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Airborne endotoxin exposures to grain elevator workers is independent of dust concentration (presentation) Bartlett, Karen H. 2008

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Airborne endotoxin exposures to grain elevator workers is independent of dust concentration Karen H. Bartlett, Helen Dimich-Ward, Moira Chan-Yeung and Susan M. Kennedy Terminal grain elevators Farant & Moore AIHAJ 1978; 39:177-194.Photo credit: Yat Chow Pre-1975: Canadian grain elevator dust „ 17 terminal-transfer grain elevators „ 19 Occupational exposure groups „ Total dust range 0.4 – 412 mg/m3 – (434 Personal dust samples) „ Explosion hazard ! „ Exposure limit 10 mg/m3 Farant & Moore AIHAJ 1978; 39(3):177-194 Post 1975: UBC & Labour Canada collaboration „ UBC Respiratory Health Research group: Medical surveillance „ Labour Canada: exposure monitoring of grain elevator workers „ 1975 – 2003, every third year „ 5 terminal grain elevators in Port of Vancouver (every sampling period), 1 terminal grain elevator in Prince Rupert (not 2003) Dust control: Vancouver terminal grain elevators Total grain dust (personal samples) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 Year G M  m g / m 3 Adapted from Huy  Am Rev Respir Dis 1991; 144:1314-21 Health effects: grain dust „ Grain dust – Asthma – Acute airway reactivity – Chronic airway reactivity – Bronchitis – Progressive irreversible airflow obstruction Health effects: grain dust and/or endotoxin „ Grain dust – Asthma – Acute airway reactivity – Chronic airway reactivity – Bronchitis – Progressive irreversible airflow obstruction „ Endotoxin – Cough – Chest tightness – Shortness of breath – Longitudinal decline in PFT Image: CCHSA 2006; II:2Jagielo Chest 1996;110:263-270 Post 1996: UBC & Terminal Elevators Assoc. „ UBC School of Environmental Hygiene added endotoxin analysis in 1996 sampling period „ Side-by-side total (~ 30 um da) and inhalable (100 um da) grain dust sampling in 1999 „ Randomized total and inhalable dust and endotoxin in 2003. Types of grain handled (% of day) 1996 Types of grain handled (% of day) 2003 1996: Grain handled (% of day) Oats, 0.2 Other, 5.1 Rye, 0.2 Canola, 11.1 Barley, 11.5 Wheat, 71.9 2003: Grain handled (% of day) Canola, 46.6 Barley, 9.4 Wheat, 21.7 Oats, 0.12 Rye, 0 Other, 22.18 Measured personal dust and endotoxin Personal dust GM mg/m3 (GSD) Personal endotoxin GM EU/m3 (GSD)  n 1996 n 2003 n 1996 n 2003 Terminal  elevator      1      2      3      4      5      6   61 67 67 60 53 68   0.79 (3.9) 0.68 (2.8) 0.47 (3.4) 0.69 (3.7) 0.68 (5.4) 0.53 (4.4)   22 17 22 21 NT 19   0.26 (4.4) 0.62 (2.1) 0.38 (3.6) 0.57 (7.5)  0.38 (5.4)   61 67 62 60 53 68   197 (17.8) 93  (15.2) 115 (20.2) 126 (19.0) 91 (19.5) 91 (15.4)   22 17 22 21 NT 19   87  (4.3) 191 (2.1) 127 (4.0) 253 (9.9)  121 (9.5)  Measured total (personal) dust and endotoxin Personal dust GM mg/m3 (GSD) Personal endotoxin GM EU/m3 (GSD)  n 1996 n 2003 n 1996 n 2003 Terminal  elevator      1      2      3      4      5      6   61 67 67 60 53 68   0.79 (3.9) 0.68 (2.8) 0.47 (3.4) 0.69 (3.7) 0.68 (5.4) 0.53 (4.4)   22 17 22 21 NT 19   0.26 (4.4) 0.62 (2.1) 0.38 (3.6) 0.57 (7.5)  0.38 (5.4)   61 67 62 60 53 68   197 (17.8) 93  (15.2) 115 (20.2) 126 (19.0) 91 (19.5) 91 (15.4)   22 17 22 21 NT 19   87  (4.3) 191 (2.1) 127 (4.0) 253 (9.9)  121 (9.5)  NS Measured total (personal) dust and endotoxin Personal dust GM mg/m3 (GSD) Personal endotoxin GM EU/m3 (GSD)  n 1996 n 2003 n 1996 n 2003 Terminal  elevator      1      2      3      4      5      6   61 67 67 60 53 68   0.79 (3.9) 0.68 (2.8) 0.47 (3.4) 0.69 (3.7) 0.68 (5.4) 0.53 (4.4)   22 17 22 21 NT 19   0.26 (4.4) 0.62 (2.1) 0.38 (3.6) 0.57 (7.5)  0.38 (5.4)   61 67 62 60 53 68   197 (17.8) 93  (15.2) 115 (20.2) 126 (19.0) 91 (19.5) 91 (15.4)   22 17 22 21 NT 19   87  (4.3) 191 (2.1) 127 (4.0) 253 (9.9)  121 (9.5)  p = 0.007 N S Job titles „ 18 job titles „ 7 job groups – Panel control operator/QC operator – Grain inspector/house inspector – Pellet plant/trackshed/switchman – Cleaner – Trades: Electrician/sheetmetal/millwright – Distributor/bintop/basement/annex/gallery – Sweeper/general labourer Grain dust by job group 1 pco/qco 2 inspectors 3 pellet plant 4 cleaner 5 trades 6 distributor 7 sweeper Total (personal) grain dust 1996 vs 2003 Job groups 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 G M  d u s t  m g / m 3 0 2 4 6 8 10 1996 2003 Endotoxin by job group 1 pco/qco 2 inspectors 3 pellet plant 4 cleaner 5 trades 6 distributor 7 sweeper Total (personal) endotoxin 1996 vs 2003 Job groups 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 G M  e n d o t o x i n  E U / m 3 1 10 100 1000 10000 1996 2003 Determinants of total (personal) exposure to dust or endotoxin ln dust mg/m3 ln endotoxin EU/m3 Variable Direction Std. coeff. p Direction Std. coeff. p Job category      Inspectors      Pco/Qco      Trades      Distributor      Sweeper      Cleaner      (baseline pellet plant)  ↓ ↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑   - 0.081 - 0.149 + 0.186 + 0.124 + 0.219 + 0.215   0.076  0.001 <0.001  0.010 <0.001 <0.001  ↓ ↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑   - 0.103 - 0.175 + 0.176 + 0.129 + 0.220 + 0.248 0.019 <0.001 0.001 0.006 <0.001 <0.001 Time spent during day      Sweeping      Maintenance      Outside  ↑ ↑ ↓  + 0.259 + 0.188 - 0.106 <0.001 <0.001 0.009  ↑ ↑ ↓  + 0.295 + 0.174 - 0.077 <0.001 <0.001 0.048 Sampling year 1996 ↑ + 0.155 <0.001 NA 0 NS  R2 for model 0.364 <0.001 0.412 <0.001  Total vs. inhalable grain dust by job group 1 pco/qco 2 inspectors 3 pellet plant 4 cleaner 5 trades 6 distributor 7 sweeper Total vs. inhalable (personal) grain dust - 2003 Job groups 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 G M  g r a i n  d u s t  m g / m 3 0 2 4 6 8 10 Total Inhalable Total vs. inhalable endotoxin by job group 1 pco/qco 2 inspectors 3 pellet plant 4 cleaner 5 trades 6 distributor 7 sweeper Total vs. inhalable (personal) endotoxin - 2003 Job groups 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 G M  e n d o t o x i n  E U / m 3 1 10 100 1000 10000 Total Inhalable Conclusions „ There was no significant differences in total or inhalable dust, or total or inhalable endotoxin between grain elevators. „ Geometric mean total particulate (personal) exposures were significantly lower in the 2003 than the 1996 sampling period. „ Total particulate means << 10 mg/m3 for all job groups. Conclusions „ Overall geometric mean total endotoxin (personal) was not significantly different for 2003 compared to the 1996 sampling period. „ Only 3 of 7 job groups had geometric mean endotoxin concentrations below 200 EU/m3. Conclusions „ Job groups and performing tasks of sweeping and maintenance were significant predictors of endotoxin concentration. „ Personal total and inhalable endotoxin is an independent inhalation hazard. Acknowledgements „ The study was funded in part by the Vancouver Terminal Elevators Association. „ The authors thank Yat Chow and Ron Do for conducting the exposure monitoring.

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