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Characterization of transition edge sensors for the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera on the Atacama.. Amiri, Mandana; Burger, Bryce; Halpern, Mark 2008

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Characterization of Transition Edge Sensors for the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope Y. Zhaoa , C. Allenb , M. Amiric , J. W. Appela , E. S. Battistellii,c , B. Burgerc , J. A. Chervenakb , A. J. Dahlena , S. Dennya , M. J. Devlind , S. R. Dickerd , W. B. Doriesee , R. D¨ unnerj,a , T. Essinger-Hilemana , R. P. Fishera , J. W. Fowlera , M. Halpernc , G. C. Hiltone , A. D. Hincksa , K. D. Irwine , N. Jarosika , J. Kleind , J. M. Lauf , T. A. Marriageg , K. L. Martoccih , S. H. Moseleyb , M. D. Niemacka , L. Pagea , L. P. Parkera , A. Sederberga , S. T. Staggsa , O. R. Stryzaka , D. S. Swetzd , E. R. Switzera , R. J. Thorntond , E. J. Wollackb a Dept.  of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA; 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA; c Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1, Canada; d Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; e National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80305, USA; f Dept. of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; g Dept. of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA; h Dept. of Physics, City University of New York, 365 5th Avenue, Suite 6412, New York, NY 10016, USA; i Dept. of Physics, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome, Italy; j Dept. de Astronom´ ıa y Astrof´ısica, Facultad de F´ısica, Pontificia Universidad Cat´olica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22, Chile b Code  ABSTRACT The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) aims to measure the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropies on arcminute scales. The primary receiver for ACT is the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera (MBAC). The MBAC is comprised of three 32×32 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometer arrays, each observing the sky with an independent set of band-defining filters. The MBAC arrays will be the largest pop-up detector arrays fielded, and among the largest TES arrays built. Prior to its assembly into an array and installation into the MBAC, a column of 32 bolometers is tested at ∼ 0.4 K in a quick-turn-around dip probe. In this paper we describe the properties of the ACT bolometers as revealed by data from those tests, emphasizing a characterization that accounts for both the complex impedance and the noise as a function of frequency. Keywords: Transition edge sensor, detector, bolometer, array, complex impedance, noise, cosmology, CMB  1. INTRODUCTION The Atacama Cosmology Telescope is a 6-meter off-axis Gregorian telescope for measuring the cosmic microwave background at arcminute resolutions.1 The ACT project will produce high-resolution millimeter-wave maps of the sky, which can be analyzed to provide measurements of the cosmic microwave background angular power spectrum Send correspondence to yuezhao@princeton.edu (Yue Zhao)  Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors and Instrumentation for Astronomy IV edited by William D. Duncan, Wayne S. Holland, Stafford Withington, Jonas Zmuidzinas Proc. of SPIE Vol. 7020, 70200O, (2008) · 0277-786X/08/$18 · doi: 10.1117/12.789864 Proc. of SPIE Vol. 7020 70200O-1 Downloaded from SPIE Digital Library on 13 Sep 2011 to 137.82.117.28. Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms  at large multipoles to augment the extant data2–5 to improve estimation of such cosmological parameters as the scalar spectral index and its running, the density of baryons, and the scalar-to-tensor ratio.6, 7 When combined with X-ray and optical observations, the millimeter-wave maps will help to determine the equation of state of dark energy, probe the neutrino masses, constrain the time of the formation of the first stars, and reveal details of the growth of gravitationally bound structures in the universe.8 The primary receiver for ACT, the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera, comprises three TES bolometer arrays centered at 145 GHz, 220 GHz, and 280 GHz respectively.9 These three bands span the null of the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich Effect (SZE),10 allowing separation of the primary CMB fluctuations from the SZE, and generation of an unbiased galaxy cluster catalog. Each of the three MBAC arrays consists of 32 column assemblies each containing 32 TES bolometers. The MBAC started observations in 2007 with the first array at 145 GHz.11 The second array at 220 GHz has been completed, and the assembly of the third array at 280 GHz is near completion. Fig. 1 shows a picture of the 220 GHz MBAC bolometer array.  Figure 1. The 220 GHz 32×32 TES bolometer array of the MBAC after the completion of its assembly. The 32 column assemblies, stacked horizontally, sit in a copper mount. The total height of the 32 column assemblies is slightly larger than their width due to the vertical spacing of 170 µm between the two adjacent column assemblies.  Four separate silicon chips are mounted on a silicon circuit board for each column assembly: a TES bolometer chip, a shunt resistor chip with typical resistances of ∼ 0.7 mΩ to voltage bias the TES, an inductor chip to bandlimit the TES response, and a multiplexing chip based on superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). The inductor chips and the multiplexing chips12 were developed at NIST. ACT TES bolometers are pop-up devices13, 14 fabricated in the NASA Goddard Detector Development Laboratory. The shunt chips (also from Goddard) and the multiplexing chips are screened in a 4K dip probe, enabling us to select the best components for the column assemblies. To evaluate the functionality and sensitivity of the detectors, each column assembly is tested in a cryostat called the Super Rapid Dip Probe (SRDP) prior to assembly into an array and installation into the MBAC. The SRDP measurements are made in the dark, with negligible photon power reaching the bolometers. In addition to obtaining essential TES parameters such as current-voltage (I-V ) characteristics, saturation powers, and noise, on a subset of TES bolometers we also perform complex impedance measurements. This is one of a series of papers15–19 in these proceedings which describe technical aspects of ACT: the telescope, the cryogenic camera, the data acquisition, the optical characterization, and the coordination of ACT systems. In this paper we describe the characterization of the ACT bolometers with the SRDP data. We focus on modeling results based on the complex impedance and noise data.  Proc. of SPIE Vol. 7020 70200O-2 Downloaded from SPIE Digital Library on 13 Sep 2011 to 137.82.117.28. Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms  2. MODELING OF ACT TES BOLOMETERS A thermal detector may be modeled as a single lumped heat capacity C connected to a heat bath through a weak thermal link of conductance G,20–22 as shown by Fig. 2(a). In this simple, or ideal, bolometer model the complex impedance and noise properties of a bolometer have been described by a number of authors.23–27 Here we take note that in the small-signal limit, the complex impedance of a simple bolometer traces a semicircle in the complex plane as a function of frequency. In this model, for a typical voltage-biased TES bolometer with strong electrothermal feedback, the current noise at low frequency is dominated by random energy flow between the bolometer and the heat bath (also referred to as phonon noise), and there is a contribution at high frequency from Johnson noise.28, 29  Pbias Ct Gts Pbias C  Ca  Gsa  G  Cs G  HEAT SINK  HEAT SINK  (a)  (b)  Figure 2. Thermal models of a TES bolometer. The simple model is shown on the left, and the extended model used to describe the ACT bolometers (whose complex impedance is described by Eq. (1)) is shown on the right. The parameters are defined in the text.  The above model can be extended to more complicated bolometers. In particular, the ACT bolometers exhibit behavior in complex impedance and noise that cannot be explained by the simple TES model, as shown by the measured complex impedance and noise data in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4. Each ACT bolometer has a 75 µm × 75 µm thin-film MoAu bilayer deposited on a 1 mm square of 1 µm thick silicon substrate. The MoAu bilayer is tuned to have a critical temperature around 0.5 K and a typical normal resistance between 20 and 30 mΩ. The silicon substrate is implanted with ions to absorb radiation power. Each bolometer is heat sunk through four legs made from the 1 µm thick silicon substrate. We present data below for a bolometer with a leg width of 13 µm. The three arrays for ACT have different saturation power and noise requirements, thus ACT uses bolometers with a variety of leg widths, from 5 to 20 µm. A Mo-Nb-Mo superconducting trilayer comprises the wiring to each TES. The silicon legs and the wiring of each TES are folded into a plane perpendicular to the absorber area (hence the name “pop-up detector”). We propose a thermal model for the ACT bolometers. This thermal model, which is depicted in Fig. 2(b), includes the TES MoAu bilayer heat capacity Ct at temperature Tt , the combined silicon substrate and ion implant heat capacity Cs at temperature Ts , a stray heat capacity Ca at temperature Ta , and the heat sink at temperature Tb . These components are connected by thermal links of different conductances as shown. The inclusion of the stray heat capacity Ca greatly improves the fit of the model to the data, as Fig. 3 shows. An attempt to assign an appropriate physical interpretation to the stray heat capacity is given in the conclusion section. For power Pij flowing from element i to element j, we consider the form Pij  nij  = Kij Ti  nij  − Tj  ,  where Ti and Tj are the temperatures of the elements i and j respectively and Kij and nij are constants. The elements to be considered include the TES bilayer t, the silicon substrate (with implant) s, the stray heat capacity  Proc. of SPIE Vol. 7020 70200O-3 Downloaded from SPIE Digital Library on 13 Sep 2011 to 137.82.117.28. Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms  TES Complex impedance Tbath=0.39 K  R/R =12%  N  N  N  R/R =31%  R/R =52%  −0.005  N  0  R/R =72%  R/RN=92%  0.005  25600 Hz  25 Hz 6400 Hz  Im[Z  TES  ] (Ohm)  −0.01 −0.015 1600 Hz  −0.02 100 Hz −0.025 −0.03 −0.035 400 Hz −0.04 −0.03  −0.02  −0.01 Re[Z  0 ] (Ohm)  0.01  0.02  0.03  TES  Figure 3. An example of the model described by Fig. 2(b) fit to complex impedance data from an ACT bolometer. The complex impedance data (dots) were taken at five TES operating resistances at a bath temperature of approximately 0.39 K. For each TES operating resistance, each dot represents the complex impedance at a different frequency. The model predictions (solid curves) use the global fit parameters listed in Table 1 at this bath temperature. The operating resistance for each of the five curves is printed at the top. We choose six representative frequencies and label them by solid circles on each of the model prediction curves; the values of these six frequencies are shown on the prediction curve for the highest operating resistance. The corresponding frequencies for the data are labeled by empty squares. The best global fit using a model described by Fig. 2(b) without the stray heat capacity (dashed curve with frequency evolution labeled by empty diamonds) is also shown for the highest operating resistance. The noise data of this ACT bolometer at the same bath temperature is shown in Fig. 4.  a, and the thermal bath b. We furthermore define the associated thermal conductances as Giij j  Gij  ∂ n −1 P = nij Kij Ti ij , ∂Ti ij ∂ n −1 = − P = nij Kij Tj ij . ∂Tj ij =  We assume that the equilibrium temperatures of the substrate and the stray heat capacity are equal, as in the case of zero net power flow between the substrate and the stray heat capacity. Because Gssa and Gasa are then equal when evaluated at the corresponding equilibrium temperatures, we ignore their superscripts and denote both of them by Gsa . In addition, because the bath temperature is fixed and thus Gb sb does not affect detector dynamics, we will write Gssb as G for simplicity. We assume that the absorbed radiation power is zero. Note that, if we map the TES MoAu bilayer to the TES electron system, the silicon substrate to the TES lattice system, and the stray heat capacity to the absorber, we get exactly the situation discussed in Galeazzi & McCammon 200326 for a bolometer with electron-lattice decoupling and lattice-absorber decoupling. We simply transform Eq. (110) in Galeazzi & McCammon 2003 as the ZTES in our model:  Proc. of SPIE Vol. 7020 70200O-4 Downloaded from SPIE Digital Library on 13 Sep 2011 to 137.82.117.28. Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms  ZTES (ω) R(β + 1)  G + Gsts + iωCs (1 + iωτa ) + iωCa = G + Gsts + iωCs (1 + iωτa ) + iωCa  Pα − Gtts Gsts (1 + iωτa ) Tt (β + 1) , (1) Pα − Gtts Gsts (1 + iωτa ) Gtts + iωCt − Tt  Gtts + iωCt +  where P is the bias power dissipated in the TES bilayer, R = R(Tt , I) is the TES operating resistance, I is the current through the TES, τa = Ca /Gsa is the stray heat capacity time constant, and α, β are logarithmic derivatives: ∂R T I ∂R α= t , and β = . R ∂Tt R ∂I  3. EXPERIMENTS AND ANALYSIS 3  The SRDP is a He dip probe refrigeration system to cool the TES thermal bath of a single column assembly from room temperature to ∼ 0.4 K in three hours.30 We use the SRDP to collect data for each of the approximately 100 columns needed for the three ACT arrays. For each bolometer on a column assembly, we acquire SQUID V-φ curves to evaluate the multiplexing chip’s performance, TES I-V curve to determine TES operating current, resistance and bias power as a function of applied TES bias voltage, TES noise spectra at multiple operating resistances, and noise spectrum when the TES is superconducting; this last measurement is used to extract the shunt resistance and the inductance in the TES loop from the observed Johnson noise level and its lowpassed filter response.31 We also measure the TES critical temperature. For a subset of TES bolometers, we measure their I-V curves at multiple bath temperatures to obtain the parameters Ksb , nsb and Tt , assuming Kts is large so that Tt ≈ Ts . For some of these TES bolometers, we also measure the TES transfer functions, complex impedances and noise spectra at different operating resistances and different bath temperatures. We use an HP 35670A spectrum analyzer to collect TES transfer functions, complex impedances and noise spectra. We fit the model described by Fig. 2(b) to the complex impedance data, and compares the noise data to the predictions derived from the parameters extracted from the complex impedance fit. Following Lindeman et al 2007,32 we construct a Thevenin equivalent circuit to extract the TES complex impedance. The free parameters in the fit of the model to the impedance data are α, β, Ct , Cs , Kts , Ca and Ksa . In a global fit, we allow α, β, Ct to vary at different TES operating resistances and bath temperatures, while keeping Cs , Kts , Ca , Ksa fixed. We assume that phonon transfer is the main heat transfer mechanism among the different components in the thermal circuit. We also fix nts = 4 and nsa = 4, as in the case where phonons make no collisions over the connecting path between the two corresponding bodies.33 When evaluating Eq. (1) during the fit, we calculate Ts , Gtts , Gsts from Tt , Kts , nts , Pts ; Gsa from Ts , Ksa , nsa ; and G from Ts , Ksb , nsb . If we choose nts and nsa differently, Kts and Ksa will change accordingly to keep Gtts , Gsts , Gsa , Ts , and hence G, approximately unchanged, while α, β, Ct , Cs , Ca will also largely remain fixed. The thermal conductances Gtts , Gsts , Gsa , G and the parameters α, β, Ct , Cs , Ca enter the calculation of complex impedance directly. Therefore the complex impedance fit is not sensitive to this particular choice of nts and nsa . The extracted Kts is much larger than Ksb . Hence Ts is close to Tt . Because of the robustness of the thermal conductance calculations described above and the small differences among Tt , Ts and Ta , our noise calculation is also insensitive to this particular choice of nts and nsa .34 Changing the heat transfer mechanism between the TES bilayer and the silicon substrate or between the silicon substrate and the stray heat capacity to electron-phonon decoupling only slightly changes the noise calculation.35  4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Table 1 summarizes the parameters extracted from the fit of the model described by Fig. 2(b) to complex impedance data taken at different TES operating resistances at two different bath temperatures on a particular ACT bolometer. Although we describe here the model fit on just one ACT bolometer, we have obtained qualitatively similar results on eight ACT bolometers in three column assemblies for which sufficient complex  Proc. of SPIE Vol. 7020 70200O-5 Downloaded from SPIE Digital Library on 13 Sep 2011 to 137.82.117.28. Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms  R/Rn , Tbath (K)  12%, 0.317  31%, 0.317  52%, 0.318  72%, 0.318  93%, 0.318  α  176 (169)  136 (124)  113 (109)  95 (95)  67 (68)  β  2.47 (2.40)  0.80 (0.78)  0.30 (0.29)  0.09 (0.09)  -0.01 (0.00)  Ct (pJ/K)  0.33 (0.30)  0.33 (0.29)  0.33 (0.31)  0.33 (0.32)  0.32 (0.33)  R/Rn , Tbath (K)  12%, 0.393  31%, 0.394  52%, 0.394  72%, 0.394  92%, 0.394  α  236 (188)  178 (172)  132 (139)  106 (111)  81 (82)  β  2.95 (2.90)  0.97 (0.95)  0.31 (0.31)  0.07 (0.08)  -0.03 (-0.03)  Ct (pJ/K)  0.32 (0.25)  0.32 (0.30)  0.33 (0.34)  0.32 (0.35)  0.31 (0.33)  Cs (pJ/K) 4  1.30 (1.22± 0.17)  Kts (nW/K )  15.5 (15.5± 1.0)  Ca (pJ/K)  0.96 (0.93± 0.06)  4  Ksa (nW/K )  4.2 (4.7± 1.0)  Table 1. An instance of the extracted parameters from fitting the model described by Fig. 2(b) to the complex impedance data of an ACT bolometer. The first four rows in this table are for a bath temperature of approximately 0.32 K, and the next four rows are for a bath temperature of approximately 0.39 K. The complex impedance data with model fits and the noise data with predictions of this ACT bolometer at the bath temperature of 0.39 K are shown in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4. As described in the text, results from other ACT bolometers are qualitatively similar. For each fit parameter, the table gives two estimates to illustrate robustness. The first comes from the global fit described in the text. The parenthetical estimate comes from refitting all the parameters at each specified bath temperature and TES operating resistance combination. For the parenthetical estimates of Cs , Kts , Ca and Ksa , we list their averages and standard deviations across the two bath temperatures and all TES operating resistances, instead of giving their values at each individual bath temperature and operating resistance combination. The extracted parameters in this table have not been verified by independent measurements and can be far from their expectations, as discussed in the text.  impedance and noise data have been acquired. Fig. 3 shows the complex impedance data with its fit at one of these two bath temperatures, and Fig. 4 compares the noise data to the predictions derived from the parameters extracted from the complex impedance fit at the same bath temperature. To estimate the error on the extracted parameters, we also fit the model to complex impedance data at each combination of TES operating resistance and bath temperature, and compare the resulting parameters to those from the global fit. The parameters obtained from these two different methods agree to approximately 10% in most cases, as indicated by Table 1. The complex impedance fits show reasonable agreement with the data from 10 Hz to 10 kHz, and the noise predictions are in general accurate in the same frequency band. The random energy flow between the silicon substrate and the heat bath is insufficient to account for all the noise in the frequency band of interest to ACT, from ∼ 1 Hz to ∼ 100 Hz.36 At present, the detector model predicts that the excess noise in this frequency band is due to random energy flow between the TES bilayer and the silicon substrate, as well as between the silicon substrate and the stray heat capacity. Several of the extracted parameters are far from their expectations, suggesting that the current physical interpretation of the model may be flawed. For instance, the fit results in an extracted thermal conductance Gtts between the TES bilayer and the silicon substrate of approximately 6 nW/K. This value is at least an order of magnitude smaller than the expected combination of the TES electron-lattice decoupling and the Kapitza resistance between the TES lattice system and the silicon substrate.37 However, this relatively small Gtts is necessary to explain the peak in the noise data at ∼ 2 kHz. The discrepancy between the extracted thermal conductance Gtts and the calculated one indicates that the TES bilayer-silicon substrate thermal coupling in the ACT bolometers is not as tight as we expected, or that the decoupling suggested by the model is not between the TES bilayer and the silicon substrate as in the current interpretation, among other possibilities. We also note that the sum of the silicon substrate and the stray heat capacity extracted from the complex  Proc. of SPIE Vol. 7020 70200O-6 Downloaded from SPIE Digital Library on 13 Sep 2011 to 137.82.117.28. Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms  −19  x 10  R/R =12%, T N  data total predicted noise TES Johnson noise shunt Johnson noise TES−substrate noise substrate−stray noise substrate−bath noise  3 2 1 0  1  10 −19  Current noise (A2/Hz)  2  3  10  10  4  10  −20  x 10  7  R/RN=31%, Tbath=0.394 K  1.2 1  5 4  0.6  3  0.4  2  0.2  1 1  10  2  3  10  10  x 10  R/RN=52%, Tbath=0.394 K  6  0.8  0  =0.393 K  bath  4  4  0  1  10  10  −20  2  3  10  10  4  10  −20  x 10  x 10 2.5  R/RN=72%, Tbath=0.394 K  4  R/RN=92%, Tbath=0.394 K  2 3 1.5 2 1 1 0  0.5  1  10  2  10  3  10  4  10  0  1  10  Frequency (Hz)  2  10  3  10  4  10  Frequency (Hz)  Figure 4. Comparison of noise data to predictions derived from the parameters extracted from the complex impedance fit at a bath temperature of approximately 0.39 K for the bolometer described in Table 1 and Fig. 3. The decomposition of the predicted noise into different contributors is also shown. In particular, “TES-substrate noise”, “substrate-stray noise” and “substrate-bath noise” represent the noise contributed by random power flows between the corresponding components in the thermal circuit described by Fig. 2(b). The noise data shown have been smoothed.  impedance fit, which is around 2 pJ/K, is larger than the expected heat capacity of approximately 1 pJ/K of the silicon substrate with ion implant. In addition, the extracted heat capacity of the TES bilayer is approximately two to three times higher than the current estimate. We have postulated several candidates for the origin of the additional heat capacity unaccounted for by our calculation, such as the silicon legs or the TES wiring, but at present we have no data to support these ideas. We have also implemented other models for the ACT bolometers, such as thermal circuits with only two separate heat capacities, and another thermal circuit with three heat capacities, one of which is a heat capacity on the silicon legs instead of a stray heat capacity connected to the silicon substrate. The two-heat-capacity models do not fit the complex impedance data well, independent of which heat capacity we designate as the TES bilayer. One example of a complex impedance fit of a two-heat-capacity model described by Fig. 2(b) without the stray heat capacity is shown in Fig. 3. The fits of the model to complex impedance data and the total noise predictions in the the heat-capacity-on-the-leg case are almost identical to those obtained in the model described by Fig. 2(b).  Proc. of SPIE Vol. 7020 70200O-7 Downloaded from SPIE Digital Library on 13 Sep 2011 to 137.82.117.28. Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms  5. CONCLUSIONS AND PLANS We have described a model for the ACT bolometers. This model explains our observed TES complex impedance and noise behavior reasonably well. However, several extracted parameters from the model fit are far from expectations, suggesting that the real physical interpretation of the model may be missing. We plan to carry out several concrete experiments to seek a better understanding of the model. For example, we plan to test TES bolometers with different heat capacity configurations, such as a TES bolometer with a silicon substrate not implanted with ions (which should result in significantly reduced heat capacity of the silicon substrate). Examining what modifications these configurations introduce to the parameters extracted from the complex impedance fit could help to determine the origin of the stray heat capacity and to break the degeneracy between the model described by Fig. 2(b) and the alternate heat-capacity-on-the-leg model described above. We also plan to test a TES bolometer whose silicon substrate is directly heat sunk to the heat bath (instead of through the silicon legs) to extract the thermal conductance between the TES bilayer and the silicon substrate and to explore the cause of the unexpectedly small value of this thermal conductance in the current model fit. Several of the bolometers for which we have made fits to complex impedance data are now in the MBAC. We plan to measure their time constants – their current response to changing voltage bias or optical power as a function of frequency. Because our thermal model predicts different time constants for the different components in the TES thermal circuit (in particular the TES bilayer in which bias power is dissipated and the implant layer in which photon power is absorbed), comparing the predicted time constants to the measured ones could help us appropriately interpret the TES model. The insights we gain through a sound TES model may inform future TES bolometer designs.  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work is supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation through awards AST-0408698 and PHY-0355328. Princeton University and the University of Pennsylvania also provided financial support.  REFERENCES [1] Fowler, J. W., “The Atacama Cosmology Telescope Project,” in [Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy II], Zmuidzinas, J., Holland, W. S., and Withington, S., eds., Proc. SPIE 5498, 1–10 (2004). [2] Hinshaw, G., Weiland, J. L., Hill, R. S., Odegard, N., Larson, D., Bennett, C. L., Dunkley, J., Gold, B., Greason, M. R., Jarosik, N., Komatsu, E., Nolta, M. R., Page, L., Spergel, D. N., Wollack, E., Halpern, M., Kogut, A., Limon, M., Meyer, S. S., Tucker, G. S., and Wright, E. L., “Five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) observations: Data processing, sky maps, and basic results,” ArXiv e-prints 803 (2008). [3] Mason, B. S., Pearson, T. 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