UBC Faculty Research and Publications

UBC School of Nursing research & teaching scholarship report : 10 years in review 2000-2010 Oliffe, John L.; Hughes, Merrilee A. 2011

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UBC School of Nursing Research & Teaching Scholarship Report 10 YEARS IN REVIEW 2000-2010  December 2011 Written by  John L. Oliffe Merrilee A. Hughes  Over the last decade, UBC School of Nursing faculty and students submitted 856 grant applications to various funding agencies. Included in Table 1 are research, career, and team grant submissions to internal (i.e., UBC), provincial (e.g., MSFHR, Vancouver Foundation), national (e.g., CIHR, SSHRC, NCIC) and international (NIH) competitions. The Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR) attracted the largest number of UBC School of Nursing grant proposals. Table 1 – Total Grants Submitted From UBC School of Nursing Faculty and Students , 2000 - 2010 (N = 856) Internal UBC School of Nursing  87  10%  UBC Funds (Hampton, Humanities & Social Sciences, M.Piper)  40  5%  UBC Operating Budget  14  2%  UBC Faculty of Applied Science  14  2%  UBC VP Research Office  6  1%  Internal (n=161)  19% of total grants  Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research (MSFHR)  112  13%  BC Medical Services Foundation (BCMSF)  36  4%  BC Health Authorities – VCHA, FHA, NHA, PHSA  18  2%  BC Government Ministries  13  2%  BC Health Research Foundation  7  1%  Alzheimer Society  6  1%  BC Children’s Hospital  5  1%  Provincial (n=197)  23% of total grants  Provincial  National & International Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR)  281  33%  National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC)  34  4%  Social Sciences & Humanities Research Council (SSHRC)  33  4%  Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (CHSRF)  10  1%  Canadian Tobacco Control Research Initiative (CTCRI)  10  1%  US National Institutes of Health (NIH)  9  1%  Health Canada  6  1%  Heart & Stroke Foundation  6  1%  National/Intl. (n=389)  45% of total grants  109  13%  856  100%  Other Agencies TOTAL  Sources: UBC Office of Research Services (ORS) , Office of Nursing Research and Teaching Scholarship (ONRTS) Note: Slight discrepancies in subtotals may exist due to rounding percentages 2  The number of grants submitted annually, since 2000, ranged from 59 to 112 and, on average, 86 grant proposals were submitted each year. Significant faculty output and staff workload for those who assist with the preparation and administration of research grants accompanies this high level of productivity. In addition to developing and submitting proposals, funded grants require at least seven additional steps as they move toward completion (see Figure 1). To sustain and build research capacity, and maximize the productivity of faculty and staff who contribute to this work in the school, we also need to respond to changes in the research funding models.  Figure 1 – Grant Application and Administration Processes  Source: ORS website  3  Table 2, Grant Submissions by Faculty (UBC Nursing Nominated Principal Investigators only), shows that the number of faculty who have submitted grant proposals (internal, national and international competitions included) in a given year has ranged from 19 to 33. Typically, the average number of grants submitted by individual researchers each year over the last decade has ranged between 2.3 and 3.8. Writing a grant proposal can take anywhere between 2 weeks and 3 months, and the return on this work is variable.  Table 2 – Grant Submissions by Faculty Number of Faculty Average number of Submitted Grants grants submitted (N=790)* per Faculty  Year  Number of Faculty Who Submitted  Number of Faculty Funded  2000/2001  19  10  59  3.1  2001/2002  27  15  80  3.0  2002/2003  30  19  76  2.5  2003/2004  22  13  84  3.8  2004/2005  33  16  112  3.4  2005/2006  29  21  79  2.7  2006/2007  25  11  61  2.4  2007/2008  31  17  96  3.1  2008/2009  27  12  63  2.3  2009/2010  24  11  79  3.3  Note: *790 rather than 856 because student internal research grants are excluded from Table 2.  4  UBC Nursing Funding Application Success Key to evaluating our grant writing efforts is the funding success rate and total dollars awarded. Figure 2 shows that our annual success rate ranges between 32% and 60% (Mean = 45%). In monetary terms, the 395 funded grants yielded $26,427,589 (only grants held by UBC Nursing faculty as the nominated principal investigator or NPI are included) for the School of Nursing’s research activities in the past decade, including salary/trainee awards and administrative secondments (i.e., CIHR institute directorship/operating, BREB chair, etc.).  Success Rate  Number of Grants  Figure 2 – Funding Application Successes (2000-2010) (N=856)  Source: UBC ORS & ONRTS Internal Research Grants  Dr. Martha Mackay is currently a clinician-scientist, dividing her time between the roles of Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS) in Cardiology at St. Paul’s Hospital Heart Centre (Vancouver, BC) and Clinical Assistant Professor at the UBC School of Nursing. She earned her BSN, MSN and PhD degrees at the UBC School of Nursing. Dr. Martha Mackay has been awarded a CIHR clinical research fellowship, the Cardiac Services BC Fellowship in Cardiovascular Outcomes, and recently, the Heart & Stroke Foundation of Canada Research Scholarship. Her research focuses on sex and gender differences in symptoms of acute coronary syndrome, treatment-seeking delay amongst acute coronary syndrome patients, and also evaluation of interventions to improve patients’ cardiac risks behaviours.  5  Of the 395 successful applications, 268 were research grants, which totalled $17,157,501 in research operating funds. The vast majority of our research grant funding ($8,264,213 = 48.4%) has been provided by CIHR (see Table 3 - Primary Sources of Funded Research Grants, 2000-2010).  Table 3 – Primary Sources of Funded Research Grants, 2000-2010 (N = 268) Funded Grants  % Funded  Funding Amount  Applications  % of Total Funding Amount  Internal School of Nursing  59  22%  $160,283  1%  UBC HSS & Hampton  17  6%  $39,453  0%  MSFHR  12  4%  $1,211,381  7%  BCMSF  18  7%  $768,248  5%  BC Gov't  10  4%  $294,406  2%  CIHR  61  23%  $8,264,212  48%  NCIC  16  6%  $1,357,096  8%  SSHRC  12  4%  $1,049,587  6%  CHRSF  5  2%  $412,822  2%  Health Canada  6  2%  $1,051,528  6%  3  1%  $300,535  2%  49  18%  $2,247,950  13%  268  100%  $17,157,501  100%  Provincial  National  International NIH Other Other grants TOTAL Total Operating Research Grants  Source: UBC ORS & ONRTS Internal Research Grants  6  Figure 3, UBC Nursing - CIHR Success Rates, shows that our annual success rate for CIHR ranges between 15% and 56% (Mean = 39%). The UBC School of Nursing’s CIHR success rate has, for the most part, been above the average success rate at CIHR in the last decade. In addition to the 61 CIHR funded operating grants, we have attracted CIHR trainee research allowances and awards, salary awards and administrative allotments which in total have yielded $13,240,347 for the School’s research activities.  Figure 3 – UBC Nursing - CIHR Success Rates  Source: UBC ORS  7  Research Grant Funding There are two main types of research grant funding, operating grants and salary awards. Operating grants cover the costs of running projects including employing research staff, purchasing equipment (computers, software, etc.), meeting costs, conference travel, and open access publishing. While the operating research grant funding total for the last decade was $17,157,501, the growth levelled off in 2007/8, and has remained relatively stable since. In Figure 4, Research Funding Annualized Across Grant Funding Period, the funding is spread across the term of the grant. For example, a 3-year grant funded in 2004/05 would also contribute funds toward the 2005/06 and 2006/07 totals depicted in Figure 4. This representation can make it difficult to make predictions about future totals because new grants and money are not explicit.  Figure 4 – Research Funding Annualized Across Grant Funding Period  Annual sum of research-related funding (i.e. funds held in ORS R-accounts) distributed across funding periods Source: UBC Nursing - Research Project Budgets (RPBs) monitored by Joanna Ho, Financial Processing Specialist - Research  8  Figure 5, Annual Operating Research Grant Funding - By Initial Year Received, tallies the total research grant dollars in the first year awarded. This is useful for assessing outcomes in any given year and projecting future trends in regards to monies likely to be held in subsequent years. Evident here is a decline in the amount of new research grant money coming into the School of Nursing in 2008/09 and 2009/10. These declines might reflect the economic recession whereby key initiatives including the BCMSF and MSFHR were negatively impacted, and the reduced availability of funds amid high levels of competition. During this time, SSHRC’s mandate was also revised to exclude all health-related research, which negatively impacted UBC Nursing faculty funding.  Figure 5 – Annual Operating Research Grant Funding - By Initial Year Received  Source: UBC ORS  9  Faculty Salary Awards Closely related to research grant funding are career/salary awards. These monies are provided most often by CIHR and MSFHR, and the conditions of these prestigious awards are that they afford early and senior career scholars the opportunity to focus on research. Over the last decade, 14 UBC Nursing faculty members attracted 30 career awards amounting to $4,432,802. The majority of this money (between $50,000 and $100,000 per award holder per year) is used by the School of Nursing to hire teachers to replace some of the award holders’ teaching responsibilities. Figure 6, Faculty Career Awards depicts the total monies first awarded by year. For example, Dr. Lynda Balneaves received a 5-year CIHR new investigator career award in 2007/08 (the entire award of $300,000 ($60,000 per year for 5 years) is included in the 2007/08 column). These monies are important because they help to build capacity in research, and the funds afforded to the School through these career awards also make available soft funds to augment undergraduate and graduate teaching while buffering any unforeseen operating costs. With this in mind, the 20082010 absence of new award holders has implications for research capacity building and soft-funded activities.  Figure 6 – Faculty Career Awards  Source: UBC Nursing RPBs The CIHR New Investigator Award has helped propel Dr. Lynda Balneaves’ research program in supporting people living with cancer in making safe and informed decisions about complementary therapies. She is developing and evaluating education and decision support tools for patients, families, and health professionals considering complementary therapies in conventional care settings. 10  UBC Teaching and Learning Enhancement Fund The UBC Teaching and Learning Enhancement Fund (TLEF) was created in 1991 to enrich student learning by supporting innovative and effective educational enhancements. The TLEF has provided funding for teaching scholarship projects in the UBC School of Nursing. Figure 7, Teaching and Learning Enhancement Fund (TLEF) Awards reveals that, in the past 10 years, 13 projects have been funded. Finding additional sources of funding for teaching scholarship has been a challenge, and the School is also impacted by fewer numbers of faculty applying for these funds.  Figure 7 – Teaching and Learning Enhancement Fund (TLEF) Awards  Source: UBC Nursing RPBs Ms. Cathryn Jackson has been the primary investigator on three funded UBC Teaching and Learning Enhancement Fund (TLEF) grants totaling $99,761. These include projects on computerized professional practice portfolios for nursing students, metadata infrastructure for learning object repositories, and internet based videoconferencing in distance nursing education. She applies her expertise as a nurse educator in developing and implementing initiatives focused on the integration of computers and technology.  11  UBC School of Nursing - Internal Research Grants Figure 8 - UBC School of Nursing - Internal Research Grants. The tri-annual internal research grant competition is a popular source of small operating funds for graduate students and faculty. The maximum amount per grant is $3,000, and these funds are extremely helpful for supporting pilot studies and thesis projects. This competition is solely supported by funds donated to the School of Nursing. The continuing availability and ideally, growth of these funds are dependent on alumni’s generosity and the School’s fund-raising. The potential to increase targeted funding for areas including teaching scholarship may depend on additional fund-raising efforts. In total, the UBC School of Nursing has awarded $126,283 in internal awards in the past 10 years.  Figure 8 – UBC School of Nursing - Internal Research Grants  Source: ONRTS Internal Research Grants  12  Graduate Student Research Key also to developing the School’s research capacity is graduate supervision. UBC Nursing graduate students are eligible for funding support through a variety of scholarship and trainee awards, and given that many of our graduates are experts and highly paid clinicians, these monies are key to attracting, and ensuring timely and successful completion of their graduate studies. Figure 9, UBC Nursing Graduate Student Funding shows some fluctuations, and a couple of factors likely influenced the 2009/2010 increase. First, the new tri-agency Canadian Graduate Students Award Program increased graduate student funding by $35 million in 2009. The number of 2009/2010 UBC Nursing applicants was also relatively high at 13 (previous and subsequent years, we had 7 and 5 respectively), and 7 of the 13 were funded. Considerable emphasis was placed on aiding the N601 doctoral students in developing their proposals. Looking forward, we know that success with MSFHR and CIHR is driven by the applicant’s publication record, and with this in mind, a key goal is to foster student-faculty writing teams to advance those key performance indicators. Another strategic goal will be to implement an internal UBC Nursing faculty review process to assist graduate students and supervisors to further strengthen their applications.  Figure 9 – UBC Nursing Graduate Student Funding  Internal Awards Note: Multi-year student awards are included as lump sums in the year received External Awards: CIHR, SSHRC, MSFHR; UBC Awards: UGF, Killam, FYF; Internal Awards: Memorial Fellowships Source: Faculty of Graduate Studies (FoGS) stipends & ORS (research/travel allowance) & UBC Nursing Student Tracking System  13  Table 4, Graduate Student Awards by Agency (2000-2010), shows that 89 UBC Nursing graduate students received monetary support for their studies in the past decade, for the most part from CIHR and MSFHR. CIHR continues to be the predominant funder of doctoral awards in our PhD program.  Table 4 – Graduate Student Awards by Agency (2000-2010) N=89 Internal  n=  % total  UBC Four Year Fellowships (FYF)  18  20%  Killam Doctoral Fellowships  1  1%  Provincial  n=  % total  Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research (MSFHR)  16  18%  Intersections of Mental Health Perspectives in Addictions Research Training (IMPART)  4  4%  Workers’ Compensation Board (WCB)  1  1%  National  n=  % total  Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR)  29  33%  Social Sciences & Humanities Research Council (SSHRC)  5  6%  Heart & Stroke Foundation (HSF)  4  4%  Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (CHSRF)  1  1%  Kidney Foundation  2  2%  National Health Research & Development Program (NHRDP)  2  2%  National Canadian Research Training Program in Hepatitis C (NCRTP-HepC)  1  1%  Psychosocial Oncology Research Training (PORT)  4  4%  Transdisciplinary Understanding and Training on Research (TUTOR) – Primary Health Care  1  1%  Source: FoGS Payroll Awards Note: Percentage total may not equal 100% due to rounding  14  Publications Publishing in peer-reviewed journals continues to be a benchmark indicator for chronicling the outcomes, and gauging the usefulness of specific studies, as well as the researchers’ ability to deliver end or interim products from their work. Empirical, methods, theory and review articles can be developed from most studies, and ideally, in publishing this assortment of writings, the awareness, interest and efforts of students, researchers, clinicians and policy makers are mobilized. Figure 10, Faculty Publications – Refereed Journals (2000-2010), indicates that UBC Nursing faculty have produced 627 refereed journal articles in a span of 10 years. Aside from the total number of faculty articles published in refereed journals, the patterns around co-authored and multi-authored articles suggest that Nursing faculty collaboration is increasing within the school. Overall, there also appears to be strong momentum, and the increased number of publications seen in 2009 and 2010, in part, reflects the UBC School of Nursing’s maturity in research as well as the generous research funding and career awards attracted to the school in 2005/2006 and 2006/2007.  Figure 10 – Faculty Publications – Refereed Journals (2000-2010)  Publication trend estimate (NB. Articles authored by multiple School of Nursing faculty members were only counted once). Source: 2010 UBC Nursing faculty CVs (refereed journal articles only) 15  Bibliometrics relating to published articles can provide important context and insight to our scholarly research and impact. While scholars continue to debate the validity of bibliometric measures, the journal impact factor (IF) is one method to signal the relative importance of a journal within its field, and journals with higher impact factors are deemed more influential than those with lower ratings. The impact factor of nursing and social sciences publications typically ranges between 0 and 5, which is much lower than some bioscience based medical journals (e.g., Nature 2009 IF was 27.13). Using IF we have plotted our 2009 and 2010 articles in Figure 11, Faculty Refereed Articles by Academic Journal’s Impact Factor (IF). While acknowledging that this is a crude bibliometric analysis, an argument can be made that a majority of the UBC Nursing publications have been published in journals that have a better than average (0.909) nursing journal IF.  Figure 11 – Faculty Refereed Articles by Academic Journal’s Impact Factor (IF)  Source of Median Nursing Journal Impact Factor: JCR – Journal Citation Reports (Discipline category) List of journals faculty publish in compiled from: UBC Nursing Faculty 2010 CVs IF of individual journals: 2009 Thomson Reuter’s Journal Citation Reports NB. Value of zero in graph reflects multiple missing data – common for less established academic journals 16  Another key indicator of the impact of a published article is external citations, which are an important marker of research impact and influence. Aggregate data from comparison institutions can afford benchmarking opportunities. To consider how the UBC School of Nursing is performing relative to other Canadian schools, we searched the Web of Science database for all publications between 2000 and 2010 with one or more of the authors listing their home institution as one of the following Schools of Nursing: University of Toronto, University of Alberta, University of British Columbia, McGill University, and University of Victoria. Table 5, Publications Benchmarking for Five Canadian Schools of Nursing shows UBC Nursing currently ranked third for citations among the five nursing schools considered. These kinds of metrics are becoming increasingly important to gauge research output both within and across universities.  Table 5 – Publications Benchmarking for Five Canadian Schools of Nursing  SCHOOLS OF NURSING  Articles Sum of Sum of Times Citing Found for Times Cited w/out Articles 2000-2010 Cited Self-Citations  Average Citations per Item  h-index  Professoriate FTE (2011)  University of Toronto  673  8386  7827  6896  12.46  41  57  University of Alberta  578  4939  4537  4188  8.53  31  50  University of British Columbia  470  3369  3058  2878  7.17  29  35  McGill University  226  2937  2795  2326  13  27  20  University of Victoria  114  524  501  486  4.6  12  37  Source : Citations—Web of Science Professoriate—University websites  17  A search with Google Scholar Citation Gadget was used to distil the most cited articles (by first author) among the current UBC Nursing faculty, with the results in Table 6 – Top 10 Cited Research Articles (first authors only). When limiting the search to one article per first author, in Table 7 – Top 10 Cited Research Articles (one article per first author) diverse research topics and empirical, methodological, and theory-based articles emerge to reflect the wide range of UBC Nursing publication topics.  Table 6 - Top 10 Cited Research Articles (first authors only) Citations  Pub-Yr 1st Author Title  1  261  1997  S. Thorne  Interpretive description: A noncategorical qualitative alternative for developing nursing knowledge  2  193  2000  S. Thorne  Data analysis in qualitative research  3  175  2001  W. Hall  Enhancing the rigor of grounded theory: incorporating reflexivity and relationality  4  157  2008  S. Thorne  The analytic challenge in interpretive description  5  148  1994  S. Thorne  Secondary analysis in qualitative research: Issues and implications  6  135  1998  S. Thorne  Shifting images of chronic illness  7  116  1989  S. Thorne  Guarded alliance: Health care relationships in chronic illness  8  114  2001  A. Browne  First Nations women's encounters with mainstream health care services  9  112  2004  S. Thorne  Qualitative metasynthesis: reflections on methodological orientation and ideological agenda  10  108  1998  F. Warnock  Pain progression, intensity and outcomes following tonsillectomy  Table 7 - Top 10 Cited Research Articles (one article per first author) Citations Pub-Yr 1st Author  Title  1  261  1997  S. Thorne  Interpretive description: A noncategorical qualitative alternative for developing nursing knowledge  2  175  2001  W. Hall  Enhancing the rigor of grounded theory: incorporating reflexivity and relationality  3  114  2001  A. Browne  First Nations women's encounters with mainstream health care services  4  108  1998  F. Warnock  Pain progression, intensity and outcomes following tonsillectomy  5  87  2004  C. Varcoe  Ethical practice in nursing: working the in‐betweens  6  83  1999  E. Saewyc  Sexual intercourse, abuse and pregnancy among adolescent women: does sexual orientation make a difference?  7  79  2005  J. Oliffe  Constructions of masculinity following prostatectomy-induced impotence  8  65  2000  P. Ratner  Twelve-month follow-up of a smoking relapse prevention intervention for postpartum women  9  65  1999  L. Balneaves  Beyond convention: describing complementary therapy use by women living with breast cancer  10  57  2003  L. Currie  Clinical information needs in context: an observational study of clinicians while using a clinical information system 18  Acknowledgements: Many thanks to Pamela Ratner, Sabrina Wong, Clare Kiernan, and Joanna Ho for their assistance with data retrieval and analyses, and support with edits and graphics.  ISBN 978-0-88865-248-5  19  

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