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Airborne endotoxin exposures to grain elevator workers is independent of dust concentration (presentation) Bartlett, Karen H.; Dimich-Ward, Helen; Chan-Yeung, Moira; Kennedy, Susan M. 2006

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Airborne Airborne endotoxinendotoxin exposures to grain exposures to grain elevator workers is elevator workers is independent of dust independent of dust concentrationconcentrationKaren H. Bartlett, Karen H. Bartlett, Helen Helen DimichDimich--Ward, Moira ChanWard, Moira Chan--Yeung Yeung and Susan M. Kennedyand Susan M. KennedyTerminal grain elevatorsTerminal grain elevatorsFarant & Moore AIHAJ1978; 39:177-194.Photo credit: Yat ChowPrePre--1975: Canadian grain 1975: Canadian grain elevator dustelevator dust??17 terminal17 terminal--transfer grain elevatorstransfer grain elevators??19 Occupational exposure groups19 Occupational exposure groups??Total dust range 0.4 Total dust range 0.4 ??412 mg/m412 mg/m3?? (434 Personal dust samples)(434 Personal dust samples)??Explosion hazard !Explosion hazard !??Exposure limit 10 mg/mExposure limit 10 mg/m3Farant & Moore AIHAJ1978; 39(3):177-194Post 1975: UBC & Post 1975: UBC & LabourLabour Canada collaborationCanada collaboration??UBC Respiratory Health Research group:  UBC Respiratory Health Research group:  Medical surveillance Medical surveillance ??LabourLabourCanada: exposure monitoring of Canada: exposure monitoring of grain elevator workersgrain elevator workers??1975 1975 ??2003, every third year2003, every third year??5 terminal grain elevators in Port of 5 terminal grain elevators in Port of Vancouver (every sampling period), 1 Vancouver (every sampling period), 1 terminal grain elevator in Prince Rupert (not terminal grain elevator in Prince Rupert (not 2003)2003)Dust control: Vancouver Dust control: Vancouver terminal grain elevatorsterminal grain elevatorsTotal grain dust (personal samples)0246810121474757677787980818283848586878889YearGAdapted from Huy  Am  Rev  Dis1991; 144:1314-21Health effects: grain dustHealth effects: grain dust??Grain dustGrain dust?Asthma?Acute airway  reactivity?Chronic airway  reactivity?Bronchitis?Progressive  irreversible airflow  obstructionHealth effects: grain dust Health effects: grain dust and/or and/or endotoxinendotoxin??Grain dustGrain dust?Asthma?Acute airway  reactivity?Chronic airway  reactivity?Bronchitis?Progressive  irreversible airflow  obstruction??EndotoxinEndotoxin?Cough?Chest tightness?Shortness of breath?Longitudinal decline  in PFTImage: CCHSA2006; II:2Jagielo Chest1996;110:263-270Post 1996: UBC & Post 1996: UBC & Terminal Elevators Assoc.Terminal Elevators Assoc.??UBC School of Environmental Hygiene UBC School of Environmental Hygiene added added endotoxinendotoxinanalysis in 1996 analysis in 1996 sampling periodsampling period??SideSide--byby--side total (~ 30 um side total (~ 30 um dda) and ) and inhalableinhalable(100 um (100 um dda) grain dust ) grain dust sampling in 1999sampling in 1999??Randomized total and Randomized total and inhalableinhalabledust dust and and endotoxinendotoxinin 2003.in 2003.Types of grain handled   (% of day) 1996Types of grain handled  (% of day) 20031996: Grain handled (% of day)Oats, 0.2Other, 5.1Rye, 0.2Canola, 11.1Barley, 11.5Wheat, 71.92003: Grain handled (% of day)Canola, 46.6Barley, 9.4Wheat, 21.7Oats, 0.12Rye, 0Other, 22.18Measured personal dust Measured personal dust and and endotoxin endotoxin Personal dust  GM mg/m3 (GSD) Personal endotoxin GM EU/m3 (GSD)  n 1996 n 2003 n 1996 n 2003  Terminal  elevator      1      2      3       4       5      6   61 67 67 60 53 68   0.79 (3.9) 0.68 (2.8) 0.47 (3.4) 0.69 (3.7) 0.68 (5.4) 0.53 (4.4)   22 17 22 21 NT 19   0.26 (4.4) 0.62 (2.1) 0.38 (3.6) 0.57 (7.5)  0.38 (5.4)  61 67 62 60 53 68   197 (17.8)93  (15.2) 115 (20.2)126 (19.0)91 (19.5) 91 (15.4)   22 17 22 21 NT 19   87  (4.3) 191 (2.1) 127 (4.0) 253 (9.9)  121 (9.5)   Measured total (personal) Measured total (personal) dust and dust and endotoxin endotoxin Personal dust  GM mg/m3 (GSD) Personal endotoxin GM EU/m3 (GSD)  n 1996 n 2003 n 1996 n 2003  Terminal  elevator      1      2      3       4       5      6   61 67 67 60 53 68   0.79 (3.9) 0.68 (2.8) 0.47 (3.4) 0.69 (3.7) 0.68 (5.4) 0.53 (4.4)   22 17 22 21 NT 19   0.26 (4.4) 0.62 (2.1) 0.38 (3.6) 0.57 (7.5)  0.38 (5.4)  61 67 62 60 53 68   197 (17.8)93  (15.2) 115 (20.2)126 (19.0)91 (19.5) 91 (15.4)   22 17 22 21 NT 19   87  (4.3) 191 (2.1) 127 (4.0) 253 (9.9)  121 (9.5)   NSMeasured total (personal) Measured total (personal) dust and dust and endotoxin endotoxin Personal dust  GM mg/m3 (GSD) Personal endotoxin GM EU/m3 (GSD)  n 1996 n 2003 n 1996 n 2003  Terminal  elevator      1      2      3       4       5      6   61 67 67 60 53 68   0.79 (3.9) 0.68 (2.8) 0.47 (3.4) 0.69 (3.7) 0.68 (5.4) 0.53 (4.4)   22 17 22 21 NT 19   0.26 (4.4) 0.62 (2.1) 0.38 (3.6) 0.57 (7.5)  0.38 (5.4)  61 67 62 60 53 68   197 (17.8)93  (15.2) 115 (20.2)126 (19.0)91 (19.5) 91 (15.4)   22 17 22 21 NT 19   87  (4.3) 191 (2.1) 127 (4.0) 253 (9.9)  121 (9.5)   p = 0.007N SJob titlesJob titles??18 job titles18 job titles??7 job groups7 job groups?Panel control operator/QC operator?Grain inspector/house inspector?Pellet plant/trackshed/switchman?Cleaner?Trades: Electrician/sheetmetal/millwright?Distributor/bintop/basement/annex/gallery?Sweeper/general labourerGrain dust by job groupGrain dust by job group1 pco/qco2 inspectors3 pellet plant4 cleaner5 trades6 distributor7 sweeperTotal (personal) grain dust 1996 vs 2003Job groups012345678GM302468101996 2003EndotoxinEndotoxin by job groupby job group1 pco/qco2 inspectors3 pellet plant4 cleaner5 trades6 distributor7 sweeperTotal (personal) endotoxin 1996 vs 2003Job groups012345678G31101001000100001996 2003Determinants of total Determinants of total (personal) exposure to dust (personal) exposure to dust or or endotoxinendotoxinln dust mg/m3 ln endotoxin EU/m3 Variable DirectionStd. coeff.p DirectionStd. coeff.p  Job category      Inspectors      Pco/Qco      Trades      Distributor      Sweeper      Cleaner      (baseline pellet plant)   ? ? ? ? ? ?   - 0.081 - 0.149 + 0.186 + 0.124 + 0.219 + 0.215   0.076 0.001<0.001 0.010<0.001<0.001 ? ? ? ? ? ?   - 0.103 - 0.175 + 0.176 + 0.129 + 0.220 + 0.248 0.019<0.0010.0010.006<0.001<0.001 Time spent during day      Sweeping      Maintenance      Outside       ? ? ?  + 0.259 + 0.188 - 0.106 <0.001<0.0010.009 ? ? ?  + 0.295 + 0.174 - 0.077 <0.001<0.0010.048 Sampling year 1996 ? + 0.155 <0.001NA 0 NS  R2 for model 0.364 <0.0010.412 <0.001 Total vs. Total vs. inhalableinhalable grain grain dust by job groupdust by job group1 pco/qco2 inspectors3 pellet plant4 cleaner5 trades6 distributor7 sweeperTotal vs. inhalable (personal) grain dust - 2003Job groups012345678G30246810Total InhalableTotal vs. Total vs. inhalableinhalable endotoxinendotoxin by job groupby job group1 pco/qco2 inspectors3 pellet plant4 cleaner5 trades6 distributor7 sweeperTotal vs. inhalable (personal) endotoxin - 2003Job groups012345678G3110100100010000Total InhalableConclusionsConclusions??There was no significant differences in total There was no significant differences in total or or inhalableinhalabledust, or total or dust, or total or inhalableinhalableendotoxinendotoxinbetween grain elevators.between grain elevators.??Geometric mean total particulate (personal) Geometric mean total particulate (personal) exposures were significantly lower in the exposures were significantly lower in the 2003 than the 1996 sampling period.2003 than the 1996 sampling period.??Total particulate means << 10 mg/mTotal particulate means << 10 mg/m3for all for all job groups. job groups. ConclusionsConclusions??Overall geometric mean total Overall geometric mean total endotoxinendotoxin(personal) was not (personal) was not significantly different for 2003 significantly different for 2003 compared to the 1996 sampling compared to the 1996 sampling period.period.??Only 3 of 7 job groups had geometric Only 3 of 7 job groups had geometric mean mean endotoxinendotoxinconcentrations below concentrations below 200 EU/m200 EU/m3. . ConclusionsConclusions??Job groups and performing tasks of Job groups and performing tasks of sweeping and maintenance were sweeping and maintenance were significant predictors of significant predictors of endotoxinendotoxinconcentration.concentration.??Personal total and Personal total and inhalableinhalableendotoxinendotoxinis an independent inhalation hazard.is an independent inhalation hazard.AcknowledgementsAcknowledgements??The study was funded in part by the The study was funded in part by the Vancouver Terminal Elevators Vancouver Terminal Elevators Association.Association.??The authors thank The authors thank YatYatChow and Ron Chow and Ron Do for conducting the exposure Do for conducting the exposure monitoring.monitoring.

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