage found just afore God, reprehended that abomination in them, and was cruelly slain for it, as telleth Epiphanius […]133 He was put unto death (sayeth Philip Melanchton […])134 for rebuking the vices of his college.  122  Beguines   female lay sisters, who devoted themselves to a religious life but who were not bound by strict vows; they could leave their communities and marry. 123  monkery   monastic orders (derogatory, contemptuous usage). 124  want   lack. 125  brent   burnt. 126  MARGINAL NOTE: Sodomites. [Editor’s note: See Romans 1.24-28]. 127  brockish   like a brock or badger; beastly, vile. 128  buskelynges   bustling, agitated movements. 129  Noe, Melchizedech, Abraham, Moses, Aaron     all righteous men from the Hebrew Scriptures: Noah (Noe) and his family were the only humans saved from the Great Flood in Genesis 6.7-9.17.     Melchizedech righteous “priest of the most high God” (Gen. 14.18); he becomes emblematic of the true minister.     Abraham the great patriarch and founder of the nation of Israel.     Moses   Chosen by God to lead the Israelites out of their bondage in Egypt, Moses was succeeded as leader of the nation by his brother Aaron. They were all, indeed, married men. 130  In the Book of Susanna, two elders lust after the virtuous Jewish wife, Susanna; they tell her that if she does not submit sexually to them, they will have her charged, convicted and executed for adultery. Susanna refuses their advances, and is saved from execution only through the intervention of the young Daniel, who proves the elders’ guilt; they are executed in Susanna’s place. 131  The Lord condemns the family of his righteous priest Heli (or Eli) on account of his sinful sons (1 Samuel 3.20-21); Samuel’s sons are likewise described as not having walked in God’s ways; they are perverters of justice and takers of bribes (1 Sam. 8.3). 132  most highly taken   held in the greatest respect. 133  For Zachary, see Lk. 1.5ff.     Epiphanius of Salamis (d. 403), bishop and Church Father, author of the Panarion (also known as “Against Heresies”). 16   […]  OXFORD SHURNED. 135  AND ALCUINUS’S MONKS.136  Ashamed are not these prestigious 137  papists to utter it in their stories and read it in their saints’ legends, in contempt of their Christian governors, that no king may enter the town of Oxford without a mischief, because one Algar, a prince, about this age would have had Saint Frideswide to wife. As though to be a king were a far viler or unworthier office than to be a pyled shitten nun! 138  O blind bluddering Balaamites, 139  without all judgements godly! Of God only is the worthy office of a king (Proverb 3), whereas your fisting 140  nuns were of Antichrist and the Devil. […] About the same time, was Alcuinus, a doctor of England, made abbot of Turonia in France, by the gift of Charles the Great, which on a night, found all his monks dead […] by the sudden stroke of God for their sodometry,141 one only excepted. […] A great matter had it been in the Pope’s books, if these men had had wives, for then he could not have sent them to the Devil so fast, according to [the] general commission which he had of Satan his great master, in that vicarship of his. 142     From THE ACTS OF THE ENGLISH VOTARIES (revised and expanded, Parts 1 and 2, 1551)  THE PREFACE to Part 2  […]  Necessary is it, that somewhat be said here of their chaste religion also. In Rome were and are yet certain temples into whom neither honest matron nor yet chaste virgin were suffered to enter; what was permitted to common whores, oppressors of the people, and sodomitish priests in that behalf, I think all the world knoweth at this day. This mad superstition (sayeth Jacobus Zieglerus in [his] Syria 143 ) had her first original in the mount of Olympus within the isle of Cyprus, whereas a solemn temple was dedicate to Venus, into whom no woman [was] permitted to enter, and passed from thence to the Romans, being there admitted for a most high religion. Nevertheless the common whores had there allowed them for their lascivious occupying most fair mansions in a street called Suburrs, as both Martialis and Pamphilius  134  Philip Melanchton (1497-1560), German reformist, theologian, and friend of Luther. 135  shurned   shunned. 136  Alcuinus   Alcuin (c. 735-804), English scholar and author of many theological treatises. 137  prestigious   deceptive, cheating. 138  no king … Algar … wife   St. Frideswide refused King Algar’s offer of marriage and fled from him to Oxford; he went blind when he attempted to remove her from her hermit cell near the city.     pyled   miserable (perhaps with a glance at ‘shorn,’ referring to the nun’s traditional cutting of her hair upon taking her vows). shitten   disgusting, contemptible. 139  bluddering   blundering; blathering.     Balaamites   i.e., idolators (after the worshipers of Baal in the Hebrew Scriptures). 140  fisting   farting. 141  sodometry   i.e., sodomy. 142  in that vicarship of his   i.e., through the authority the Pope derives from being Satan’s deputy (his vicar). 143  Jacobus Zieglerus (or Jacob Ziegler, c. 1470/1-1549), humanist, theologian, and cartographer. Bale refers to this writer’s most important work, Quae intus continentur Syria, Palestina, Arabia, Aeyptus, Schondia … (Strasbourg, 1532). 17  hath uttered. 144  Neither hath any man’s doctrine since the world’s beginning been more highly accepted of the Romans and their clergy than the crafty and dark learning of bawdy Aristotle, which not only besides his sodometry kept a most filthy whore called Hermia, but also after her death, did sacrifice unto her as to a great goddess, and made hymns in her praise. 145  […]  In England here sometime, might no bishop ride but upon a mare, as testifieth Bedas […] and Robert Fabyan […],146 which holy observation they had from Rome, and it is not without mystery of their buggerish beastliness. The great advouterer 147  Pope Sergius 148  after certain revelations and miracles of the Devil brought forth a great chest full of dead men’s bones, and caused the people both to kiss them and worship them in the head church of Rome, to double the whoredom there. […] All these uncomely histories considered, Rome, with her unchaste vows and votaries, is that blasphemous Babylon (Apo. xi), 149  and that Sodom and Egypt (Apo. xi) whom all the Scriptures detesteth. Her citizens are they whom God hath given up into most prodigious lusts of uncleanness, for changing his truth to a lie. 150  For they under the profession of chastity, leaving the natural use of women (sayeth Saint Paul), have brent 151  in their own lusts one to another, 152  that man with man, that is to say, monk with monk, nun with nun, friar with friar, and priest with priest, wrought filthiness (Rom. i), besides that they did with boys, bitches, and apes (with other beasts), yea the holiest fathers of them. If ye spell ‘Roma’ backward yet shall find it ‘love’153 in this prodigious kind, for it is the preposterous amor, a love out of order or a love against kind. I shame no more to tell this to the Pope’s remnant here in England than they shame to blaspheme marriage, which is God’s holy instruction, and to play still the whoremasters and sodomites in every corner. The eternal God once clearly deliver this Christian land from that monstrous generation. Amen.  […]  144  Suburrs … Pamphilius … uttered   Martial in Epigrams 6.66 refers to a street called Suburra in Rome, a haunt of prostitutes and their clients.     Pamphilius Eusebius (c. 263-339), Christian bishop, historian and theologian, author of Ecclesiastical History. 145  Neither … praise   For Aristotle’s various discussions of homosexuality, see Politics, 2.12; and Nichomachean Ethics, 6.1145-1154. Accounts differ, but Aristippus says Aristotle fell in love with the concubine belonging to Hermias, a Bithynian and ex-slave; when Hermias agreed to allow Aristotle to marry the concubine, Aristotle sacrificed to her as though she were a goddess and wrote a hymn to Hermias (Diogenes Laertius, ‘Life of Aristotle,’ Lives of the Eminent Philosophers). 146  Bedas    the Venerable Bede (672/73-735), early missionary to the English, and author of Ecclesiastical History of the English People.     Robert Fabyan (d. 1513), early historian, author of New Chronicles of England and France (1515). 147  advouterer   a person who adulterates, corrupts, or debases. 148  Pope Sergius I (reigned, 687-701). 149  Apo.   Apocalyse (the Book of Revelation). 150  God … lie   See Romans 1.25. 151  brent   burnt. 152  MARGINAL NOTE: Sodomites. 153  ‘Roma’ … love   Spelled backward as ‘Amor,’ ‘Roma’ is Latin for ‘love.’ 1  THOMAS BARTHOLIN (1616-1680), PHYSICIAN AND SCIENTIST.   Most famous today as the discoverer and describer of the lymphatic system, Thomas Bartholin came from a family of anatomists and physicians. His compendium of anatomical and physiological knowledge, Bartholinus Anatomy, was partly based on the observations of his father, Caspar Bartholin the Elder, as well as those of other contemporary scientists.   From BARTHOLINUS ANATOMY (1663)   BOOK 1, CHAPTER 34: OF THE CLITORIS.  Fallopius 1  arrogates unto himself the invention or first observation of this part. And Columbus gloriously, as in other things he is wont, attributes it to himself, 2  whereas, nevertheless, Avicenna, Albucasis, Ruffus, Pollux, 3  and others, have made mention hereof in their writings.  Some call it the nymph, as Aetius and Aegineta. 4  Columbus terms it dulcedo amoris, ‘the sweetness of love’ and ‘the sting of Venus,’ because this part is the chief seat of delight in carnal copulation, which if it be gently touched in such as have long abstained from carnal embracements, and are desirous thereof, seed easily comes away. The Greeks called it clitoris, others name it tentigo, 5  others the woman’s yard or prick―both because it resembles a man’s yard in situation, substance, composition, repletion, with spirits and erection, and also because it hath somewhat like the nut and foreskin of a man’s yard, and in some women it grows as big as the yard of a man; so that some women abuse the same, and make use thereof in place of a man’s yard, exercising carnal copulation one with another, and they are termed confricatrices, 6  ‘rubsters.’ Which lascivious practice is said to have been invented by one Philaenis, and Sappho the Greek poetess is reported to have practiced the same. And of these I conceive the Apostle Paul speaks in 1 Romans 26. And therefore this part is called contemptus virorum, ‘the contempt of mankind.’  […]  1  Gabriele Falloppio (Fallopius) [1523-1562], Italian anatomist and physician. 2  And Columbus … himself   Matteo Realdo Columbo (Columbus) [1516-1559], Italian anatomist and physician. His claim that he had discovered the clitoris was widely reported in various medical and anatomy texts and was just as widely derided. The clitoris as the seat of female sexual pleasure had been known since antiquity.  Cf. Crooke, ‘Microcosmographia,’ Online Companion, n26.   gloriously   arrogantly.     wont   accustomed to; does as a matter of course. 3  Avicenna   Ibn Sina (d. 1037 CE), influential Persian physician and philosopher, who combined Aristotelian and Galenic ideas in his Canon of Medicine.     Albucasis  (Zahrawi, fl. 940 CE), Islamic physician and surgeon, author of the important medical compendium, Al-Tasrif.    Ruffus    Rufus of Ephesus (fl. late 1 st  c. CE), Greek physician and writer on anatomy. Pollux   perhaps, Pollux of Naucratis, 2 nd  c. CE grammarian and rhetorician, whose Pollucis Onomasticon mentions the pleasure involved in clitoral stimulation. 4  nymph   here, the clitoris. Cf. Crooke, ‘Microcosmographia,’ Online Companion, n42.    Aetius   Aetius of Amida [Aetius Amidenus],  Greek physician (c. 502-575), author of Sixteen Books on Medicine.     Aegineta Paul of Aegina (fl. 640 CE), a Greek, a Galenist, and the author of many medical treatises, of which only his encyclopaedic Seven Books of Medicine survives. 5  tentigo     Latin, ‘clitoris’, but also apparently used by the ancients to describe the erect penis (J.N. Adams, The Latin Sexual Vocabulary, pp. 103-104). Cf. Crooke, ‘Microcosmographia,’ Online Companion, n62. 6  confricatrices   Latin, ‘con’ (with) + ‘frico’ (to rub sexually), referring here to women who engage in same-sex sexual intercourse. 1  RICHARD BAXTER (1615-1691), MINISTER, RELIGIOUS WRITER, AND AUTOBIOGRAPHER.     A man for whom religious and political concerns were at the centre of his life, Richard Baxter served as a chaplain for Oliver Cromwell’s New Model Army, but his experiences of the more radical sects that comprised it (such as the Levellers) made him modify his earlier religious stances. Although he was a firm supporter of Cromwell and the Protectorate, after the Restoration he became Charles II’s chaplain, but he soon resigned his post. A supporter of ecumenism, Baxter rejected the state’s increasing insistence on conformity in all aspects of ceremony and liturgy in the Church of England.  The selections below offer an interesting Puritan comment on the widely accepted and disseminated definition of impassioned male friendship found in classical texts, particularly in Cicero’s Laelius: On Friendship (for excerpts, see ‘Cicero,’ Online Companion).  EDITIONS: Baxter, Richard. The Autobiography of Richard Baxter (Reliquiae Baxterianae). Abridged by  J.M. Lloyd. Ed. and intro. N.H. Keeble. London: Dent, 1974. ―. A Christian Directory. 5 vols. London: Richard Edwards, 1825. [the discussion of  friendship is contained in the volume subtitled ‘Christian Politics’].    From A CHRISTIAN DIRECTORY (1673)1   VOLUME 4: CHRISTIAN POLITICS: CHAPTER 28: SPECIAL CASES AND DIRECTIONS FOR LOVE TO GODLY PERSONS AS SUCH  […]  TITLE 6: CASES AND DIRECTIONS FOR INTIMATE SPECIAL FRIENDS  […]  Question 2. Is it lawful, meet,2 or desirable to entertain that extraordinary affection to any one, which is called special friendship, or to have an endeared, intimate friend,  whom we love far above all others?  Answer. An intimate special friendship is a thing that hath been so much pleaded for by   all sorts of men, and so much of the felicity of man’s life hath been placed in   it that it beseemeth not me3 to speak against it. But yet I think it meet to tell   you with what cautions and limits it must be received, and how far it is good,   and how far sinful: (For there are perils here to be avoided, which neither   Cicero, nor his Scipio and Laelius were acquainted with).4  1  The complete title page reads: “A Christian Directory:  Or, A Sum of Practical Theology, And Cases of Conscience.  Directing Christians, how to use their knowledge and faith; How to improve all helps and means, and to perform all duties; How to Over-come temptations, and to escape or mortify every sin. In Four Parts, I. Christian Ethics (or private duties), II. Christian Economics (or family duties), III. Christian Ecclesiastics (or church duties), IV. Christian Politics (or duties to our ruler and neighbours).”  The title page concludes with quotations from Mal. 2.7-8; Mt. 13.52; Heb. 5.13-14; 2 Tim. 2.14-16; and 2 Pet. 3.16. 2  meet   appropriate, fitting. 3  beseemth not me   i.e., it seems not fitting for me. 4  Cicero, nor his Scipio and Laelius   See the introduction to the selections from Cicero’s ‘Laelius,’ Online 2   I. 1. It is lawful to choose some one well-qualified person, who is fittest for that use, and to make him the chief companion of our lives, our chiefest counsellor and comforter, and to confine our intimacy and converse to him in a special manner above all others.  2. And it is lawful to love him not only according to his personal worth, but according to his special suitableness to us, and to desire his felicity accordingly, and to exercise our love to him more frequently and sensibly (because of his nearness and presence) than towards some better men that are further off.  The reasons of such an intimate friendship are these:   1. No man is sufficient for himself, and therefore Nature teacheth him to desire a helper. And there is so wonderful a diversity of temperaments and conditions, and so great a disparity and incongruity among good and wise men towards each other that one that is more suitably congruous to us than all the rest may on that account be much preferred.   2. It is not many that can be so near us as to be ordinary helpers to us, and a wiser man at a distance or out of reach may be less useful to us than one of inferior worth at hand.   3. The very exercise of friendly love and kindness to another is pleasant, and so it is to have one to whom we may confidently reveal our secrets, to bear part of our burden, and to confirm us in our right apprehensions, and to cure us of our wrong ones.   4. And it is no small benefit of a present bosom friend5 to be instead of all the world to us, that is, of common unprofitable company, for man is a sociable creature and abhorreth utter solitude. And among the common sort we shall meet with so much evil, and so little that is truly wise or good, as will tempt a man to think that he is best when he is least conversant with mankind. But a selected friend is to us for usefulness instead of many, without these common encumbrances and snares.   5. And it is a great part of the commodity of a faithful friend to be assisted in the true knowledge of ourselves, to have one that will watch over us, and faithfully tell us of the sin, and danger, and duty which we cannot easily see without help, and which other men will not faithfully acquaint us with.  II.  But yet it is rare to choose and use this friendship rightly, and there are many evils here to be carefully avoided. The instances shall be mentioned anon6 in the directions, and therefore now be passed by.   Question 3. Is it meet to have more such bosom friends than one?  Answer. Usually one only is meetest:  I. 1. Because love diffused is oft weak, and contracted is more strong.  2. Because secrets are seldom safe in the hands of many.  3. Because suitable persons are rare.  4. And though two or three may be suitable to you, yet perhaps they may be unsuitable among themselves. And the calamity of their own disparities will redound to you; and their fallings out may turn to the bewraying7 of your secrets, or to some other greater wrong.  Companion, pp. 4-5. 5  bosom friend   a specially intimate friend; a best friend. 6  anon   soon, in a little while. 7  bewraying   revealing, betraying. 3   II.  But yet sometimes two or three such friends may be better than one alone:   1. In case they be all near and of an approved suitableness and fidelity.  2. In case they be all suitable and endeared to one another.  3. If a man live per vices8 in several places, and his friends cannot remove with him, he may have one friend in one place, and another in another, and so many will be but as one that is constant.  4. And in case that many may add to our help, our counsel and comfort, more than to our danger, hurt, or trouble. In all these cases many are better than one.   Question 4. Is it fit for him to take another bosom friend who hath a pious wife? And is   any other so fit to be a friend as he and she that are as one flesh?9  Answer. When a wife hath the understanding, virtue, and fidelity fit for this sort of   friendship, then no one else is so fit, because of nearness and united interests.   The same I say of a husband to a wife. But because that it seldom falls out that   there is such a fitness for this office, especially in the wife, in that case it is   lawful and meet to choose a friend that is fit indeed, and to commit those   secrets to him which we commit not to a wife; for secrets are not to be   committed to the untrusty, nor wise counsel to be expected from the unwise,   how near soever. And the great writers about this special friendship, do think   no woman is fit for it, but men only;10 but that conclusion is too injurious to   that sex.   Question 5.  Is it agreeable to the nature of true friendship to love our friend not only for   himself but for our own commodity? And whether must he or I be the chief   end of my love and friendship?11  Answer.  I. 1. Indeed in our love to God, he that is the object is also our chief and ultimate end, and we must love him more for Himself than for ourselves. And yet here it is lawful subordinately to intend ourselves.  2. And our love to the commonwealth should be greater than our love to ourselves, and therefore we may not love it chiefly for ourselves.  3. And if our bosom friend be notoriously better than we are, and more serviceable to God and to the common good, we should love him also above ourselves, and therefore not chiefly for ourselves.  4. But in case of an equality of goodness and usefulness, we are not bound to love our most intimate friend more than ourselves; and therefore may at least equally love him for ourselves as for himself. And if we are really and notoriously better and more useful, we may love him chiefly for ourselves, and ourselves above him. But still we must love God and the  8  Latin, ‘by turns.’ 9  as he and she that are as one flesh   Gen. 2.23-24. 10  the great writers ... but men only   i.e., the classical writers on friendship, especially Aristotle, Plato, and Cicero. Cf. the preface to one 17 th  century translation of Cicero’s ‘Laelius,’ Online Companion, pp. 5-6. 11  For Cicero’s treatment of this issue, see ‘Laelius,’ Online Companion, pp. 8-10, 12. 4  public good above both ourselves and him, and must love both ourselves and him in order to God, who is the beginning and end of all.  Question 6. Is it contrary to the nature of true friendship to keep any secret from   such a bosom friend, or to retain any suspicion of him, or to suppose   that he may possibly prove unfaithful to us and forsake us?  Answer. Cicero and the old doctors of friendship say that all this is inconsistent with   true friendship, and it is true that it is contrary to perfect friendship.12 But it is   as true that perfect friendship cannot be, nor must not be, among imperfect   men; and that the nature of mankind is so much depraved that the best are   unmeet for perfect friendship. And certainly few men, if any in the world, are   fit for every secret of our hearts. Besides that, we are so bad that if all our   secret thoughts were known to one another, it might do much to abate our   friendship and love to each other. And it is certain that man is so corrupt a   creature, and good men so imperfectly cured of their corruption, that there is   selfishness, uncertainty, and mutability in the best. And therefore it is not a   duty to judge falsely of men, but contrarily to judge of them as they are. And   therefore to suppose that it is possible the closest friend may reveal our   secrets, one time or another, and that the steadfastest friend may possibly   become our enemy: to think that possible which is possible (and more) is   injurious to none.   Question 7. Is it lawful to change a bosom friend, and to prefer a new one whom we   perceive to be more worthy before an old one?13  Answer. An old friend caeteris paribus14 is to be preferred before a new one, and is not   to be cast off without desert and necessity. But for all that:  I. 1. If an old friend prove false, or notably unfit;  2. Or if we meet with another that is far more able, fit, and worthy, no doubt but we may prefer the later; and may value, love, and use men as they are for goodness, worth, and usefulness.  […]   Question 9. Why should we restrain our love to a bosom friend (contrary to Cicero’s   doctrine) and what sin or danger is in loving him too much?15  Answer. All these following:  I. 1. It is an error of judgement and will to suppose any one better than he is (yea, perhaps than any creature on earth is), and so to love him.  2. It is an irrational act, and therefore not fit for a rational creature, to love any one  12  For Cicero’s treatment of this issue, see ‘Laelius,’ Online Companion, pp. 6-8, 10. 13  For Cicero’s treatment of this issue, see ‘Laelius,’ Online Companion, pp. 11-12. 14  caeteris paribus   Latin, ‘with other things being the same’ or ‘all things being equal.’ 15  For Cicero’s treatment of this issue, see ‘Laelius,’ Online Companion, pp. 10-12, 15. 5  further than reason will allow, and beyond the true causes of regular love.  3. It is usually a fruit of sinful selfishness, for this excess of love doth come from a selfish cause: either some strong conceit that the person greatly loveth us, or for some great kindness which he hath showed us, or for some need we have of him and fitness appearing in him to be useful to us, etc. Otherwise it would be purely for amiable worth, and then it would be proportioned to the nature and measure of that worth.  4. It very often taketh up men’s minds, so as to hinder their love to God, and their desires and delights in holy things. While Satan (perhaps upon religious pretences) turneth our affections too violently to some person, it diverteth them from higher and better things. For the weak mind of man can hardly think earnestly of one thing without being alienated in his thoughts from others; nor can hardly love two things or persons fervently at once that stand not in pure subordination one to the other; and we seldom love any fervently in a pure subordination to God, for then we should love God still more fervently.  5. It oft maketh men ill members of the Church and the commonwealth, for it contracteth that love to one over-valued person which should be diffused abroad among many; and the common good which should be loved above any single person is by this means neglected (as God himself); which maketh wives and children and bosom friends become those gulfs that swallow up the estates of most rich men, so that they do little good with them to the public state, which should be preferred.  6. Overmuch friendship engageth us in more duty than we are well able to perform without neglecting our duty to God, the commonwealth, and our own souls. There is some special duty followeth all special acquaintance, but a bosom friend will expect a great deal. You must allow him much of your time in conference, upon all occasions; and he looketh that you should be many ways friendly and useful to him, as he is or would be to you, when, alas, frail man can do but little; our time is short, our strength is small, our estates and faculties are narrow and low. And that time which you must spend with your bosom friend, where friendship is not moderated and wisely managed, is perhaps taken from God and the public good, to which you first owed it, especially if you are magistrates, ministers, physicians, schoolmasters, or such others as are of public usefulness. Indeed, if you have a sober prudent friend that will look but for your vacant hours, and rather help you in your public service, you are happy in such a friend. But that is not the excess of love that I am reprehending.  7. This inordinate friendship prepareth for disappointments, yea and for excess of sorrows. Usually experience will tell you that your best friends are but uncertain and imperfect men, and will not answer your expectation, and perhaps some of them may so grossly fail you as to set light by you16 or prove your adversaries. I have seen the bonds of extraordinary dearness many ways dissolved: one hath been overcome by the flesh, and turned drunken and sensual, and so proved unfit for intimate friendship (who yet sometimes seemed of extraordinary uprightness and zeal). Another hath taken up some singular conceits in religion and joined to some sect where his bosom friend could not follow him, and so it hath seemed his duty to look with strangeness, contempt, or pity on his ancient friend as one that is dark and low, if not supposed an adversary to the truth, because he espouseth not all his mis-conceits. Another is suddenly lifted up with some preferment, dignity, and success, and so is taken with higher things and higher converse, and thinks it is very fair to give and embrace his ancient friend for what he once was to him, instead of continuing such endearedness. Another hath changed his place and company, and so by degrees grown very indifferent to his ancient friend when he is out of sight, and converse ceaseth. Another hath himself chosen his friend amiss in his inexperienced youth, or in a penury of wise and good men, supposing him much better than he was, and afterward hath had experience of many  16  to set light by you    to treat you [and your concerns] as trivial or unimportant. 6  persons of far greater wisdom, piety, and fidelity, whom therefore reason commandeth him to prefer. All these are ordinary dissolvers of these bonds of intimate and special friendship.   And if your love continue as hot as ever, its excess is like to be your excessive sorrow. For:  II. 1. You will be the more grieved at every suffering of your friend, as sickness, losses, crosses, etc., whereof so many attend mankind as is like to make your burden great.  2. Upon every removal, his absence will be the more troublesome to you.  3. All incongruities and fallings-out will be the more painful to you, especially his jealousies, discontents, and passions, which you cannot command.  4. His death, if he die before you, will be the more grievous, and your own the more unwelcome, because you must part with him.   These and abundance of sore17 afflictions are the ordinary fruits of too strong affections, and it is no rare thing for the best of God’s servants to profess that their sufferings from their friends who have over-loved them have been ten times greater than from all the enemies that ever they had in the world.18  And to those that are wavering about this case, whether only a common friendship with all men according to their various worth or a bosom intimacy with some one man be more desirable, I shall premise a free confession of my own case, whatever censures for it I incur. When I was first awakened to the regard of things spiritual and eternal, I was exceedingly inclined to a vehement love to those that I thought the most serious saints, and especially to that intimacy with some one, which is called friendship, by which I found extraordinary benefit, and it became a special mercy to my soul. But it was by more than one or two of the fore-mentioned ways that the strict bond of extraordinary friendship hath been relaxed, and my own excessive esteem of my most intimate friend confuted. And since then I have learned to love all men according to their real worth, and to let out my love more extensively and without respect of persons, acknowledging all that is good in all, but with a double love and honour to the excellently wise and good; and to value men for their public usefulness than for their private suitableness to me; and yet to value the ordinary converse of one or a few suitable friends before a more public and tumultuary life, except when God is publicly worshipped or when public service inviteth me to deny the private of a quiet life. And though I more difference19 between man and man than ever, I do it not upon so slight and insufficient grounds as in the time of my inexperienced credulity, nor do I expect to find any without the defects and blots and failings of infirm, imperfect, mutable man.   Question 10. What qualifications should direct us in the choice of a special bosom friend?  Answer.  I. 1. He must be one that is sincere and single-hearted, and not given to affectation or anything that is much forced in his deportment: plain and open-hearted to you, and not addicted to a hiding, fraudulent, or reserved carriage.  17  sore   serious, weighty. 18  In contrast, Cicero argues that friendship should not be shunned out of fear that one may experience grief or trouble for one’s friend (‘Laelius,’ Online Companion, pp. 13-14, 15-16). 19  difference   used here as a verb: ‘distinguish.’  7   2. He must be one that is of a suitable temper and disposition. I mean not guilty of all your own infirmities, but not guilty of a crossness or contrariety of disposition―as if one be in love with plainness of apparel, and frugality in diet and course of life, and the other be guilty of curiosity,20 and ostentation and prodigality; if one be for few words and the other for many; if one be for labour and the other for idleness and frequent interruptions; if one be for serving the humours of men, and the other for a contempt of human censure, in the way of certain duty. These disparities make them unfit for this sort of bosom friendship.  3. He must not be a slave to any vice, for that which maketh him false to God and to betray his own soul may make him false to man and to betray his friend.  4. He must not be a selfish person; that is, corruptly and partially for himself and for his own carnal21 ends and interests. For such a one hath no true love to others, but when you seem cross22 to his own interest, his pleasure, wealth or honour, he will forsake you, for so he doth by God himself.  5. He must be humble and not notably proud, for pride will make him quarrelsome, disdainful, impatient, and quite unsuitable to a humble person.  6. He must be one that’s thoroughly and resolvedly godly, for you will hardly well centre anywhere but in God, nor will he be useful to all the ends of friendship if he be not one that loveth God and holy things and is of a pious conversation. Nor can you expect that he that is false to God, and will sell his part in him for the pleasure or gain of sin, should long prove truly faithful unto you.  7. He must be one that is judicious in religion: that is, not of an erroneous, heretical wit, not ignorant of those great and excellent truths which you should oft confer about, but rather one that excelleth you in solid understanding and true judgement, and a discerning head, that can teach you somewhat which you know not, and is not addicted to corrupt you with false opinions of his own.  8. He must be one that is not schismatical and embodied23 in any dividing sect, for else he will be no longer true to you than the interest of his party will allow him. And if you will not follow him in his conceits and singularities, he will withdraw his love and despise you. And if he do not, yet he may endanger your steadfastness by the temptation of his love.  9. He must be one that hath no other very intimate friend, unless his friend be also as intimate with you as with him, because else he will be no further secret and trusty to you than the interest or will of his other friend will allow him.  10. He must be one that is prudent in the management of business, and especially those which your converse is concerned in, else his indiscretion in words or practice will not suffer your friendship to be long entire.  11. He must be one that is not addicted to loquacity but can keep your secrets; otherwise he will be so untrusty as to be incapable of doing the true office of a friend.  12. He must have a zeal and activity in religion and in all well-doing. Otherwise he will be unfit to warm your affections and to provoke you to love and good works, and to do the principal works of friendship, but will rather cool and hinder you in your way.  13. He must be one that is not addicted to levity, inconstancy, and change, or else you can expect no stability in his friendship.  14. He must not much differ from you in riches or in poverty, or in quality in the  20  curiosity   excessive care or attention bestowed on trivial matters [usually relating to clothing, food, and matters of style or taste]. 21  carnal   material, secular, worldly. 22  cross   in opposition. 23  schismatical    given to having opinions contrary to those of the Established [Anglican] Church.     embodied incorporated into. 8  world.24 For if he be much richer, he will be carried away with higher company and converse than yours, and will think you fitter to be his servant than his friend; and if he be much poorer than you, he will be apt to value your friendship for his own commodity, and you will be still in doubt whether he be sincere.  15. He must be one that is like to live with you or near you, that you may have the frequent benefit of his converse, counsel, example, and other acts of friendship.  16. He must be one that is not very covetous, or a lover of riches or preferment, for such a one will no longer be true to you than his Mammon25 will allow him.  17. He must be one that is not peevish, passionate, or impatient, but that can both bear with your infirmities, and also bear much from others for your sake in the exercise of his friendship.  18. He must be one that hath so good an esteem of your person, and so true and strong a love to you, as will suffice to move him, and hold him to all this.  19. He must be yet of a public spirit, and a lover of good works, that he may put you on to well-doing, and not countenance you in an idle, self-pleasing, and unprofitable life. And he ought to be one that is skilful in the business of your calling, that may be fit to censure your work, and amend it, and direct you in it, and confer about it. And it is best for you if he be one that excelleth you herein, that he may add something to you (but then you will not be such to him, and so the friendship will be unequal).  20. Lastly, there must be some suitableness in age and sex. The young want26 experience to make them meet27 for the bosom friendship of the aged (though yet they may take delight in instructing them, and doing them good),28 and the young are hardly reconcilable to all the gravity of the aged. And it must not be a person of a different sex, unless in case of marriage. Not but that they may be helpful to each other as Christians, and in a state of distant friendship, but this bosom intimacy they are utterly unfit for, because of unsuitableness, temptation, and scandal.  […]   From DIRECTIONS FOR THE RIGHT USE OF SPECIAL BOSOM FRIENDSHIP    Direction 1. Engage not yourself to anyone as a bosom friend without great evidence and proof of his fitness in all the foregoing qualifications,29 by which you may see that this is not an ordinary duty or benefit, but a very unusual case, for it is a hard thing to meet with one among many thousands that hath all these qualifications. And when that is done, if you have not all the same qualifications to him, you will be unmeet for his friendship, whatever he be for yours. And where in an age will there be two that are suited in all those respects? Therefore, our ordinary way of duty is to love all according to their various worth, and to make the best use we can of everyone’s grace and gifts, and of those most that are nearest us, but without the partiality of such extraordinary affection to any one above all the  24  For Cicero’s treatment of this issue, see ‘Laelius,’ Online Companion, p. 12. 25  Mammon   idol of wealth; figuratively, the lust for wealth which becomes a person’s governing motive for action and belief; a false ‘god or ‘idol.’ 26  want   lack. 27  meet   fit. 28  Cf. Cicero’s ‘Laelius,’ Online Companion, pp. 15-16. 29  Cf. Cicero’s ‘Laelius,’ Online Companion, pp. 13-14.  9  rest. [...]   Direction 2. When you do choose a friend, though he must be one that you have no cause to be suspicious of, yet reckon that it is possible that he may be estranged from you, yes, and turn your enemy. Causeless jealousies are contrary to friendship on your part, and […] inconsistent with friendship on his part. But yet no friendship should make you blind, and not to know that man is a corrupt and mutable creature, especially in such an age as this, where we have seen how personal changes, state changes, and changes in religion have alienated many seeming friends. Therefore, love them, and use them, and trust them but as men that may possibly fail all your expectations, and open all your secrets, and betray you, yea, and turn your enemies. Suspect it not, but judge it possible.   Direction 3. Be open with your approved30 friend, and commit all your secrets to him, still excepting those the knowledges of which may be hurtful to himself, or the revealing of them hereafter may be intolerably injurious to yourself, to honour of religion, to the public good, or to any other. If you be needlessly close,31 you are neither friendly nor can you improve your friend enough to your own advantage. But yet if you open all without exception, you may many ways be injurious to your friend and to yourself; and the day may come which you did not look for, in which his weakness, passion, interest, or alienation may trouble you by making all public to the world.  […]   Direction 5. Be ever faithful to your friend for the cure of all his faults, and never turn friendship into flattery: yet still let all be done in love, though in a friendly freedom and closeness32 of admonition. It is not the least benefit of intimate friendship that what an enemy speaketh behind our backs, a friend will open plainly to our faces. To watch over one another daily and be as a glass33 to show our faces or faults to one another is the very great benefit of true friendship, Eccles. 4.9, 10, 11: “Two are better than one, because they have a good reward for their labour. For if they fall, the one will lift up his fellow. But woe to him that is alone when he falleth, for he hath not another to help him up.” It is a flatterer, and not a friend, that will please you by concealing or extenuating your sin.   Direction 6. Abhor selfishness as most contrary to true friendship. Let your friend be as yourself, and his interest as your own. If we must love our neighbour as ourselves,34 much more our dearest bosom friends.   Direction 7. Understand what is most excellent and useful in your friend, and that improve. Much good is lost by a dead-hearted companion that will neither broach35 the vessel and draw out that which is ready for their use, nor yet feed any good discourse by due questions or answers, but stifle all by barren silence. And a dull, silent listener will weary and silence the speaker at last.   Direction 8. Resolve to bear with each other’s infirmities. Be not too high in your  30  approved friend   i.e., one who has been tested and has proven to be worthy of this status. 31  close   reserved, uncommunicative, given to secrecy. 32  closeness   privacy or secrecy. 33  glass   mirror. 34  love our neighbour as ourselves   Christ’s admonition in Mt. 22.39. 35  broach   tap into, open up. 10  expectations from each other. Look not for exactness and innocency, but for human infirmities, that when they fall out, you may not find yourselves disappointed. Patience is necessary in all human converse.   Direction 9. Yet do not suffer friendship to blind you to own or extenuate the faults of your dearest friend, for that will be sinful partiality, and will be greatly injurious to God, and treachery against the soul and safety of your friend.   Direction 10. And watch lest the love, estimation, or reverence of your friend should draw you to entertain his errors or to imitate him in any sinful way. It is not part of true friendship to prefer men before the truth of Christ, nor to take any heretical, dividing, or sensual infection from our friend, and so to die and perish with him. Nor is it friendly to desire it.  […]   Direction 13. Let not the love of your friend draw you to love all or any others the less and below their worth. Let not friendship make you narrow-hearted, and confine your charity to one. But give all their due in your valuation and your conversation, and exercise as large a charity and benignity as possibly you can, especially to societies, churches, and commonwealth, and to all the world. It is a sinful friendship which robbeth others of your charity, especially those to whom much more is due than to your friend.   Direction 14. Exercise your friendship in holiness and well-doing. Kindle in each other the love of God and goodness, and provoke each other to a heavenly conversation. The more of God and heaven in your friendship, the more holy, safe, and sweet and durable it will prove. It will not wither when an everlasting subject is the fuel that maintaineth it. If it will not help you the better to holiness and to heaven, it is worth nothing, Eccles. 4.11: “If two lie together, then they have heat; but how can one be warm alone?” See that your friendship degenerate not into common carnal36 love, and evaporate not in a barren converse, instead of prayer and heavenly discourse, and faithful watchfulness and reproof.   Direction 15. Prepare each other for suffering and death, and dwell together in the house of mourning, where you may remember your nearer everlasting friendship, and not only in the house of mirth,37 as if it were your work to make each other forget your latter end.38  […]   From RELIQUIAE BAXTERIANAE (1696)  THE LIFE OF THE REVEREND MASTER RICHARD BAXTER   §4. When I was ready for the university, my master39 drew me into another way which kept me thence, where were my vehement desires. He had a friend at Ludlow, chaplain to the  36  carnal   See n21. 37  dwell … house of mourning … the house of mirth   Ec. 7.2. 38  latter end   death. 39  master   John Owen, Baxter’s schoolmaster at Wroxeter (later Donnington) grammar school. 11  Council40 there, called Mr. Richard Wickstead; whose place having allowance from the king (who maintaineth the house) for one to attend him, he told my master that he was purposed to have a scholar fit for the university; and having but one, would be better to him than any tutor in the university could be. Whereupon my master persuaded me to accept the offer, and told me it would be better than the university to me. I believed him as knowing no better myself; and it suited well with my parents’ minds, who were willing to have me as near them as possible (having no children but myself). And so I left my schoolmaster for a supposed tutor. But when I had tried him I found myself deceived; his business was to please the great ones, and seek preferment in the world; and to that end found it necessary sometimes to give the Puritans a flirt,41 and call them ‘unlearned,’ and speak much for learning, being but a superficial scholar himself. He never read to me, nor used any savoury discourse of godliness; only he loved me, and allowed me books and time enough, so that as I had no considerable helps from him in my studies, so had I no considerable hindrance.  And though the house was great (there being four judges, the king’s attorney, the secretary, the clerk of the fines,42 with all their servants, and all the lord president’s servants, and many more) and though the town was full of temptations through the multitude of persons (counsellors, attorneys, officers, and clerks) and much given to tippling and excess, it pleased God not only to keep me from them, but also to give me one intimate companion, who was the greatest help to my seriousness in religion that ever I had before, and was a daily watchman over my soul. We walked together, we read together, we prayed together, and when we could we laid together. And having been brought out of great distress to prosperity, and his affection being fervent, though his knowledge not great, he would be always stirring me up to zeal and diligence, and even in the night would rise up to prayer and thanksgiving to God, and wonder that I could sleep so, that the thoughts of God’s mercy did not make me also to do as he did! He was unwearied in reading all serious practical books of divinity, especially Perkins, Bolton, Dr. Preston, Elton, Dr. Taylor, Whately, Harris, etc.43 He was the first that ever I heard pray ex tempore44 (out of the pulpit) and that taught me so to pray. And his charity and liberality was equal to his zeal, so that God made him a great means of my good, who had more knowledge than he, but a colder heart.  Yet before we had been two years acquainted, he fell once and a second time by the power of temptation into a degree of drunkenness which so terrified him upon the review (especially after the second time) that he was near to despair, and went to good ministers with sad confessions. And when I had left the house and his company, he fell into it again and again so oft that at last his conscience could have no relief or ease but in changing his judgement, and disowning the teachers and doctrines which had restrained him. And he did it on this manner: one of his superiors, on whom he had dependence, was a man of great sobriety and temperance, and of much devotion in his way, but very zealous against the  40  the council   i.e., the Council of the marches of Wales. 41  flirt   jibe, jeer, scoff. 42  clerk of the fines   a clerk or secretary who was responsible for collecting fines levied by the Council. 43  William Perkins (1558-1602), English theologian, Church of England clergyman and writer, author of works on moral theology.     Samuel Bolton (1605/6-1654), Church of England clergyman and writer; a well-respected preacher, his works included sermons and religious treatises.     John Preston (1587-1628), Church of England clergyman and writer; his collected sermons were popular and frequently reprinted.     Edward Elton (c. 1569- 1624), Church of England clergyman and author, most famous for his collections of sermons, many of which went into multiple editions.     Jeremy Taylor (1613-1667), bishop and religious writer, most famous for his works of religious controversy and his popular devotional manuals, Holy Living (1650) and Holy Dying (1651). William Whately (1583-1639), Church of England clergyman, Puritan preacher, and author of several volumes of collected sermons.     Richard Harris (1557/8-1621), Church of England clergyman, author of works of religious controversy. 44  ex tempore   spontaneously, without preparation or forethought; without the use of a set text (as in a prayer book). Praying in this way was a hallmark of Puritan and nonconformist devotion. 12  Nonconformists, ordinarily talking most bitterly against them, and reading almost only such books as encouraged him in this way. By converse45 with this man, my friend was first drawn to abate his charity to Nonconformists, and then to think and speak reproachfully of them, and next that to dislike all those that came near them, and to say that such as Bolton were too severe, and enough to make men mad. And the last I heard of him was that he was grown a fuddler and railer46 at strict men. But whether God recovered him, or what became of him, I cannot tell.  […]  45  converse   i.e., conversation. 46  fuddler   a tippler; a drunkard.     railer   one who verbally abuses others. 1  APHRA BEHN (c.1645-1689), POET, PLAYWRIGHT, AND NOVELIST. For a brief biography and selections from some of her other works, see the print anthology, pp. 514-18.  EDITIONS: Behn, Aphra. The Works of Aphra Behn. Ed. Montague Summers. 6 vols. New York: Benjamin  Blom, 1967. ―. The Works of Aphra Behn. Ed. Janet Todd. 7 vols. London: Pickering and Chatto, 1992.  [for The Amorous Prince, see vol. 5; for the poems, below, see vol. 1]; rept., for the  electronic edition sponsored by Intelex Past Masters, 2000-01 <http://www.nlx.com>.] ―. The Poems of Aphra Behn: A Selection. Ed. Janet Todd. New York: New York UP, 1994.    From THE AMOROUS PRINCE, OR, THE CURIOUS HUSBAND (1671)  A NOTE ON THE TEXT: A more than usually complicated Restoration comedy, The Amorous Prince’s main plot concerns Frederick, son and heir of the duke of Florence, an amoral man who has seduced and abandoned the lovely Cloris, after promising to marry her, before moving on to the attempted seduction of his best friend Curtius’ beloved, Laura. Having rejected Cloris because of what he supposes is her lowly social rank, Frederick begins to change his mind when he discovers Cloris is Curtius’ sister. Discovering that Frederick has been attempting to seduce Laura, Curtius issues a challenge and the two men fight a duel, in which Curtius wounds Frederick, forcing Curtius into hiding. The Prince’s wounds are tended by Cloris, who has disguised herself as the country boy, Phillibert, and entered Frederick’s service. Determined on revenge, Curtius disguises himself as an aged pimp, and uses Laura’s brother, the amoral Lorenzo, to inform the Prince of the beautiful courtesans he has available for purchase. Warned of Curtius’ plot to lure the Prince with these women and then kill him, the nobleman Antonio and his friends replace the hired killers, and the play’s chaste women the courtesans. Frightened into virtue and repentance, Frederick grieves when he is told that Cloris has killed herself in despair over his inconstancy, but his repentance is simply the prelude Cloris’ unmasking, and their joyful reunion. The play ends with Frederick promising to marry Cloris, Curtius promising to marry Laura, and Lorenzo forced to marry the waiting-gentlewoman, Isabella.   ACT 4, SCENE 3.  […]  FREDERICK.  ’Tis much, methinks, a boy of so dejected,  Humble birth should have so much of sense  And soul about him. CLORIS.  I know not that. But if I have a thought 2   Above that humble birth or education,  It was inspired by love. FREDERICK.  Still you raise my wonder greater:  ―Thou a lover? CLORIS.  Yes, my lord, though I am young,  I’ve felt the power of beauty.  And should you look upon the object, sir,  Your wonders soon would cease:  Each look does even animate insensibles 1   And strikes a reverent awe upon the soul;  Nothing is found so lovely. FREDERICK.  Thou speakst prettily. I think love  Indeed has inspired thee. CLORIS.  These were the flatteries, sir, she used to me,  Of her it was I learned to speak and sigh,  And look as, oft you say, I do on you. FREDERICK.  Why, then, it seems she made thee returns? CLORIS.  Ah, sir! ’Twas I that first was blessed;  I first the happy object was beloved,  For ’twas a person, sir, so much above me,  It had been sin to’ve raised my eyes to her,  Or by a glance, or sigh, betray my pain.  But oh! When with a thousand soft expressions,  She did encourage me to speak of love,  My God, how soon extravagant I grew!  And told so oft the story of my passion  That she grew weary of the repeated tale,  And punished my presumption with a strange neglect.            [Weeps. FREDERICK.  How, my good Phillibert? CLORIS.  Would suffer me to see her face no more.   1  insenibles   i.e., those things without senses (inanimate objects). 3  FREDERICK.  That was pity. Without a fault? CLORIS.  Alas, sir, I was guilty of no crime  But that of having told her how I loved her,  For all I had I sacrificed to her,  ―Poor worthless treasures to any but a lover,  And such you know accept the meanest things  Love and a true devotion do present;  When she was present I found a thousand ways  To let her know how much I was her slave,  And absent still invented new ones,  And quite neglected all my little business,  Counting the tedious moments of the day  By sighs and tears, thought it an age to night,  Whose darkness might secure our happy meeting,  But we shall meet no more on these kind terms.         [Sighs.  FREDERICK.  Come, do not weep, sweet youth. Thou art too young  To have thy blooming cheeks blasted with sorrow;  Thou wilt outgrow this childish inclination,  And shalt see beauties here, whose every glance  Kindles new fires, and quite expel the old. CLORIS.  Oh, never, sir! FREDERICK.  When I was first in love, I thought so too,  But now with equal ardour, I dote upon each new and beauteous object. CLORIS.  And quite forget the old? FREDERICK.  Not so, but when I see them o’er again,  I find I love them as I did before. CLORIS.  Oh, God forbid I should be so inconsistent!  No, sir, though she be false, she has my heart,  And I can die, but not redeem the victim. FREDERICK.  Away, you little fool! You make me sad  By this resolve, but I’ll instruct you better. CLORIS.  I would not make you sad for all the world. 4   Sir, I will sing, or dance, do anything  That may divert you. FREDERICK.  I thank thee, Phillibert, and will accept  Thy bounty; perhaps it may allay thy griefs awhile too. CLORIS.  I’ll call the music, sir.           [She goes out.  FREDERICK.   This boy has strange agreements in him. 2    Enter CLORIS with music. She bids them play, and dances a jig. 3    This was wondrous kind, my pretty Phillibert.   Enter PAGE.   PAGE.  Lorenzo, my lord, begs admittance. FREDERICK.  He may come in.   Enter LORENZO.   Well, Lorenzo, what’s the news with thee? — How goes the price of beauty, hah? LORENZO.  My lord, that question is apropos to  What I have to say; this paper will answer your question, sir —   Gives him a paper; he reads.   [Aside.]  Hah, I vow to Gad a lovely youth!  2  agreements   somewhat unclear: perhaps, ‘agreeable or attractive features/qualities’; or perhaps pointing to the lack of compatibility between two or more qualities or characteristics in Cloris-Phillibert’s personality? 3  jig   a cheerful, lively dance. 5    LORENZO gazes on PHILLIBERT.   But what makes he here with Frederick? This stripling may chance to mar my market of women now. 4  ’Tis a fine lad, how plump and white he is! Would I could meet him somewhere i’th dark, I’d have a fling at him, and try whether I Were right Florentine. 5   FREDERICK.  Well, sir, where be these beauties? LORENZO.  I’ll conduct you to them. FREDERICK.  What’s the fellow that brings them? LORENZO.  A Grecian, I think, or something. FREDERICK.  Beauties from Greece, man! LORENZO.  Why, let them be from the Devil!  So they be new, and fine, what need we care?  — But you must go tonight. FREDERICK.  I am not in a very good condition  To make visits of that kind. LORENZO.  However see them, and if you like them,  You may oblige the fellow to a longer stay,  For I know they are handsome. FREDERICK.  That’s the only thing thou art judge of;  Well, go you and prepare them,  And, Phillibert, thou shalt along with me;  I’ll have thy judgment too. CLORIS.  [Aside.] Good Heaven, how false he is!  4  mar … now   presumably, because Lorenzo fears that Cloris-Phillibert’s sexual attractions and availability will make Frederick less likely to indulge in sexual pleasure with the courtesans he has come to bring word of. 5  Florentine   a native of Florence, Italy; for the English, Italy was generally thought the birthplace and hotbed of sodomy. 6  LORENZO.  What time will your Highness come? FREDERICK.  Two hours hence.   [Exit Frederick.   LORENZO.  [Aside.] So then I shall have time to have a bout  With this gilting huswife, Isabella, 6   For my fingers itch to be at her.  [Exit Lorenzo.  […]   ACT 5, SCENE 1.  […]  LAURA.  Sir, ’tis Phillibert from the prince. LORENZO.  Why, how now, youngster? I see you intend  To thrive by your many trades;  So soon, so soon, i’faith; but sirrah, —  This is my sister and your prince’s mistress:  Take notice of that. CLORIS.  I know not what you mean. LORENZO.  Sir, you cannot deceive me so;  And you were right served, you would be made fit  For nothing but the great Turk’s seraglio.7  6  gilting   the action of gilding or painting in order to conceal physical defects (Isabella uses cosmetics).     huswife housewife; here, with negative connotations: disreputable or sexually loose woman. 7  the Great Turk’s seraglio   The supreme ruler of the ottoman empire had special women’s apartments in his palace for his wives, concubines, and female slaves, where it was death for any man other than the sultan and castrated eunuchs to be found. Lorenzo means that if Cloris-Phillibert were found alone there, as Lorenzo has found him alone with his sister Laura, Cloris-Phillibert would find himself castrated; in the West, the seraglio is an emblem of heterosexual and same-sex sexual vice and excess. 7  CLORIS.  You mistake my business, sir. LORENZO.  Your blushes give you the lie, sirrah;  But for the prince’s sake, and another reason I have,  I will pardon you for once. LAURA.  He has not done a fault, and needs it not. LORENZO.  Was he not alone with thee?  And is not that enough? Well, I see I am no Italian  In punctilioes of honourable revenge; 8   There is but one experiment left to prove myself so, 9   And if that fail, I’ll ev’n renounce my country.  —Boy, harkey — there is a certain kindness10  You may do me, and get your pardon for being found here.  CLORIS.  You shall command me anything. LORENZO.  Prithee, how long hast thou been set up for thyself, hah? 11  CLORIS.  As how, sir? LORENZO.  Poh, thou understand’st me. CLORIS.  Indeed, I do not, sir. What is’t you mean? LORENZO.  A smooth-faced boy, and ask such a question!  Fie, fie, this ignorance was ill counterfeited  To me that understand the world. CLORIS.  Explain yourself, sir. LORENZO.  Look, ten or twenty pistoles 12  will do you  8  puntilioes   small points or details; to be a man, here, who insists on taking revenge for the most miniscule slight to his honour and reputation. 9  Well I see … prove myself so   Italian men were stereotyped as hot-headed and ready to take offence at the smallest insult (real or perceived), but also as addicted to same-sex sexual intercourse, particularly with young, handsome boys. 10  harkey   i.e., hark ye (listen). 11  Prithee … hah?   Lorenzo assumes that Cloris-Phillibert is a boy who is willing to offer sexual favours in exchange for money (an occasional male prostitute). 12  pistoles   Spanish gold coins. 8   No hurt, will it? CLORIS.  Not any, sir. LORENZO.  Why so; ’tis well anything will make thee  Apprehend. CLORIS.  I shall be glad to serve you, sir, without that fee. LORENZO.  That’s kindly said —  [Aside] I see a man must not be too easy of belief: had I been so,  This boy would have been at ‘what do ye mean, sir,’  And ‘Lord, I understand you not.’  [To Phillibert] Well, Phillibert, here’s earnest to bind the bargain;  I am now in haste; when I see thee next,  I’ll tell thee more.         [Lorenzo whispers to Laura.]   CLORIS.  This ’tis to be a favourite now;  I warrant you I must do him some good office to the prince,  Which I’ll be sure to do.  […]   ACT 5, SCENE 3  […]  FREDERICK.  Alberto, would this court afforded  A lady worthy thee. ALBERTO.  Sir, I’m already sped, I humbly thank you.13 LORENZO.  Sped, quoth ye, Heaven defend me  From such a fortune. FREDERICK.  Lorenzo, I had forgot thee; thou shalt e’en marry too.  13  sped   successful (Alberto indicates that he is already committed to a woman). 9  LORENZO.  You may command me anything but marrying. ISABELLA.  What think you then of a smooth-faced boy? LORENZO.  [Aside.] A pox on him! Sure he will not tell now, will he? ISABELLA.  My lord, I beg your leave to challenge Lorenzo. FREDERICK.  What, to a duel, Phillibert? LORENZO.  Phillibert, Phillibert, hold! Do not ruin the reputation  Of a man that has acquired fame amongst the female sex!  I protest I did but jest. ISABELLA.  But, sir, I’m in earnest with you. FREDERICK.  This is not Phillibert. 14  ISABELLA.  No, sir, but Isabella  [Pointing to Cloris]―That was Phillibert. CLORIS.  Yes, sir, I was the happy boy to be beloved.  When Cloris was forgot. FREDERICK.  Oh, how you raise my love and shame […]  […]  ISABELLA.  And now, sir, I come to claim a husband here. FREDERICK.  Name him and take him. ISABELLA.  Lorenzo, sir. LORENZO.  Of all cheats, commend me to a waiting gentlewoman!  I her husband! ANTONIO.  I am witness to that truth.   14  There is no stage direction at this point, but it would seem that Isabella has unmasked herself, revealing that she is not Cloris-Phillibert, Frederick’s page. 10  FREDERICK.  ’Tis plain against you: come, you must be honest. LORENZO.  Will you compel me to’t against my will?  Oh, tyranny! Consider I am a man of quality and fortune! ISABELLA.  As for my qualities, you know I have sufficient,  And fortune, thanks to your bounty, considerable too. FREDERICK.  No matter. He has enough for both. LORENZO.  Nay, sir, an you be against me, 15   ’Tis time to reform in my own defence.  But ’tis a thing I never considered or thought on. FREDERICK.  Marry first, and consider afterwards. LORENZO.  That’s the usual way, I confess.  Come, Isabella, since the Prince commands it.  I do not love thee, but yet I’ll not forswear it,  Since a greater miracle than that is wrought,  And that’s my marrying thee.  Well, ’tis well thou art none of the most beautiful,  I should swear the Prince had some designs on thee else. 16   […]   POEMS UPON SEVERAL OCCASIONS (1684)   OUR CABAL 17   Come, my fair Cloris, come away, 18  Hast thou forgot ’tis holyday?19  15  an   if. 16  designs on thee   i.e., secretly planned to seduce. 17  cabal  generally, a coterie or exclusive circle; in political terms, a group or faction understood to work within an existing government or institutional structure, appropriating to itself the powers that rightly belong to the wider constituency of this organization; specifically, perhaps, a satiric reference to a powerful faction within the Privy Council of the time. The initials stand for various members of Behn’s literary and personal circle. For some identifications, see the notes below, but for a full discussion, see the editions by Summers and Todd. 18  Cloris   unidentified; Cloris was another name for Flora, goddess of flowers and the spring; it is a popular name for women in pastoral verse. 19  holyday   i.e., a holiday, which traditionally occurred on a saint’s day or upon a day of special religious 11  And lovely Silvia too make haste, 20  The sun is up, the day does waste: Dost thou not hear the music loud. Mixed with the murmur of the crowd? How can thy active feet be still, And hear the bagpipes cheerful trill?       MR. V.U. 21   Urania’s dressed as fine and gay,22 As if she meant t’outshine the day; Or certain that no victories Were to be gained but by her eyes; Her garment’s white, her garniture23 The springing beauties of the year, Which are in such nice order placed, 24  That nature is by art disgraced: Her natural curling ebon hair, Does loosely wanton in the air.       MR. G.V. 25  With her the young Alexis came, 26  Whose eyes dare only speak his flame: Charming he is, as fair can be, Charming without effeminacy; Only his eyes are languishing, Caused by the pain he feels within; Yet thou wilt say that languishment Is a peculiar ornament. Decked up he is with pride and care, 27  All rich and gay, to please his fair: The price of flocks h’ has made a prey To th’ usual vanity of this day.28  observance. 20  Silvia   unidentified; another popular name for women in pastoral verse, ‘Silvia’ derives from the Latin word meaning ‘forest.’ 21  MR. V.U.   unidentified. 22  Urania   unidentified; Urania is the muse of astronomy and celestial knowledge; as the surname of Venus, it identified Venus as the goddess of beauty and generation. 23  garniture   adornment. 24  nice   particular, carefully arranged. 25  MR. G.V.   unidentified. 26  Alexis   G.V. is given the name of the scornful young male beloved of the shepherd Corydon in Virgil’s ‘Eclogue 2.’ 27  Decked up   adorned, turned out. 12        MY DEAR BROTHER J.C. 29   After them Damon piping came, 30  Who laughs at Cupid and his flame; Swears, if the boy should him approach, He’d burn his wings with his own torch: But he’s too young for Love t’ invade, Though for him languish many a maid. His lovely air, his cheerful face, Adorned with many a youthful grace, Beget more sighs than if with arts He should design to conquer hearts: The swains as well as nymphs submit 31  To ’s charms of beauty and of wit. He’ll sing, he’ll dance, he’ll pipe and play, And wanton out a summer’s day;32 And wheresoever Damon be, He’s still the soul o’th’ company.       MY DEAR AMORET, MISTRESS B. 33  Next Amoret, the true delight 34  Of all that do approach her sight: The sun in all its course ne’er met Ought fair or sweet like Amoret. Alone she came, her eyes declined, 35  In which you’ll read her troubled mind; Yes, Silvia, for she’ll not deny She loves, as well as thou and I. ’Tis Philocles, that proud ingrate,36  28  The price … day   i.e., he has gone so far as to sell his income-generating property (in pastoral terms, his sheep) in order to dress himself finely. 29  My dear brother J.C.   likely, John Cooper, poet and translator, who wrote a commendatory poem prefacing Poems upon Several Occasions. ‘Brother’ is an affectionate usage, and indicates their shared profession as poets, not any tie of blood or marriage. 30  Damon   Cooper is given this common name from pastoral verse (Damon is a goatherd in Virgil’s Eclogues). 31  swains   shepherds; young male country dwellers and lovers in the pastoral tradition.     nymphs   shepherdesses; lovely young female country dwellers. 32  wanton out   spend carelessly and leisurely, with an eye to sensual and sexual pleasure. 33  MY DEAR AMORET, MISTRESS B.   Elizabeth Barry (c. 1658-1713), famous English stage actress and close friend of Behn, who performed major roles in several of Behn’s plays, including The Fair Jilt and The Rover, Part II (M. Duffy, The Passionate Shepherdess: Aphra Behn, 1640-89 [London: Methuen, 1989], p. 132). 34  Amoret   Barry is given the name Amoret, most famously one of Spenser’s beautiful chaste women in Books 3 and 4 of The Faerie Queene; the name comes from the Latin word for ‘love.’ 35  declined   cast down, looking at the ground. 36  Philocles   Mr. N.R.V.; see n44, below. 13  That pays her passion back with hate; Whilst she does all but him despise, And clouds the lustre of her eyes: But once to her he did address, And dying passion too express; But soon the amorous heat was laid, 37  He soon forgot the vows he’d made; Whilst she in every silent grove, Bewails her easy faith and love. 38  Numbers of swains do her adore, But she has vowed to love no more.        MR. J.B. 39  Next jolly Thyrsis came along, 40  With many beauties in a throng.        MR. JE. B. 41   With whom the young Amyntas came, 42  The author of my sighs and flame: For I’ll confess that truth to you, Which every look of mine can show. Ah how unlike the rest he appears! With majesty above his years! His eyes so much of sweetness dress, Such wit, such vigour too express; That ’twould a wonder be to say, I’ve seen the youth, and brought my heart away. Ah Cloris! Thou that never wert 43  In danger yet to lose a heart, Guard it severely now, for he Will startle all thy constancy: For if by chance thou dost escape Unwounded by his lovely shape,  37  laid   allayed. 38  easy   too credulous, naively trusting. 39  MR. J.B.   James Boys (Duffy, Passionate Shepherdess, p. 133). Cf. n41, below. 40  Thyrsis   James Boys is given the name of a shepherd who engages in a singing contest with his fellow Corydon (Virgil, ‘Eclogue 7’), and who laments the death of the herdsman and legendary creator of bucolic poetry, Daphnis (Theocritus’ ‘Idyll 1’). 41  MR. JE. B.   Jeffrey Boys, a member of Gray’s Inn, whose private papers suggest that he was a friend of Behn (Duffy, Passionate Shepherdess, p. 133). 42  Amyntas   the name that Behn often gives to her lover John Hoyle. See n63, below. Here Jeffrey Boys is given the name of one of the shepherds who often appears in Virgil’s Eclogues. 43  Cloris   See n18. 14  Tempt not thy ruin, lest his eyes Join with his tongue to win the prize; Such softness in his language dwells, And tales of love so well he tells, Should’st thou attend their harmony, Thou’dst be undone, as well as I; For sure no nymph was ever free, That could Amyntas hear and see.       MR. N.R.V. 44  With him the lovely Philocless, 45  His beauty heightened by his dress, If anything can add a grace To such a shape, and such a face, Whose natural ornaments impart Enough without the help of art. His shoulders covered with a hair, The sun-beams are not half so fair; Of which the virgins bracelets make, And wear for Philocless’s sake: His beauty such, that one would swear His face did never take the air. On ’s cheeks the blushing roses show, The rest like whitest daisies grow: His lips, no berries of the field, Nor cherries, such a red do yield. His eyes all love, soft’ning smile; And when he speaks, he sighs the while: His bashful grace, with blushes too, Gains more than confidence can do. With all these charms he does invade The heart, which when he has betrayed, He slights the trophies he has won, And weeps for those he has undone, As if he never did intend His charms for so severe an end. And all poor Amoret can gain, Is pity from the lovely swain: And if inconstancy can seem Agreeable, ’tis so in him.  44  N.R.V.   perhaps, Nick Vernatty, an acquaintance of Jeffrey Boys and Behn (Duffy, Passionate Shepherdess, p. 133). 45  Philocless   N.R.V. is given an unusual name here, since unlike the others in the poem, it is not based in the pastoral tradition. Philocles was the name of an Athenian admiral during the Peloponnesian War; of a general of Ptolemy, king of Egypt; and of two Greek tragic poets. 15  And when he meets reproach for it, He does excuse it with his wit.        MR. E.B. AND MRS. F.M. 46  Next hand in hand the smiling pair, Martillo, and the lovely fair: 47  A bright-eyed Phyllis, who they say, 48  Ne’er knew what love was till today: Long has the gen’rous youth in vain Implored some pity for his pain. Early abroad he would be seen, To wait her coming on the green, 49  To be the first that t’ her should pay The tribute of the new-born day; Presents her bracelets with their names, And hooks carved out with hearts and flames. 50  And when a straggling lamb he saw, And she not by to give it law, 51  The pretty fugitive he’d deck With wreaths of flowers around its neck; And gave her ev’ry mark of love, Before he could her pity move. But now the youth no more appears Clouded with jealousies and fears: Nor yet darest Phyllis’ softer brow Wear unconcern or coldness now; But makes him just and kind returns; And as he does, so now she burns.       MR. J.H. 52  Next Lycidas, that haughty swain, 53   46  MR. E.B. AND MRS. F.M.   Duffy notes that the newsbook, The Muses Mercury (Jan. 1708), identifies this couple as ‘Mr. Edward Butler’ and ‘Mrs Masters’ (Passionate Shepherdess, p. 132). Duffy speculates that ‘Edward Butler’ may refer to a man from whom Behn had borrowed money while she was in Flanders (Passionate Shepherdess, pp. 92, 98); however, she acknowledges that the name is frustratingly common. 47  Martillo   Spanish, ‘hammer.’     fair   lovely woman. 48  Phyllis   a countrywoman in Virgil’s Eclogues. 49  the green   the public green space at the centre of English villages, used for celebrations, May dances, and other festivities. 50  hooks   shepherd crooks or staves. 51  to give it law   to scold it for straying. 52  Mr. J.H.   probably, John Hoyle (c. 1641-1692), lawyer, poet, and Behn’s lover in the 1670s. 53  Lycidas   Hoyle is here given the name of a famous shepherd-poet. Lycidas appears in Virgil’s ‘Eclogue 9,’ in which he praises the verse of his fellow poet Menalcas; and in Theocritus’ ‘Idyll 7,’ in which he is called an excellent piper, and is involved in a poetic contest with another respected poet, Simichidas; Lycidas is also a beautiful, 16  With many beauties in a train, All sighing for the swain, whilst he Barely returns civility. Yet once to each much love he vowed, And strange fantastique passion showed. 54  Poor Doris, and Lucinda too, And many more whom thou dost know, Who had not power his charms to shun, Too late do find themselves undone. 55  His eyes are black, and do transcend All fancy e’er can comprehend; And yet no softness in ’em move, They kill with fierceness, not with love: Yet he can dress ’em when he list,56 With sweetness none can e’er resist. His tongue no amorous parley makes, But with his looks alone he speaks. And though he languish yet he’ll hide, That grateful knowledge with his pride; And thinks his liberty is lost, Not in the conquest, but the boast. Nor will but love enough impart, To gain and to secure a heart: Of which no sooner he is sure, And that its wounds are past all cure, But for new victories he prepares, And leaves the old to its despairs: Success his boldness does renew, And boldness helps him conquer too, He having gained more hearts than all Th’ rest of the pastoral cabal.       MR. ED. BED. 57  With him Philander, who ne’er paid58 A sigh or tear to any maid: So innocent and young he is, He cannot guess what passion is. But all the love he ever knew,  admired Roman youth in Horace, Odes, 1.4.19. 54  fantasique   whimsical, inconstant. 55  undone   ruined. 56  list   wishes. 57  MR. ED. BED.   perhaps, the son of Captain Edward Bedford; the latter was head of the Nursery, a theatre for young actors (Duffy, Passionate Shepherd, p. 307 n3). 58  Philander   Ed. Bed. is given a name that derives from the Greek, meaning ‘loving or fond of men.’ 17  On Lycidas he does bestow: Who pays his tenderness again, Too amorous for a swain to a swain. A softer youth was never seen, His beauty, maid; but man, his mien: 59  And much more gay than all the rest; 60  And but Alexis finest dressed. 61  His eyes towards Lycidas still turn, As sympathising flowers to the sun, Whilst Lycidas, whose eyes dispense No less a grateful influence Improves his beauty, which still fresher grows: Who would not under two such suns as those?  Cloris you sigh, what amorous grown? Pan grant you keep your heart at home: 62  For I have often heard you vow, If any could your heart subdue, Though Lycidas you ne’er had seen, It must be him, or one like him: Alas I cannot yet forget, How we have with Amyntas sat Beneath the boughs for summer made, Our heated flocks and us to shade; Where thou would’st wond’rous stories tell, Of this agreeable infidel. By what devices, charms and arts, He used to gain and keep his hearts: And whilst his falsehood we would blame, Thou would’st commend and praise the same. And did no greater pleasure take, Than when of Lycidas we spake; By this and many sighs we know, Thou’rt sensible of loving too. Come, Cloris, come along with us, And try thy power with Lycidas; See if that virtue which you prize, Be proof against those conquering eyes. That heart that can no love admit, Will hardly stand his shock of wit;  59  mien   air or bearing; appearance or demeanour. 60  gay   gaily dressed. 61  but   excepting. 62  Pan   god of the countryside, protector of shepherds and shepherdesses. 18  Come deck thee then in all that’s fine, Perhaps the conquest may be thine;  They all attend, let’s haste to do,  What love and music calls us to.   LYCIDUS, OR, THE LOVER IN FASHION […] WITH A MISCELLANY OF NEW POEMS (1688)   TO AMYNTAS, UPON READING THE LIVES OF SOME OF THE ROMANS  Had’st thou Amyntas, lived in that great age,63 When hardly beauty was to nature known, What numbers to thy side might’st thou engage And conquered kingdoms by thy looks alone?  That age when valour they did beauty name, When men did justly our brave sex prefer, ’Cause they durst die, and scorn the public shame Of adding glory to the conqueror. 64   Had mighty Scipio had thy charming face, Great Sophonisbe had refused to die, Her passion o’er the sense of her disgrace Had gained the more obliging victory. 65   Nor less would Massinissa too have done, But to such eyes, as to his sword would bow, For neither sex can here thy fetters shun, Being all Scipio, and Amyntas too.  Had’st thou great Caesar been, the greater Queen, Would trembling have her mortal asps layed by; In thee she had not only Caesar seen, But all she did adore in Antony. 66   63  Amyntas   common shepherd’s name in Virgil’s Eclogues. Here, Behn refers to her lover during the 1670s, John Hoyle (c. 1641-1692), lawyer and poet. 64  The next six stanzas offer historical examples of conquered noblewomen and noblemen, who killed themselves rather than surrender to dishonour. 65  Had … victory   Sophonisba, wife of Syphax, prince of Numidia, was claimed as a spoil of war when her husband was conquered by a joint force of the Romans and Massinissa, king of Numidia. Although Massinissa fell in love with Sophonisba and married her, Scipio soon demanded that he surrender her to him. Instead, Massinissa counselled his wife to commit suicide to preserve her honour, which she did. 66  Had’st thou … Antony   Cleopatra (the greater Queen) committed suicide by allowing herself to be bitten by poisonous asps rather than be led in triumph by Octavius Caesar (later the emperor Augustus) through Rome; she 19   Had daring Sextus had thy lovely shape, The fairest woman living had not died. But blest the darkness that secured the rape, Suffering her pleasure to have debauched her pride. 67   Nor had he stol’n to Rome to have quenched his fire, If thee resistless in his camp he’d seen, Thy eyes had kept his virtue all entire, And Rome a happy monarchy had been.  Had Pompey looked like thee, though he had proved The vanquished, yet from Egypt’s faithless king He had received the vows of being beloved, Instead of orders for his murdering. 68   But here, Amyntas, thy misfortune lies: Nor brave nor good are in our age esteemed. Content thee then with meaner victories,  Unless that glorious age could be redeemed.    and her lover, the Roman general Mark Antony, had been defeated by Caesar’s forces in Egypt. 67  Had … pride   Sextus was the son of Tarquinibus Superbus, the last king of Rome (534-510 BCE). Tarquinibus Superbus was deposed, ending the Roman monarchy, when his son Sextus raped the virtuous noblewoman, Lucretia. 68  Had … murdering   Pompey the Great (106-48 BCE), Roman military leader. He battled with Julius Caesar for control of the Roman Empire, and when he was defeated at the battle of Pharsalis, he fled to Egypt, where he was murdered. 1  JEAN CALVIN (1509-1564), PROTESTANT REFORMER, THEOLOGIAN AND WRITER.   Born in Noyon, France, Jean Calvin was the younger son of a canon lawyer. Both his family and one of his father’s patrons and friends, the bishop of Noyon, prepared him early to take up an ecclesiastical career. He received an excellent education at the University of Paris, and at law institutes in Orléans and Bourges. Later, after his father’s death in 1531, Calvin studied Greek and Hebrew in Paris, and began at this time to turn away from the Roman Catholicism of his childhood towards the new Protestant thinking, and specifically towards the ideas of Luther. After his involvement in the Parisian Protestant movement and religious unrest of 1533, Calvin left Paris, resigned all his Roman Catholic ecclesiastical offices and settled in Basle, Switzerland, the heartland of Protestantism. It was here that he wrote and published Institutio Religionis Christianae (1536). Later that year he arrived in Geneva, and was instrumental in spreading the Protestant message. Infighting with other Protestant sects, however, led him to retreat to Strassburgh, where he served as minister to a French Protestant congregation. Here, he published his commentary on Romans (1539/40) and a revised edition of the Institutio (1539). He married, and later was the spiritual and political leader of Geneva until his death in 1564.  EDITIONS:  Calvin, Jean. ‘The Epistles of Paul the Apostle to the Romans and to the Thessalonians’ and  ‘The First Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians.’ Calvin’s Commentaries. Ed. David W.  Torrance and Thomas F. Torrance. Trans. John W. Fraser, et. al. Vol. 10. Grand Rapids:  Eerdmans, 1960- ―. ‘Commentaries on the First Book of Moses Called Genesis.’ Vol. 1. Trans. John King.  Calvin’s Commentaries. 45 vols. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1999; rept. of Calvin  Translation Society Edition, 1844-1856.   From A COMMENTARY OF JOHN CALVIN UPON THE FIRST BOOK OF MOSES CALLED GENESIS (1 st   published, 1554) 1   CHAPTER 19  [After reprinting Genesis 19.1-38, Calvin proceeds to comment verse by verse on the story of Sodom and Gomorrah, for Renaissance writers the paradigmatic tale of male same-sex sexual desire and its punishment by God. For the entire story, refer to the selections in the anthology’s print edition].  […]  4   But before they went to bed, the men of the city, even the men of Sodom, compassed the  house round about, from the young to the old, all the people from all quarters.  1  Translated by Thomas Tymme in 1578.  A Protestant minister and the author of devotional works and translations, mostly of theology, Tymme (d. 1620) also translated Pierre de la Ramée’s history of the French civil wars. 2  5 Who crying unto Lot, said unto him, “Where are the men which came to thee this night?  Bring them out unto us that we may know them.”  […]  8 “Behold now, I have two daughters which have not known man: them will I bring out  now unto you: and do to them as seemeth you good; only unto these men do nothing, for  therefore are they come under the shadow of my roof.  […]  24 Then the Lord rained upon Sodom, and upon Gomorrah, brimstone and fire from the  Lord out of heaven.  […]  4 [But before they went to bed]   Here in one wicked fact Moses 2  setteth forth a lively image of Sodom. For hereby it doth evidently appear what a devilish consent was among them to all wickedness, in that they all conspired together to commit such horrible and detestable filthiness. How great their wickedness was, it doth hereby appear in that, as it were with an army, they beseige the house of Lot. How blind and beastly is their lust insomuch that like brute beasts, void of all shame, they run to and fro! How great is their fierceness and cruelty in threatening so shamefully the holy father, 3  and in assaying all extremities! 4  Hereby also we gather that they were not infected with one vice alone, but also that they were fallen to all boldness of sinning, insomuch that they were devoid of all shame. And Ezekiel (as we have said already) 5  doth notably declare from what beginnings and entrances of evils they fell to extreme filthiness. Hereunto also pertaineth the saying of Paul, how that God punisheth the ungodliness of men when he giveth them over into so great blindness that they fall into diverse lusts and defile their bodies. 6  But whenas shame being set aside the reins 7  are loosed to lust, filthy and beastly barbarousness must needs by and by 8  follow, and diverse kinds of wickednesses must of necessity be therewithal mingled that there may be more than a deformed confusion.  Wherefore, if so be 9  the vengeance of God fell upon the Sodomites, insomuch that being blinded with outrage they gave themselves to all kind[s] of wickedness, we shall be scarce more favourably dealt withal, whose impiety is by so much the less excusable, by how much the truth  2  fact   deed, crime.   Moses was traditionally believed the author of the Book of Genesis. 3  holy father   Lot. 4  assaying all extremities   i.e., attempting all enormous sins or crimes. 5  In Chapter 18, Calvin says that “Sodom was full of all filthy corruptions and abominations,” but “the next chapter following expresseth the most filthy crime which reigned in Sodom” (i.e., male same-sex sexual desire and intercourse).  He asserts that, according to Ezek. 16.49-50, this crime arises from “lechery, plenty, pride and cruelty” and “therefore, if so be we do abhor this extreme outrage, we must embrace temperance and sobriety.” 6  Rom. 1.24-28. 7  reins   the kidneys, the ancient seat of the human passions in classical, medieval, and Renaissance physiology. 8  by and by   immediately. 9  If so be   i.e., If in this manner; If it is the case that 3  of God is more plainly revealed unto us. [From the young to the old].    Moses concealeth many things which the reader may call to mind of himself, as this: that he maketh no mention by whom the multitude was stirred up, for it is very likely that there were certain provokers, but notwithstanding, we hereby perceive how willing and ready they were to commit wickedness, who, as it were with a watchword, 10  came by and by together. It also showeth that there was no manner of shame left in them, because neither gravity restrained the old men, nor that modesty the young men, which became 11  that age. To be short, he meaneth that all care of honesty was abolished and that the order of nature was perverted, when he sayeth that from the young to the old they came together from the furthest parts of the city. 12   5 [Where are the men]   Although they minded filthily to abuse the guests to preposterous 13  lust, yet notwithstanding, in word they pretend another thing. For as if Lot had offended in receiving strange men into the city, wherein he himself dwelt but as a foreigner, they command them to be brought forth before them. Some expound this word ‘know’ [as] ‘to have to do carnally,’ and so the Greek interpreters have translated it. But I think that this word was put in another sense, as if they should say, ‘We will know what manner of guests thou hast brought into our city.’ For the Scripture is wont modestly to note by this word a matter of shame. Therefore the Sodomites would have spoken more filthily of their detestable lying with those men; but to cover their wickedness, they quarrel with the holy man proudly, in that he durst presume to receive unknown men.  Question.   Notwithstanding, here ariseth a question. For, if so be the Sodomites were wont thus to vex all strangers, what shall we say was done to others? For this was not the first time that Lot began to lodge strangers, and they 14  had been always given to filthy pleasure. Lot was ready to deliver his daughters to shame and reproach to set his guests free from the same. How oftentimes already was he constrained to offer them, if so be their madness could not be by any other remedy pleased, which required men with whom they might commit fornication? And now if Lot knew that such peril was at hand, he should rather have exhorted his guests to withdraw themselves in time.  Answer.   In my judgement, although Lot knew the manners of the city, he nothing suspected that which happened, as that they would violently break upon his house, and it seemeth that they had never done this before. But indeed it was meet 15  that when the angels were sent to take a trial of that people, they should all break into this detestable fact.  Thus the wicked, after that they have a long time triumphed in their wickedness, devoid of care, at the last by rushing headlong furiously, they in a moment bring upon them their own destruction.  When God therefore called the Sodomites to judgement, he would have them to play the last part of a wicked life, and by the spirit of giddiness, he enforced them to abomination, the heinousness whereof would not suffer the destruction of the place to be deferred any longer. For  10  watchword   secret password. 11  became   was appropriate or fitting [for]. 12  MARGINAL NOTE: Both young and old in Sodom were defiled. 13  preposterous   contrary to the order of nature, to reason, or to common sense; monstrous, perverse. 14  they   the Sodomites. 15  meet   fitting, appropriate. 4  as the hospitality of the holy man Lot was adorned with a notable reward, because unwittingly he received angels instead of men, and had them his guests at home at his house, even so God took vengeance with more grievous punishment upon the filthy lust of others, who going about to defile angels were not only injurious towards men, but also (so much as in them lay) they violated the heavenly glory of God with sacrilegious outrage.  […]  8  [Behold now, I have two daughters]   As the constancy of Lot deserveth no small praise, in that he adventured his life for the defence of his guests, even so now Moses showeth that there was a defect joined therewith, which somewhat blotted his so excellent a virtue. For he not knowing what to do (at which point men are at commonly in all doubtful matters) deviseth an unlawful remedy, for he letteth not 16  to offer his daughters to whoredom to pacify the outrageous madness of the people. But a thousand deaths ought rather to have been suffered than to have taken such a way. Notwithstanding, such almost are all the works of the saints, because nothing passeth from them so perfect which is not lame or maimed in some point. 17  Lot is urged with extreme necessity; and it is no marvel that he offereth his daughters to be made harlots, when he see’th that he hath to do with wild beasts. Yet nevertheless he seeketh without advisement18 to remedy one evil with another. Whereas some excuse his fact, I mislike it not; yet nevertheless he deserveth to be reprehended, because he heapeth one evil upon another […] Othersome make another excuse for Lot: as that he knew that his daughters should not be desired. But I doubt not but that he seeking the first shift 19  that came next to hand erred from the right way. And this is without all doubt, that although the Sodomites professed not in plain words what a filthy desire they had, yet notwithstanding, Lot was fully certified of the same by their daily wickedness. If any man affirm it to be very absurd that the whole people should require two men to commit fornication with them, I answer, that because they imagined by custom and use that the same vice was lawful for them, a few setting the matter abroach, the whole multitude was stirred up. Even as it cometh to pass, where there is not any difference made between right and wrong. When Lot sayeth, ‘That for this cause, they came under his roof,’ the meaning is: that they were committed unto him of the Lord, and that he should be false unto them unless he sought to defend them.  […]   24 [Then the Lord rained upon Sodom]  Moses here very briefly toucheth the destruction of Sodom and of the other cities. The grievousness of the matter required a larger treatise, yea, a tragical discourse. But Moses simply, according to his manner, reciting the judgment of God, those things which he could not vehemently enough express with words, he leaveth to the consideration of the readers. Therefore it is our part to have a full consideration of that horrible vengeance, the which seeing it happened not without the wonderful shaking of heaven and earth, we ought to be afraid at the only naming of it, and therefore mention is so oftentimes made of the  16  he letteth not   i.e., he did not stop/hesitate. 17  MARGINAL NOTE: The works of the saints are imperfect. 18  advisement   wisdom, due consideration. 19  shift   expedient, option. 5  same in the Scriptures. And the Lord would not have those cities to be swallowed up with an earthquake only; but to the end he might make a more notable example of his judgment, he cast fire and brimstone from heaven. […] Moses commendeth here unto us the extraordinary work of God, to the end we may know that Sodom was not destroyed without a manifest miracle. […] And whereas it was always wont to be demanded out of this place, 20  what the infants deserved which were destroyed together with their parents, the answer is easy to be made: that mankind is in the hand of God, insomuch that he appointeth to destruction whom he will, and upon whom he will he showeth mercy. Also we ought to submit unto his secret judgment whatsoever we cannot comprehend within the compass of our understanding and reach. Last of all, all that seed 21  was accursed and execrable, insomuch that of right he spared not the least.   From A COMMENTARY UPON THE EPISTLE OF SAINT PAUL TO THE ROMANS (1 st  published,  1539/40; revised edition, 1550) 22   CHAPTER 1  […]  24 Wherefore also God gave them up to their hearts’ lusts, unto uncleanness, to defile their  own bodies between themselves. 25 Which turned the truth of God unto a lie, and worshiped and served the creature above  the Creator, which is blessed forever, Amen. 26 For this cause God gave them up unto vile affections: for even their women did change  the natural use into that which is against nature. 27 And likewise also the men left the natural use of the women and burned in their lust one  toward another, and man with man wrought filthiness, and received in themselves such  recompense of their error as was meet. 23  28 For as they regarded not to know God, even so God delivered them up unto a reprobate  mind, to do those things which are not convenient. 24  29 Being full of unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness, full  of envy, of murder, of debate, of deceit, taking all things in evil part […]  […]  31 Which men though they knew the Law of God, how that they which commit such things  are worthy of death, yet not only do the same but also favor them that do them.   20  And whereas ... place   i.e., since it is commonly asked concerning this Biblical passage. 21  seed   line, lineage. 22  Translated into English by Christopher Rosdell in 1583. We know only that Rosdell was a Protestant minister and preacher. 23  meet   See n15. 24  convenient   morally fitting, right. 6  […]  26 [For this cause God gave them up]   As though he had interposed a parenthesis, he returneth unto that which he had begun before, concerning the revengement of the Lord. And he bringeth the first example in the horrible sin of preposterous 25  lust. Whereby appeareth they were not only given over to beastly lusts, but also became worse than beasts when they overthrew the whole order of nature. Secondly, he reckoneth a great catalogue of vices which have both been extant in all ages, and at that time reigned everywhere most licentiously. Neither hindereth this one whit that everyone was not laden with such a heap of vices. For in reproving the general corruption of men, it is sufficient if everyone be compelled to acknowledge some mole or blemish. Thus therefore it is to be taken that Paul doth here briefly touch those vices which both were common in all ages, and also were specially to be seen in that age. For it is marvelous how common that filthiness was, which the brute beasts abhor; as for the other vices they were vulgar. 26  Secondly, that he reciteth such a catalogue of vices as all mankind is comprehended in it. For although all men be not murderers, or thieves, or adulterers, yet there is no man that is not found to be polluted with some vice. 27  [unto vile affections]    He calleth those ‘vile affections’ which even in the opinion of men are most vile or shameful and serve to the dishonor of God.  […]  28 [... To do those things which are not convenient]   Because hitherto he hath mentioned only that one execrable example, which though it were common amongst many, yet it was not common unto all, he beginneth to reckon such vices as no man could be found to be free of. For albeit (as it is said) they appear not all at once in everyone, yet all men know themselves to be guilty of some of them, that every man for his own part might be reproved of manifest pravity. 28  First of all, whereas he calleth them ‘not convenient,’ understand that they abhorred from all judgment of reason, and were far from the duties of men. For he declareth the tokens of a confounded 29  mind, that without all difference men addicted themselves to those vices which common sense ought to have refused.  […]  From A COMMENTARY UPON SAINT PAUL’S EPISTLES TO THE CORINTHIANS (1st published, c.  1546) 30   9 Do ye not remember how that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God? Be  not deceived: for neither fornicators, neither worshippers of Images, neither  25  preposterous   See n13. 26  vulgar   common. 27  MARGINAL NOTE: Though all men be not thieves or murderers, etc., yet every man is polluted with some vice. 28  pravity   depravity, corruption. 29  confounded   disordered, confused. 30  Translated into English by Thomas Tymme in 1577. See n1. The following verses are from 1 Cor. 6. 7   whoremongers, neither weaklings, neither abusers of themselves with mankind. 10 Neither thieves, neither the covetous, neither drunkards, neither cursed speakers, neither  pilfers 31  shall inherit the kingdom of God. 11 And such were ye verily, but ye are washed: ye are sanctified, ye are justified, by the  name of the Lord Jesus, and by the spirit of our God.  […]  9 ... Be not deceived   Taking occasion of one vice, he speaketh of many, and I think that he hath principally noted those vices which were among the Corinthians. He noteth the venerious 32  and filthy lusts of the Corinthians by three terms, which filthy lusts all histories testify reigned among them and abounded too generally. For Corinth was a city which flowed with riches, a notable town of mart and intercourse, whereunto merchants of many nations resorted. Luxury, the father of unshamefastness and of all lasciviousness followeth riches; furthermore, many other corruptions stirred up this people to ungodliness, being of themselves too libidinous and carnal. For neither fornicators: In what fornicators differ from adulterers, it is well enough known. By weaklings I understand those which although they do not commonly give themselves to lust, yet notwithstanding they do bewray 33  their impudency by unchaste and bawdy talk, by effeminate gesture, by their apparel, and by other delights. The fourth, of all the rest, is most detestable, being the very same monstrous filthiness which hath been too usual in Greece 34  [...] there is no poison more pernicious than those delights which confirm us in our sins. Let us then eschew the vices of wicked men not only as the alluring enticements of mermaids but also as the deadly stinging of Satan, when they turn the judgment of God and the reprehensions of sins unto a jest.  […]  11 [And such were ye]    [...] we must not construe that they all are so bound up in one faggot, 35  as though all these vices were in every one of them; but only his purpose is to show that no man is free from these evils until he be born again by the spirit. For we must thus account that the seed of all evils is included in the nature of man; and that other vices do reign and appear in others even as the Lord declareth the wickedness by the fruits of the flesh. Even so Paul in the first chapter of his Epistle to the Romans gathereth many kinds of wickednesses and vices which spring from the ignorance of God, and from that ingratitude whereof he had made all the unbelievers guilty: not that any one infidel is infected with those vices in general, but because all men are subject unto them and there is no man pure from them all. For he which is not an adulterer sinneth in some other kind of sin. [...] before such time as we be reformed of God, one is given to cruelty, another to falsehood, another to filthy lusts, and another to deceit and fraud. Insomuch that there is none in whom there is not some show of common corruption, and we are every one of us by the inward and secret affection of the mind subject to all diseases in part, were  31  pilfers   those who steal. 32  venerious   sexual. 33  bewray   betray, unintentionally reveal. 34  MARGINAL NOTE: Sodomites. 35  faggot   bundle. 8  it not that the Lord doth inwardly repress them lest they should openly burst forth. Therefore, the simple sense is that before the grace of regeneration some of the Corinthians were covetous, some were adulterers, some robbers, some weaklings, and some cursed speakers; but now being delivered by Christ, they have left off to be such. And this is the purpose of the Apostle, 36  to humble them by the commemoration of their former state and also to stir them up to reknowledge 37  the grace of God toward them. For the greater that the misery is known to be, from whence we are delivered by the goodness of God, so much the more the bounty of his grace doth shine.  36  the Apostle   Saint Paul. 37  reknowledge   acknowledge (a common 16 th -century usage). 1  CATULLUS (GAIUS VALERIUS CATULLUS, c. 84-54 BCE), LATIN POET.   For a brief biography of Catullus, selections from some of his other works, and a brief account of his reception, reputation, and translation in early modern England, see the print anthology, pp. 144-47 and pp. 193-98.  EDITIONS AND CONTEXTS: For selected early modern and modern translations of Catullus’ verse, as well as a fuller  account of his reception, reputation, and translation in early modern England, see the  essay ‘Catullus’ in “Classical Writers, their Early Modern Reputations and  Translations” (Online Companion).   From THE ADVENTURES OF CATULLUS (1707).     On this text, see the print anthology, pp. 146-7 and p. 194.   [Early in the narrative, Catullus recounts visiting his beloved mistress, Lesbia, taking along with him his close friend Licinius. While with Lesbia, Catullus and Licinius compose and exchange verses, writing them down alternately in Lesbia’s copybook.]    Next morning waking much sooner than Licinius, who was weary after his journey, it came in my head to write him a billet 1  in verse, which I presently did, and sent it to his room by one of my servants. The words were to this effect: 2   Licinius, yesterday at leisure, 3  We in my tablets took much pleasure, 4  As either of us then thought fit To versify and deal in wit; Now in this sort of verse, now that, As mirth and wine indulged the chat. And thence Licinius did I part, So grieved with thy replies so smart That e’en my food denied me ease, Nor could sleep my eyelids seize, But tumbling in my bed all night, I coveted to see the light That with Licinius I may be, And in discourse again be free. But when my limbs with toil oppressed, Half-dead, half seemed to take their rest, This I my merry comrade sent, That you might know my discontent. Take care now, be not proud and high,  1  billet   a short, informal letter. 2  The following is a translation of Catullus’ ‘Carmen 50.’ 3  Licinius   Caius Licinius Macer Calvus (b. 82 BCE, d. before 47 BCE), lawyer, poet and close friend of Catullus. Licinius figures as well in Carmina 14, 53, and 96. He was predeceased by his wife Quintillia, who was perhaps from the family of Quintilius Varus, another friend of Catullus. 4  tablets   notebooks. 2  Nor slight my prayers with haughty eye, Lest Nemesis reprisals make And of thy pride just vengeance take: For she’s a goddess, oh! take care How you provoke her: she will not spare.   Licinius, finding these lines upon his table just as he got out of bed, came straight to my chamber and begged me to carry him to see some other beauty, ‘That I may fix,’5 says he, before I venture to see Lesbia again.’  I took him after dinner to Quintillia’s;6 she had heard of him already, and heard something of the verses that we made at Lesbia’s the night before; she showed so much impatience to see ’em that Licinius, who has an extraordinary good memory, called for paper and wrote ’em over in her presence. He gave her the verses too that I sent to himself, in the morning.  Quintillia received ’em from him with so much engaging civility that from that moment he began to have a liking for her. And as he was none of those that sigh away their time of business in deep silence, he found a way of declaring his passion upon the spot, but with such abundance of wit that Quintillia, who liked him well enough at first sight, did not scruple to make him a very obliging return, so that one may truly say, here was an intrigue 7  begun and perfected the very first day the persons saw one another, and yet it lasted ever after to an extraordinary degree of passion and constancy on both sides. Licinius’ only care now was how to please Quintillia, and she for her part omitted nothing to secure her conquest, insomuch that observing the great concourse of people at her visits was uneasy to Licinius, she found a way of diminishing that crowd of idle admirers […]   [Catullus and his close friend Aurelius attend a fashionable gathering at which the topic of discussion turns to the beautiful noblewoman Crastinia, with whom Catullus is infatuated.]   Their 8  conversation might have lasted longer if it had not been interrupted by the approach of Ravidius, a Roman knight, one of those troublesome creatures that can never see a couple entertain one another with satisfaction without coming up to say some impertinent thing. Catullus and Aurelius, to get rid of this man, joined the gross 9  of the company, where Crastinia’s beauty was all the discourse. One of the company that was more charmed with her than the rest fancied that she resembled young Juventius mightily in her riding habit. This Juventius was a young gentleman of the first quality in Rome, whose wit and genteel manners and good nature but above all his beauty began to be much talked of. All agreed that there was a great resemblance, and from that day Catullus called her nothing but ‘the Lovely Juventius.’ The verses that he made upon her were inscribed to Juventius, and there were but very few that understood the mystery:  “Hark, ye,” says he, whispering Aurelius10 in the ear, while the rest of the company  5  fix   become resolved, stable, unchanging [in his inner fight against the attractions of Lesbia]. 6  Quintillia   See n3. 7  intrigue   love affair. 8  Their … conversation   Catullus and Aurelius have been discussing the beautiful Roman lady Crastinia, Catullus’s attraction to her, and the possibility of her relationship with Caesar. 9  gross   main body. 10  Aurelius   although subject to much speculation, the identity of Catullus’ ‘Aurelius’ remains unknown. He figures in Carmina 11, 15, 16, 21, ?24, and ?81. Although unnamed in Carmina 24 and 81, Green suggests he may be the speaker’s rival for the love of Juventius in these two poems (see n43); in ‘Carmen 11,’ the speaker 3  were descanting 11  upon the likeness of these two fine persons, “I’ll repeat you some lines that I have just now made upon the lovely Juventius.”  “That’s to say, upon Crastinia,” says Aurelius.  Catullus answered with a little nod and went on:  Juventius, might I kiss those eyes That such becoming sweetness dart, The numbers might to thousands rise, Yet be too few to satisfy my heart; A heart no surfeit would allow, E’en though the harvest of our kisses were More thick than what succeeds the plough, And speaks the blessings of a fruitful year. 12   Aurelius made him repeat ’em twice or thrice running, and as soon as he saw Crastinia alone, he rode up and spoke ’em to her; she heard ’em with a great deal of satisfaction, and turning to Catullus, she looked at him and smiled, who did not lose this opportunity of entertaining her.   [After the company has finished participating in a hunt, they all go in to supper and afterwards the discussion turns to the myth of Attis and Cybele, prompting a request for Catullus’s poem on the topic, which he duly recites]    When the chase was over, Caesar gave a noble entertainment to all the company. After supper they fell into the most agreeable conversation that could be; there was hardly one of the company but had a world of wit. The conversation turned first upon the adventure of Lucretius, which was the common talk at that time in all companies. Caesar was pleased to say that the accident was very extraordinary; however, that this was not the first time that love potions worked upwards and disturbed the brain: 13   “Witness,” says he, “the fable of Attis, which is now become a mystery of our religion; for, in short, to speak freely of this matter, there are strong presumptions that the good Dame Cybele, being grown old and ugly, when she fell in love with young Attis, gave him some such dose to quicken the young man’s appetite, and that the strength of it made the poor boy commit the folly that he’s charged with.14 The poets, who dress up all the fables in a way of their own, give a different account of this matter, but one must be very blind not to see through all their fine glosses 15  the matter of fact as it appears to me. And if Catullus would speak his mind, I dare say you’d find him of my opinion.”  “Your opinion, sir,” says Catullus, “is always so just and reasonable that ’tis  asks Aurelius to watch over his beloved boy while the speaker is absent, although the speaker fears that Aurelius will use this absence to seduce the boy. His characterization in the homosatiric Carmina 11 and 16 are among the most obscene in Catullus’ oeuvre. For ‘Carmen 21,’ see the print anthology (pp. 195-6). 11  descanting   commenting. 12  A translation of Catullus’ ‘Carmen 48.’ 13  The conversation … brain   The early Christian writer Jerome is apparently the originator of this tale about the ancient poet and philosopher Lucretius (99-c. 55 BCE), author of De Rerum Natura (‘On the Nature of Things’); modern critics have dismissed as groundless Jerome’s statement that Lucretius wrote most of his poetry while half-mad, under the influence of a love potion. 14  the folly that he’s charged with    As Catullus’ poem makes clear, this ‘folly’ was self-castration. 15  glosses   interpretations, lies. 4  impossible not to follow it in everything.”  “But, after all,” replied the Dictator, “compliments apart, what do you really think of this story of Attis and Cybele?”  “It’s pretty hard,” says Catullus, “to make any certain judgement of the matter; history is not agreed in it. Some say that Cybele, daughter to a certain king of Phrygia, and a very stale maid, 16  fell in love with a youth called Attis, grew into an extraordinary familiarity with him and proved with child. The King her father being informed of it had Attis seized and put to death. Cybele, afflicted at the loss of her lover, ran stark mad and traversed the countries round in this distracted condition, making hideous outcries and lamentations under her disaster. Other historians relate the matter quite otherwise. As for the poets, there’s hardly any one subject that they are so much divided upon: the greatest part of ’em will have it that Attis being beloved by Cybele, in the way of an abstracted intellectual love, happened to love the nymph Sangardide a little more coarsely, and that afterwards incensed at his own folly that had forfeited him the chaste caresses of Cybele, he e’en revenged himself upon that part by which he had transgressed. But as the folks about Parnassus 17  are never very scrupulous in point of truth, every one has treated this subject according to his fancy; and I who seldom or never meddle with the ancient fables have taken the liberty to handle it in a way by myself.”  “Nay, positively,” says Caesar, “since you have confessed so much, you shall let us see what turn you have given to it. We can never conclude the day more agreeably than by hearing a poem which can’t choose but be very excellent from such hand.”  All the company expressed the same curiosity, and Catullus, perceiving that they were all silence, began to speak the following lines: 18   Attis embarked on shipboard hoisted sail, And reached the Phrygian shore with prosperous gale. Scarce was he landed but with hasty feet He climbed up Ida’s Mount, Cybele’s seat, Which the famed goddess used as her resort, And amidst stately cedars made her court. There stung with madness and of brain unsound He flung himself all furious on the ground, Whose flints gave birth to such a wond’rous change, As all must own unnatural and strange, Since from that fall, another sex he took, And found that manhood had his limbs forsook. Hence staining with fresh blood the sacred land, She snatched the timbrel with her snowy hand―19 The timbrel, O Cybele, and the fife, Thy playthings in thy infancy of life― And on it as her fingers run along She thus to her companions trembling sung: 20  “Go to Cybele’s shady groves and steep, “Together go, Cybele’s wand’ring sheep, “Who exile-like in quest of foreign lands  16  stale maid   a virgin past her prime, and past the appropriate age for marriage. 17  folks about Parnassus   i.e., poets and mythographers (Parnassus was the dwelling place of the Muses, those semi-divine patrons of the arts and sciences, identified figuratively with poetic inspiration and production). 18  The following is a translation of Catullus’ ‘Carmen 63.’ 19  She   i.e., Attis (reflecting his ‘sex change,’ attendant on his castration). 20  companions   in the Latin original, the Gallae, Cybele’s follower-priests. 5  “Have followed my, your leader’s, strict commands. “Go, my companions, who have dared sustain “With me the threat’ning dangers of the main;21 “That have unmanned yourselves through Venus’ hate22 “Divert and glad your minds in this our change of state. “Make no delay, but all together come “And follow me to famed Cybele’s dome, “Where cymbals, and where drums and trumpets sound, “Where Phrygian pipes make Phrygian hills rebound; “Where Maenads with ivy on their head,23 “Turn frantic, and around, loud howlings spread; “Where she and her attendants nimbly dance, “And where we should incontinent advance.”24 Soon as the new-made woman thus had sung, Her comrades yelled aloud with trembling tongue. The timbrel roared again, the cymbals rung, While the mad [crew] with unusual hast Up Ida’s steep ascent promiscuous passed,25 Attis their chief, insensibly possessed With want of knowledge and with want of rest, Attended by the timbrel frisked and played, Like a young steer that would the yoke evade. Cybele’s priests their leader’s footsteps pressed; Cybele’s godhead was by all confessed. When they no sooner wearied touched her fane, 26  Tired both with scarcity of food and brain, But downy sleep upon their eyelids crept, And madness left the wretches as they slept. But when the sun shot forth his wonted ray, Darting his beams on air, on earth, and sea, And drove the dark nocturnal shades away, With the swift rattling courses of the day, Then Sleep poor ’wakned Attis’ limbs forsook, And him Pasithae to her bosom took. 27  Attis who, soon as raised from sweet repose, Raged not with madness now, but sense of woes, As memory past accidents revived Told whom he had lost, and where he was arrived, With ardent longing for his country burned And to the beach again with speed returned, Where when with weeping eyes vast seas he spied, Thus to his native clime lamenting, cried:  21  main   sea. 22  through Venus’ hate   i.e., on account of their hatred of Venus (as embodying love, sex and erotic desire). 23  Maenads   See ‘Bacchus,’ Glossary (print anthology). 24  incontinent   hastily, with all speed. 25  promiscuous   in a disordered or chaotic way. 26  fane   temple. 27  Pasithae    Catullus imagines the god of sleep, Somnus, leaving Attis in order to return to his wife, Pasithae, one of the three Graces, attendants of Venus; she was also known as Aglaia and Euphrosyne. 6   “O parent! O my dear maternal earth! “Where I was formed, and whence I took my birth, “Whom I, poor wretched I, that still must grieve, “Could like a vagabond for Ida leave! “That there in dens I might wild beasts survey, “And see the lurking holes they choose for prey! “Where or in what position dost thou lie?28 “To thee, my country, I’d direct my eye, “Whilst with my mind the gods enraged dispense, “And give me this short interval of sense. “Must I be banished to these frightful woods, “Deprived of house, of parents, friends, and goods? “Must I no more the busy Forum grace,29 “Or take the pleasures of the ring or race?30 “Wretch, ask thyself that question o’er and o’er, “What state of life is there but I have bore?―31 “A man, a youth, a stripling, and a boy, “The pride of wrestlers and the swordsmen’s joy. “Crowded with visitants my rooms were found, “My house frequented and with laurels crowned, “Whene’er I rose from necessary rest, “The courtiers waited all to see me dressed. “And must I be Cybele’s priest and slave? “I to whom Nature such advantage gave? “Must I be part of what I was designed,32 “A barren man without the tokens of my kind?33 “I live on Ida covered o’er with snow? “Or upon Phrygian rites my youth bestow? “In woods which deer and which wild boars frequent? “Oh, now I’m grieved and heartily repent!”  Soon as he thus with rosy lips complained, Cybele both her lions straight unreined, 34  Told both their tasks, and striving to provoke The off-beast to revenge, these accents spoke: 35   “Go,” said she fiercely, “go, and be’t thy care “That to the woods this fugitive repair, “This fugitive that does my rites disdain, “And too much dares attempt to scandalize my reign. “Go, lash thyself with ardour, till the pain “Makes thee roar out and shake thy yellow mane!”  Thus spoke Cybele, and unloosed the brute, Who bounded forth intent on the pursuit.  28  position   place. 29  Forum   that area in Rome where judicial and civic business would be conducted; a place reserved for men. 30  ring or race   i.e., the masculine pleasures of the tournament and the athletic contest. 31  bore   borne, experienced. 32  part   separated from. 33  tokens   his testicles. 34  unreined    unleashed, set loose. 35  off-beast   unclear: perhaps, simply again, ‘unleashed beast.’ 7  He grinned, he growled, he rushed with hideous force, Nor brakes, nor thorns, nor briars could stop his course. 36  Eager in mind the foaming shores to reach, Where when he saw poor Attis on the beach, With rage collected and redoubled might He roared and urged the destined wretch to flight, Who took it to the woods, and ever since Has been Cybele’s slave for this offence.  O goddess! Powerful goddess, grant that I May never under your displeasure lie, That this your sacred rage my house may fly! Let others with your Furies be possessed: May I preserve my sex, may reason guide my breast.   All the company loaded Catullus with praises, but nobody praised him with so much earnestness as Crastinia. She came up close to him and said a thousand obliging things in his ear. As he had abundance of wit and a perfect knowledge of the world, he could not let slip so favourable an opportunity of letting Crastinia know that he loved her, but he did it in so gallant a manner that she could not tell how to be angry; the civility and good humour with which she received this declaration helped to engage his heart, at least to deceive it, and make him believe that he was fully engaged; for in reality he was incapable of loving anything but Lesbia, yet a desire of changing his passion for her made him often imagine himself in love when he was very far from it. He parted for that night, resolved to employ all his skill to make himself beloved by Crastinia. She seemed in his judgement to be very well disposed to hearken to him. He even fancied between whiles that he had made a considerable progress in her affections already; that air of gentleness and facility with which she received his first declaration had imposed upon him […]   [Later in the novel, after Catullus discovers that Aurelius, acting as Caesar’s ‘go-between,’ has turned Juventius (Crastinia) against him (Catullus), there is an instant enmity between the two former friends and between the former lovers. After writing and publishing his condemnation of Aurelius’ character (see selections in the print anthology, pp. 195-6), Catullus finds himself under attack by Aurelius and Crastinia.]   If the breach between Aurelius and Catullus made some noise, these verses 37  made a great deal more. Crastinia complained of Catullus’ suspicion, and did all that woman does on course 38  when she fain 39  would be thought innocent, and thinks her severe 40  virtue called in question. Caesar, who had his reasons for keeping well with Catullus, sent Aurelius away to Italy, where he gave him an employment that kept him at a distance from Rome and the court, that he might not interfere with Catullus anymore.  It happened very well for Aurelius, who, as I said already, was not before-hand in the world, 41  and who found himself now in a condition to retrieve his fortune. However, he had a  36  brakes   thorny thickets or bushes. 37  These verses   i.e., ‘Carmen 21’ (see n10; cf. n43). 38  on course   i.e., as a matter of course, ordinarily. 39  fain   gladly. 40  severe   strict, uncompromising. 41  before-hand in the world    enjoying material wealth and social advancement. 8  spite to Catullus ever after, and never let slip an opportunity of doing him all the mischief he could. Furius 42  entered into the same quarrel and they both declared against their old friend with a bitterness that was condemned by all the world. As soon as his writings appeared, they were the first to criticize and find fault with with ’em, and did it with so much noise and heat that Catullus was forced to answer ’em in his own defence. I must be excused for not translating the verses he made upon ’em on this occasion; they abound with reproaches that the modesty of our language won’t bear.43  [Catullus’ disgust with Caesar’s political ambitions coupled with his personal hatred of the man leads Catullus to compose several insulting poems that glance at Caesar’s sexual licentiousness, as well as that of Mamurra, a Roman knight and one of Caesar’s most efficient officers. Mamurra was born in Formiae and as an engineer, he first served Pompey during the Mithridatic War (66 BCE) and later Caesar during his campaigns in Gaul (58 BCE) and Britain (55 BCE). Although he did acquire a reputation as a big spender (his luxurious house in Rome was a target of satire), and as a sexually licentious man, he was also clearly an excellent engineer, whom both generals highly valued. Catullus elsewhere terms Mamurra ‘the Prick or Cock’ (Latin, ‘mentula’) and verbally assaults him repeatedly in Carmina 29 [below], 41, 57, 94, 105, 114, and 115]   Mamurra, who was Caesar’s favourite still, shared with his lord in Catullus’ spleen and ill humour. He never let him be at rest; he hardly missed a day but he gave about some scurrilous new lampoon upon him. He could not bear the dictator’s heaping so much wealth upon this fellow, who, the truth on’t is, did not come to that high degree of favour that he was in by the most honourable ways in the world. These, I think are the violentest of all the lines that he made against him: 44   Who can bear this, or on it tamely look― Unless a lecher, spendthrift, or a rook―45 To see Mamurra clothed with all the spoils Caesar brought home from Gaul and Britain’s isles?  On this can you, O Caesar, tamely look?  Caesar’s a lecher, spendthrift, and a rook.  42  Furius   Marcus Furius Bibaculus (b. c. 82 BCE), poet. He is satirized in Carmina 11 and 16 (along with Aurelius) and Carmina 23 and 26 (on his own). 43  I must … bear   These poems may be the vituperative ‘Carmen 24,’ where the speaker reproaches Juventius for showering love and wealth on another male lover who is far beneath Juventius socially and economically (Juventius appears there as superficial at best, desiring the man only for his beauty), ‘Carmen 81,’ where Juventius’ taste in men is again satirized, with his new ‘stud,’ being nothing better than a “factitious fuckup” (P. Green, Poems of Catullus, p. 189), or ‘Carmen 16,’ Catullus’ most energetically obscene attack on male rivals. I can find no translations of these poems before 1735. 44  This version of ‘Carmen 29’ leaves out a number of homosatiric insults that Catullus flings at Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44 BCE), Roman general. Caesar’s ‘bisexuality’ was well known (For Caesar’s purported same-sex relationship with King Nicomedes, see Suetonius’ History of the Twelve Caesars). However, the anonymous translator here understands all of ‘Carmen 29’ to be addressed to Caesar, whom he believes initially appears in the Latin original under the veil of ‘cinaedus Romulus’ (‘bugger Romulus’; Green suggests the vituperative and sneering quality of the label by translating it as ‘fag Romulus’). Modern classicists agree, however, that ‘Romulus’ really refers to the Roman general Pompey, Julius Caesar’s son-in-law and rival. Thus, lines 1-10 (above, the first two stanzas) are now understood as addressed to Pompey, lines 11-20 to Caesar, and the last four to both men. In the original, the characterization of Mamurra as a catamite (here, a man who serves the sexual desires of a male superior) is intensified, since he is the sexual object of both men.  For another homosatiric assault on Caesar and Mamurra, see ‘Carmen 57’ (print anthology, pp. 196-7). 45  rook   cheat or swindler. 9   Shall he, blown up with wealth and ease and pride, Insult the chastities of all beside? Walk o’er the beds of such as he approves For catamites, or bill like one of Venus’ doves?46  On this can you, O Caesar, tamely look?  Caesar’s a lecher, spendthrift, and a rook.  Wast thou for this the first of emperors named? When savage Britons by our troops were tamed, (Britons, that in the remotest regions lie, Distant from the Roman eye), That this your stallion should profusely waste 47  Three hundred thousand sesterces at last? 48  What is it? Or is this destructive grant A sum that’s thought proportioned to his want? Or has he on his lust but little spent? But little to give gluttony content? First went his father’s chattels and his lands; From all their dirtiness he washed his hands. Next were consumed the spoils from Pentus brought, 49  And last the wealth of Spain, for which we fought. 50  Yet Gauls and Britons do this spendthrift fear. Why do ye hold your own destruction dear? Or what can he for Gauls or Britons do But his voluptuous course of life pursue, And glibly swallow down estates a-new? O first of chiefs, whom we an emperor call, 51  For this did you and Pompey ruin all? For this o’erturn in most unnatural broils The Roman state that he might have the spoils? 52    The more I read these verses, the more I wonder at the liberty that the poets of those times took, and the patience of the first emperor of the world. One would think that he had set himself a resolution to tire out Catullus and confound him by dint 53  of goodness. He showed him so much civility, even after these verses appeared that, at last, Catullus surrendered himself to so much generosity and went in a sincere repentance to beg pardon for his transgressions.  […]  46  bill   kiss, caress. 47  stallion   stud; sexually licentious man (here, one kept to sexually service his male masters). 48  at last    i.e., at least. 49  Pentus   Pontus, the Black Sea’s south coast and its regions. 50  At last … fought   Spain was invaded by Rome in 218 BCE but it was only completely pacified and a part of the Empire by 19 BCE. 51  first of chiefs   Caesar was made dictator in 45 BCE. 52  For this ... Pompey … Roman state … spoils   The conflict between Pompey and Caesar resulted finally in a civil war, which ended with the death of Pompey in 48 BCE. 53  dint   by means of [acting with persistence or forcefulness]. 1  CICERO [MARCUS TULLIUS CICERO] (106-43 BCE), WRITER, ORATOR, ADVOCATE, AND POLITICIAN.  Member of the Roman equestrian class, Cicero was a famous orator and legal advocate, and these skills guaranteed his significant role in late Republican politics. Quaestor, praetor and finally consul, Cicero was involved in the prosecution and execution of the Catiline conspirators. During the Civil War, Cicero’s support for the Republican cause did not prevent him from making peace with the victorious Caesar, although after Caesar’s assassination Cicero advocated the death of Mark Antony. In 43, the Second Triumvirate ordered Cicero’s execution, and he was killed during an attempt to flee Rome by sea. A prolific writer, Cicero produced works spanning a number of important classical genres, including letters, speeches, philosophical treatises, and books on rhetoric and oratory; his poetry is now sadly lost.  EDITIONS AND CONTEXTS: For selected early modern and modern translations of Cicero’s works, as well information  about Cicero’s reception, reputation, and translation in early modern England, see the  essay ‘Cicero’ in “Classical Writers, their Early Modern Reputations and  Translations” (Online Companion)    TUSCULAN DISPUTATIONS (TUSCULANAE DISPUTATIONES).   Originally written around 45 BCE, Tusculan Disputations is a five book Stoic treatise considering the obstacles posed to the happy life by death, grief, pain, passion, and the various other exigencies and extreme emotions that dominant human life. There were two translations of this text in the period, in 1561 by John Dolman, excerpted below, and in 1683 by Christopher Wase (see ‘Cicero against Catiline’ below).   TUSCULAN DISPUTATIONS (1561) 1   From BOOK 4  […]   But let us give the poets leave to trifle, in whose tales we see this vice 2  attributed to Jupiter himself, and let us come to the philosophers, the masters of all virtue, which deny that 3  thereabout contend much with Epicurus, who therein, in my opinion, lieth nothing. 4   For  1  The title page of this translation reads: Those Five Questions, Which Mark Tully Cicero, Disputed in His Manor of Tusculanum: written afterwards by him, in as many books, to his friend, and familiar Brutus, in the Latin tongue. And now, out of the same translated, and Englished, by John Dolman, student and fellow of the Inner Temple. Dolman does not receive an entry in the DNB. 2   this vice   i.e., excessive or inordinate love/lust. 3  that   A phrase seems to be missing here. Wase says, “that love relates to uncleanness” (256).  The word used in this phrase in the Latin manuscripts is stuprum, a word that had several different but related meanings at the time Cicero was writing, but generally referred to an illicit sexual act, although often specifically to male same- sex sexual acts (J.N. Adams, The Latin Sexual Vocabulary, pp. 200-201).   Epicurus   founder of the philosophical school that came to bear his name, Epicurus believed that true happiness was to be found in pleasure, but defined such pleasure as the virtuous life, particularly in the restraint of the passions and the practice of self-discipline. 4  The translator’s tone throughout these sections on same-sex love and desire is heavily sarcastic. Wase is more explicit here about the hypocrisy conventionally attributed to philosophers who defended pederasty: “Come we to philosophers, the professed teachers of virtue, who deny that love relates to uncleanness” (256). 2  what is this love that men term ‘friendship’? Or why doth no man love a foul5 young man, or a fair old man? 6  Truly, I think this custom began first in the universities of Greece, in the which such love is permitted. But well said Ennius: 7   It is the cause of much mischief, and vice as I suppose, That men should use in open sight,        their bodies to disclose. 8   Which sort of men, if they be honest, (as I think they may), yet is it not without great pain and trouble. Yea, and that so much the more, for that, they do, in manner constrain themselves to restrain. And that I may overpass the love of women, which is far more natural than the other: who doubts what the poets meant by the rape of Ganymedes? 9  Or who knoweth not what Laius in Euripides doth both speak and wish? 10  Furthermore, who seeth not, what songs and ballads the most chiefest and best learned poets set forth of their own loves? Alcaeus, 11  being a man of good reputation in the commonwealth, yet what toys 12  wrote he of the love of young men? And all the writings of Anacreon are only of love. 13  But most of all other, Rheginus Ibicus, 14  even burned with love, as it appeareth by his writings. And now, we philosophers also (yea and that by the counsel and authority of Plato, whom Dicaearchus 15  doth therefore worthily reprehend) are become the commenders and honourers of love. 16   […]   CICERO’S ORATIONS AGAINST CATILINE.     In 63 BCE, Cicero delivered four orations aimed at exposing the Roman politician Lucius Sergius Catilina (c. 108-62 BCE) and his plot to overthrow the Republican government. The orations seem to have partly led Catiline to flee Rome in 62 BCE, and his forces proved no match for those of Mark Antony, who defeated them and killed Catiline in January of that year.  5  foul   unattractive. 6  Or why … fair old man   Cicero interrogates the claim of some philosophers that the love of older men for young men is virtuous and free from sexual desire. If this love is really non-sexual, Cicero and others asked, then why are the pairings always between an older man and a beautiful boy or youth? 7  Ennius (239-169 BCE), epic poet and dramatist. The source of this quotation is unknown. 8  That men … disclose   referring to the ancient Greek practice of exercising in the nude (in the public sports grounds known as the gymnasium, open to all male citizens, and in the private palaestra, or wrestling school). 9  rape of Ganymedes   See ‘Ganymede,’ Glossary (print anthology). 10  In Euripides’ tragedy Chrysippus (of which only fragments remain), Laius, king of Thebes, is a guest in the palace of Pelops, king of the Peloponnese. Laius falls in love with Pelops’ young son, Chrysippus, kidnaps, and rapes him. The boy later kills himself out of shame. 11  Alcaeus (b. c. 625-620 BCE), lyric poet, native of the island of Lesbos, and a contemporary of Sappho. None of his love poems for boys survives, but in Odes 1.32 Horace names the boy that Alcaeus praised: Lycus. 12  toys   frivolous, trivial pieces. 13  See the translations from Anacreon and the Anacreontea in the print anthology, pp. 187-90, and the Online Companion. 14  Rheginus Ibicus   Ibycus of Rhegium (fl. c. 540 BCE), lyric poet. 15  Dicaearchus (fl. 320-300 BCE), writer and student of Aristotle, of whose works only fragments survive. His biography of Plato (in On Lives) is not extant, but he apparently criticized Plato in it, and dismissed the great philosopher’s dialogue Phaedrus, a central text on male same-sex erotic love, as “juvenile” and “vulgar.” 16  Cf. Wase: “Now we see all these men’s amours were lustful. Philosophers are risen up of us, and our Plato is the author too, whom Dicaearchus doth, not without good reason, tax in that behalf for giving reputation to love” (257). 3   CHRISTOPHER WASE (1627-1690), CLASSICAL SCHOLAR AND SCHOOLMASTER.     Graduate, fellow of King’s College (Cambridge University), and committed royalist, Wase suffered imprisonment during the Civil War, but his fortunes improved after the Restoration, and he was appointed historiographer to the secretary of state in 1669. Friend of the diarist John Evelyn and tutor to the eldest son of William Herbert, early of Pembroke, Wase was a highly respected Greek scholar, who published translations, notably of Sophocles’ Electra and Cicero’s Orations against Catiline, as well as original works, including an influential assessment of free schools in England (1678), a number of dictionaries, and treatises on Cicero and Greek and Latin metrics.   CICERO AGAINST CATILINE, IN IV INVECTIVE ORATIONS CONTAINING THE WHOLE MANNER OF DISCOVERING THAT NOTORIOUS CONSPIRACY (1671) 17    From THE SECOND ORATION AGAINST CATILINE  […]  7. O happy state, if it could drain out the sink 18  of the town! In truth, upon the throwing off Catiline only, the state seems to me much eased and on the mending hand. For what mischief or villainy could be devised or thought on which he did not contrive? What sorcerer in all Italy, what Hector, 19  what highwayman, what assassin, what parricide, what forger of wills, what cheat, what whoremaster, what prodigal, what adulterer, what infamous strumpet, what debaucher of youth, what debauched, what desperate person can be found, but confesses Catiline was his great acquaintance? What murders have been committed these late years that he had not a hand in? What abominable rape but of his setting on? 20   8. Now where was there ever such a spirit of inveigling youth as in him? who did himself love some unnaturally, was scandalously prostituted to the unnatural love of others; some he promised the enjoyment of their lust, others the death of their parents, not only by his instigation, but by his assistance; and now, how of a sudden has he got together a great many men of desperate fortunes, not only from the town, but from the country also? There is none in debt, either in Rome, or any corner of all Italy, that he has not drawn into his incredible confederacy in treason.  9. And that you may perceive his different inclinations in things of a contrary nature, there is none in the fencing school anything forward to bold attempts but confesses he was Catiline’s intimate; none anything wanton or loose21 on the stage but gives out that he and Catiline were in a manner all one. And yet this very person, inured to suffer cold and hunger and thirst, and watch in pursuit of whoredom and villainy, was cried up by these his companions as one ‘hardy,’ when as22 the aids of industry and instruments of virtue were wasted upon lust and violence.  […]  17  For a modern translation of the following passages, see Against Catiline, 2.8. 18  sink   sewer, cesspool. 19  Hector   swaggering bully (in the Latin, ‘gladiator’). 20  setting on   encouragement; instigation. 21  loose   lascivious, immodest, indecent. 22  when as   in spite of the fact that. 4   CICERO’S LAELIUS: DE AMICITIA: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND.   Cicero wrote Laelius: On Friendship in the aftermath of the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BCE, and the political chaos that threatened once more to overtake the Republic. Just five years before, Rome had been embroiled in civil war, with Julius Caesar fighting Pompey for control of the nation. Cicero chose the Republican side against Caesar and his supporters. The victorious Caesar pardoned Cicero, but the orator was nevertheless supportive of Caesar’s assassination. Civil War broke out again from 43-42 BCE, with Rome’s strongmen—Octavian [later the emperor Augustus] and Mark Antony—fighting each other for control of the state. Cicero’s opposition to Antony resulted in his own death in 43. Dedicated to Cicero’s long-time friend, patron, and publisher, Atticus, Laelius is a dialogue featuring three interlocutors. Quintus Mucius Scaevola the Augur, one of Cicero’s teachers and patrons who also features in his On the Orator, and Gaius Fannius Strabo, Roman historian, ask their father-in-law Gaius Laelius Sapiens (‘the Wise’) (fl. 2nd c. BCE), statesman, famed orator, and Latin prose stylist, about the nature of friendship. Laelius’ replies constitute the bulk of the treatise, with its motivating cause being the death of Laelius’ dear friend and political ally, Scipio Africanus the Younger [or Minor] (Scipio Aemilianus Africanus Numantinus) (b. c. 185 BCE), famous general, consul, and statesman. Cicero situates his dialogue very precisely in the days just following the death of Scipio. He died suddenly and unexpectedly in 129 BCE, and rumours began to circulate immediately that he had been murdered.  Scipio had returned to Rome after his victory over the Numantians (in 133 BCE) and was active in opposition to the land reforms being proposed by Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus and their supporters; Scipio’s wife was the sister of Tiberius and Gaius, and suspicion fell on her as Scipio’s mysterious death became a cause celebre.  LAELIUS’S RECEPTION HISTORY AND REPUTATION IN EARLY MODERN ENGLAND.   Cicero was celebrated in the early modern period as a moral philosopher and a writer of exceptional eloquence, and like many of his works Laelius was very popular throughout Europe, both in numerous Latin editions and in various vernacular translations; the latter began to be written and published in the early fifteenth century. French versions of Laelius appeared in 1418 and 1537-9, and a German version in 1534. An English translation based on the original Latin text was first undertaken around 1460 (by John Tiptoft, earl of Worcester; publ. by William Caxton, 1481). John Harington’s 1550 translation and Thomas Newton’s 1577 translation were based on a French version (G. Highet, The Classical Tradition [Oxford: Oxford UP, 1949], p. 119). The work’s popularity did not flag in the Restoration and the early eighteenth century: apart from the many Latin editions published in this period and the anonymous translation that appears here, Edward Howard produced a 1673 paraphrase of Laelius (in his Poems and Essays), Samuel Parker a translation of Laelius and what is often considered its companion piece, Of Old Age (3 editions between 1704 and 1727), and Robert Hicks yet another translation of Laelius alone in 1713.  According to Laurens J. Mills’ seminal account of friendship in Tudor and Stuart England, One Soul in Bodies Twain (Bloomington: Principia Press, 1937), Laelius was a common text for the study of Latin among early modern students, and it was without doubt the classical text that most thoroughly shaped the period’s notions about male friendship, particularly in its relationship to self-interest, emotional investment, and civic responsibility. Cicero’s De Officiis (On Duties), however, with its retelling of the story of those exemplary friends Damon and Pythias and its discussion of friendship was also highly influential, particularly because On Duties was also a set school textbook.  Like Laelius, On Duties also received many early translations, and its ideas became as widely disseminated (Mills 79-82). It would be difficult, however, to overestimate the influence of Cicero’s Laelius on the early 5  modern period’s ideas about friendship, and the treatise is even more influential for summarizing and extending ideas on the topic found in earlier writers, particularly Aristotle, but also Plato and the Stoics (Mills 15).  We know nothing about the author of the following 1691 translation of Cicero’s Laelius, except that he was a friend of the almost equally anonymous J.T., to whom the author dedicates the original homoerotic pastoral dialogue appended to the translation. Described as “the Honourable” on the pastoral poem’s separate title page, J.T. was obviously a member of the upper class, perhaps the younger son of a peer below the rank of marquess, although by the end of the seventeenth century the appellation ‘honourable’ was also used to describe those who actually held peerages and titles. Although by the end of the seventeenth century ‘honourable’ was also applied to MPs and justices, it seems unlikely that J.T. belonged to either of these groups. The poem’s genre suggests that it was written by one relatively young man for another, and while MPs might well be young men, in most cases they were men well-established in their careers. A man would not become a justice or an alderman or a lord mayor (all of whom received the title ‘honourable’) until he was well past the age of majority. Charles Goodall’s pastoral poems for his young college friends suggest there was a precedent for young men (in particular) to use this genre for the purposes of celebrating friendship and male homoerotic love (print anthology, pp. 384-99). For an example of the homoerotic pastoral elegy, see William Lathum’s Phiala Lachrimarum (1634; Online Companion). A search through the available records of some of the period’s major educational institutions (Eton, Wadham, Oxford, Cambridge) did not turn up any likely candidates for J.T.   From CICERO’S LAELIUS: A DISCOURSE OF FRIENDSHIP. TOGETHER WITH A PASTORAL DIALOGUE CONCERNING LOVE AND FRIENDSHIP (1691)   THE PREFACE  […]  Thus much by way of introduction. As for the apology, 23  though I think the translation wants it very much, (for really I don’t know how to justify the presumption of an attempt to express Tully’s conceptions in any other language or words than his own), yet I’m sure the poem that follows stands in most need of it, and being more my own must consequently be more obnoxious 24  to censure. However, I have ventured to place it at the end, as treating of the same subject, though upon a different occasion. I hope the fair sex 25  will not think their prerogative invaded because in that poem I prefer friendship to love, since the love I condemn there is a passion which, I dare say, the best and modestest part of them will not think themselves concerned to defend. As for conjugal love, I look upon it as a union of souls  23  The section deleted here notes that “the usual design of a preface is either for an introduction to the book itself, or an apology to the reader for the publication of it.” The author tells us that he is going to give us the former, “being the more pertinent and useful” than the latter. He proceeds to give a brief life of Cicero. apology   defence. 24  obnoxious   liable, open. 25  fair sex   women. 6  as well as bodies, and a state so exactly conformable to all the laws of friendship that, methinks, the names of friend and wife should signify the same. 26   They who will think it something unseasonable for me to be giving rules of friendship when all the world is in arms 27  may as well blame Laelius for making this discourse when Rome was distracted by the ambition of Gracchus, and Tully for publishing it at a time when all Italy was divided by the factions of Pompey and Caesar. Certainly, remedies are never more necessary than when diseases are most epidemical.  I hope the reader is not curious to know whether these papers are published at the importunity of friends, by the command of superiors, or for the prevention of false copies. These are the common topics which every prefacer makes use of to justify his intrusion into the press. I shall therefore waive all evasions, and boldly put myself upon my reader’s mercy; for I don’t understand why an author may not have the liberty of keeping his reasons to himself, as well as his name.  […]  Cicero’s LAELIUS  [In response to a request from Fannius and Scaevola, Laelius agrees to speak on the definition and meaning of friendship; his friend Scipio has just died, and Laelius places his disquisition in this context.]   […] As for me, I can only advise you to prefer friendship before all things in the world, since nothing is so agreeable to the nature of man, nothing so necessary in prosperity or adversity.  My first opinion is, that there can be no real friendship but between good men. Not to be so very nice 28  as some, whose notion of goodness (though perhaps it is not altogether false) is very useless to and destructive of society: 29  for they deny that any man can be good unless he be wise. Be it so: but their wisdom, as they define it, is such as never man yet attained. Now the wisdom I would look for in a good man is such as is useful and practicable, not an imaginary virtue that is only to be wished for. [...] Then let us speak a plain truth in plain English: they whose life and conversation is such that their honesty, integrity, justice, and goodness are generally approved; that they are neither covetous, lustful, nor bold, and have but that principle of honour that was in the persons I just now mentioned, 30  they (I think) are and ought to be accounted good men, who, as far as man can go, follow the dictates  26  As to conjugal love ... signify the same   The anonymous author’s view here is very unconventional, not to mention un-Ciceronian, since the treatise’s assumption is that true friendship is the sole prerogative of men. Cf. the Puritan discussion of friendship in Baxter’s A Christian Directory, which responds to many of Cicero’s contentions, and says that a wife can and indeed should be a married man’s bosom (most intimate) friend, but that the moral and intellectual limitations of women generally make this a rare option (Online Companion, p. 3). 27  when all the world is in arms   In 1691, of course, the English were still involved in what came to be known as the Nine Years’ War or the War of the Grand Alliance (1688-97), where a number of European countries banded together to fight French expansionism. Of course, the memory of the English Civil Wars (1642-46; 1648-51) as well as the three Dutch Wars (1652-54; 1665-67; 1672-74) would also have been very fresh when this translation was published. 28  nice   fussily precise, unreasonably particular. 29  society    specifically, relationships between individuals. 30  the persons I just now mentioned   These persons are as follows: Gaius Fabricius Luscinus (fl. 3 rd  c. BCE), celebrated Roman consul and military leader, later an ambassador famous for his incorruptibility, liberality, and austere personal life; Manius Curius Dentatus (d. c. 270 BCE), another celebrated consul and military leader, famed for his refusal of bribes, his austerity, and courage; and Tiberius Coruncanius (fl. 280 BCE), consul and a member of the Coruncanii family, famed for its ancient Roman virtues. 7  of nature, the best and surest guide. For (methinks) ’tis natural to all mankind to maintain a mutual society, especially where there is a relation [...] For there is this difference between affinity 31  and friendship, that the first may subsist without love, whereas the last cannot. Take away love, and the very name of friendship is gone, though that of affinity shall remain. How great the power of friendship is, we may gather from hence, that of all the numerous and different societies which nature has appointed among men, this alone is contracted into so narrow a compass, that love is always limited to two, or very few, persons.  Now friendship is a unanimous consent of opinions in all matters relating to religion or civil affairs, with all love and kindness; which (next to wisdom) I hold to be the greatest blessing that the immortal gods ever bestowed upon man. Others may prefer riches, health, power, honour, and pleasure, (which, indeed, is the highest bliss that beasts are capable of attaining); but these are frail and fleeting enjoyments, whose possession lies not so much in our own power, as in the arbitrary disposal of fortune. They that place the supreme good in virtue are most in the right; but in the meantime, ’tis this very virtue that creates and maintains friendship, for there can be no such thing as a friend without it.  […]  First, then, ‘how can life live’ (as Ennius has it32) without an acquiescence in the mutual love of some friend? What is happier than to have a companion whom one may trust as one’s self? Where were the pleasures and enjoyments of prosperity without a friend, who shall rejoice for them as if they were his own? How hard is it to undergo the burden of adversity without one that shall take the greatest share upon himself? All other things that are desirable to man are proper only for one end or occasion: riches serve for use, power for respect, honour for praise, pleasures for delight, health for ease and business. But friendship is suitable to every occasion; wherever you go, it follows you; it is neither to be excluded from any place, nor unseasonable or troublesome at any time; so that we have not more frequent occasion (as they say) for fire, air, and water than we have for friendship. I am not now speaking of the common and ordinary friendship (though that too is not without its pleasure and use), but of that which is more refined and perfect: that, I mean, which was between those few persons I have mentioned. 33  Such friendship as this is an ornament to prosperity, and a support and comfort in adversity.  But amongst all the conveniences 34  of friendship (which are many and great), I hold this to be the greatest: that in the lowest ebb of fortune, it still bears up with cheerful hopes of a better condition, never suffering the mind to despond or be cast down. He that looks upon his friend sees himself as in a glass, 35  so that absence cannot divide them, want impoverish them, sickness weaken them, nor (which is stranger) death kill them. Such esteem and honour for his memory does a man leave behind him to his surviving friend that the life of the one is glorious, and the death of the other happy. Take away mutual love from among men, and you will find that neither cities nor families will stand, nay, not so much as agriculture will last. If this does not serve to convince you of the efficacy of friendship and concord, you may learn to value it from the fatal consequences of dissension and discord. What family is so strongly  31  affinity   i.e., relationships established through blood and / or marriage. 32  as Ennius has it   Quintus Ennius (239-169 BCE), poet. 33  those few persons I have mentioned   The examples Laelius earlier offers are as follows: Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus, consul and military leader, friend of Laelius; Marcus Porcius Cato (the Censor) [234-149 BCE], consul and censor, famed for his virtue and incorruptibility; Gaius Sulpicius Gallus, orator, writer, and consul; Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Minor (see headnote); and Lucius Furius Philius, scholar and consul, interlocutor in Cicero’s Republic. 34  conveniences   benefits. 35  glass   mirror. 8  allied, what city so well fortified, that it cannot be utterly destroyed by factions and animosities? From hence (by the rule of contraries) we may easily gather the many benefits that arise from friendship. A certain philosopher of Agrigentum 36  is reported to say in Greek verse, that all things in nature and in the universe, whether they be fixed or moveable, are kept together by friendship or divided by discord. The truth of this sentence 37  is evident to every man from his own experience. What acclamations were there in the theatre t’other day, when in my friend Pacuvius’s new play, the King, not knowing which of the two strangers was Orestes, Pylades avouched himself to be Orestes, that he might die for his friend, and Orestes protested himself to be (what he really was) the true Orestes? 38  Now, if the bare representation of a story was so generally applauded by the audience, what do you think they would have done if it had been matter of fact? Here, Nature plainly shows her power, when men own that to be well done in another which they would not do themselves.  […]  Now, since the power of virtue is so great as to render it lovely in a stranger, and (which is more) in an enemy, ’tis no wonder if we are affected with it when we see it every day in an acquaintance. Though I must confess, friendship is mightily confirmed by receiving some demonstrations of kindness, by an experience of love, and by frequent conversation: all of which being added to that first motive of love will flame out into a wonderful endearment of friendship; now if anyone thinks this to proceed from a weakness in ourselves, and a design to obtain private ends and interests upon others, he makes the rise of friendship mean and ignoble, by ascribing it to necessity and want, 39  which at that rate would best qualify a man for friendship. But ’tis quite otherwise: for he that has most assurance in himself, and is endued with so much wisdom and virtue that he wants 40  nobody but has everything that is needful within himself, this man is worthiest to gain and preserve a friend. How did Africanus 41  want me? Not at all. Neither did I stand in need of him. But as I loved him out of an honour I had for his virtue, so he regarded me for some little esteem he had of mine. Time and conversation increased our affection. And though many and great conveniences on both sides did arise from thence, yet we never made the hopes of them any inducements to contract a friendship. For as we are sometimes willing to assist and oblige one another, not through any hopes of requital (for that were to put a benefit out to use 42 ), but because we are all naturally inclined to humanity, so methinks we should covet friendship, not for any expectation of an outward recompense, but because it is always its own reward.   [Laelius expounds on what friends should and should not ask of each other: “Therefore we may take this for a general rule in friendship: Neither to make nor grant any dishonourable request”; later, he phrases this same precept positively: “Therefore this must be laid down as the first maxim in friendship: To request what is just of our friends, and to perform what is just for them.” Those who surrender their loyalty to their country out of a desire to support a friend’s assault upon the country or state should never be allowed to use friendship as an  36  a certain philosopher of Agrigentum   Empedocles (c. 492-432 BCE), Greek philosopher, who held that the four elements were either riven apart by strife or united by friendship (love, amity). 37  sentence   wise saying or maxim. 38  What acclamations ... the true Orestes   The story can be found in Euripides’ Iphigenia in Taurus, but the playwright Marcus Pacuvius’ play has been lost. For ‘Pylades and Orestes,’ see Glossary (print anthology). 39  want   poverty, material need. 40  wants   needs, desires. 41  Africanus   See headnote. 42  put a benefit out to use   i.e., like an investment from which one gains interest (through usury). 9  excuse for such an evil: “Nay, I say such wicked associations as these must not only be denied the umbrage [i.e., shadow, veil] of friendship for their excuse, but should be made liable to some heavy censure, that no man may think it lawful upon any account to take up arms with his friend against his country, which, for ought I can see, as things go now, may too frequently happen.” Laelius goes on to reject the notion that a man should not have too many friends, since friends involve a man in troubles and cares of various sorts; he rejects as well the concomitant advice that a man should not engage in a friendship wholeheartedly, but be able to “have the knot of friendship as slight and loose as [he] can, that upon occasion [he] can straighten or slacken it, as [he] see[s] fit.” He also rejects self-interest as an inducement and motive for friendship.]   [...] they that make interest an inducement to friendship seem to me to loosen its most amiable tie; for ’tis not so much the advantages we receive from a friend as the love he has for us that ought to be valued; and then it is that a good turn is most acceptable, when it comes with a good will. Now ’tis so far from being true that friendship proceeds from necessity, that they who abound most in the possession of riches and virtue (which of all things has least need of any outward assistance) are generally the most liberal and readiest to oblige. Yet I question, whether ’tis always necessary that nothing should be wanting between friends. For if Scipio had never stood in need of my service, advice, or assistance, neither at home nor abroad, what proofs had there been of our mutual affection? Therefore, convenience 43  and interest ought not to be the causes but the consequences of friendship.  […]  Now what can be a greater weakness than for men abounding in riches to lay out vast sums upon horses, equipage, 44  clothes, furniture, and twenty other commodities that every man may have for his money, and yet not to be solicitous in the obtaining a friend, the richest treasure and loveliest ornament of one’s life? For let a man bestow never so much in the purchase of worldly goods, yet he can’t tell for whom they are purchased, or who shall enjoy the fruits of all his cost and care, which may at last be snatched from him by some stronger hand; but a friend is a sure and lasting possession. Nay, though we should suppose ourselves absolute masters of all that fortune can give, yet even in that condition a life destitute of friends would be solitary and uncomfortable.   [Laelius proceeds to refute three related and (he believes) invalid notions about friendship: 1) that “we must stand equally affected to our friends as to ourselves,” which Laelius rejects as patently untrue. He points out that a man will do things for a friend that he would never do for his own benefit (e.g., suing to an unworthy man on the friend’s behalf, when he would never do so on his own); 2) that “our returns of friendship must bear an exact proportion to the obligations we receive from our friends,” which Laelius rejects as a violation of the truly “generous and noble nature” that accompanies true friendship, an ignoble ‘bean-counting’ attitude that loathes to do more for a friend than the friend has done or has said he will do for you; 3) that “accordingly as a man esteems of himself, such he must be esteemed by his friend,” which Laelius rejects as “the worst” opinion of the three. He does not believe that a friend should always agree with his fellow’s self-evaluation: “We frequently see some men  43  convenience   personal advantage. 44  equipage   perhaps, specifically, a person’s carriage; or, generally, his retinue, group of servants / retainers. 10  dejected in mind, and hopeless of mending their condition: in such a case it will not become a friend to entertain the same mean thoughts of his desponding companion, as he has of himself; but rather to use all arts and endeavours to raise his drooping spirits.”]   But we shall find that true friendship has a nobler end than any of these; if we remember what Scipio found so much fault with, when he said, there could be no opinion more pernicious to friendship than his, who said that a man must love with this reserve, that he may one day hate. 45  He could never be persuaded that this sentence was spoken by Bias, who was one of the Seven, but rather by some lewd ill-natured fellow that had a mind to subject all the world to his interest and ambition. For how can anybody be that man’s friend whose enemy he thinks he may become hereafter? Besides, he must needs wish that his friend may offend often, that he may find more occasions to rebuke him; and he must as necessarily be displeased when he does well or succeeds well. Wherefore this doctrine (whoever was the author of it) tends to the utter dissolution of friendship. He should rather have advised us to use such caution in choosing a friend, as not to begin to love one whom at some time or other we may hate; but if we are not so happy in our choice as we could wish, ’twas Scipio’s opinion that we must rather bear with it than ever think of a separation. 46   This, in my mind, should be the chief aim of friendship, that the manners and dispositions of friends should be good, and that there may be a communication of all things between them, both of their intentions and thoughts, without any reserve. 47  And though it should sometimes fall out, that a friend’s request is less reasonable than it ought to be, yet if his life or credit lies at stake, we may step a little aside to serve him, unless we foresee that some scandalous consequence will attend our compliance. For though there are some allowances to be made in friendship, yet we must not hazard our own reputation nor that necessary instrument in all our affairs, the good will of our neighbours, which to purchase by fawning and flattery is base and mean. Above all things we must be mindful of virtue, which is the foundation of friendship.   [Laelius advises that a man pay careful attention to the behaviour, attitudes, and opinions of one whom he considers making his friend, choosing initially by a man’s virtues (he should be of “a firm, steady, and constant principle”), and that a man must become somewhat familiar with a candidate for friendship to really assess his character and whether he will make a suitable friend. He acknowledges that this approach means that a man has already created an emotional attachment with his candidate-friend, and thus a man must be wary.]    45  Who … hate   As Cicero goes on to note, this saying was ascribed to Bias of Priene, one of the legendary Seven Sages. Baxter largely endorses this caution, since his instructions on choosing a ‘bosom friend’ always keep in mind the innate corruption of fallen man (‘Christian Directory,’ Online Companion, pp. 4, 9). 46  ’twas Scipio’s … separation   Baxter (‘Christian Directory,’ Online Companion, pp. 4, 9) and Lady Mary Chudleigh (in her essay ‘On Love,’ print anthology, pp. 415-20) both take exception to this statement. However, Cicero makes clear later that there is a distinction between the friendships of the wise and those of the ‘vulgar’ (i.e., common men). In terms of the latter, friendships can indeed be dissolved, and for many of the same reasons that Baxter and Chudleigh cite. 47  a communication … reserve   Baxter disagrees with this contention, maintaining that such unreserved communication is impossible and indeed undesirable (‘Christian Directory,’ Online Companion, p. 9). 11  Therefore, a prudent man must know as well how to stop the torrent of his affection, as a good rider how to check the career of a headstrong jade. 48  Friendship must be used like managed horses; the humours 49  and dispositions of those we intend for our friends must be observed by degrees. Some are tried 50  in a little matter of money how slight their professions are; others again who are not to be tempted with a small sum will be proved in a greater. 51  But if you can find a man after all that scorns to prefer your money before your friendship, where will you light upon one that will not value greatness, power, wealth, and empire above his friend, that, when these stand in competition with the laws and rights of friendship, will not choose the first before the last? So hard is it for flesh and blood to resist the temptations of honour and interest. And though they are purchased with the violation of friendship, yet some men shall think it very allowable to make bold with 52  a friend upon so great an account. So that true friendship is hardly to be looked for from the ambitious and busy part of mankind, for ’tis almost impossible to find one among them that will wish his friend’s advancement before his own. [...] He therefore that in both conditions of fortune 53  is a constant, firm, faithful friend, he (I say) ought to be esteemed as one of that noble, almost divine, sort of men.  Now the main foundation of that stability and constancy which is required in friendship is truth, for nothing can be lasting that is not true. We must choose a man that is plain, courteous, good-humoured, and of the same mind with ourselves; these are the inseparable marks of fidelity; for a heart that is various and full of doublings 54  can never be faithful, nor can one that is of a temper and disposition different from ours be either cordial or constant. Give me leave to add this: that a man must not be too forward 55  in laying faults upon his friend of himself, nor in believing them from others. All this belongs to that constancy which I mentioned just now.  Thus have I proved what I told you at first, that there can be no friendship but between good men, for ’tis the part of a good man (whom I may justly call a wise man) to observe these two rules in friendship: First, that it be without any deceit or dissimulation, for ’tis more ingenuous56 to profess an open hatred than to disguise it under the mask of love.  ’Tis necessary too that there should be a sweetness of temper and a pleasantness in conversation, which certainly gives a delightful relish to friendship. Sullenness and moroseness must be avoided by all means, for though friendship admits of gravity, yet it must always be remiss 57  and easy, and disposed to all innocent cheerfulness and complaisance.   [Laelius takes up the question of whether a new friend “should not be preferred before an old one,” and notes that such a question shows a misunderstanding of the nature of friendship (it is not the type of pleasure that one can be sated of), and old friends are the best. He also stresses the irrelevance of rank to the relationship between true friends.]  48  jade   vicious or ill-tempered horse. A rider controlling his horse is an ancient image for a man’s control of his passions. 49  humours   predominant characteristics. 50  tried   tested [and thus discovered to have certain characteristics]. 51  proved in a greater   i.e., will show their true dispositions or characters in how they respond to the opportunity to make a large sum of money. 52  make bold with   make free with, impose upon. 53  in both conditions of fortune   i.e., in prosperity and adversity. 54  doublings   double-dealings, deceits, evasions. 55  forward   eager, hasty. 56  ingenuous   honourable. 57  remiss   relaxed, gentle. 12     ’Tis a great step to friendship when the superior descends to an equality with his inferior, for many times there will happen a difference in degree, as there was between Scipio and us that were his friends, yet he never would esteem himself above Philius, Rupilius, Mummius, 58  or any of his friends that were of an inferior rank, but on the contrary always respected his brother Quintus Maximus, 59  who was a worthy gentleman but no way Scipio’s equal (for he was a great deal younger), as if he had been his superior, and looked upon all his friends as men that were his betters in their intrinsic worth. ’Tis pity but all men should follow Scipio’s example in this, and if they have any advantage above their friends in the gifts of nature or fortune, they should freely impart it to them and share it with them. For instance, if their parentage be low or their endowments of mind or fortune mean, 60  they should increase their stock in both, and do them all the honour and service they can. As we read in romances of some heroes, who, having been brought up in mean 61  families, through the obscurity of their birth and ignorance of their parentage, and, proving at last the sons of some king or god, retain their first affection to the shepherds whom ’till then they looked upon as their natural fathers. This duty is much more incumbent upon us where our real parents are known. And then it is that the fruits of knowledge and wisdom and every excellence are most certainly enjoyed by ourselves when they are communicated to others.  Therefore, as they who are any way superior to their friends should make them their equals, so on the other side they that are inferiors must not be dissatisfied if they have a friend that excels them in knowledge, fortune, or dignity. [...]   [Laelius continues by condemning those men who trumpet what they do for their friends, in a carping and criticizing sort of way; Laelius also recommends that the socially inferior friend should “in some sort raise himself to an equality with his friend.”]    There is no true judgement to be made of our friendships till they are confirmed by length of time and maturity of understanding. If in our youth, we had a love for the companions of our recreations, this does not oblige us to contract a strict friendship with them in our riper years, for at that rate our nurses and tutors might justly challenge the largest share in our affection. Now though these are not to be slighted, yet they are to [be] esteemed after another manner than our friends, whom otherwise we can never preserve long. Different manners create different minds, and consequently dissolve friendship, and the only reason why good men can never love those that are bad is because there is the widest difference imaginable in their minds and manners.  ’Tis a good rule in friendship to take care lest the intemperance and extravagance of our affection should hinder the occasions of our friends or prejudice their interest. For (to return to story), Neoptolemus had never taken Troy, if he had hearkened to his father-in-law Lycomedes, who had the education of him, and strove with many tears to stop his journey. 62  Sometimes there will fall out pressing occasions that must necessarily divide friends, which  58  Lucius Furius Philius, see n33.    Lucius Rupilius was a friend of Scipio and brother of Publius, consul and military leader).    Spurius Mummius was a legate and friend of Scipio. 59  Quintus Fabius Maximus Aemilianus, consul. 60  mean   inferior. 61  mean   lower-class. 62  Neoptolemus ... journey   Neoptolemus was also known as Pyrrhus, son of Achilles and Deidamia; he killed King Priam of Troy and took captive Hector’s wife. 13  he that goes about to obstruct because he can’t bear a friend’s absence shows a weak, impotent, and unreasonable friendship. Therefore, we must always consider what we ought to ask of our friends, as well as what we ought to grant to them.  [Although Laelius says that he is now going to speak of the friendships of the vulgar or common man as opposed to the “wiser sort,” he does proceed to consider under what circumstances friends in general may become separated: 1) when a friend has injured a third party so grievously that anyone connected with the said friend also suffers “infamy”; and 2) when a friend takes on different “manners and inclinations” or different political positions than he had when you first befriended him. In both cases, Laelius recommends a gentle breaking off of the friendship. He warns that violence and quarrelling in the dissolution of a friendship will make former friends into terrible enemies. He concludes that the real dangers of choosing a friend badly may be avoided by not beginning “our friendship too soon,” and not choosing one who is ultimately undeserving of true friendship.]  There are a great many that will allow nothing to be good but what is profitable, and value their friends as grasiers 63  do their cattle, accordingly as they think they will turn to account. Such as these want 64  that generous and most natural friendship, which is to be desired of itself and for itself, and never understood by any experience upon themselves, how great the force and efficacy of friendship is: for a man loves himself not because he expects any reward or return of his own affection from himself, but because everyone is naturally dear to himself. Now he that does not find he stands thus affected towards another can never be a true friend: for a friend is one’s other self. [...] [W]e must certainly conclude that these inclinations are much more strongly imprinted in the heart of man, 65  and that ’tis natural for him to love himself, and to seek some other with whom he may so mingle souls as to unite two into one.  […]  [...] the friendship I mentioned is thoroughly established when two men equally affected to one another have so entirely mastered those appetites to which the greatest part of mankind is enslaved as to find a pleasure in virtue and integrity, and to delight in the mutual performance of all friendly offices, neither party desiring anything from the other but what is fair and honest, and both having a regard as well as a love for each other. For he that would separate modesty from friendship will rob it of its greatest ornament. ’Tis a great heresy in friendship to think that it gives any encouragement to a loose 66  and licentious life. For certainly a friend was designed by nature for an assistant to virtue not for a companion in vice, that because a solitary virtue would be helpless and unable of herself to reach that degree of perfection which she aims at, she might be enabled by the assistance of some companion to obtain her desires. If therefore this noble association ever was, is, or can be found between any two persons, they are to be looked upon as the best guides to this greatest blessing of human nature. This, this is the society in which is to be found all that man can wish for: virtue, honour, peace of mind, pleasure, and every solid enjoyment that makes our lives happy, and without which they cannot be comfortable. This, doubtless, is the highest consummation of human felicity; and if we would attain to it, we must make virtue the means, without which we can never deserve a friend nor anything that’s worth our wishes; and which being neglected, they that think they have friends will (too late) find their error, when they have  63  grasiers   those who graze and care for cattle. 64  want   lack. 65  much […] heart of man   i.e., than in that of animals, which Laelius has just been describing. 66  loose   amoral. 14  occasion to make use of them. Therefore (for I cannot repeat it too often) we must try 67  before we love, and not love before we try. But as our neglect in other matters of moment is too visible, so it is chiefly blameable in the choice and management of our friendships, in which many of us use very preposterous methods and (in spite of the proverb) frustrate our own designs. For sometimes we suffer 68  ourselves to be so encumbered with our own worldly concerns, or engage ourselves so deeply in public affairs, that upon the least distaste or disappointment in them we immediately take pett 69  and fall out with our friends.  But nothing can excuse our want 70  of care in a matter of so great importance, for friendship is the only thing in the world concerning whose usefulness all men agree. Nay, though virtue itself is derided by some, and passes with them for singularity 71  and ostentation; though many that content themselves with a little, despise riches; though honour and greatness, which inflame the ambition of most men, are so slighted by some that nothing is thought more vain and empty, (and so for other things of this nature that are admired by some and contemned 72  by others), yet all men have the same respect for friendship. The statesman and the philosopher, the idle man and the man of business, nay even those that mind nothing but their pleasures will tell you that there is no living without a friend, if you mean to live happily.   [Laelius traces humanity’s universal appreciation of friendship to our species’ inherently sociable nature; all men prefer society and community to solitude. However, he also notes that friendships may be plagued by “suspicions and distastes,” and that “it requires a great deal of discretion to preserve the truth and faithfulness of a friend, without giving offence at some time or other.” Laelius discusses a man’s obligation to rebuke and admonish his friend, and acknowledges the difficulty of admonishing in such a way as to maintain one’s friendship. However, he points out that by “indulging [a friend] in his faults,” a man will ruin his friend by allowing “him to run headlong into destruction.” Laelius recommends telling the truth gently and gauging the extent to which one may indulge one’s friend without being reduced to flattery or being “a pander to vice.”]    And therefore ’tis the property of cordial friendship mutually to admonish and to be admonished, and as the one is to be done with all freedom but without any sharpness, and the other to be taken with all patience and without any murmuring, so we may be sure that there is no greater canker to friendship than flattery, fawning, and assentation. 73  This vice has too many names as well as shapes, and is the infallible symptom of a base, deceitful temper that speaks and acts everything out of a love to compliance more than truth. But dissimulation, besides that ’tis odious in all cases (for it corrupts and destroys our judgement), is utterly inconsistent with friendship, because it is repugnant to truth, without which the name of friendship is but taken in vain. For since the end 74  and excellence of friendship is to unite our minds, how can that be effected where one man has not always one and the same mind, but is  67  try   test.     Proverbial, ‘Try before you trust’ (Tilley T595). 68  suffer   allow, permit. 69  take pett   take offence, become bad-tempered or sulky. 70  want   lack. 71  singularity   eccentricity, oddity. 72  contemned   despised. 73  assentation   obsequious agreement with the opinions of another. 74  end   goal; purpose. 15  unsettled, inconstant, and inconsistent with himself? What can be so flexible and slippery as his mind, who conforms himself not only to the will, but even to the very looks of another?  […]  For here, unless your friend unlocks his breast to you, and you do the same to him, there can be no trust or confidence between you; you cannot so much as love or be beloved, but will be forced to doubt the sincerity of each other’s affection. [...]   [Laelius then discusses the injury that flattery does to the one who desires it and allows it to be given him; such a man is inevitably one who also flatters himself.]   [...] But this is not friendship, where one does not care to hear truth, nor the other to speak it. [...] Any man that has his wits about him may quickly discern an open flatterer: but we can’t use too much caution in arming ourselves against the subtle insinuations of the sly, undermining sycophant, who shall then be most guilty of assentation when he seems the spirit of contradiction; who all the while he pretends to oppose you, shall only amuse you, and at last in complaisance to you shall suffer himself to be convinced, so that he who is most in the wrong shall seem to have the better side of the question: Now what is more gross 75  than to be thus imposed upon? [...]  […]   My discourse has deviated I know not how from the friendships of the more refined, that is, the wiser sort of men (I mean here such wisdom as man is capable of), to those of smaller account; let us now return to the first motive of friendship, and end with it.  ’Tis virtue, virtue (Gaius Fannius and Quintus Mucius) that creates and preserves friendship; in that alone we shall find all that is agreeable, faithful, or constant. Virtue, having raised herself above the common pitch, and showing her own light, sees the same, and knows it in another, to whom she joins herself by a mutual giving and receiving of all that is needful for both. From hence proceeds love or friendship, which are both derived from the same word (amo) in Latin. Now love is nothing else but a well-wishing to him whom you affect, without any inducement from necessity or interest, for the latter will naturally follow upon friendship, though you do not think of it. This sort of affection I had when I was young, for Lucius Paulus, Gaius Gallus, Publius Nasica, and Tiberius Gracchus 76  (my friend Scipio’s father-in- law) who were all of them old men. This is more eminently perfect between those of the same age, as between me and Scipio, Lucius Furius, Publius Rutilius, and Spurius Mummius. 77  Again, when we grow old, we are pleased with the conversation of younger persons, as I am with yours and Tubero’s.78 Nay, I take great delight in my familiarity with Publius Rupilius and Aulus Virginius, 79  though they are very young.  75  gross   monstrous. 76  For Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus and Gaius Sulpicius Gallus, see n33.     Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica Serapio, consul (138 BCE).    Tiberius Gracchus the Elder (217-154 BCE), father of Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus, the famous land reformers; Scipio Africanus Minor married Tiberius Gracchus the Elder’s daughter, Sempronia. See headnote to ‘Laelius.’ 77  For Lucius Furius Philius, see n33; for Spurius Mummius, see n58.    Publius Rutilius Rufus (fl. 115-90 BCE), military tribune and consul, famed for his integrity. 78  Quintus Tubero, nephew of Scipio; he spoke the funeral oration for Scipio, which Laelius wrote. 79  For Publius Rupilius, see n58; Aulus Virginius, famed lawyer. 16   Now, because the condition of our life and nature is so ordered that one age grows out of another, it might be wished that as we began the race of life together with our equals, so we might all along continue it and end it with them. But since all things in this world are so frail and uncertain, we must never be without someone whom we may love, and by whom we may be mutually beloved, for without friendship, there is no enjoyment of life.  Though Scipio was suddenly snatched from me, yet to me he still does and always will live, for I loved his virtue, and that can never die. That is not only continually before my eyes, in whose arms it sometimes was, but will be signally famous to all posterity. No man will think of any gallant and extraordinary undertaking but he will copy out his actions from Scipio’s life. Among all the blessings that fortune or nature ever bestowed upon me, I know none that I can compare with Scipio’s friendship. With him I advised and agreed in the management of all public and private affairs; in him was treasured up my happiness. I never offended him (to my knowledge) in the least. I never heard anything from him that I could wish unsaid. Our lodging and diet was in one house and at one table, and not only our warfare but our travels and our retirements were always together, not to mention our studies, which, having withdrawn ourselves from the eyes of the world, we spent in the search of knowledge.  Now if the remembrance of these things had died with Scipio, I could never have borne the loss of so dear and loving a friend. No, that can never decay, but is rather continually strengthened and renewed by the frequency of my thoughts, and the freshness of my memory; nay, though that too were gone, yet I should find some comfort from my age, for by the course of nature I cannot want 80  him long; and what is but short must be borne patiently, though it be grievous.  This is all I have to say upon this subject, and let me advise you, gentlemen, to have that esteem for virtue, without which there can be no amity, as to think that (that 81  only excepted) nothing is more excellent than friendship.  FINIS.   A PASTORAL DIALOGUE CONCERNING FRIENDSHIP AND LOVE. 82   ALCON AND LYCIDAS. 83    ALCON. Say, Lycidas, why all alone? Is thy Dorinda false or does she frown? Dost thou to this dark desert fly To vent thy own or blame her jealousy?  LYCIDAS. No, shepherd, no; the maid was ever kind, Dear to my eyes and charming to my mind; (Nay, I remember with her parting breath She blessed our loves, and smiled and kissed in death). But oh! She’s gone! Like a fall’n blossom cast  80  want   lack; miss. 81  that   i.e., virtue. 82  The poem’s separate title page continues: ‘Occasioned by the death of the Honourable J.T.’ The epigram (in Latin) is from Virgil, ‘Eclogue 5.20’: “For Daphnis, untimely killed by a cruel death, the Nymphs wept.” 83  Alcon and Lycidas   Both names are taken from Virgil’s Eclogues. See ‘Alcon’ and ‘Lycidas,’ Glossary (print anthology). 17  From its fair stalk by some untimely blast; Forever gone! Whilst I distracted rove, Tell the sad tale to ev’ry conscious grove,84 And mourn the dear remembrance of our injured love.  ALCON. Look up, despairing youth, and see With pitying eyes, a sadder wretch than thee. My friend, my soul, my Daphnis is no more, 85  Snatched like an early flower, Which some rude hand had cropped before its hour; Whilst I through many a pathless way With heedless sorrow stray, Led hither by my wand’ring sheep With much more tears a dearer loss than thine to weep.  LYCIDAS. A dearer loss! Rash swain, take heed; 86  With emulous grief you wrong the beauteous dead! 87  My tears can brook a rival now no more Than could my flames (my hapless flames) before. Fate has not killed my passion, but improved, For dead I worship what alive I loved.  ALCON. Fond youth! In yon’ soft myrtle shades88 To amorous boys and wanton maids Tell thy sad tale, whilst ‘every conscious grove’89 With tattling sounds mocks thy unmanly love; Be silent here: where reason holds the scale, Thy passion needs must yield, my friendship must prevail.  LYCIDAS. Here then with mournful strife we’ll both contend; And let yon’ swain our fleecy charge attend, Whilst I a mistress weep.     — ALCON. But I a friend.  LYCIDAS. Come all ye nymphs, a beauteous mournful train, (Beauteous indeed now my Dorinda’s gone), Come all, and teach the list’ning plain To tell our loss, and weep its own. Ye nymphs that crowded round her graceful side, Whilst she, your envy and your pride, With all your myrtles, all your praises crowned, In tuneful measures struck the gladsome ground; And all ye swains, whose emulous harmony, Taught by the equal motions of her feet  84  conscious   privy to or witnessing human actions and/or secrets. 85  Daphnis   another name taken from Virgil’s Eclogues; see ‘Daphnis,’ Glossary (print anthology). 86  swain   shepherd, rural inhabitant. 87  emulous grief   grief that seeks to rival, emulate, or challenge. 88  myrtle   The myrtle was sacred to Venus, the goddess of love. 89  ‘every conscious grove’   Alcon mockingly echoes Lycidas’ earlier phrase. 18  Thence grew artful, thence grew sweet, Ye swains that courted her and envied me: Come all, with mingled grief combine To mourn your own despair, and pity mine. O’er her sad hearse Pour out your tears, And with them write this melancholy verse: Here fair Dorinda lies, Dorinda here did fall, Who one blessed shepherd loved, herself beloved of all.  ALCON. Come all ye youths, ye dear companions come, (Now dear indeed, since Daphnis is no more) With equal tears our common loss deplore, And bless his fame and beautify his tomb. Ye youths that round my Daphnis proudly rode, Whilst he the grace, the terror of the wood, With active force and fatal certainty By his own shafts instructed yours to fly; Ye virgins too, that thronged the joyful place To seek the conquests of a nobler chase, To seek indeed, but all in vain, Whilst Daphnis’ charms an unsought triumph gain; As many darts as the loved shepherd threw As many Cupid shot, as many wounded you: Come all, with mournful care Your freshest, latest gifts prepare; Round his beauteous, his cold head The short-lived honours of mixed garlands spread, And oh! awhile their short-lived honours cheer With many a sigh and many a tear. Alive ye loved him all, all weep him dead. Weep all, and say — Daphnis lies here, Whom ev’ry maid did court, each shepherd did commend, Daphnis the loveliest swain, Daphnis the kindest friend.  LYCIDAS. Flowers to the vale are grateful, lofty pines 90  To the proud mountain’s head, embracing vines To the rich garden, cypress to the grove, To me more grateful far Dorinda’s love.  ALCON. Frosts to the flowers are hurtful, the rude storm To lofty pines, to vines the cruel worm, Fire to the wasted grove, to me than those More hurtful far my much loved Daphnis’ loss.  LYCIDAS. Oh! She was innocent, she was fair, As are those spotless sheep  90  grateful   pleasing to the mind or senses; agreeable, acceptably welcome. ‘Grateful’ might possibly be a printer’s error for ‘graceful.’ 19  The dying dear wished me to keep, My wretched wealth and my unwelcome care. Was there a youth o’er all the plain But for Dorinda sighed, and sighed in vain? Gay Dorilas, old Melibaeus’ heir,91 And rich Menalcas (rich indeed, 92  His thrifty father late dead) With rival arts and presents courted her, And one his kids, and one his fruits would bring. Both she refused, or deigning to receive, To me the kinder maid would give. One well could play, and one could sweetly sing: Deaf to their arts, and with their gifts unmoved She stood, and me, even happier me, she loved. “Now all forlorn these pious tears I shed To Love deserted and Dorinda dead.”  ALCON. Daphnis was sweet and gentle as yon’ flood,93 Whose list’ning waters loved to crowd Towards the glad shore, whilst his soft melody Made them forget their parent sea, Admire his music, and indulge their stay. The swans too, gladly held by the late tide, Heard his delightful strains, then tried To imitate the voice, and died. 94  Daphnis was tall and graceful as the hart That wept the skilful anger of his dart; Like our Melampus faithful, like him fleet, 95  (If little things we may compare with great); Our poor Melampus wand’ring round the plain, Hark! with shrill howls laments his master slain. Was there a maid could hide her conscious flame, 96  When some glad tale was blessed with Daphnis’ name? Youthful Galatea, (fair 97  When your Dorinda was not there) Alcippe, Nysa, Chloë strove 98  For the wished triumph of his love. Each her officious presents would prepare, Fruits for his scrip, and garlands for his hair: 99   91  Melibaeus   the name of a shepherd who appears in Virgil’s Eclogues. 92  Menalcas   the name of another shepherd who appears frequently in Virgil’s Eclogues. 93  yon’ flood   yonder river, that river over there. 94  The swans … died    Traditionally, swans were believed to sing beautifully just before they died. 95  Melampus   named for one of the dogs of the ill-fated hunter Actaeon (Ovid, Metamorphoses, 3.307); when Actaeon was turned into a stag by the incensed goddess Diana―a punishment for Actaeon’s crime of gazing on the naked goddess while she bathed―Melampus and Actaeon’s other hunting dogs tore their master to pieces. 96  conscious flame   i.e., a desire that she herself is aware of and which is obvious to others. 97  Galatea   the name of a country girl in Virgil’s ‘Eclogue 3.’ 98  Alcippe and Nysa   the names of countrywomen in Virgil’s Eclogues 7 and 8;    Chloë   a name often bestowed on beautiful and innocent country girls in Latin literature (an alternate name for Ceres, goddess of the harvest). 99  scrip   shepherd’s bag or wallet for carrying food and other necessities. 20  Each pressed with glad amazement to the ring, 100  And when he danced, each strove to sing. Their gifts he would receive, their music he would hear Till wearied with their praises he Thanked their civility, Refused their love, and hastened home to me. There in a clasped embrace we lay, And with sweet talk deceived the livelong day, Pitied the wretches that in vain had wooed, Smiled at their passion and our own pursued. “Now left alone, with hopeless grief I moan My ill-starred friendship wronged, my Daphnis gone.”  LYCIDAS. ’Twas in a fatal hour, When the loved maid impatient of my stay, Had decked, and did forsake her bower 101  To chide my sloth, whilst in the treacherous way In fair deceit a murd’rous viper lay. There as with eager haste she trod the ground, There her swift foot received the sudden wound. In vain (alas!) the wond’ring maid From the following danger fled; Death proud of his fair conquest grew, And all his cruel speed employed and hastened to pursue. “Now I these tributary sorrows shed To Love deserted and Dorinda dead.”  ALCON. Cursed be the deadly steel By whose much lamented pow’r In a black inauspicious hour My dear, unhappy Daphnis fell. ’Twas a sad morn, when he, the loved he, rose From my unwilling breast and his disturbed repose; Back to my arms the struggling youth I pulled, Told him how young the day, the air how cold, Asked him what was th’ unwonted cause102 That broke our close embrace so soon? He told me, I should hear of him ere noon, Fetched an ill-boding sigh and said — He must be gone. What was the cause (ah me!) too well I know, Too soon; for an ill dream was scarcely past And waking thoughts my sleeping fears increased, When every tongue and every eye spoke woe, And every maid and every shepherd said, Oh cruel fate! Oh, Daphnis dead! Cursed be that idol honour! Doubly cursed The wretch that with its nice exceptions first  100  ring   an open space for dancing. 101  decked   dressed. 102  unwonted   unusual, uncustomary. 21  Stained the free mirth of our infected plain, And taught destructive swords To be the judges (how unfit) of words! 103  For this ev’n me my Daphnis left, Of him and happiness bereft; For this the youth with early brave disdain Challenged, went forth, contended, and was slain. “For this sad I with hopeless grief bemoan My ill-starred friendship wronged, my Daphnis gone.”   LYCIDAS. Thy ill-starred friendship, swain, lament no more, I my deserted love deplore.   ALCON. Thy love! The dying flames of loose desire Look pale and tremble at my chaster fire!   LYCIDAS. Then let just Pan our cause’s merit try,104 Whilst mighty Love I sing —.      ALCON. Whilst mightier Friendship I.   LYCIDAS. I have a pipe on which I’ve often played To the lovely list’ning maid; None disliked my artless lays, 105  She’d find something out to praise. On this I’ll play. “Ye mighty pow’rs of Love Inspire my willing pipe, my happy choice approve.”   ALCON. I have a pipe on which my Daphnis played, Whilst ev’ry lovely list’ning maid Would leave her flocks to hear his artful lays, And ev’ry wond’ring youth his ev’ry strain would praise. To this I’ll sing — “Kind Friendship, bless my choice, Whilst to thy pow’rful harmony I tune my willing voice.   LYCIDAS. Tell me what kind power of old Enriched the world, and named the age from gold? 106  When ev’ry nymph and ev’ry swain Loved, and was beloved again. When falsehood and disdain were yet unknown, And innocence and love were one? Each amorous shepherd chose a willing maid Above the cares of honour, birth, or state, And in affection richly paid; The willing maid his plain address received, His unprotested love believed, 107   103  Cursed … words   Daphnis has been killed in a duel. 104  Pan   See ‘Pan,’ Glossary (print anthology). 105  artless lays   simple or natural songs. 106  named the age from gold   In the ancient world, human history was depicted in terms of a set of increasingly degenerate ages: gold, silver, iron. The age of gold was the age of original human and natural perfection. 22  And neither vowed, yet neither was deceived. Then new delight did each new hour employ, Love was their life, their life one lasting joy: “Assist, almighty Queen of Heav’n and Love, Inspire my willing pipe, my happy choice approve.”   ALCON. Tell me, ere all this beauteous world was framed, Or your fond age from glittering gold was named, 108  When heav’n and earth were one rude heap, And wild confusion filled the pregnant deep, What nobler cause, what kinder pow’r The melancholy mass did stir, And made the appeased embryos friends? 109  The appeased embryos never since Have to that friendly knot done violence; That knot nor chance nor force can e’er destroy,110 Their very being friendship is, their friendship one long joy. “Almighty Friendship, bless my noble choice, Whilst to thy pow’rful harmony I tune my willing voice.”   LYCIDAS.  Seest thou yon’ bird that in the cypress grove With busy flight from tree to tree And untaught melody Calls his dear mate, and says — “I am in love”? And, Alcon, see! from yonder bough His dear mate flies and answers — “I love too.” Their happy care through all the spring Is only how to love, and how to sing. Then look, grave moralist, and learn from these To imitate their flames, and to improve thy bliss. “Assist, almighty Queen of Heav’n and Love, Inspire my willing pipe, my happy choice approve.”   ALCON. Seest thou yon’ oak, which many a year has stood Gracefully firm, itself a wood? Why does it raise its lofty head, And all around diffuse a friendly shade? See, Lycidas, a circling ivy joins 111  Its mingled root, and round the glad trunk twines Its willing leaves. Wind, cold, and age they scorn Whilst one can still defend, and one adorn. Thus their embracing honours each extends, Both flourish, both are happy, both are friends. Hence thy gross joys, fond amorist, improve; 112   107  unprotested   in the sense that his love is not sealed by a public declaration or solemn assertion. 108  fond   foolish. 109  appeased embryos friends   i.e., made those original living beings friends. 110  nor … nor   neither … nor. 111  The oak and the ivy were emblems of friendship, as well as faithful marriage. 23  In Friendship’s purer flames refine thy drossy love.113 “Almighty Friendship, bless my noble choice, Whilst to thy pow’rful harmony I tune my willing voice.”   LYCIDAS. ’Twas Love, great Love that from his awful throne Charmed the am’rous Thunderer down;114 Love made the Horned Deity At fair Europa’s feet submissive lie;115 Love taught the feathered god to go To Leda and a happier heav’n below.116 Strange power! that rules the noblest souls And turns divinities to beasts and fowls! —   ALCON. To beasts indeed! who blindly place In lawless lust their sovereign happiness. ’Twas Friendship, nobler Friendship could inspire Leda’s famed sons with a much happier fire Than e’er inflamed their wanton sire. Friendship taught the generous pair A mixed divinity to share, And made them, that they might unite Their souls, divide their friendly light. 117  Then boast no more thy worthless passion when ’Tis love makes beasts of gods, but friendship gods of men. “Almighty Friendship, bless my noble choice, Whilst to thy pow’rful harmony I tune my willing voice.”   LYCIDAS. Oft have I heard, and I remember well, When under our tall poplar shade To me and to the dear dead maid Oft faithful loves old Aegon used to tell, 118  For faithful love what Priam’s son could do,119 (Priam’s son a shepherd too); How Venus he did worthily prefer Or to the Queen of Heav’n or to the Queen of War.120 Venus recompensed his voice, Venus blessed his noble choice;  112  Hence   henceforward, from this time on.   gross    coupled with the language of metallurgy here, probably meaning ‘material, earthly, non-spiritual in nature.’ See ‘drossy,’ n113.     fond amorist   foolish devotee of sexual love. 113  drossy   full of impurities (an image taken from metallurgy where the dross [impurity, waste products] in a metal would be separated out from its valuable component through heating). 114  ’Twas Love … down   Jove, king of gods (the Thunderer) often descended from Heaven to Earth in order to have sex with mortal women. See ‘Jove,’ Glossary (print anthology). 115  Love …. lie      Horned Deity   Jove.     For the myth, see ‘Europa,’ Glossary (print anthology). 116  Love … below   feathered god   Jove.     For the myth, see ‘Leda,’ Glossary (print anthology). 117  Leda’s famed sons ... light   See ‘Castor and Pollux,’ Glossary (print anthology). 118  Aegon   the name of a shepherd who appears in Virgil’s Eclogues (3.2; 5.72) and Theocritus’ Idylls (4.26ff). 119  Priam’s son   Paris, prince of Troy. For the following narrative about Paris’ judging of a ‘beauty contest’ between Juno (the Queen of Heaven), Minerva (the Queen of War), and Venus (the goddess of love), see ‘Paris,’ Glossary (print anthology). 120  Or … or   Either … or. 24  Though Heav’n and Greece his choice denied, Venus gave the beauteous bride. 121  For love’s happy violence she Despised the dangers of the sea, The dangers of the battle he. Oft have I heard how, when war’s rude alarms From chaste Penelope’s unwilling arms Her dear Ulysses forced, the widowed fair Sat pensive twice ten tedious year; In vain at Troy unhappy Hector strove To reach the faithful Hero’s guarded head;122 At Ithaca in vain with hated love His rivals strove to stain her spotless bed. Love preserved the happy pair, Eased his toils, and cured her fear. Whilst he abroad maintained, whilst she at home a war.  123  Aegon would oft the grateful tale renew, And to it add some happy pleasant truth That blessed the smiling vigour of his youth; Oft would he bid us these fair tracks pursue, And told us Love would bless us too. But oh! in moving words he would relate Eurydice’s untimely fate, For whom sad Orpheus left alone In sweet mournful strains did moan, And echoing Rhodope was heard to groan. For whom (blessed pow’r of Love!) his harmony Changed arbitrary Fate’s decree, Broke wond’ring death’s till then resistless chain, And to his longing bosom did the joyful nymph regain. Oh! that like him (for I like him have mourned) My dearer loss I might retrieve! Oh! that like her, the maid might be returned, And (for like her she died) like her again might live. 124  “But oh, in vain these fruitfuless tears I shed125 For Love deserted and Dorinda dead.”   121  the beauteous bride   Helen of Troy.  See ‘Paris’ and ‘Helen of Troy,’ Glossary (print anthology). 122  In vain … head   Unclear; Hector was a Trojan prince and the city’s chief warrior-hero; Hero was a priestess who loved the beautiful youth Leander; she committed suicide when he drowned in the Hellespont trying to swim to her dwelling place, Sestus. Neither seems to belong in this passage that concerns the relationship between the hero Ulysses (Odysseus) and his wife Penelope. However, Hector was well-known for his faithful love to his wife, Andromache; and Hero was also known for her tragically devoted love to Leander. It is Ulysses who returns finally from Troy to find his wife Penelope resisting a group of suitors (his rivals); it is Penelope’s spotless bed that the suitors seek to stain. 123  From chaste … war   For the story of the Greek hero Ulysses’ long journey to return home to Ithaca and to his constant, chaste wife, Penelope, see Homer’s Iliad. Penelope’s refusal to believe that Ulysses was dead and her steadfast refusal to marry one of her harassing suitors made her an emblem of female marital fidelity. 124  Eurydice’s ... live   See ‘Orpheus and Eurydice,’ Glossary (print anthology).     Rhodope   a mountain in Greece. 125  fruitfuless   most fruitful, most abundant. 25   ALCON. I too have heard (’twere impious to forget) When beneath yon’ spreading tree To Daphnis dearly known and me Of faithful friends wise Thyrsis would relate 126  How Sicily’s envying tyrant grieved to know That his delighted realm could boast of two Happier, happier far than he With all his pow’r and royalty. Two for faithful friendship famed, Damon (I think) and Pythias they were named: 127  And one in cruel fetters he confined, T’other disdained his useless liberty To set his loved companion free, He less afflicted that was left behind. This the wond’ring tyrant saw, And owned the juster pow’r of Friendship’s law;128 Their blessed acquaintance humbly he did woo, If haply of the strong-linked chain 129  The least kind portion might remain, Which to the pleasing yoke might join a monarch too.   Oft of the Grecian pair our priest would speak, Whose friendship Fate itself could hardly break: How when sad garlands crowned Orestes’ head And with cruel piety The destined victim to the shrine was led, His Pylades did all his skill employ With kind deceit to frame the gen’rous lie, And for his dearer self, himself to die. Both strove to fall, both happily in vain, The fatal conquest neither could obtain; The smiling goddess did to friendship give Its just reward, and bade them love and live. 130  With glad remembrance Thyrsis would commend The wondrous faith of some old friend, Whose strong surviving love still warmed his breast, Then bid us thus be friends, and thus we should be blessed. But oh! with strange concern the bard would tell How, when his loved Perithous fell,  126  Thyrsis   See Glossary (print anthology). 127  Damon … named   See ‘Damon and Pythias,’ Glossary (print anthology). 128  owned   acknowledged, admitted. 129  haply   by chance, perchance. 130  How when sad garlands ... love and live   For this ancient pair of male friends, see ‘Pylades and Orestes,’ Glossary (print anthology). In Euripides’ play Iphigeneia in Taurus, Orestes and Pylades attempt to carry off the statue of Artemis (Diana) in order to fulfil the terms of an oracle that says this statue must be taken to Athens to purify Orestes of the crime of murdering his mother Clytemnestra and her lover Aegisthus. Arriving in Tauris, the friends are arrested and condemned to be sacrificed to Artemis, the customary treatment for strangers in the land. The priestess Iphigenia offers to spare Orestes if he will bear a letter for her into Greece; Orestes finally convinces a reluctant Pylades to do so, but when Iphigenia discovers that Orestes is her brother, all three escape with the statue. When they are apprehended again, Athena, the goddess of wisdom, aids them and they all return to Greece. 26  To amazed Styx bold Theseus did descend, 131  And lost himself to find his friend. 132  How when the dear, the mournful captives lay To death’s unpitying king a hopeless prey, Both to redeem, the fair Alcmena’s son (Alcmena’s son did not disdain To feed his herds and love the plain) To the frighted shades went down; Both he redeemed, from both he did remove All bonds but those of grateful love. This noble act his less famed labours crowned, Made him for courage much, for friendship more renowned. 133  Oh! that like him, a meaner shepherd I Could make the unrelenting pow’r My dear lamented youth restore! Oh! that with me he lived, or I for him could die! Oh! that, like them, he might return, for he Was dearer far than both to me. “But oh! in vain with hopeless grief I moan My ill-starred friendship wronged, my Daphnis gone.”   LYCIDAS. Kind Friendship, swain, has blessed thy noble choice; Pan has inspired thy pipe, and tuned thy voice: Thy voice at least this conquest shall obtain, That since the matchless maid is slain I’ll never, never love again.   LYCON. Oh! Yield a little farther yet, And make my conquest and my joy complete; For, since my dearest Daphnis bled, Too justly I despair to find A youth so true, a friend so kind, Unless to Daphnis Lycidas succeed.   LYCIDAS. Though all unworthy I, And rude in friendship’s well-sung mystery, 134 Yet would Alcon deign to show The happy means, (for Alcon well does know) I fain would learn (methinks) and practice too.  135    131  amazed   able to cause terror or wonder. 132  How when ... friend   See ‘Pirithous and Theseus,’ Glossary (print anthology). Myths differ as to why Theseus descends into the Underworld; some say it was to bring his friend Pirithous back to the land of the living, others that the two descended together intending to steal away Proserpine, wife of Pluto, god of the Underworld. 133  How when the dear ...  renowned   Alcmena’s son   See ‘Hercules,’ Glossary (print anthology).     In one ancient version of his exploits, Hercules descends to the Underworld to rescue his friends Theseus and Pirithous, after they are imprisoned and tormented by Pluto for their attempt to kidnap his wife, Proserpine. See above, n132. 134  rude   ignorant. 135  fain   willingly, eagerly. 27   ALCON. Then may all strife in this blest union end, And kindness only here contend: So thou a mistress scarce hast lost —      LYCIDAS. — So thou hast found a friend. 1  SIR EDWARD COKE (1552-1634), LAWYER, LEGAL WRITER, AND POLITICIAN.   Edward Coke had a long and distinguished career as a lawyer, judge, member of Parliament and jurist. He became recorder of London and solicitor-general in 1592 and attorney-general in 1594. He acted for the Crown in a number of sensational, high-profile cases, including the trials for treason of Essex and Southampton (1600-01), Sir Francis Bacon, and the Gunpowder Plot conspirators (1605). He was appointed chief justice of the Common Pleas in 1606. Unfortunately, his political career stalled when he opposed James I’s attempts to limit the jurisdiction of the common law courts, and although he became chief justice of the King’s Bench and a member of James’ Privy Council in 1613, this continued conflict with the King and political jockeying with Bacon led to Coke’s dismissal in 1616. His popularity, however, was testified to by his return to the political scene as an MP in 1621. He is often seen as the champion of the rule of common law; his last and most significant act was the drafting of the Petition of Right (1628).  Between 1600 and 1615, Coke published his Reports, essentially learned commentaries on cases in common law, along with the multi-volume Institutes, the first volume of which was an enormously influential commentary on an earlier law book popularly known as ‘Littleton’s Tenures;’ the last three volumes comprise an important foundation for modern English law.   From THE THIRD PART OF THE INSTITUTES OF THE LAWS OF ENGLAND (1644)   CHAPTER 10: OF BUGGERY, OR SODOMY  If any person shall commit buggery with mankind, or beast, by authority of Parliament this offence is adjudged felony without benefit of clergy. 1  But it is to be known (that I may observe it once for all) that the statute of 25 Henry VIII was repealed by the statute of 1 Mar[y], whereby all offences made felony or praemunire 2  by any act of Parliament made since 1 Henry VIII were generally repealed, but 25 Henry VIII is revived by 5 Eliz[abeth].  Buggery is a detestable and abominable sin, amongst Christians not to be named, committed by carnal knowledge against the ordinance of the Creator and order of Nature, by mankind with mankind, or with brute beast, or by womankind with brute beast. 3   Bugeria is an Italian word, and signifies so much as is before described. 4  Paederastes or paiderestes is a Greek word, amator puerorum, 5  which is but a species of buggery, and it was complained of in Parliament that the Lombards had brought into the realm the shameful sin of sodomy, that is not to be named, as there it is said. 6  Our ancient authors do conclude that it  1  is judged […] clergy   Persons charged with this type of felony could not appeal to their ‘benefit of clergy,’ where literate persons could be exempted from the jurisdiction or sentence of the ordinary courts of law by reading a passage from Scripture aloud. 2  praemunire   a writ accusing a person of recognizing the power of the pope [instead of the monarch]; often a charge brought against those who attempted to have common law matters tried in the Church courts. 3  COKE’S MARGINAL NOTE: 5 Eliz. CH., 17 4  According to the OED, ‘buggery’ is derived from the French ‘bougre,’ which means literally a ‘heretic.’ 5  Latin, ‘lover of boys.’ 6  COKE’S MARGINAL NOTE: Rol. Parl. 56. E. 3. au. 58 [Editor’s note: Parliament’s 1376 petition to the King begged him to expel immigrant businessmen from Lombardy for usury and other more vaguely-defined vices: “Some among 2  deserveth death, ultimum supplicium, 7  though they differ in the manner of punishment. Britton sayeth that sodomites and miscreants shall be burnt, and so were the Sodomites by Almighty God. 8  Fleta sayeth, pecorantes et sodomitae in terra vivi confodiantur; 9  and therewith agreeth the Mirror, pur le grand abomination, 10  and in another place, he sayeth, Sodomie est crime de majesty, vers le roi celestre. 11  But (to say it once for all) the judgment in all cases of felony is that the person attainted 12  be hanged by the neck until he or she be dead. But in ancient times in that case, the man was hanged, and the woman was drowned, whereof we have seen examples in the reign of Richard I. 13  And this is the meaning of ancient franchises granted of Furca and Fossa, of the Gallows and the Pit, for the hanging upon the one, and drowning in the other, but Fossa is taken away and Furca remains. 14   Cum masculo non comniscearis coitu foemineo, quia abominatio est. Cum omni pecore non coibis, nec maculaberis cum eo: Mulier non succumbet, jumento, non miscebitur ei, quia scelus est, etc.  15   The Act of 25 Henry VIII hath adjudged it felony, 16  and therefore the judgment for felony doth now belong to this offence, viz., to be hanged by the neck till he be dead. He that readeth the preamble of this act shall find how necessary the reading of our ancient authors is: the statute  them [...] Have lately practiced in this land a very horrible vice which should not be named. By which the kingdom cannot fail shortly to be destroyed, if stiff punishment be not speedily ordained” (qtd. in J. Katz, Gay/Lesbian Almanac, New York, 1983, p. 36)]. 7  ultimum supplicium   Latin, the ‘utmost, ultimate, or final punishment.’ 8  COKE’S MARGINAL NOTES: Britton, ca. 9; Gen. 19.9; Rom. 1.7; F.N.B. 269a. [Editor’s Note: Britton, a legal compilation produced during the reign of Edward I (1239-1307), is essentially an abridgement of the work of Bracton, sometimes called the father of English law; in Gen 19.9, God slays the Sodomites in the famous story of Sodom and Gomorrah; for Genesis 19 [the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah], and Romans 1 [Paul’s comments on pagan sexual practices], see excerpts in the print anthology. I have not been able to identify F.N.B.] 9  COKE’S MARGINAL NOTE: Fleta, li. 1. ca. 35. [Editor’s note: Like Britton, Fleta refers to a legal compilation produced during the reign of Edward I; like Britton, Fleta relied heavily on Bracton.]     pecorantes et sodomitae in terra vivi confodiantur   Latin, ‘those who are guilty of bestiality and sodomy should be buried alive.’ 10  French, ‘for the great abomination.’ 11  French, ‘Sodomy is a crime against majesty (i.e., a crime defined as that of lese-majesty), against the King of Heaven.’      COKE’S MARGINAL NOTES: Mirror, ca. 4 § de Majesty, ca. 1 § 15, and cap. 2, and etc. 11 [Editor’s note: The Mirror of Justices (c. 1300?) condemns sodomy as a crime against the king (a “crime of laesa majestas”): “The crime of laesa majestas is a horrible sin committed against the king, and this may be the king of heaven or earth. Against the king of heaven in three ways: by heresy, apostasy [these include sorcery], and sodomy.” The text goes on to claim that ancient precedent dictated a more than usually expeditious journey to execution: “[…] those notoriously guilty should be judged without respite and the judgements executed.” For those so charged but not so obviously guilty, the text shows enormous anxiety about the possible gossip that would accompany their trials, since ancient precedent also dictated that in the latter cases “every tongue should hold its peace” (see The Mirror of Justices, ed. William Joseph Whittaker [London, 1895], pp. 15, 53).] 12  attainted   the process of condemning (a person convicted of treason or felony) to death, corruption of blood, and extinction of all civil rights and capacities; to subject a person to the legal process of attainder. 13  Richard I (1157-1199). 14  Furca and Fossa   simply, the Latin terms for ‘gallows’ and ‘ditch (or pit),’ respectively 15  COKE’S MARGINAL NOTES: Leviticus 18.22, 23; 1 Timothy 1.10. [Editor’s note: The Vulgate Latin translates as: “Thou shalt not lie with mankind as with womankind; it is an abomination. Neither shalt thou lie with any beast to defile thyself therewith; neither shall any woman stand before a beast to lie down thereto; it is confusion” (AV, Lev. 18.22-23)]. 16  felony   i.e., punishable by death. On felony, see ‘Sodomy Statutes,’ Online Companion, n5. 3  doth take away the benefit of clergy 17  from the delinquent. But now let us peruse the words of the said description of buggery.   Detestable and abominable.]   Those just attributes are found in the Act of 25 Henry VIII.   Amongst Christians not to be named.]   These words are in the usual indictment of this offence, and are in effect in the Parliament Roll of 50 E[dward] III, ubi supra. nu. 58.   By carnal knowledge, and etc.]: The words of the indictment be, contra ordinationem Creatoris, et naturae ordinem, rem habuit veneream, dictũ[m]que  puerum carnaliter*18 cognovit, etc. 19  and etc.  So as there must be penetratio, ‘penetration,’ that is, res in re,20 either with mankind or with beast, but the least penetration maketh it carnal knowledge. See the indictment of Stafford, which was drawn by great advice for committing buggery with a boy, for which he was attainted and hanged. 21   The Sodomites came to this abomination by four means: viz. by pride, excess of diet, idleness, and contempt of the poor. 22  Otiosus nihil cogitat, nisi de ventre et venere. 23  Both the agent and consentient 24  are felons: and this is consonant to the law of God: Qui dormierit cum masculo coitu foemineo, uterque operatus est nefas, et morte moriatur.  25  And this accordeth with the ancient rule of law: agentes et consentientes pari poena plecentur. 26   Emissio seminis 27  maketh it not buggery, but is an evidence in case of buggery of penetration; and so in rape the words be also carnaliter cognovit, 28  and therefore there must be penetration, and emissio seminis without penetration maketh no rape. Vide 29  in the Chapter of  17  benefit of clergy   See n1. 18  COKE’S MARGINAL NOTES: *This is grounded upon the Word of God. viz., Gen. 19.4, 5; Jg. 19.22. Ut cognoscamus eos. [Editor’s note: Latin, ‘in order that we may recognize them’]. 19  Latin, ‘against the ordinance of the Creator, and the order of nature, he had sexual relations with and carnally knew the before-mentioned boy.’ Veneris res (lit., the matters of Venus), often refers to sexual intercourse, while rem habere often refers specifically to intercourse with a prostitute (and is a term taken from Latin commerce: ‘to have dealings with’); the Biblical euphemism for sexual intercourse (‘had carnal knowledge of’) was also part of the classical Latin idiom. See J.N. Adams, The Latin Sexual Vocabulary (Baltimore, 1982), p. 203, 190. 20  Latin, ‘thing in thing.’ On res in the Latin sexual vocabulary, see n19. 21  COKE’S MARGINAL NOTES: Coke, lib. Intr. 352. Mich 5. Ja. Coram rege. [Editor’s note: See the account of Stafford’s trial, conviction, and execution for sodomy in the print anthology, and the preface to this account in the Online Companion]. 22  COKE’S MARGINAL NOTES: Ezek. 16.49; Gen. 18.29; Dt. 29.33; Is. 13.9; Jer. 23.14, 49.18, 50.4; Lk. 17.28-29; 2 Pet. 2.6; Jude 7; Rom. 1.26-27; Wis. 10.6-7. 23  Latin, ‘The idle man thinks of nothing except food and drink.’ 24  agent and consentient   i.e., the person who commits the crime and the person who fully consents to the crime. 25  COKE’S MARGINAL NOTES: Lev. 20.13; 1 Cor. 6.10. [Editor’s note: The quotation is from the Latin Vulgate, “If any man lie with a man as with a woman, both have committed an abomination: let them be put to death” (Lev. 20.13)]. 26  Latin, ‘those who perform an act and those who simply consent to said act are to be punished equally.’ 27  Latin, ‘emission of semen.’ 28  Latin, ‘he knew carnally’ [i.e., he sexual relations with another person or beast]. On cognovit and carnaliter in the Latin sexual vocabulary, see nn18-19. 29  Latin, ‘See.’ 4  Rape. 30  If the party buggered be within the age of discretion, 31  it is no felony in him, but in the agent only. When any offence is felony either by the common law or by statute, all accessories both before and after are incidently included. 32  So if any be present, abetting and aiding any to do the act, though the offence be personal, and to be done by one only, as to commit rape, not only he that doth the act is a principal; but also they that be present, abetting and aiding the misdoer, are principals also, which is a proof of the other case of sodomy.   Or by woman.]   This is within the purview of this Act of 25 Henry VIII. For the words be, if any person, and etc., which extend as well to a woman as to a man; and therefore, if she commit buggery with a beast, she is a person that commits buggery with a beast, to which end this word person was used. And the rather for that somewhat before the making of this Act, a great lady had committed buggery with a baboon, and conceived by it, etc.  There be four sins in Holy Scripture called clamantia peccata, ‘crying sins,’33 whereof this detestable sin is one, expressed in this distichon:   Sunt vox clamorum, vox sanguinis, et Sodomorum,  Vox oppressorum, merces detenta laborum 34   30  Chapter 11 following in Coke’s Third Part of the Institutes. 31  within the age of discretion   i.e., if the person buggered was under the age of fourteen (the age of legal responsibility), then that person was counted a victim of rather than a participant in the said sexual act. 32  accessory   someone who aids in the commission of a crime, either before or after the crime has taken place. 33  crying sins   so-called because these sins are thought to proclaim themselves no matter how hard the perpetrators attempt to keep them secret (silent); they ‘cry out’ to God for punishment. These sins were murder, sodomy, oppression of the weak and the stranger, and defrauding of the labourer and the poor. 34  Latin, ‘They are the voice of clamorous cries, the voice of blood, the voice of sodomy / The voice of the oppressed, [the voice ] of those who labour whose wages are withheld.’ I have not been able to trace this couplet, but it appears in a number of contemporary texts, since it neatly summarizes the ‘crying sins.’ 1  HELKIAH CROOKE (1576-1648), PHYSICIAN AND MEDICAL WRITER.   Having taken his MD from Cambridge, Helkiah Crooke, son of a Suffolk minister, practiced medicine initially in the country before arriving in London in 1610. Although a compassionate doctor, particularly sensitive to the sufferings of the mentally ill, he had a contentious relationship with his colleagues, and in 1611 they rejected his application to join their society, the College of Physicians. Two years after his successful appointment to the College, he published the ground-breaking Microcosmographia: A Description of the Body of Man (1615), a volume meant to function as an anthology of the most up-to-date anatomical and physiological information for the benefit of surgeons and their patients. Written in English and containing many illustrative plates, the work offered the largely uneducated surgeon as well as the general reader access to knowledge about the body hitherto largely restricted to the university-educated physician, accounting for the storm of controversy that the volume generated. Of greatest interest to the common reader and of greatest concern to physicians and moralists would have been the knowledge of sexual physiology, anatomy, and reproduction that the volume presents with unblushing clarity. The College of Physicians lobbied, albeit unsuccessfully, to have the book recalled and suppressed. Although Crooke did more than any other seventeenth-century English writer to further the general public’s knowledge about the body, and although he contributed significantly to hospital reform and to the improvement of medical education, he died finally in 1648 impoverished and largely forgotten. Crooke’s discussion of sex and sexuality in Microcosmographia is firmly embedded in Christian assumptions that sexual activity and its resultant pleasure could only occur legitimately and virtuously within marriage and for the sole purposes of insemination, conception, and reproduction. Thus, in Crooke’s view, and in the view of his professional contemporaries, all non-procreative sexual desires and acts (whether generally heterosexual, ‘homosexual’ or autoerotic) are sinful and disordered, human perversions against God and nature. Moreover, although Crooke questions the whole notion of genital homology (i.e., that woman’s reproductive organs are simply inverted versions of man’s), and although he asserts that women’s bodies are not (as Aristotle writes) a mistake of nature, he still believes that the man has the primary role in reproduction, with semen constituting the active principle and the womb and its ‘matter’ that which is passively acted upon. Crooke does, however, support the view that an individual is born with the predilection to be either more or less masculine, more or less feminine, implying that ‘masculine’ women are as natural as ‘feminine’ men, and that these predilections are biologically based, traceable (among other causes) to the balance of masculine and feminine seed in the womb.   EDITIONS: There is no modern edition of Crooke’s Microcosmographia, but the following works are very helpful for those seeking to explore Renaissance sexuality and medicine:  Borris, Kenneth. ‘Medicine.’ Same-Sex Desire in the English Renaissance: A Sourcebook of  Texts, 1470-1650. New York: Routledge, 2004. esp. 115-122. Kassell, Lauren. “Medical Understandings of the Body, c. 1500-1700.” The Routledge History of  Sex and the Body, 1500 to the Present. Ed. Sarah Toulahan and Kate Fisher. New York:  Routledge, 2013. 57-74. 2  Paster, Gail Kern. The Body Embarrassed: Drama and the Disciplines of Shame in Early  Modern England. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1993. Siraisi, Nancy G. Medieval and Early Renaissance Medicine: An Introduction to Knowledge and  Practice. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1990.    From MICROCOSMOGRAPHIA: A DESCRIPTION OF THE BODY OF MAN (1615) 1    BOOK 4: OF THE NATURAL PARTS BELONGING TO GENERATION, AS WELL IN MEN AS IN WOMEN   CHAPTER 1: OF THE NECESSITY OF THE PARTS OF GENERATION  […]  But if the body be animated and have life, beside[s] those already named it hath also other causes of dissolution bred with it, which no art, no industry of man can avoid, no not so much as repress: so all things which have any kind of life, especially living and moving creatures, are destined to corruption […] by nature and necessity. […]  Wherefore Nature, whom Hippocrates 2  calleth […] recta facientem,3 and the ordinary power of God, being a diligent and careful provider for herself, 4  hath given to everything a certain appetite of eternity, which because she could not perform in the individuam or particular creature, because of the mortality of their nature, she endeavoured to accomplish by propagation of forms and the species or kinds of things […]  [...] the generation of perfect creatures is accomplished when the male soweth his seed and the female receiveth and conceiveth it. For this purpose Nature hath framed in both sexes parts and places fit for generation, beside 5  an instinct of lust or desire, not inordinate―such as by sin is superinduced 6  in man―but natural, residing in the exquisite sense of the obscene parts.7 For were it not that the God of nature hath placed herein so incredible a sting or rage of pleasure, as whereby we are transported for a time, as it were, out of ourselves, what man is there almost who hath any sense of his own divine nature that would defile himself in such impurities? What  1  Microcosmographia   According to the preface of Book 4, the human body “is the epitome of the world, containing therein whatsoever is in the large universe,” and “seed (i.e., semen) is the epitome of the body, having in it the power and immediate possibility of all the parts.” It was a commonplace to describe the human body as a “little world” (the literal meaning of ‘microcosmographia’), and this figure can be found everywhere in Renaissance literature, from Thomas Browne’s meditations to John Donne’s poetry. 2  Hippocrates   the ancient Greek physician, author of many influential works that profoundly influenced classical, medieval and early modern medicine and physiology. 3  recta facientem   Latin, ‘one who acts rightly.’ 4  herself   i.e., Nature. 5  beside   concomitantly with. 6  superinduced   introduced or induced in addition [here, in addition to the desire produced by Nature]. 7  obscene parts   genitals. 3  woman would admit the embracements of a man, remembering her nine months’ burden, her painful and dangerous deliverance, 8  her care, disquiet and anxiety in the nursing and education of the infant? But all these things are forgotten, and we overtaken with an ecstasy, which Hippocrates calleth a little epilepsy or falling sickness, and the Holy Scripture veileth under the name of a senselessness in Lot, who neither perceived when his daughters lay down, nor when they rose up. […]9  […]  CHAPTER 9: OF THE PROPORTION OF THESE PARTS BOTH IN MEN AND WOMEN  It was the opinion of Galen in his fourteenth book De usu partium, 10  and the eleventh chapter, that women had all those parts belonging to generation which men have, although in these 11  they appear outward at the perineum or interfaeminium, 12  in those 13  they are for want of heat retained within. For seeing a woman is begotten of a man, and perfect also in mankind (for Nature’s imperfections are not so ordinary 14 ), it is reasonable that the substance, yea, and the shape of the parts in both sexes should be alike, as coming from one and the same set, as it were, of causes. 15  [...] Herein Nature hath excellently acquitted herself, that the abatement of natural heat, which in men is the only natural and necessary cause of their dissolution, should so admirably become in women the original of generation, whereby we should attain a kind of eternity even of our bodies against the destinated corruption of the matter, arising from an importunate discord of contraries. For so it pleased the Divine Wisdom to create for the eternal soul (the most excellent of all forms), if not an eternal habitation here, yet so absolute and admirable a structure as might so long be perpetuated below, till it come to be eternized above after an ineffable manner of recreation. 16  […]  8  deliverance   i.e., delivery of her child. 9  After Lot flees the destruction of Sodom, he retreats into the wilderness with his two daughters. Seeing that they will never be wed and will thus be unable to fulfill their duty of helping propagate their family line, they get their father drunk and each in turn has sex with him. Lot is said not to realize that it is his daughters with whom he is having intercourse (Gen. 19.30-38). 10  Latin, ‘On the Use (or Function) of the Parts.’ Claudius Galen was a Greco-Roman physician of the 2nd c. CE. His works were foundational for Renaissance medicine and anatomy, although his assertions came under increasing scrutiny throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 11  these   i.e., men. 12  perineum or interfaeminium   the region of the body between the anus and scrotum. 13  those   i.e., women. 14  ordinary   methodical, regular, orderly. 15  Crooke refers here to a conceptualization of human anatomy which has come to be called ‘genital homology’: women’s reproductive parts were identical to those of men, except that the male body’s natural heat caused these organs to be thrust forth from the body, while the female body’s lack of heat caused them to be retained within. Sometimes called the ‘one-sex model,’ this complex of ideas suggested that there was one basic physical form, but the degree of heat within a said body determined whether it would become male or female. For this reason, the female genitals are described in terminology that we would now reserve exclusively for the male: testicles, seed, etc. see Chapter 11, below. For the first full account of the one-sex body, see T. Laqueur, Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud (Cambridge, MA, 1990). 16  till it come  ... recreation   a reference to the Christian belief in the resurrection of the body, when the believer’s physical body would be transformed into a glorified and immutable thing (re-created). 4  So then, in the first conception or soon after, whether it be in man or woman the same members are generated, but the fruit proveth male or female because of the temper of the seed and the parts of generation, either by heat thrust out, or for want or weakness of the heat retained within. Wherefore a woman is so much less perfect than a man by how much her heat is less and weaker than his; yet, as I said, is this imperfection turned unto perfection, because without the woman, mankind could not have been perfected by the perfecter sex. The great Master Workman 17  therefore of set purpose made the one half of mankind imperfect for the instauration 18  of the whole kind, making the woman as a receptacle of the seed of which a new man was to be created.  […]  CHAPTER 11: OF THE TESTICLES 19   The testicles, which because of the inbred coldness of women are included within the lower venter 20  [...] that they might be kept warm and be made fruitful, do lie one on either side at the sides of the matrix 21  […] above the bottom in women without child, but in those that be, they are about the place where the haunch-bones are joined to the great or holy-bone, that are contained in loose membranes, arising from the peritoneum 22  which cover also the middle part of the testicles.  They differ from men’s testicles in situation, for they lie upon the muscles of the loins within the abdomen; in figure because they are not so thick or round, but before and behind broad and flatted […] Long they are […] sinuous or hollow […] they abound with a waterish humour23 like the thickest whey 24  […] They differ also in magnitude for they are much less in substance, because they are moister and softer […] Neither is their substance so compact, because they were to engender a more imperfect seed. In temperament they are colder, whence women’s seed is more moist, thin, and waterish. […] The seed of a man is the active principle of the body, that of women but the passive, or at least far less active than the other. But if the seed of both sexes had been thick, gluey and compact, they could not have been so perfectly mingled. […] The use of the testicles, 25  as say Columbus, 26  Archangelus, 27  Laurentius, 28  and Bauhin, 29   17  Master Workman   God. 18  instauration   restoration, renewal. 19  Testicles   Here, Crooke is dealing specifically with what early modern physicians and anatomists understood as the female testicles. 20  venter   here, the abdomen. 21  matrix   womb or uterus. 22  peritoneum   the membrane that lines the walls of the abdominal cavity, covering most of the abdominal viscera. 23  humour   one of the principal fluids in the early modern body. 24  whey   the watery part of milk left over in the making of cheese. 25  testicles   again, here Crooke is speaking specifically of the female testicles. The marginal comment here says “The use of a woman’s testicles.” 26  Realdo Columbo (Realdus Columbus) [d. 1559], Italian anatomist and physician, one of the first Europeans to describe pulmonary circulation. No relation to the famous explorer, Columbus claimed to have discovered the clitoris, a claim that Crooke dismisses below. Cf. Bartholin, ‘Bartholinus Anatomy,’ Online Companion, n2. 27  Archangelus   perhaps Archangelo Piccolomini (1526-1605), Italian anatomist, author of Anatomicae Praelectiones (Anatomical Lectures) [1586]. 28  Andreas Laurentius [Andre du Laurens] (1558-1609), French anatomist and physician, whose Historia Anatomica 5  is by their inbred power to make the seed fruitful. Fallopius 30  is not of this mind; Platerus 31  halteth betwixt both; but we know assuredly that those women whose testicles are ill-disposed are barren and unfruitful. For women as well as men do yield seed, 32  but cold, though Aristotle deny it in his first book De Gener[atione] Animal[ium] and the twentieth chapter, who would have that humour which is avoided 33  by the neck of the matrix 34  not to be a seminary or seedy humour, 35  but a proper humour of the place, 36  to wit, an excrement 37  of the womb, which also should be found in some but not in others, as especially brown or swart-coloured 38  and mannish women. But Hippocrates in his first book De Diaeta and in his book De Natura Pueri, 39  and Galen in his fourteenth book of The Use of Parts and the eleventh chapter, have taught that to perfect generation there is required a concurrence and mixture of the seeds of both sexes, and a place wherein the form of the parts being only in power present, the seed might be brought into act: such is the womb, of which we shall hear by and by. 40    CHAPTER 16: OF THE LAP OR PRIVITIES 41   […]  The nymphae 42―so called by Galen [...], of the Latins alae (the ‘wings’), of others ‘skinny caruncles’43―are two productions on either side.  [...] These being joined do make a fleshy eminence, and covering the clitoris with a foreskin ascend with a manifest rising line to the top of the great cleft. [...]  They are very like in colour and shape to that part of a cock’s comb which hangs under  (1600) details the controversies between the followers of Galen and those of Aristotle, the two main bodies of opinion that shaped Renaissance medical science. 29  Caspar Bauhin (1560-1624), Swiss physician and anatomist, author of On the Fabric of the Human Body (1590) and The Anatomical Theatre (1605). 30  Fallopius   Gabriele Falloppio (1523-1563), the Italian physician and anatomist after whom the fallopian tubes are named. 31  Platerus   perhaps, Thomas Platter (1574-1628), Swiss physician and traveler. His son Felix Platter published a medical treatise in 1625 with his father’s annotations and additions. 32  Before the advent of the ovum theory of conception, it was believed that both men and women produced semen (seed), and that both ejaculated this seed at the moment of sexual orgasm. Woman’s seed was generally believed to be thinner and colder than male seed. There was (as Crooke) indicates an active and on-going debate about what each partner contributed to conception. 33  avoided   i.e., voided, expelled. 34  neck of matrix   perhaps the cervix, but here, more likely, the vagina. 35  seminary or seedy humour   i.e., a liquid that possesses the power in inseminate. 36  proper humour of the place   i.e., a liquid appropriate to this internal organ, the womb or uterus. 37  excrement   waste product. 38  swart-coloured   dark, swarthy; black. 39  Latin, ‘On Diet’ and ‘On the Nature of Children’ (respectively). 40  by and by   very soon. 41  In this section, Crooke deals with the external and internal genitalia (the vulva, the clitoris, the vagina, etc.) 42  nymphae   here, the labia or lips of the vulva. 43  caruncles   small fleshy excrescences, another word for the labia. 6  his throat. Their substance is partly fleshy, partly membranous, soft and funguous, 44  and they are invested with a thin coat. Sometimes, they grow to so great a length on one side, more rarely on both, and not so ordinarily in maidens as in women, 45  [...] what through the affluence of humours, 46  what through attrectation, 47  that for the trouble and shame (being in many countries a notable argument 48  of petulancy and immodesty) they need the surgeon’s help to cut them off (although they bleed much and are hardly cicatrized 49 ), especially among the Egyptians, 50  amongst whom this accident 51  (as Galen sayeth) is very familiar. Wherefore in maidens before they grow too long they cut them off, and before they marry. 52  These nymphae, beside the great pleasure women have by them in coition, 53  do also defend the womb from outward injuries, being of the use to the orifice of the neck which the foreskin is to the yard […]  […]   ‘Clitoris’ in Greek [...] cometh of an obscene word signifying ‘contrectation,’54 but properly it is called the woman’s yard.55 It is a small production in the upper, forward [...] and middle fatty part of the share, 56  in the top of the greater cleft where the nymphs 57  do meet, and is answerable to the member of the man, 58  from which it differs in the length, the common passage, 59  and the want 60  of one pair of muscles; but agrees in situation, substance and composition. […]  […]   The head 61  is properly called tentigo 62  by Juvenal, which is covered with a fine skin made of the conjunction of the nymphae, as it were with a foreskin. It hath an entrance but no through  44  funguous   spongy. 45  in maidens as in women    i.e., in virgins as in sexually experienced women (wives). 46  affluence of humours   i.e., the movement of these liquids towards [this particular part of the body]. 47  attrectation   touching, feeling with the hands. 48  argument   proof, token, manifestation. 49  hardly cicatrized   i.e., with difficulty healed (by inducing a cicatrice or scar-tissue to form over a wound or incision). 50  MARGINAL NOTE: The Egyptian women lascivious. 51  accident   occurrence. 52  Crooke refers of course to aspects of female genital mutilation (female circumcision). 53  coition  i.e., coitus, sexual intercourse. 54  contrectation   handling, touching, fingering. This word and ‘attrectation’ occur largely, but not exclusively, in medical texts. 55  yard   penis. 56  share   the pubic region. 57  nymphs   See n42 (nymphae). 58  answerable to the member of the man   i.e., homologous to the male penis. 59  common passage   duct or channel in the body; thus, the channel and slit used for urination, which in men corresponds with the channel and slit through which ejaculate passes. 60  want   lack. 61  head   the nub of the clitoris. 62  tentigo   Latin, ‘clitoris’, but also apparently used by the ancients to describe the erect penis (J. N. Adams, The Latin Sexual Vocabulary, pp. 103-104). 7  passage; there are vessels also running along the back of it as in a man’s yard; and although for the most part it hath but a small production hidden under the nymphae and hard to be felt but with curiosity, 63  yet sometimes it groweth to such a length that it hangeth without the cleft like a man’s member, especially when it is fretted with the touch of the clothes, and so strutteth and groweth to a rigidity as doth the yard of a man. And this part it is which those wicked women do abuse called tribades (often mentioned by many authors, and in some states worthily punished) to their mutual and unnatural lusts.  64   The use of this part is the same with the bridle of the yard; 65  for because the testicles of the woman are far distant from the yard of the man, the imagination is carried to the spermatical vessels 66  by the motions and attrition 67  of this clitoris, together with the lower ligatures of the womb, whose original toucheth, cleaveth, and is tied to the leading vessel of the seed, and so the profusion of their seed is stirred up for generation, for which business it was not necessary it should be large: wherefore although by this passage their seed is not ejaculated, yet by the attrition of it their imagination is wrought to call that out that lieth sleepily hidden in the body; and hence it is called aestrum Veneris and dulcedo amoris; 68  for in it, with the ligaments inserted into it, is the especial seat of delight in their venereal embracements, 69  as Columbus imagineth he first discovered. 70   For Nature, who wisheth […] that if it might be, her work might be immortal, and falling from that hope because of the contrariety of the matter, hath given to all creatures both the instruments of conception, and hath also infused into them [a] strange and violent kind of delight, that none of the kinds of the creatures should perish but remain ever after a sort immortal. And truly it was very necessary that there should be a kind of pleasant force or violence in the nature of mankind to transport him out of himself or beside himself, as it were, in the act of generation;  63  curiosity   great care. 64  MARGINAL NOTE:  Tribades odiosae feminae. Leo Africanus, Caelius Aurelianus. [Editor’s note: The Latin translates as: ‘Those hateful women, the tribades.’ A ‘tribade’ is a woman who has sex with another woman. For these descriptions of tribades, see the selections from Africanus’ Geographical History of Africa (1526; trans. 1660) in the print anthology; see also Aurelianus’ translation of Soranos’ On Chronic Diseases, Book 4, chpt. 9 [not translated into English until the 20 th  c.]. 65  the bridle of the yard   i.e., the frenulum of the penis; a frenulum is a fold of tissue that helps govern the movements of parts of the body such as the tongue, the penis, the clitoris, and the labia. 66  spermatical vessels   i.e., the place where the seed (semen) is prepared for use; the nearest modern equivalent would be the ovaries. 67  attrition   friction, rubbing of one thing against another. 68  Latin, ‘the fire of Venus’ and ‘the sweetness of love.’ Crooke indicates (and he is perfectly correct) that the clitoris had long been known (i.e., since the time of the ancients) as the seat of the female orgasm. 69  their veneral embracements   i.e., women’s sexual encounters. 70  Crooke’s treatise lacks any discussion of male same-sex intercourse, and it even refuses to elaborate on male autoerotic practices like masturbation. In fact, Crooke discusses the anatomical structures of and physiological processes associated with the male genitals in entirely heterosexual terms. At the end of the discussion of “Of the Yard or Virile Member” (Book 4, chpt. 8) he briefly alludes to the way semen may be provoked by “lustful disports or imaginations,” (comparing in addition ‘involuntary’ ejaculation to vomiting!); and he finally acknowledges that his account will seem very sketchy to those who already have some information in this area: “but yet withal I hope I shall find pardon, because the reader may perceive (at least if he have any knowledge) that I have pretermitted [i.e., left out, omitted] many secrets of Nature, which I could and would here have somewhat insisted upon, if I had imagined that all into whose hands this work should come had been competent and fit auditors for such kind of philosophy.” 8  to which otherwise being master of himself he would hardly have been drawn; which ecstasy (for it is called a little epilepsy or falling sickness) is caused by the touch of the seed upon the nervous and quick sensed parts as it passeth by them.  […]  QUESTION 8: HOW THE PARTS OF GENERATION IN MEN AND WOMEN DO DIFFER  Concerning the parts of generation in women, it is a great and notable question whether they differ only in situation from those of men. For the ancients have thought that a woman might become a man, but not on the contrary side—a man become a woman. For they say that the parts of generation in women lie hid, because the strength of their natural heat is weaker than in men, in whom it thrusteth those parts outward. Women have spermatical vessels, as well preparing as leading vessels and testicles which boil the blood, and a kind of yard also, which they say is the neck of the womb if it be inverted. Finally, the bottom of the womb distinguished by the middle line is the very same with the cod or scrotum. This Galen often urgeth in divers of his works as before is said; so Aegineta, Avicenna, Rhazes, 71  and all of the Greek and Arabian families, with whom all anatomists do consent. For confirmation also hereof there are many stories current among ancient and modern writers of many women turned into men. [...] The hyena also, a cruel and subtle beast, doth every other year change her sex. Of whom Ovid in the XV [book] of his Metamorphosis sayeth: “The same hyena which we saw admit the male before, / To cover now her female mate, we can but wonder sore.”72 Pontanus hath the same of Iphis in an elegant verse: “Iphis her vow benempt73 a maid, / But turned boy her vow she paid.”74 Of later times, Volteran, a cardinal, 75  sayeth that in the time of Pope Alexander VI he saw at Rome a virgin who, on the day of her marriage, had suddenly a virile member grown out of her body. We read also that there was at Auscis in Vasconia a man of above sixty years of age, grey, strong and hairy, who had been before a woman till the age of fifteen years, or till within fifteen years of threescore, 76  yet at length by accident of a fall, the ligaments (sayeth my author) being broken, her privities came outward and she changed her sex, before which change she had never had her courses. 77   71  Aegineta   Paul of Aegina (fl. 640 CE), a Greek, a Galenist, and the author of many medical treatises, of which only his encyclopaedic Seven Books of Medicine survives.     Avicenna   Ibn Sina (d. 1037 CE), influential Persian physician and philosopher, who combined Aristotelian and Galenic ideas in his Canon of Medicine    Rhazes   Razi (d. 925 CE), born in Persia, and arguably the greatest of the ancient Arab-Islamic physicians, he wrote over 200 books; his medical text translated as Liber medicinalis ad almansorem was enormously influential in the West. 72  See Ovid, Metamorphoses, Book 15. This idea about the hyena was quite common, and can also be found in Pliny’s Natural History.     sore   extremely. 73  benempt   i.e., benamed: solemnly declared. 74  Probably Jovianus Pontanus (Giovanni Gioviano Pontano [1426-1503]), Italian poet and humanist. Iphis’ story was retold by Pontanus from its original rendition in Ovid’s Metamorphoses, Book 9. Iphis, a girl, is disguised as a boy at birth by her mother, since Iphis’s father has threatened to kill the newborn unless it is a boy.  The deception is successful until the day of Iphis’s arranged marriage; the mother prays to the goddess Telethusa (Isis) and Iphis is transformed into a man, marries his beloved and lives happily with her. 75  Volteran   Raffaelo Volterranus (Maffei) [1451-1522], Italian historian and humanist. 76  threescore   60. 77  courses   menstrual cycle. 9  Pontanus witnesseth that a fisherman’s wench78 of Caieta of fourteen years old became suddenly a young springal. 79  The same happened to Emilia the wife of Antony Spensa, a citizen of Ebula, when she had been twelve years a married woman.  In the time of Ferdinand, the first king of Naples, Carlotta and Francisca, the daughters of Ludovic Quarna of Salernum, when they were fifteen years old changed their sex. Amatus Lusitanus 80  testifieth in his Centuries that he saw the same at Conibrica, a famous town of Portugal. There standeth upon record in the eighth section of the sixth book of Hippocrates his Epidemics, an elegant history of one Phaetusa, who when her husband was banished was so overgrown with sorrow that before her time her courses utterly stopped 81  and her body became manlike and hairy all over, and she had a beard and her voice grew stronger. The same also he recordeth to have happened to Namisia, the wife of Gorgippus in Thaso. Wherefore say they, if a woman may become a man and her parts of generation which before lay hid within may come forth and hang as men’s do, then do women differ from men only in the site or position of their parts of generation. Notwithstanding all this, against this opinion there are two mighty arguments: one is taken from [experience] in dissection, another from reason, which two are the philosophers’ bloodhounds, by which they tracked the causes of things.  For first of all (sayeth Laurentius) these parts in men and women differ in number. The small bladders which first Herophilus 82  found, and called varicosos adstites, that is, the parastatae, 83  women have not at all; nor the prostatae 84  which are placed at the root of the yard and neck of the bladder, in which seed is treasured up for the necessary uses of nature; although there be some that think that women have them but so small that they are insensible, 85  which is (sayeth he) to beg the question.  Again, methinks it is very absurd to say that the neck of the womb 86  inverted is like the member of a man; for the neck of the womb hath but one cavity, and that is long and large like a sheath to receive the virile member: but the member or yard of a man consisteth of two hollow nerves, a common passage for seed and urine, and four muscles. Neither is the cavity of a man’s yard so large and ample as that of the neck of the womb. Add to this, that the neck of the bladder in women doth not equal in length the neck of the womb, but in men it equaleth the whole length of the member or yard. Howsoever, therefore, the neck of the womb shall be inverted, yet will it never make the virile member: for three hollow bodies cannot be made of one, but the yard consisteth of three hollow bodies [...] as we have before sufficiently showed.  78  wench   a girl, usually of the rustic or working classes. 79  springal   young man, youth. 80  Amatus Lusitanus (Juan Rodrigues de Castelo Branco, 1511-1568), Portuguese-Jewish physician, with acknowledged expertise in gynaecology and obstetrics. His Centuries (Curationium Centuriae Septem [1556]) is a 7 volume collection of his case studies and treatments. 81  before her time her courses utterly stopped   i.e., before the expected time of menopause, she stopped menstruating. 82  Herophilus of Chalcedon (c. 330-260 BCE), the Greek physician, and the first to be credited with moving from animal to human dissection. 83  parastatae   the parastata or epididymis, through which sperm passes in ejaculation. 84  prostratae   i.e., the prostate. 85  insensible   i.e., not able to be detected by the senses. 86  neck of the womb   the vagina. 10   If any man instance in the tentigo 87  of the ancients, or Fallopius his clitoris, bearing the shape of a man’s yard, as which hath two ligaments and four muscles, yet see how these two differ. The clitoris is a small body, not continuated at all with the bladder, but placed in the height of the lap. The clitoris hath no passage for the emission of seed; but the virile member is long and hath a passage in the middest by which it poureth seed into the neck of the womb.  Neither is there (sayeth Laurentius) any similitude between the bottom of the womb inverted and the scrotum or cod of a man: For the cod is a rugous 88  and thin skin, the bottom of the womb is a very thick and tight membrane, all fleshy within and woven with manifold fibres.  Finally, the insertion of the spermatic vessels, the different figure of the man’s and woman’s testicles, their magnitude, substance, and structure or composition do strongly gainsay this opinion.  But what shall we say to those so many stories of women changed into men? Truly, I think sayeth he, 89  all of them monstrous and some not credible. But if such a thing shall happen, it may well be answered that such parties were hermaphrodites: that is, had the parts of both sexes, which because of the weakness of their heat in their nonage 90  lay hid, but broke out afterward as their heat grew unto strength. Or we may safely say that there are some women so hot by nature that their clitoris hangeth forth in the fashion of a man’s member, which because it may be distended and again grow loose and flaccid, may deceive ignorant people. Again midwives may oft be deceived because of the faulty conformation of those parts, for sometimes the member and testicles are so small and sink so deep into the body that they cannot easily be discerned.  Pinaeus 91  writeth that at Paris, in the year 1577, in the street of St. Denis, a woman travailed 92  and brought forth a son, which because of the weakness of the infant was suddenly baptized for a daughter and was called Joanna. A few days after, in dressing the infant, the mother perceived it to be a man-child and so did the standers-by and they named it John.  As for the authority of Hippocrates, it followeth not that all those women whose voices turn strong or have beards and grow hairy do presently also change their parts of generation. Neither doth Hippocrates say so, but plainly the contrary, for he addeth, “When we had tried all means we could not bring down her courses, but she perished:” Wherefore her parts of generation remained those of a woman, although her body grew mannish and hairy.  […]  BOOK 5: WHEREIN THE HISTORY OF THE INFANT IS ACCURATELY DESCRIBED  […]   87  tentigo   See n62. 88  rugous   rugose: wrinkled, ridged. 89  I think sayeth he   i.e., ‘I believe he (Laurentius) argues that’ OR ‘he (Laurentius) says, and I think so too.’ 90  nonage   childhood or youth. 91  Pinaeus   Severin Pineau, 16 th  century French physician and anatomist; an expert in the areas of gynaecology and obstetrics, he also wrote a widely circulated treatise on the physical signs of virginity. 92  travailed   went into labour. 11  A DILUCIDATION 93  OR EXPOSITION OF THE CONTROVERSIES CONCERNING THE HISTORY OF THE INFANT  QUESTION 1: OF THE DIFFERENCE OF THE SEXES  Aristotle in his books of the history and generation of creatures 94  doth often inculcate 95  that the difference of sexes is most necessary unto perfect generation. [...] The male is originally the hotter, and therefore the first principle of the work, and besides affordeth the greatest part of the formative power or faculty. The female is the colder, and affordeth the place wherein the seed is conceived, and the matter whereby the conception is nourished and sustained, which matter is the crude and raw remainders of her own aliment. 96   […]  This difference of the sexes do[es] not make the essential 97  distinctions of the creature. The reasons are: First (because as Aristotle sayeth […]98) in all creatures there is not this distinction or diversity of sexes. Secondly, because essential differences do make a distinction of kinds: now we know that the male and the female a[re] both of one kind, and only differ in certain accidents. 99  But what these accidental differences are is not agreed upon as yet.  The Peripatetics 100  think that Nature ever intendeth the generation of a male, and that the female is procreated by accident out of a weaker seed which is not able to attain the perfection of the male. Wherefore Aristotle thinketh that the woman or female is nothing else but an error or aberration of Nature […]; yea, he proceedeth further and sayeth that the female is a by-work or prevarication, yea, the first monster in Nature.  Galen […], following Aristotle something too near, writeth that the formative power which is in the seed of man being but one doth always intend the generation of one, that is, the male; but if she err from her scope and cannot generate a male, then bringeth she forth the female, which is the first and most simple imperfection of a male, which therefore he calleth a creature lame, occasional and accessory, as if she were not of the main, but made by the by. 101  Now herein he putteth the difference betwixt her and the male, that in males the parts of generation are without the body, in females they lie within because of the weakness of the heat, which is not able to thrust them forth. And therefore he sayeth that the neck of the womb is nothing else but the virile member 102  turned inward, and the bottom of the womb nothing but the  93  dilucidation   elucidation, explanation. 94  i.e., in his treatises De Generatione Animalium and De Historia Animalium. 95  inculcate   teach insistently and repeatedly. 96  aliment   food, nutrition. 97  essential   intrinsic, inherent. 98  See his De Generatione Animalium, 2.4 and De Historia Animalium, 4.17. 99  accidents  unessential properties or qualities. 100  Peripatetics   another word for those who follow Aristotle’s philosophy. 101  not of the main … by and by   i.e., not of the central part of the business,  but made casually, incidentally, or in passing. 102  virile member   penis. 12  scrotum or cod inverted. 103   But this opinion of Galen and Aristotle we cannot approve, for we think that Nature as well intendeth the generation of a female as of a male, and therefore it is unworthily said that she is an error or monster in nature. For the perfection of all natural things is to be esteemed and measured by the end: now it was necessary that woman should be so formed or else Nature must have missed of her scope, because she intended a perfect generation, which without a woman cannot be accomplished.  Those things which Galen urgeth concerning the similitude, or parts of generation differing only in site and position, many men do esteem very absurd. 104  Sure we are that they savour little of the truth of anatomy, as we have already proved in the book going before [...]. Wherefore we must not think that the female is an imperfect male differing only in the position of the genitals. Neither yet must we think that the sexes do differ in essential form and perfection, but in the structure and temperament of the parts of generation.  The woman hath a womb ordained by Nature as a field or seed-plot to receive, conceive and cherish the seed; the temper of her whole body is colder than that of a man, because she was to suggest and minister matter for the nourishment of the infant. And this way Aristotle […] seemeth to incline, where he sayeth that the male and the female do differ as well in respect 105  as in sense: in respect, because the manner of their generation is diverse, for the female generateth in herself, the male not in himself but in the female; in sense, because the parts appear other and otherwise in the sexes. The parts of the female are the womb and the rest which by a general name are called matrices; 106  the parts of a man are the virile member and the testicles. 107   […]  QUESTION 20: WHENCE IT COMETH THAT CHILDREN ARE LIKE THEIR PARENTS  […]  The similitude of the sex (that is, why a male or female is generated) hath for cause the temper of the seed, his mixture and victory, for if the seed of both parents be very hot, males are generated, if very cold females. If in the permixtion 108  of the seeds the male seed have the upper hand, a male is procreated, if the female seed a female. This first of all Hippocrates taught 109  […] where he acknowledgeth in either sex a double seed, the one masculine, hotter and stronger, the other feminine, that is colder, out of the divers permixtion of which both males and females are generated. He therefore thus distinguisheth a threefold generation of males and females. If both the parents yield a masculine seed they breed male children of a noble and generous disposition,  103  See Galen’s De Usu Partium (‘On the Use of the Parts’), 14.6-7. 104  many men do esteem very absurd   For the rejection of genital homology in early modern Europe, see I. Maclean. The Renaissance Notion of Woman (Cambridge, 1980), pp. 28-33. 105  in respect   i.e., in their relative property or quality. 106  matrices   Latin, plural of ‘matrix,’ the female parts of generation; specifically, the womb or uterus 107  See Aristotle’s De Generatione Animalium, 1.2. 108  permixtion   a thorough mixture or mingling; intermingling. 109  See his De Diaeta, Book 1. 13  [...] nobly minded and strong of body. If from the man there issue masculine seed, from the woman feminine, and the masculine prevail, a male will be generated but less generous and strong than the former. If from the woman there issue masculine seed, from the man feminine, and the masculine overcome, a male will be generated, but womanish, soft, base, 110  and effeminate.   The very like may be said of the generation of females: for if from both the parents do issue feminine seed a female will be procreated most weak and womanish. […] If from the woman proceed a feminine seed and from the man a masculine, and yet the feminine overcome, women are begotten bold and moderate. If from the man proceed feminine seed and from the woman masculine, and the woman’s seed prevail, women are begotten [...] fierce and mannish. The temper therefore of the seed and the victory in the permixtion are the causes of the similitude of the sex, that is of males and females; which causes are also not a little assisted by the temper of the womb and the condition of the place, for, as I have often said, male children are born in the right side, females in the left. […]  110  base  ignoble, incapable of lofty thought or action. 1  DIOGENES LAERTIUS (c. 200-250 CE), Greek writer and author of the ten-book collection of brief biographies, The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers.  EDITIONS: Diogenes Laertius. Lives of Eminent Philosophers. Ed. R.D. Hicks. The Perseus Digital  Library. Editor-in-chief. Gregory R. Crane. Tufts University.  <http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/>    THE LIVES OF THE PHILOSOPHERS (1696) 1   […]  THE LIFE OF BION 2   […]  He has left to posterity several remarkable tracts, and an infinite number of sentences 3  very grave and profitable, as for example: He was upbraided by a certain person, that ‘he had not detained a certain young man to his house.’ To whom returning this answer: “’Tis not an easy thing,” said he, “to hang a green cheese upon a hook.” Another time he was asked ‘who were least troubled by care?’ “They,” said he, “that give themselves the least trouble to spend the day in quiet.” He was also asked ‘whether it were good to marry a wife?’ (for this repartee is also ascribed to him): “If thou marriest a deformed woman,” said he, “thou wilt always be in discontent; and if thou marriest a beautiful woman, she will be common.”4 He called old age the haven of all diseases (for that all our miseries and sufferings seem to be unladen and put there ashore); that honour was the mother of years, beauty a good passenger, and riches the sinews of business. To one that had spent his estate in lands, “The earth,” said he, “formerly swallowed Amphiarus, 5  but thou has devoured the earth.” He was wont to say, ‘’twas a great evil not to be able to suffer 6  evil.’ He reprehended those that buried the bodies of the dead, as if there remained no feeling after death. He was used to say, that ‘’twas better to pleasure others with his beauty than to seek the satisfaction of his own lust, for that he who did otherwise wasted both his body and his understanding.’ He argued against Socrates in this manner: ‘either, he might make use7 of Alcibiades or he might not; if he could and would not, he was a fool; if he had a mind to and could not, ’twas no virtue in him.’ He said that  1  The complete title of the following translation is The Lives, Opinions, and Remarkable Sayings of the Most Famous Ancient Philosophers. Written in Greek by Diogenes Laertius; Made English by Several Hands. Following the prefatory material, the translators are identified. 2  From Book IV, pp. 304-305. Book IV was translated by J. Philips, Gent[leman]. This is perhaps the poet and classicist John Philips (1676-1709).     Bion   Bion of Borysthenes (c. 325-c. 255 BCE), Greek philosopher who espoused the Cynic position that social conventions, riches, and status were valueless, and that physical modesty in sexual matters was senseless; he believed that the greatest happiness involved being most adaptable to circumstances. 3  sentences   wise sayings. 4  common   sexually licentious. 5  Amphiarus   one of Jason’s group of heroes, known as the Argonauts, Amphiarus was swallowed up by the earth, along with his war chariot, as he was retreating from battle. 6  suffer   endure. 7  make use   i.e., in a sexual sense. Alcibiades (c. 450-404 BCE), Athenian general and statesman, was a pupil of Socrates. Plato’s Symposium (216c-223d) recounts Socrates’ relationship with Alcibiades, including Socrates refusal to engage in a sexual relationship with his enamored pupil. 2  ‘certainly the way to hell was easy to find, because all men went thither blindfold.’ He blamed Alcibiades, saying that ‘in his youth he had debauched men from their wives, but when he came to be a man, he debauched women from their husbands.’  […]   From THE LIFE OF ZENO 8   […]  In his diet he was very sparing, a short pittance of bread and honey, and a small draught of sweet wine satisfying his hunger. He rarely made use of boys; and once he took to his bed an ordinary maid-servant that he might not be thought to hate the sex. He lived in the house of Persaeus, who, thinking to please him, one time among the rest, brought him home a young minstrel; but so little did he regard his friend’s kindness that after he had stripped her, he delivered her back to the embraces of Persaeus.  […]  Being wantonly affected towards Chremonides, when the lad and Cleanthes 9  sat down, he 10  rose up. At which Cleanthes (admiring), “I have heard,” said he, “the most skilful physicians say that the best cure for a swelling 11  is rest.”  Two persons at a banquet, lying upon the same couch, and Zeno observing, that he who lay uppermost, and next to himself, bobbed the lowermost in the tail 12  with his foot, he fell a-butting the bum of the next to him with his knee. Upon which the uppermost turning about: “What’s the matter?” said he. “Dost think thy neighbour felt any pleasure?”  To a great lover of boys: “I fear me,” said he, “those masters will never have much wit that are always conversing with children.”  […]  They 13  allow a wise man to be in love with lads that carry in their more beautiful aspects the marks of ingenuity and a propensity to virtue; as Zeno in his Commonwealth, 14  and Chrysippus in his Lives, 15  and Apollodorus in his Ethics 16  declare. “For love,” say they, “is an endeavour to gain friendship for the sake of appearing beauty; nor is it for the sake of coition, but of friendship.”  8  From Book VII, pp. 462-465. Book VII was translated by an individual identified only as R.M., Gent.    Zeno Zeno of Citium (c. 333-262 BCE), Greek philosopher of the Stoic school, who believed that virtue was the only real good, and moral weakness the only real evil. 9  Cleanthes   Stoic philosopher, and successor to Zeno. 10  he   i.e., Zeno. 11  swelling   i.e., referring to Zeno’s obvious erection. 12  tail   bottom. 13  They   Chrysippus and Possidonius. Diogenes is in the midst of discussing their opinions concerning the virtuous life. 14  Zeno   See n8. His Commonwealth or Republic is lost. 15  Chrysippus (c. 280-207 BCE), Stoic philosopher, student of Cleanthes and Zeno; his Lives is lost. 16  Apollodorus of Seleucia (fl. 150 BCE), Stoic Philosopher and student of Diogenes; his Ethics is lost. 1  MICHAEL DRAYTON (1563-1631), POET.   For a brief biography of Drayton and selections from his David and Goliath, see the print anthology, pp. 336-40. For Christopher Marlowe’s drama Edward II (1594), based on the same historical figures, see the print anthology, pp. 297-311.   EDITIONS: Drayton, Michael. Peirs Gaveston Earle of Cornwall. His Life, Death, and Fortune. The Works  of Michael Drayton. 5 vols. Oxford: Blackwell, 1931. 1.157-207.    From PIERS GAVESTON, EARL OF CORNWALL: HIS LIFE, DEATH, AND FORTUNE (1593) 1    TO THE WORTHY AND HONOURABLE GENTLEMAN, MASTER HENRY CAUNDISH, ESQUIRE. 2   Time-ennobled gentleman, and ever-honoured Master Caundish, highly esteeming you (in mine own opinion) amongst the number of those who for their rare deserts and excellency of their minds (in this world-declining age) have their names registered in the catalogue of the most worthiest of this time, as a kind Maecenas 3  to scholars, and a favourer of learning and arts―which shall engrave your name with the diamond of fame in the crystal mirror of heaven―I present to your judicial view, the tragical discourse, of the life, death, and fortune of PIERS GAVESTON, whose name hath been obscured so many years, and over-passed by the tragedians of these latter times; assuring myself your honourable patronage shall protect him against the art-hating humourists 4  of this malicious time, whose envious thoughts (like quails) feed only on poison, 5  snarling (like dogs) at everything which never so little disagreeth from their own stoical dispositions. Thus confirming myself in your favourable and gracious acceptance of my Muse, which in my love I ever consecrate to your honourable house, I wish you that happiness which is due to your own worth and good desert.             Your ever affectionate,          MICHAEL DRAYTON.    1  The 1 st  edition (date from Stationer’s Register). The title page contains the Latin epigram, Effugiunt avidos carmina sola rogos (“Only his songs survive the voracious flames,” Ovid, ‘Elegy IX: On the Death of Tibullus’). The first edition consists of 290 stanzas; Drayton revised the second published edition of 1596, making many small changes and expanding the length to a total of 309 stanzas. Some of these changes are listed in the footnotes, below. Piers Gaveston  (d. 1312), earl of Cornwall (granted, 1307) and royal favourite; son of a knight, Gaveston was by birth a gentleman, and (initially, at least) a valued member of the households of both Edward I and his son Prince Edward (1284-1327), later Edward II (reigned, 1307-27). 2  Master Henry Caundish, Esquire   Probably the eldest son of William Cavendish, first earl of Devonshire (1551- 1626). 3  Maecenas   i.e., a superlatively supportive patron (after Virgil’s exemplary patron, Maecenas). 4  humourists   those subject to whims or influenced by fads. 5  (like quails) … poison   Pliny’s Natural History (trans. P Holland, 1603) is the source for this common folk belief that quails feed on poisonous seeds and thus are not wholesome meat (10.33). 2    [In the tradition of A Mirror for Magistrates, Piers Gaveston is a de casibus tragedy, an account of the rise and fall of a great man or woman, ruined by the instability of fortune and often by his or her own failings, sins, or crimes. The poem is framed as a first-person account, spoken by Gaveston’s ghost, summoned from beyond the grave to testify to the circumstances of his own life and death, in particular his intimate relationship with Edward II, son of Edward I (sometimes called Edward Longshanks).]  […]  8 When famous Edward wore the English crown 6  Victorious Longshanks, flower of chivalry, First of his name that reigned in Albion, 7  Through worlds renowned to all posterity:    My youth began, and then began my bliss,    Even in his days, those blessed days of his.  9 O days, no days, but little worlds of mirth, O years, no years, time sliding with a trice, 8  O world, no world, a very heaven on earth, O earth, no earth, a very paradise:    A king, a man, nay more than this was he,    If earthly man more than a man might be.  10 Such a one he was, as England’s Beta is,9 Such as she is, even such a one was he, Betwixt her rarest excellence and his Was never yet so near a sympathy.    To tell your worth, and to give him his due,    I say, my Sovereign, he was like to you.  11 His court a school, where arts were daily read, And yet a camp where arms were exercised. 10  Virtue and learning here were nourishèd, And stratagems by soldiers still devised:  6  Edward   i.e., here, Edward I (reigned, 1272-1307). 7  Albion   England. 8  with a trice   speedily. 9  England’s Beta   Elizabeth I. 10  camp   an army camp. 3     Here skilful schoolmen were his counsellors,    Scholars his captains, captains senators.  12 Here sprang the root of true gentility, Virtue was clad in gold and crowned with honour, Honour entitled to nobility, Admired so of all that looked on her.    Wisdom, not wealth, possessed wise men’s rooms,    Unfitting base, insinuating grooms. 11   13 Then Machi’vels were loathed as filthy toads,12 And good men as rare pearls were richly prized. The learned were accounted little gods, The vilest atheist as the plague despised. 13     Desert then gained that virtue’s merit craves,14    And artless peasants scorned as basest slaves.  14 Pride was not then which all things overwhelms; Promotion was not purchasèd with gold. Men hewed their honour out of steelèd helms; In those days fame with blood was bought and sold.    No petti-fogger polled the poor for pence, 15     These dolts, these dogs, as traitors banished hence.  15 Then was the soldier prodigal of blood, 16  His deeds eternized by the poet’s pen. Who would not die to do his country good, 17  When after death his fame yet lived to men? 18     Then learning lived with liberality,    And men were crowned with immortality.    11  grooms   lowly servants. 12  Then Machi’vels were loathed   1596: ‘Then were vile worldlings loathed.’     Machi’vels   i.e., Machiavels, followers of the pragmatic political philosophy of Niccolo Machiavelli, popularly represented in England as a vicious, atheistic, and entirely self-interested set of tenets for personal advancement. 13  vilest   1596: hateful 14  that   i.e., that which. 15  No … pence    i.e., no corrupt lawyer or official was allowed to plunder the poor. 16  prodigal of blood    i.e., he spent his blood just as a prodigal son spends money: freely and lavishly. 17  Who would not die   1596: Who spared his life 18  yet lived to   1596: remained with 4  16 Grant pardon then unto my wand’ring ghost, Although I seem lascivious in my praise, 19  And of perfection though I seem to boast, 20  Whilst here on earth I trode this weary maze,     Whilst yet my soul in body did abide,     And whilst my flesh was pampered here in pride.  17 My valiant father was in Gascoigne born, 21  A man at arms, and matchless with his lance, A soldier vowed, and to King Edward sworn, With whom he served in all his wars in France,    His goods and lands he pawned and laid to gage 22     To follow him, the wonder of that age.  18 And thus himself he from his home exiled, Who with his sword sought to advance his fame, With me his joy, but then a little child, Unto the court of famous England came,    Whereas the King, for service he had done,    Made me a page unto the Prince his son. 23   19 My tender youth yet scarce crept from the shell, Unto the world brought such a wonderment, That all perfection seemed in me to dwell, And that the Heavens me all their graces lent.    Some swore I was the quintessence of Nature,    And some an angel, and no earthly creature.  20 The Heavens had limned my face with such a dye 24  As made the curios’t eye on earth amazed,25 Temp’ring my looks with love and majesty, A miracle to all that ever gazed,  19  lascivious   the context suggests ‘excessive, lavish, or unrestrained,’ but the OED contains no usage of this kind for this word (usually it means ‘inclined to lust, lewd, or wanton’). 20  seem to   1596: vainly 21  Gascoigne   i.e., Gascogny in France. 22  laid to gage   a synonym for ‘pawn’: deposit as security. 23  page   a young male servant (usually a boy or youth), who acted as a personal attendant. 24  limned   painted, illuminated. 25  curios’t   most exacting, most carefully observant.     curios’t   1596: each curious 5     So that it seemed some pow’r had in my birth,    Ordainèd me his image here on earth. 26   21 O beauteous varnish of the heavens above, Pure grain-dyed colour of a perfect birth, O fairest tincture, adamant of love, 27  Angel-hued blush, the prospective of mirth,    O sparkling lustre, joying humane sight,    Life’s joy, heart’s fire, love’s nurse, the soul’s delight!  22 As purple-tressèd Titan with his beams, 28  The sable clouds of night in sunder cleaveth, Enamelling the earth with golden streams, When he his crimson canopy upheaveth,    Such was my beauty’s pure translucent rays,    Which cheered the sun, and cleared the drooping days.  23 My looks, persuading orators of love, My speech, divine infusing harmony, And every word so well could passion move, So were my gestures graced with modesty,    As where my thoughts intended to surprise,    I eas’ly made a conquest with mine eyes.29  24 A gracious mind, a passing lovely eye, 30  A hand that gave, a mouth that never vaunted, 31  A chaste desire, a tongue that would not lie, A lion’s heart, a courage never daunted,    A sweet conceit in such a carriage placed 32     As with my gesture all my words were graced.  25 Such was the work which Nature had begun, As promisèd a gem of wondrous price.  26  his   referring back to the vague ‘some power.’ 27  adamant   magnet. 28  Titan   Sol, the sun god; thus, the sun. 29  I eas’ly … eyes   It is usually the Petrarchan mistress to whom this sort of erotic power is attributed. 30  passing   i.e., surpassingly. 31  vaunted   boasted. 32  conceit  faculties of the mind; wit.     carriage   bodily deportment, bearing, mien. 6  This little star foretold a glorious sun, This curious plot an earthly paradise,    This globe of beauty wherein all might see    An after-world of wonders here in me.  26 As in th’ autumnal season of the year, Some death-presaging comet doth arise, 33  Or some prodigious meteor doth appear, Or fearful chasma unto humane eyes: 34     Even such a wonder was I to behold,    Where Heaven seemed all her secrets to unfold.  27 If cunning’st pencil-man that ever wrought35 By skilful art of secret symmetry, Or the divine Idea of the thought, With rare descriptions of high poesy,    Should all compose a body and a mind,    Such a one seemed I, the wonder of my kind. 36   28 With this fair bait I fished for Edward’s love,37 My dainty youth so pleased his princely eye. Here sprang the league which time could not remove, 38  So deeply grafted in our infancy,    That friend, nor foe, nor life, nor death could sunder,    So seldom seen, and to the world a wonder.  29 O heavenly concord, music of the mind, Touching the heart-strings with such harmony, The ground of nature, and the law of kind, 39  Which in conjunction do so well agree,    Whose revolution by effect doth prove,    That mortal men are made divine by love!  33  death-presaging comet   Comets and meteors were commonly believed to be significant celestial omens, appearing in the sky to foretell or commemorate, for example, the death of great men, or to signal the impending wrath of God. 34  chasma   an alleged meteoric phenomenon, where the firmament or vault of heaven was rent apart. 35  pencil-man   artist. 36  a one seemed I   1596: one was I 37  Edward   i.e., Prince Edward. See n1. 38  sprang   1596: grew 39  the law of kind   i.e., the law pertaining to different species. 7  30 O strong combining chain of secrecy, Sweet joy of Heaven, the angels’ oratory, The bond of faith, the seal of sanctity, The soul’s true bliss, youth’s solace, age’s glory,    An endless league, a bond that’s never broken,    A thing divine, a word with wonder spoken!  31 With this fair bud of that same blessèd rose, Edward surnamed Carnarvan by his birth, 40  Who in his youth it seemed that Nature chose To make the like whose like was not on earth,    Had not his lust and my lascivious will    Made him and me the instruments of ill.  32 With this sweet prince, the mirror of my bliss, My soul’s delight, my joy, my fortune’s pride, My youth enjoyed such perfect happiness, Whil’st tutors’ care his wand’ring years did guide,    As his affections on my thoughts attended,    And with my life, his joys began and ended.  33 Whether it were my beauty’s excellence, Or rare perfections that so pleased his eye, Or some divine and heavenly influence, Or natural attracting sympathy,    My pleasing youth became his senses’ object,    Where all his passions wrought upon this subject.  34 Thou arc of Heaven, where wonders are enrolled, 41  O depth of Nature, who can look unto thee? Oh, who is he that hath thy doom controlled? 42  Or hath the key of reason to undo thee?    Thy works divine which powers alone do know,    Our shallow wits too short for things below.    40  Carnarvan   Edward II was known as Edward of Caernarfon, since he was born at Caernarfon Castle in Wales. 41  arc of Heaven   the firmament (especially the arrangement of the stars and planets which astrology asserted foretold and controlled the fates of men and women). 42  doom   judgement. 8  35 The soul divine by her integrity, And by the functious agents of the mind 43  Clear-sighted, so perceiveth through the eye That which is pure and pleasing to her kind,    And by her pow’rful motions apprehendeth,    That which beyond our human sense extendeth.  36 This Edward in the April of his age, Whil’st yet the crown sat on his father’s head My Jove with me, his Ganymed, his page, 44  Frolic as May, a lusty life we led. 45    He might command, he was my sovereign’s son,   And what I said, by him was ever done.  37 My words as laws authentic he allowed; Mine ‘yea’ by him was never crossed with ‘no’; All my conceit as current he avowed, 46  And as my shadow still he servèd so,   My hand the racket, he the tennis ball,   My voice’s echo, answering every call.  38 My youth the glass where he his youth beheld, 47  Roses his lips, my breath sweet nectar showers, For in my face was Nature’s fairest field, Richly adorned with beauty’s rarest flowers.   My breast his pillow, where he laid his head,   Mine eyes his book, my bosom was his bed. 48   39 My smiles were life and heaven unto his sight, All his delight concluding my desire; From my sweet sum, he borrowed all his light, 49  And as a fly played with my beauty’s fire;50  43  functious agents of the mind   not in OED; presumably, those active or intellectual functions of the mind. 44  Jove and Ganymed   On this famous mythic pair of male lovers, see Glossary (print anthology). 45  lusty   full of physical energy (not necessarily in a narrowly sexual sense). 46  conceit as current   i.e., my conceptions as right or to be generally accepted [by others]; valued. 47  glass   mirror. 48  his book   1596: this brook 49  From … light   1596: From mine eyes’ beams he borrowed all his light 50  And … fire   The fly’s doomed attraction to the light of a flame is a common image of humanity’s like attraction to 9    His love-sick lips at every kissing qualm,   Cling to my lips, to cure their grief with balm.  40 Like as the wanton ivy with his twine, Whenas the oak his rootless body warms, 51  The straightest saplings strictly doth combine, Clipping the woods with his lascivious arms: 52    Such our embraces when our sport begins,   Lapt in our arms, like Leda’s lovely twins.53  41 Or as love-nursing Venus when she sports, With cherry-lipped Adonis in the shade, 54  Figuring her passions in a thousand sorts, With sighs, and tears, or what else might persuade,   Her dear, her sweet, her joy, her life, her love,   Kissing his brow, his cheek, his hand, his glove.  42 My beauty was the loadstar of his thought, 55  My looks the pilot to his wand’ring eye, By me his senses all asleep were brought, When with sweet love I sang his lullaby.    Nature had taught my tongue her perfect time,    Which in his ear struck duly as a chime.  43 With sweetest speech, thus could I syranize, 56  Which as strong philters youth’s desire could move,57 And with such method could I rhetorize, 58  My music played the measures to his love;  those things that seem desirable but are inevitably fatal and consuming (like illicit love). 51  Like … warms   The oak intertwined with the ivy is an ambivalent symbol in the period; the vine [sometimes, the ivy] twining around the oak was an emblem of mutual support in marriage and love, but the vine could also represent a more sinister, parasitic relationship, particularly given that the oak was a common emblem of the sovereign and the state. 52  clipping   embracing fervently. 53  Leda’s lovely twins   Castor and Pollux, called the Gemini. See ‘Castor and Pollux’ and ‘Leda,’ Glossary (print anthology). See also stanzas 142, 190, and 238; see n229. 54  Or … shade   See ‘Venus and Adonis,’ Glossary (print anthology). 55  loadstar   a guiding star; that upon which one’s eyes or desires are fixed. 56  syranize   attract or allure in the same ways as the classical Sirens, mermaids who lured mariners to their deaths with their entrancing voices. 57  philters   love potions; aphrodiasiacs. 58  rhetorize   speak persuasively (according to the rules of rhetoric). 10     In his fair breast, such was my soul’s impression,    As to his eyes, my thoughts made intercession.  44 Thus like an eagle seated in the sun, 59  But yet a phoenix in my sovereign’s eye,60 We act with shame, our revels are begun; The wise could judge of our catastrophe,    But we proceed to play our wanton prize,    Our mournful chorus was a world of eyes.  45 The table now of all delight is laid, Served with what banquets beauty could devise, 61  The sirens sing, and false Calypso played, 62  Our feast is graced with youth’s sweet comedies,    Our looks with smiles are soothed of every eye,    Carousing love in bowls of ivory. 63   46 Fraught with delight, and safely under sail, 64  Like flight-winged falcons now we take our scope; Our youth and fortune blow a merry gale; We loose the anchor of our virtues’ hope.    Blinded with pleasure in this lustful game,    By oversight discard our king with shame.  47 My youthful pranks are spurs to his desire; I held the reins that ruled the golden sun; My blandishments were fuel to his fire; I had the garland whosoever won.    I waxed his wings and taught him art to fly, 65     Who on his back might bear me through the sky.  59  like … sun   Eagles were popularly believed to be able to look directly into the sun without being blinded. 60  phoenix   On this fabled Egyptian bird, see Glossary (print anthology). 61  banquets   specifically, a banquet was a course of elaborate delicacies served after the main meal. 62  sirens   See n56.     Calypso   a beautiful nymph, who imprisoned the wandering Greek hero Ulysses on her island in a vain attempt to compel him to marry her. 63  Carousing love in bowls of ivory   an image taken from ancient Greek songs in praise of drinking (cf. Anacreontea 4 and 5 [Greek Lyric 2], and Rochester’s ‘Nestor,’ print anthology, p. 372-73). 64  Fraught   fully laden. 65  I … fly   Gaveston implicitly compares himself first to Phaethon, holding the reins of the sun-chariot (see Glossary, print anthology), and then to the great artificer Daedalus, who most famously constructed pairs of wings for himself and his son Icarus so that they could escape their imprisonment on the isle of Crete (see ‘Daedalus,’ Glossary, print anthology). Cf. n73. 11  48 Here first that sun-bright temple was defiled, Which to fair virtue first was consecrated; This was the fruit wherewith I was beguiled, Here first the deed of all my fame was dated.    O me! Even here from paradise I fell,    From angel’s state, from Heaven, cast down to Hell.  49 Lo here the very image of perfection, With the black pencil of defame is blotted; And with the ulcers of my youth’s infection, My innocency is besmeared and spotted.    Now comes my night, now my day is done;    These sable clouds eclipse my rising sun.  50 Our innocence, our child-bred purity Is now defiled and as our dreams forgot, Drawn in the coach of our security. What act so vile, that we attempted not?    Our sun-bright virtues’ fountain-clear beginning    Is now polluted by the filth of sinning.  51 O wit too wilful, first by Heaven ordained An antidote by virtue made to cherish, By filthy vice as with a mole art stained, A poison now by which the senses perish.    That made of force all vices to control    Defames the life and doth confound the soul. 66   52 The Heavens to see my fall doth knit her brows, The vaulty ground under my burthen groaneth; 67  Unto mine eyes, the air no light allows, 68  The very wind my wickedness bemoaneth.    The barren earth repineth at my food, 69     And Nature seems to curse her beastly brood.   66  That … soul   i.e., wit (discernment, intelligence) is that which was created of necessity to control all vices, but being corrupted, wit can and does ruin a person’s reputation and destroy his soul. 67  vaulty   arching like a vault. 68  no   corrected from ‘my’ in the 1594 edition. 69  repineth at my food   i.e., is discontented at having to provide my food. 12  53 And thus like slaves we sell our souls to sin, Virtue forgot by world’s deceitful trust; Alone by pleasure are we entered in, Now wand’ring in the labyrinth of lust.    For when the soul is drownèd once in vice,    The sweet of sin makes Hell a paradise.  54 O Pleasure, thou, the very lure of sin, The root of woe, our youth’s deceitful guide, A shop where all confected poisons been, 70  The bait of lust, the instrument of pride,    Enchanting Circe’s smoothing cover-guile,71    Alluring siren, flattering crocodile. 72   55 Our Jove which saw his Phoebus youth betrayed, And Phaethon guide the sun-car in the skies, 73  Knew well the course with danger hardly stayed, For what is not perceived by wise men’s eyes?    He knew these pleasures, posts of our desire, 74     Might by misguiding set his throne on fire.  56 This was a corr’sive to King Edward’s days,75 These jarring discords quite untuned his mirth; This was the pain that never gave him ease, If ever Hell, this was his hell on earth.    This was the burthen which he groanèd under,    This pinched his soul, and rent his heart in sunder.  57 This venom sucked the marrow from his bones, This was the canker which consumed his years, 76   70  confected   composed (glancing at ‘confections,’ sweets). 71  Circe   a sorceress, daughter of the sun-god, Sol, who most famously transforms Odysseus’ men into pigs on the island of Aeaea. 72  flattering crocodile   The crocodile was thought to weep hypocritically as it devoured its victims, or as a method of drawing them closer in order to devour them. For sirens, see n56. 73  Our Jove … skies   i.e., when Jove, king of the gods, (here, representing King Edward I) sees his son Phoebus Apollo (representing Prince Edward) allowing Phoebus’ half-human son Phaethon (representing Gaveston) to drive the sun chariot across the sky. For the myth, see ‘Phaethon,’ Glossary, print anthology. Cf. n65. 74  posts   perhaps, simply, ‘markers,’ but perhaps also ‘messengers.’ 75  corr’sive   corrosive. 76  canker   malignant tumour or ulcer. 13  This fearful vision filled his sleep with groans, This winter snowed down frost upon his hairs,    This was the moth, this was the fretting rust,    Which so consumed his glory unto dust,  58 The humour found which fed this foul disease 77  Must needs be stayed, ere help could be devised; The vein must breathe the burning to appease, 78  Hardly a cure, the wound not cauterized.    That member now wherein the botch was risen 79     Infecteth all not cured by incision.  59 The cause conjectured by this prodigy, 80  From whence this foul contagious sickness grew, Wisdom alone must give a remedy For to prevent the danger to ensue.    The cause must end ere the effect could cease,    Else might the danger daily more increase.  60 Now those whose eyes to death envide my glory, 81  Whose safety still upon my downfall stood, These, these, could comment on my youthful story, These were the wolves which thirsted for my blood,    These all unlade their mischiefs at this bay, 82     And make the breach to enter my decay.  61 These curs that lived by carrion of the court, These wide-mouthed hell-hounds long time kept at bay, Finding the King to credit their report, Like greedy ravens follow for their prey. Despiteful Langton, favourite to the King, 83   77  humour   engrained psychological predisposition to a particular set of attitudes, cast of mind, etc. 78  The vein … appease   i.e., the King had to be subject to the medical procedure called venesection or blood-letting to repair the imbalance of fluids in his body (his humours) that were contributing to his physical decline. By implication, Gaveston is that ‘botch’ in the body of the state which must be excised to restore its health and that of the royal line. 79  botch   boil or tumour.      incision   i.e., the cut made in the flesh to allow the bad humour to drain away (see n78, above). 80  prodigy   extraordinary and unnatural situation. 81  evide   i.e., envied. 82  unlade   unloaded.     at this bay   said of the situation of a hunted animal when it is backed into a corner; unable to flee, it turns to face its attackers. 14  Was he which first me in disgrace could bring. 84   62 Such as beheld this lightning from above, My princely Jove from out the air to thunder, This earthquake which did my foundation move, This bois’trous storm, this unexpected wonder,    They thought my sun had been eclipsèd quite,    And all my day now turned to winter’s night.  63 My youth emboweled by their curious eyes, 85  Whose true reports my life anatomized, Who still pursued me like deceitful spies, To cross that which I wantonly devised. 86     Perceive the train me to the trap had led, 87     And down they come like hailstones on my head.  64 My sun eclipsed, each star becomes a sun, When Phoebus fails, then Cynthia shineth bright, 88  These furnish up the stage—my act is done— Which were but glow-worms to my glorious light,    Those erst condemned by my perfection’s doom,89    In Phoebus’ chariot now possess my room.90  65 The commons swore I led the Prince to vice; The nobles said that I abused the King; Grave matrons, such as lust could not entice, Like women whispered of another thing. 91     Such as could not aspire unto my place,    These were suborned to offer me disgrace.     83  Walter Langton  (d. 1321), bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, and one of Edward I’s trusted advisors. 84  Was … bring   1596: This was the Serpent struck me with his sting. 85  emboweled   i.e., disembowelled. 86  cross   oppose, frustrate. 87  train   trick, scheme. 88  Phoebus   the sun.     Cynthia   the moon. 89  erst   earlier.     doom   judgement. 90  Phoebus   Prince Edward (see n65 and n73).      possess my room    take my place. 91  another thing   perhaps, sodomy (mentioned explicitly in stanza 212). 15  66 The staff thus broke whereon my youth did stay, 92  And with the shadow all my pleasures gone. 93  Now with the winds my joys fleet hence away, The silent night makes music to my moan;    The tattling echoes whispering with the air,    Unto my words sound nothing but despair.  67 The frowning heavens are all in sables clad, The planet of my life’s misfortune reigneth;94 No music serves a dying soul to glad, 95  My wrong to tyrants for redress complaineth.    To ease my pain there is no remedy,    So far despair exceeds extremity.  68 Why do I quake my downfall to report? Tell on, my ghost, the story of my woe. The King commands, I must depart the court; I ask no question, he will have it so.    The lion’s roaring lesser beasts do fear,    The greatest fly when he approacheth near.  69 My Prince is now appointed to his guard, As from a traitor he is kept from me; My banishment already is prepared, Away I must, there is no remedy.   On pain of death I may no longer stay,   Such is revenge which brooketh no delay.  70 The skies with clouds are all envelopèd, The pitchy fogs eclipse my cheerful sun, The geatie night hath all her curtains spread, 96  And all the air with vapours over-run.    Wanting those rays whose clearness lent me light,  92  stay   rely, depend. 93  with   1596: like 94  the planet … reigneth   referring to the belief that each human being was born under a particular constellation and arrangement of the planets; some arrangements were propitious, others were not; some planets were inherently fortunate, others could inflict disaster and suffering. 95  to glad   to make happy or joyful. 96  geatie   deep-black (the colour of jet). 16     My sunshine day is turned to black-faced night.  71 Like to the bird of Leda’s leman’s dye,97 Beating his breast against the silver stream, The fatal prophet of his destiny, With mourning chants his death-approaching theme: 98     So now I sing the dirges of my fall,    The anthems of my fatal funeral.  72 Or as the faithful turtle for her make 99  Whose youth enjoy’d her dear virginity, Sits shrouded in some melancholy brake 100  Chirping forth accents of her misery,    Thus half distracted sitting all alone,    With speaking sighs, to utter forth my moan.  73 My beauty s’daining to behold the light,101 Now weather-beaten with a thousand storms, My dainty limbs must travail day and night, Which oft were lull’d in princely Edward’s arms,    Those eyes where beauty sat in all her pride,    With fearful objects fild on every side. 102   74 The Prince so much astonished with the blow, So that it seemed as yet he felt no pain, Until at length awakened by his woe, He saw the wound by which his joys were slain,    His cares fresh bleeding, fainting more and more,    No cataplasma now to cure the sore. 103      97  Like … dye   i.e., he is shiningly white in his beauty, like the swan: most famously Jove transformed himself into a swan to sexually possess the mortal women, Leda. Cf stanza 40.     leman   lover. 98  With … theme   Swans were believed to sing beautifully just before they died. 99  make   i.e., mate. Turtle doves were believed to mate for life, and were popular emblems of marital fidelity and love. 100  brake   thicket. 101  s’daining   i.e., disdaining. 102  fild   either ‘filled’ or ‘filed’ (defiled). 103  cataplasma   plaster, emollient, poultice. 17  75 Now weep, mine eyes, and lend me tears at will, You sad-mused sisters help me to indite, 104  And in your fair Castalia bathe my quill, 105  In bloody lines whilst I his woes recite.    Inspire my Muse, O Heavens, now from above,    To paint the passions of a princely love!  76 His eyes about their rolling globes do cast, To find that sun from whom they had their light; His thoughts do labour for that sweet repast, Which passed the day, and pleased him all the night;    He counts the hours, so slowly how they run,    Reproves the day, and blames the loit’ring sun.  77 As gorgeous Phoebus in his first uprise, Discovering now his scarlet-coloured head, By troublous motions of the louring skies 106  His glorious beams with fogs are overspread,    So are his cheerful brows eclipsed with sorrow,    Which cloud the shine of his youth-smiling morrow.  78 Now show’ring down a flood of brackish tears,107 The epithemaes to his heart-swol’n grief,108 Then sighing out a volley of despairs, Which only is th’afflicted man’s relief,    Now wanting sighs, and all his tears were spent, 109     His tongue broke out into this sad lament.   79  “Oh, break my heart,” quoth he, “Oh, break and die,  Whose infant thoughts were nursed with sweet delight;  But now the inn of care and misery,  Whose pleasing hope is murthered with despight!  104  sad-mused sisters   those sacred patrons of the arts and sciences, the Muses, were all daughters of Jove/Jupiter; the specific reference is perhaps to Melpomene (muse of tragedy) and Clio (muse of history).     indite   write down, compose. 105  Castalia   a spring on Mount Helicon, sacred to the Muses; thus, a source of divine, poetic inspiration. 106  louring   threatening, gloomy. 107  brackish  salty. 108  epithemaes   epitomes; abstracts or representations in miniature. 109  wanting    lacking (he has exhausted his sighs). 18      Oh, end my days, for now my joys are done,     Wanting my Piers, my sweetest Gaveston! 110    80  “Farewell, my love, companion of my youth,  My soul’s delight, the subject of my mirth,  My second self if I report the truth, 111   The rare and only phoenix of the earth, 112      Farewell, sweet friend, with thee my joys are gone,     Farewell my Piers, my lovely Gaveston.   81  “What are the rest but painted imagery,  Dumb idols made to fill up idle rooms,  But gaudy antics, sports of foolery,  But fleshly coffins, goodly gilded tombs,     But puppets which with others’ words reply,     Like prattling echoes soothing every lie?   82  “O damnèd world, I scorn thee and thy worth,  The very source of all iniquity!  An ugly dam that brings such monsters forth, 113   The maze of death, nurse of impiety,     A filthy sink, where loathsomeness doth dwell,     A labyrinth, a jail, a very hell.   83  “Deceitful siren, traitor to my youth,114  Bane to my bliss, false thief that steal’st my joys!  Mother of lies, sworn enemy to truth,  The ship of fools fraught all with gauds and toys! 115      A vessel stuffed with foul hypocrisy,     The very temple of idolatry!   84  “O earth-pale Saturn, most malevolent  Combustious planet, tyrant in thy reign,  110  wanting   lacking. 111  second self   a very common classical description of the true friend: Cf. Cicero’s Laelius, “ […] a friend is one’s other self.” 112  phoenix   See Glossary (print anthology). 113  dam   mother (usually used of animals). 114  siren   See n56. 115  fraught   laden, loaded.     toys   knick-knacks, trinkets.     gauds   fripperies, trifles. 19   The sword of wrath, the root of discontent,  In whose ascendant all my joys are slain:  116      Thou executioner of foul, bloody rage,     To act the will of lame, decrepit age!   85  “My life is but a very map of woes,  My joys the fruit of an untimely birth,  My youth in labour with unkindly throes,  My pleasures are like plagues that reign on earth,     All my delights like streams that swiftly run,     Or like the dew exhalèd by the Sun!   86  “O Heavens, why are you deaf unto my moan?  S’dain you my prayers? or scorn to hear my miss?117  Cease you to move, or is your pity gone? 118   Or is it you that rob me of my bliss?     What, are you blind, or wink and will not see? 119      Or do you sport at my calamity? 120    87  “O happy climate, whatsoe’er thou be,  Cheered with those suns the fair’st that ever shone,  Which hast those stars which guide my destiny,  The brightest lamps in all the horizon,  O happy eyes that see which most I lack,  The pride and beauty of the Zodiac! 121   […]  97 No sooner was his body wrapt in lead 122  And that his mournful funerals were done, But that the crown was set on Edward’s head, Sing Io now, my ghost, the storm is gone; 123   116  O … slain   Medieval and Renaissance astrology consistently represented Saturn as an ill-omened planet, the dominance or zenith (the ascendant) of which could spell disaster for individuals and nations. 117  S’dain   Disdain.   miss   catastrophe. 118  move   here, experience passion or compassion. 119  wink   close [one’s] eyes to something faulty; to be willfully ignorant. 120  sport at   enjoy. 121  the pride and beauty of the Zodiac   i.e., Gaveston. 122  his body    that of Edward’s father, Edward I (see stanza 8); his death paves the way for Prince Edward’s crowning as King Edward II and Gaveston’s recall from exile. 123  Io   a Greek exclamation of praise and thanksgiving. 20     The wind blows right, lo yonder breaks my day,    Carol, my Muse, and now sing care away.  98 Carnarvan now calls home within a while 124  Whom worthy Longshanks hated to the death, 125  Whom Edward swore should die in his exile, He was as dear to Edward as his breath, 126     This Edward loved that Edward loved not; 127     Kings’ wills performed: and dead men’s words forgot.  99 Now waft me, wind, unto the blessed isle, Rock me, my joys; love, sing me with delight; Now sleep, my thoughts; cease sorrow for a while, Now end my care; come day, farewell my night;    Sweet senses, now act every one his part,    Lo, here the balm that hath recured my heart. 128   100 Lo, now my Jove in his ascendant is, 129  In the aestivall solstice of his glory; 130  Now all the stars prognosticate my bliss, And in the heaven all eyes may read my story.    My comet now world’s wonder thus appears,131   Foretelling troubles of ensuing years.  101 Now am I mounted with Fame’s golden wings, And in the tropic of my fortune’s height; My flood maintained with a thousand springs, Now on my back supporting Atlas’ weight:132    All tongues and pens attending on my praise,    Surnamed now, ‘the wonder of our days.’    124  Carnarvan   Prince Edward, now King Edward II. See n40. 125  Whom   i.e., he whom [Gaveston].     Longshanks   Edward I. 126  Edward   Prince Edward (now Edward II). 127  that   that which (i.e., Gaveston). 128  recured   cured, healed. 129  ascendant   the highest point of power and influence. 130  aestival   summer. 131  comet   See n33. 132  Atlas   demi-god, who bore the weight of this world on his shoulders, holding it up in its place in the cosmos. 21  102 Who ever saw the kindest Roman dame With extreme joy yield up her latest breath, 133  When from the wars her son triumphing came, When stately Rome had mourned for his death:    Her passion here might have expressed aright,    When once I came into the Prince’s sight.  103 Who ever had his lady in his arms, That hath of love but felt the misery, Touching the fire that all his senses warms, Now clips with joy her blushing ivory, 134     Feeling his soul in such delights to melt:    There’s none but he can tell the joy we felt.  104 Like as when Phoebus darteth forth his rays, Gliding along the swelling ocean streams, Now whilst one billow with another plays, Reflecteth back his bright translucent beams:    Such was the conflict then betwixt our eyes,    Sending forth looks as tears do fall and rise.  105 It seemed the air devised to please my sight, The whistling wind makes music to my tale; All things on earth now feast me with delight, The world to me sets all her wealth to sale.    Who now rules all in court but I alone,    Who highly graced but only Gaveston?  106 Now like to Midas all I touch is gold, The clouds do show’r down gold into my lap; If I but wink the mightiest are controlled, Placed on the turret of my highest hap. 135     My coffers now even like to oceans are,    To whom all floods by course do still repair. 136     133  latest   last. 134  clips   embraces. 135  hap   fortune. 136  floods   streams, rivers. 22  107 With bounty now he frankly seals his love, And to my hands yields up the Isle of Man, 137  By such a gift his kingly mind to prove. This was the earnest wherewith he began. 138     Then Wallingford, Queen El’nor’s stately dower,139    With many a town and many a goodly tower.  108 And all those sums his father had prepared By way of taxes for the Holy Land, 140  He gave me frankly as my due reward. In bounty thus, it seemed he pleased his hand,    Which made the world to wonder every hour,    To see me drowned in this golden shower. 141   109 Determined now to hoist my sail amain, 142  The Earl of Cornwall he created me, Of England then the Lord High Chamberlain, Chief Secretary to his Majesty. 143     What I devised, his treasure ever wrought,    His bounty still so answered to my thought.  110 Yet more to spice my joys with sweet delight, Bound by his love apprentice to my pleasure, Whose eyes still levelled how to please my sight, Whose kindness ever so exceeded measure,    Devised to quench my thirst with such a drink    As from my quill drops nectar to my ink. 144      137  Isle of Man   an island between England and Ireland. The Isle of Man was, until the early 19 th  century, a peculiar jurisdiction in the British Isles: its rulers had the status of kings. 138  earnest   foretaste or pledge (of something to be received later in abundance). 139  Queen El’nor   Eleanor of Castille (1241-1290), wife of Edward I, mother of Edward II.     dower   1596: bower 140  And … Land   Edward I (Longshanks) went on crusade in 1270. 141  To […] shower    The image seems meant to remind the reader of the myth of Jove and the mortal woman Danaë. See ‘Danaë,’ Glossary (print anthology). 142  amain   with full force. 143  All these offices and the title ‘earl’ would have placed Gaveston above all the other nobles in the realm: Lord High Chamberlain  the most important officer in the King’s household.     Chief Secretary   manager of the King’s correspondence and personal as well as government business. 144  nectar   The fabled drink of the classical gods; consuming it could confer immortality. 23  111 O sacred Bounty, mother of content, Prop of renown, the nourisher of arts, The crown of hope, the root of good event, The trump of fame, the joy of noble hearts, 145     Grace of the Heavens, divinity in nature,    Whose excellence doth so adorn the creature!  112 He gives his niece in marriage unto me, 146  Of royal blood, for beauty past compare; Born of his sister was this Bellamy, Daughter to Gilbert, thrice-renownèd Clare,    Chief of his house the Earl of Gloucester,    For princely worth that never had his peer.  113 Like Heaven-dyed Andromeda the fair, 147  In her embroidered mantle richly dight, 148  With starry train enthronised in the air, Adorns the welkin with her glittering light: 149     Such one she was, which in my bosom rested,    With whose dear love, my youthful years were feasted. 150   114 As when fair Ver dight in her flow’ry rail,151 In her new-coloured livery decks the earth, And glorious Titan spreads his sun-shine veil, 152  To bring to pass her tender infant’s birth:    Such was her beauty which I then possessed,    With whose embracings all my youth was blessed.  115 Whose purest thoughts and spotless chaste desire, To my affections still so pleasing were, Never yet touched with spark of Venus’ fire,153  145  trump   trumpet. 146  his niece   Lady Margaret de Clare. 147  Andromeda   famously lovely princess of Ethiopia, whose beauty led her mother to boast that Andromeda was fairer than Poseidon’s daughters. Incensed, Poseidon sent a sea monster to destroy her father’s kingdom, which could only be placated by the sacrifice of Andromeda; she was rescued by the hero Perseus. 148  dight   dressed, adorned. 149  welkin   sky, heavens. 150  dear   1596: sweet 151  Ver   spring.     rail   garment. 152  Titan   See n28. 24  As but her breast I thought no Heaven but there:    To none more like than fair Idea she, 154     The very image of all chastity. 155   116 O Chastity, thou gift of blessèd souls, 156  Comfort in death, a crown unto the life, Which all the passions of the mind controls Adorns the maid, and beautifies the wife,    That grace, the which nor death nor time attaints,    Of earthly creatures making heavenly saints!  117 O Virtue, which no Muse can poetize, Fair Queen of England which with thee doth rest, Which thy pure thoughts do only exercise, And is impressèd in thy royal breast,    Which in thy life deciphered is alone,    Whose name shall want a fit epitheton. 157   118 The heavens now seem to frolic at my feast, The stars as handmaids, serving my desires; Now love full-fed with beauty takes his rest, To whom content for safety thus retires.    The ground was good, my footing passing sure, 158     My days delightsome, and my life secure.  119 Lo, thus ambition creeps into my breast, Pleasing my thoughts with this imperious humour, 159  And with this devil being once possessed, Mine ears are filled with such a buzzing rumour,    As only pride my glory doth await,    My senses soothed with every self-conceit.    153  Venus’ fire    sexual lust or desire. 154  Idea   In 1593, Drayton published a collection of nine pastoral eclogues called Idea: The Shepheards Garland and in 1594 a sequence of 51 sonnets titled Idea’s Mirror. 155  The … chastity   1596: The perfect image of pure chastity. 156  thou   corrected from ‘that’ in 1594 edition. 157  epitheton   epithet. 158  passing   i.e., surpassingly. 159  humour   See n77. 25  120 Self-love, pride’s thirst, unsatisfied desire, A flood that never yet had any bounds, Time’s pestilence, thou state-consuming fire, A mischief which all commonweals confounds, 160     O plague of plagues, how many kingdoms rue thee,    O happy empires that yet never knew thee!  121 And now revenge which had been smothered long, Like piercing lightning flasheth from mine eyes; This word could sound so sweetly on my tongue, And with my thoughts such stratagems devise,    Tickling mine ears with many a pleasing story,    Which promised wonders and a world of glory.  122 For now began the bloody-raining broils 161  Between the barons of the land and me, Labouring the state with Ixion-endless toils 162  Twixt my ambition and their tyranny,    Such was the storm this deluge first begun,     With which this isle was after overrun.  […]  128 His presence graced whate’er I went about,163 His chief content was that which likèd me; 164  Whate’er I did, his power still bore me out,165 And where I was, there evermore was he.    By birth my sovereign, but by love my thrall, 166     ‘King Edward’s idol’ all men did me call.  129 Oft he would set his crown upon my head, And in his chair sit down upon my knee,  160  commonweals   nations, states.     confounds   reduces to chaos or disorder. 161  broils   quarrels, dissensions. 162  Labouring … Ixion-endless toils   For attempting to seduce Jove’s wife, Ixion was condemned to Hades, where he was fixed to an eternally-revolving wheel of fire. 163  His   King Edward II’s. 164  His … me   1596: Best pleased with that which most contented me. 165  bore me out   supported me. 166  thrall   slave. 26  And when his eyes with love were fully fed, A thousand times he sweetly kissèd me.    When did I laugh and he not seen to smile?    If I but frowned, he silent all the while.   [When Edward goes off to France to marry Isabella, daughter of Philip, king of France, he makes Gaveston lord-protector of England in his absence. Gaveston prepares a lavish spectacle to welcome Edward back along with his new queen and many visiting French peers.]   141 Thus when these gallant companies were met, The King here present with his lovely Queen, And all the nobles in due order set, 167  To hear and see what could be heard or seen:    Lo, here that kindness easily is descried,    That faithful love which he nor I could hide.  142 Even like as Castor when a calm begins, Beholding then his starry-tressed brother, With mirth and glee these swan-begotten twins Presaging joy, the one embrace the other: 168     Thus one the other in our arms we fold,    Our breasts for joy our hearts could scarcely hold.  143 Or like the nymph beholding in a well Her dearest love, and wanting words to woo him, 169  About his neck with clippèd arms she fell, 170  Where by her faith the gods conjoined her to him. 171     Such was the love which now by signs we break,    When joy had tied our tongues, we could not speak.  144 Thus arm in arm towards London on we rid, And like two lambs we sport in every place,  167  And … set   1596: The Noblemen in comely order set 168  Even … other   For ‘Castor and Pollux,’ see Glossary (print anthology). See also n229, and stanzas 40, 190, and 238. 169  wanting   lacking. 170  clipped   embracing. 171  Or like … him   For the myth of Hermaphroditus and Salmacis, see ‘Hermaphoditus,’ Glossary (print anthology). The word ‘hermaphrodite,’ naming an person who has both male and female sexual organs, derives from this myth. 27  Where neither joy nor love could well be hid That might be sealed with any sweet embrace,    So that his Queen might by our kindness prove, 172     Though she his wife, yet I alone his love.  145 The barons now ambitious at my reign, As one that stood betwixt them and the sun, They underhand pursue me with disdain, And play the game which I before had won,    And malice now so hard the bellows blew,    That through mine ears the sparks of fire flew.  146 Where in revenge, the triumphs they devised To entertain the King with wondrous cost, Were by my malice suddenly surprised, The charge, their summons, and their honours lost,    Which in their thoughts revenge so deeply raised,    As with my blood they vowed should be appeased.  […]  149 Thus as a plague unto the government, A very scourge to the nobility, The cause of all the commons’ discontent,173 The image of all sensuality,    I was reproached openly of many,    Hated of all, not pitied now of any.  150 And as a vile misleader of th