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Widespread secondary volcanism near northern Hawaiian Islands. Weis, Dominique; Hanano, Diane; Nobre Silva, Ines G. 2008-12-31

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Eos, Vol. 89, No. 52, 23 December 2008 Hot spot theory provides a key framework for understanding the motion of the tectonic plates, mantle convection and composition, and magma genesis. The age- progressive vol- canism that constructs many chains of islands throughout the world’s ocean basins is essen- tial to hot spot theory. In contrast, secondary volcanism, which follows the main edifi ce-  building stage of volcanism in many chains including the Hawaii, Samoa, Canary, Mauri- tius, and Kerguelen islands, is not predicted by hot spot theory. Hawaiian secondary vol- canism occurs hundreds of kilometers away from, and more than 1 million years after, the end of the main shield volcanism, which has generated more than 99% of the volume of the volcano’s mass [Macdonald et al., 1983; Ozawa et al., 2005]. Diamond Head, in Hono- lulu, is the fi rst and classic example of sec- ondary volcanism. Attempts to explain secondary volcanism in the context of the hot spot phenomenon— in particular, as attributed to mantle plumes— include hypotheses of conductive heating of the lithosphere by the plume, lateral spread- ing and uplift of the plume after its ascent, and fl exure- induced decompressional melting related to the rapid growth of new volcanoes above the ascending plume [e.g., Bianco et al., 2005]. Even more enigmatic than the shield volcanoes are recent discoveries of secondary volcanism not being confi ned to the islands but extending many tens of kilometers offshore [e.g., Clague et al., 2000] and occurring in sev- eral pulses [Ozawa et al., 2005]. To determine the where, when, and what of secondary volcanism on and near the north- ern Hawaiian Islands ( Figure 1), the U.S. National Science Foundation ( NSF) recently sponsored a multidisciplinary investigation ( volcanology, marine geology, geochemistry, gravity, magnetics). A 4- week marine expedi- tion in September 2007, aboard the University of Hawai`i’s R/V Kilo Moana and using the JASON2 robotic submarine, revealed several fi elds of offshore volcanoes and lava fl ows, with each fi eld spanning areas much larger than the nearby islands. Such expansive vol- canism well away from the islands themselves raises many questions about hot spot evolu- tion and magma genesis in general. Seafloor Mapping The seafl oor around the islands of Kaua` i, Ni`ihau, and Ka` ula ( Figure 1) was the focus of the marine expedition because Kaua` i has the most voluminous ( ~58 cubic kilo meters) and enduring ( ~2.5 million year old ( C. E. Gandy et al., Implications of the volume of Kauai’s Koloa volcanics for the origin of Hawaiian rejuvenated volcanism, submitted to Geology, 2008)) secondary volcanism of Hawaii’s main islands and because this seafl oor had not pre- viously been completely mapped. For com- parison, the volumes and lifetimes of Hawai- ian shield volcanoes younger than Kaua` i are 9–74 × 103 cubic kilo meters [Robinson and Eakins, 2006] and approximately 1.5 million years old [Garcia et al., 2006]. During the 2007 expedition, an area approximately 50% greater than the entire state of Hawaii was surveyed, yielding the fi rst detailed bathymetry and acoustic backscatter maps of Ka` ula and the Middle Bank volcanoes, and confi rming that secondary volcanism is widespread offshore rather than focused on the islands. Extensive Secondary Volcanism The new acoustic imagery map ( Figure 2) highlights areas of extensive secondary vol- canism around the islands of Ka` ula and Ni`ihau. More than 100 secondary sub- marine volcanoes surround these islands, most of which have a distinctive pancake shape ( steep- sided and fl at- topped) simi- lar to some Venusian volcanoes [Smith, 1996]. To form fl at- topped cones, sustained but slow effusion of low- viscosity magma from a point source is thought to be neces- sary [Clague et al., 2000]. The question as to why these conditions should prevail through- out this area is being investigated using bathymetry and lava chemistry data. Some of the newly identifi ed lava fl ows have areas of up to approximately 400 square kilome- ters, larger than some Hawaiian islands ( e.g., Lana` i at 364 square kilometers and Ni`ihau at 180 square kilometers) and comparable to the fl ood basalt from Iceland’s Laki volcanic fi ssure ( 565 square kilo meters). Furthermore, the volcanism extends 100 kilo meters off the axis of the Hawaiian Ridge and well into the surrounding fl exural moat. During 11 JASON2 dives ( Figure 1), a wide variety of lava fl ow types and sedimentary rocks were observed on 71 seamounts ( http://  4dgeo . whoi . edu/ jason/, km718 cruise link), and 363 rocks weighing more than 1200 kilo- grams were sampled. The compositions of these lavas range widely from shield stage tholeiitic basalts ( especially south of Kaua` i) to secondary stage alkalic basalts ( common around Ka` ula). Our geochemical study of approximately 5 million years of volcanism on Kaua` i has shown that secondary volcanism Croley, T. E., II, and C. F. M. Lewis (2006), Warmer and drier climates that make terminal Great Lakes, J. Great Lakes Res., 32, 852–869. Dean, W. E., R. M. Forester, and J. P. Bradbury (2002), Early Holocene change in atmosphere circulation in the Northern Great Plains: An upstream view of the 8.2 ka cold event, Quat. Sci. Rev., 21, 1763–1775. Duthie, H. C., J.- R. Yang, T. W. D. Edwards, B. B. Wolfe, and B. G. Warner (1996), Hamilton Har- bour, Ontario: 8300 years of limnological and environmental change inferred from microfossil and isotopic analysis, J. Paleolimnol., 15, 79–97. Edwards, T. W. D., B. B. Wolfe, and G. M. Mac- Donald, (1996), Infl uence of changing atmospher- ic circulation on precipitation  δ18O– temperature relations in Canada during the Holocene, Quat. Res., 46, 211–218. Hough, J. L. (1962), Lake Stanley, a low stage of Lake Huron indicated by bottom sediments, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 73, 613–620. Larson, G., and R. Schaetzl (2001), Origin and evolution of the Great Lakes,  J. Great Lakes Res., 27, 518–546. Lewis, C. F. M., S. M. Blasco, and P. L. Gareau (2005), Glacial isostatic adjustment of the Lauren- tian Great Lakes basin: Using the empirical record of strandline deformation for reconstruction of early Holocene paleo- lakes and discovery of a drologically closed phase, Geogr. Phys. Quat., 59(2- 3), 187–210. Lewis, C. F. M., C. W. Heil Jr., J. B. Hubeny, J. W. King, T. C. Moore Jr., and D. K. Rea (2007), The Stanley unconformity in Lake Huron basin: Evidence for a climate- driven closed lowstand about 7900 14C BP, with similar implications for the Chippewa low- stand in Lake Michigan basin, J. Paleolimnol., 37, 435–452, doi:10.1007/ s10933- 006- 9049- y. Moore, T. C., Jr., D. K. Rea, L. A. Mayer, C. F. M. Lewis, and D. M. Dobson (1994), Seismic stratigra- phy of Lake Huron– Georgian Bay and post- glacial lake level history, Can. J. Earth Sci., 31, 1606–1617. Teller, J. T., and D. W. Leverington (2004), Glacial Lake Agassiz: A 5000- year history of change and its relationship to the δ18O record of Greenland, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 116, 729–742. Wattrus, N. J. (2007), Evidence of drowned paleo-  shorelines in western Lake Superior, paper presented at the 50th Annual Conference of the International Association for Great Lakes Research, Penn. State Univ., University Park, 28 May to 1 June. Author Information C. F. Michael Lewis, Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), Natural Resources Canada, Dart- mouth, Nova Scotia;  E- mail: Michael . Lewis@  NRCan - RNCan . gc . ca; John W. King, University of Rhode Island (URI), Narragansett; Stefan M. Blasco, GSC, Dartmouth; Gregory R. Brooks, GSC, Ottawa, Ontario; John P. Coakley (retired), Envi- ronment Canada, Burlington, Ontario; Thomas E. Croley II, U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Ann Arbor, Mich.; David L. Dett- man, University of Arizona, Tucson; Thomas W. D. Edwards, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada; Clifford W. Heil Jr., URI; J. Bradford Hubeny, Salem State College, Salem, Mass.; Kathleen R. Laird, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada; John H. McAndrews, University of Toronto, Ontar- io, Canada; Francine M. G. McCarthy, Brock Uni- versity, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada; Barbara E. Medioli, GSC, Ottawa; Theodore C. Moore Jr. and David K. Rea, University of Michigan; and Alison J. Smith, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio BY M. GARCIA, G. ITO, D. WEIS, D. GEIST, L. SWINNARD, T. BIANCO, A. FLINDERS, B. TAYLOR, B. APPELGATE, C. BLAY, D. HANANO, I. NOBRE SILVA, T. NAUMANN, C. MAERSCHALK, K. HARPP, B. CHRISTENSEN, L. SCIARONI, T. TAGAMI, AND S. YAMASAKI Widespread Secondary Volcanism Near Northern Hawaiian Islands PAGES 542–543Eos, Vol. 89, No. 52, 23 December 2008 is related to the Hawaiian mantle plume rather than to lithospheric sources ( L. Swin- nard et al., Geochemistry of rejuvenated, post-  shield and late shield volcanism on the island of Kauai, Hawaii, submitted to Earth and Plan- etary Science Letters, 2008). Thus, isotopic and geochemical studies of the new subma- rine rocks provide greater temporal and spa- tial resolution on the Hawaiian plume and are likely to elucidate its structure. South Kaua` i Swell One enigmatic Hawaiian submarine fea- ture is the South Kaua` i swell ( SKS; Fig- ure 1), which covers an area of approxi- mately 5500 square kilo meters and has an estimated volume greater than 5% of that of the Kaua` i shield. The swell, which pre- viously had been interpreted as a landslide deposit, has 169 cone- shaped seamounts greater than 50 meters tall with variable acoustic backscatter. Submersible observa- tions and sampling show that most of the seamounts are draped with fragmental lava debris. Intact pillow lava was found on only a few SKS cones. Many deposits contain lithologically identical angular clasts, indic- ative of a local origin; other deposits have rounded, matrix- supported clasts suggest- ing a landslide origin. Similar fragmented lava deposits greater than 1 kilometer thick were found on the fl anks of Mauna Kea vol- cano during subsequent drilling as part of the Hawaii Scientifi c Drilling Project [Garcia et al., 2007]. Our new geochemical data for SKS samples from 13 of 15 seamounts are tholeiitic and similar to Kaua` i shield lavas, although the SKS data extend to higher zir- conium/niobium ( 14 versus 12) and radio- genic lead- 208/ lead- 206 ( 0.960 versus 0.948) and also extend to lower neo dymium isoto- pic composition (epsilon values of 6.9 ver- sus 7.6). A broad, low- amplitude ( ~10 mil- ligals) residual gravity high is centered approximately 50 kilometers south of Kaua` i, indicating slightly elevated subsur- face densities. Together, these results sup- port either ( 1) a huge landslide ( one of Hawaii’s largest) from an early Kaua` i shield ( >5.0 million years ago) or ( 2) a separate submarine shield that experienced exten- sive explosive volcanism and erosion. The absence of a scar on the fl anks of Kaua` i and a young age for the one dated SKS cone ( 3.9 million years ago) are inconsistent with a landslide origin. Outreach Program A three- phase community outreach pro- gram was coordinated with the expedition ( see Figure S1 in the electronic supplement to this Eos issue ( http:// www . agu . org/ eos _ elec/)). A Kaua` i public school teacher joined the science team at sea to facilitate outreach activities, including electronically interacting with K- 12 classes via a cruise Web site ( http:// www . soest . hawaii . edu/  expeditions/ Kauai/). In addition, a profes- sional development course for Kaua` i pub- lic school teachers provided marine science education and the creation of hands- on sci- ence demonstrations related to the expe- dition. Also, visits by the expedition’s out- reach coordinator and cochief scientist, and by three graduate students who participated in the mission, as well as three “family sci- ence night” workshops, allowed children and their families to participate in the expe- dition via science demonstrations. In total, 23 public and private school teachers par- ticipated in all phases of the outreach pro- gram and 200 families attended the commu- nity workshops. This demonstrated public excitement for opportunities to participate in ongoing science programs and to learn about the research being undertaken off- shore of their island. Ongoing Work New maps of the seafl oor around the Hawaiian Islands are available at the Univer- sity of Hawai`i School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology ( SOEST) Web site ( http:// www . soest . hawaii . edu/). Our interna- tional team of scientists is determining the compositions and eruption ages of the new samples. The integration of these results with preexisting onshore data will feed a new geo- dynamic model to better explain the cause of secondary volcanism in Hawaii and other oceanic islands. It will also enhance our understanding of mantle dynamics, including plume structure and evolution. Acknowledgments We thank the captain and crew of the R/V Kilo Moana and the Woods Hole Oceano- graphic Institution JASON2 team for a suc- cessful expedition, NSF for funding this proj- ect ( grant EAR05- 10482), and the State of Hawaii’s Division of Aquatic Resources and the U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service’s Pacifi c Islands Regional Offi ce for granting access to shallow- water bathymetric data. References Bianco, T. A., G. Ito, J. M. Becker, and M. O. Garcia ( 2005), Secondary Hawaiian volcanism formed by fl exural arch decompression, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 6, Q08009, doi:10.1029/ 2005GC000945. Clague, D. A., J. G. Moore, and J. R. Reynolds ( 2000), Formation of submarine fl at- topped volca- nic cones in Hawaii, Bull. Volcanol., 62, 214–233. Garcia, M. O., J. Caplan- Auerbach, E. H. De Carlo, M. D. Kurz, and N. Becker ( 2006), Geology, geo- chemistry and earthquake history of Loihi sea- mount, Hawaii’s youngest volcano, Chem. Erde, 66, 81–108. Fig. 1. Bathymetric map of the seafloor around the islands of Kaua`i, Ni`ihau, and Ka`ula, based on new results from the expedition. Inset photos: ( a) R/V Kilo Moana. ( b) JASON2. ( c) Mem- bers of the science team.(d) Slab of hollow pillow lava. (e) JASON2 collecting pillow lava with white sponge. (f) South Kaua`i swell columnar jointed outcrop. (g) Mechanical arm of JASON2 collecting pillow lava. (h) Slab of pillow lava lobe shown in Figure 1g. (i) Ka`ula pillow lavas. (j) Outcrop of pillow lavas on ocean floor. (k) Slabbed vesicular pillow lava. (l) Tripod fish. Fig- ures 1d–1f are slabbed rocks or outcrops being sampled by  JASON2 from the east Kaua`i area, Figures 1g–1i are from Ka`ula, and Figures 1j and 1k are from the Middle Bank. Originial color image appears at the back of this volume.Eos, Vol. 89, No. 52, 23 December 2008 The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency  (USEPA) have developed collaborative capa- bilities for the retrieval of water quality data using the World Wide Web [Young, 2008]. Since September 2008, these new capabili- ties have facilitated searches of millions of analytical measurements from water quality samples collected during the past 100 years. The new system improves, in several ways, on the previous approach to obtaining data from these agencies, and it establishes a framework for future enhancements. As a result of creating these capabilities, an inves- tigator will be able to explore the entire USGS and USEPA water quality data holdings without needing to know which agency man- ages the desired data. The New Web Service Approach “Web services” have evolved in the past decade to become a fundamental building block for the development of a collaborative computing infrastructure. Generically, Web services provide  computer- to- computer query and retrieval capabilities. In this application, the Web services implemented by  USEPA and USGS provide the mechanism for the integra- tion of two separate water quality databases residing on different computer systems with different architectures and purposes. The Web service outputs include data elements recommended by a task force representing U.S. federal, tribal, state, and local agencies; academia; and the private and public sector water industries [National Water Quality Moni- toring Council, 2006]. The two agencies have each deployed separate Web services that are interoperable because the Web services accept the same types of queries and return output in a consistent format that conforms to a standardized nomenclature. Output from both sets of services can be merged, thus greatly simplifying the problem of combining data retrieved from the two databases. Comparisons With Previous Approaches USGS maintains a national, long- term data- base of water resources data known as the National Water Information System (NWIS). A major subset of NWIS consists of water quality data primarily from USGS studies, but it also includes data from other organi- zations. NWIS is used primarily by the USGS for hydrologic data collection and research, and it integrates water quality with water quantity, water use, and geohydrologic infor- mation. USEPA maintains a national water quality database known as the Storage and Retrieval System for Water and Biological Monitoring Data (STORET). The STORET sys- tem is a data warehouse for water quality data primarily collected by USEPA and other organizations, including state and local envi- ronmental agencies, Native American tribes, and volunteer monitoring organizations. Historically, USGS and USEPA periodically copied water quality data from NWIS into STORET. That approach occasionally caused users to retrieve incorrect or incomplete cop- ies of USGS data from STORET, if NWIS had been updated subsequent to when the copy was stored in STORET. That approach also denied users access to recent data, until a new copy was provided to STORET. A mod- ernized version of STORET was implemented in 1999 that made the periodic copying of data no longer feasible for USGS. Users needing water quality data from both NWIS and STORET had to make separate retriev- als from each system and then reformat and Garcia, M. O., E. H. Haskins, E. M. Stolper, and M. Baker ( 2007), Stratigraphy of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project core ( HSDP2): Anat- omy of a Hawaiian shield volcano, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 8, Q02G20, doi:10.1029/ 2006GC001379. Macdonald, G. A., A. T. Abbott, and F. L. Peterson ( 1983), Volcanoes in the Sea, 517 pp., Univ. of Hawai`i Press, Honolulu. Ozawa, A., T. Tagami, and M. O. Garcia ( 2005), Unspiked K- Ar ages of Honolulu rejuvenated and Koolau shield volcanism on Oahu, Hawaii, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 232, 1–11. Robinson, J. E., and B. W. Eakins, ( 2006), Calcu- lated volumes of individual shield volcanoes at the young end of the Hawaiian Ridge, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 151, 309–317. Smith, D. K. ( 1996), Comparison of the shapes and sizes of seafl oor volcanoes on Earth and “pan- cake” domes on Venus, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 73, 47–64. Author Information Michael Garcia, University of Hawai`i at Manoa (UH), Honolulu;  E-mail: mogarcia@ hawaii . edu; Garrett Ito, UH; Dominique Weis, University of British Columbia (UBC), Vancouver, Canada; Dennis Geist, University of Idaho, Moscow; Lisa Swinnard, Todd Bianco, Ashton Flinders, and Brian Taylor, UH; Bruce Appelgate, UH, now at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.; Chuck Blay, The Edge of Kauai Investiga- tions, Kaua` i, Hawaii; Diane Hanano and Inês Nobre Silva, UBC; Terry Naumann, University of Alaska Anchorage; Claude Maerschalk, Univer- sité Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; Karen Harpp and Branden Christensen, Colgate Uni- versity, Hamilton, N. Y.; Linda Sciaroni, Kaua` i Public Schools, Kaua` i, Hawaii; and Taka Tagami and Seiko Yamasaki, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan Fig. 2. Acoustic imagery of the seafloor around the islands of Ni`ihau and Ka`ula. Dark areas on the map indicate strong acoustic return from hard surfaces such as lava; light areas indicate weak acoustic return from relatively soft and thick sediments. U.S. Federal Water  Quality Web Service Collaboration PAGES 543–544Page XXX Eos, Vol. 89, No. 52, 23 December 2008 Page 542 Fig. 1. Bathymetric map of the seafloor around the islands of Kaua`i, Ni`ihau, and Ka`ula, based on new results from the expedition. Inset photos: ( a) R/V Kilo Moana. ( b) JASON2. ( c) Members of the science team.(d) Slab of hollow pillow lava. (e) JASON2 collecting pillow lava with white sponge. (f) South Kaua`i swell columnar jointed outcrop. (g) Mechanical arm of JASON2 collecting pillow lava. (h) Slab of pillow lava lobe shown in Figure 1g. (i) Ka`ula pillow lavas. (j) Outcrop of pillow lavas on ocean floor. (k) Slabbed vesicular pillow lava. (l) Tripod fish. Figures 1d–1f are slabbed rocks or outcrops being sampled by  JASON2 from the east Kaua`i area, Figures 1g–1i are from Ka`ula, and Figures 1j and 1k are from the Middle Bank.


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