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Report on a Survey of Current Uses of ICTs in Canadian International Education Activities Macfadyen, Leah P.; Hawkes, B. 2002

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1Researching Information and Communication Technology (ICT) inInternational Education in Post-secondary Education in CanadaREPORT ON A SURVEY OF CURRENT USES OF ICTS INCANADIAN INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION ACTIVITIESPrepared by:  Leah Macfadyen, Ph.D. & Beth Hawkes, M.A.MAPLE, Distance Education and Technology,The University of British ColumbiaJune 2002copyrightserif 2002 University of British Columbia & Canadian Bureau for International Education2This project was designed and developed by a collaborative research team in TheUniversity of British Columbia's Distance Education and Technology unit.  Members ofthe Research Team, and their areas of professional and research project responsibilitiesinclude:Senior Research Consultant to the ProjectTony Bates, PhDDirector, Distance Education and Technology,The University of British ColumbiaResearch Project Manager and Phase One Report Co-authorBeth Hawkes, M.A., Director of Research and Professional DevelopmentDistance Education and TechnologyResearch Analysis and Phase One Report Co-authorLeah Macfadyen, PhDResearch Analyst, Distance Education and Technology andEducational Programmer, UBC Centre for Intercultural CommunicationResearch Design and Survey DevelopmentAdnan Qayyum, M.A.Research Analyst, Distance Education and TechnologySurvey Distribution and AdministrationJosefina Rosado, B.A.Research Assistant, Distance Education and TechnologyThis joint research project, initiated by the Canadian Bureau of InternationalEducation, in partnership with the University of British Columbia and FuturEd wasmade possible by funding from Human Resource Development Canada's Office ofLearning Technology.3TABLE OF CONTENTS1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................................42 INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................................................62.1 PROJECT GOALS ................................................................................................................................................62.2 RESEARCH CONTEXT AND PARTNERS.............................................................................................................72.3 STRUCTURE OF THE PROJECT ...........................................................................................................................72.4 THE MANAGEMENT AND ADVISORY COMMITTEES.......................................................................................72.5 WHY A SURVEY? ...............................................................................................................................................83 RESULTS...................................................................................................................................................................93.1 RESPONDENT DEMOGRAPHICS........................................................................................................................93.1.1 Distribution of Respondents by Type of Institution..............................................................................93.1.2 Geographic Distribution of Respondents .............................................................................................113.1.3 Distribution of Respondents by Professional Roles/Responsibilities ..................................................133.2 INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION ACTIVITIES IN CANADIAN POST-SECONDARY INSTITUTIONS .................143.3 CURRENT USE OF ICTS IN INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION ACTIVITIES.......................................................153.3.1 Uses of Different ICT Media.................................................................................................................153.3.2 International Education Activities Supported by ICTs.......................................................................173.3.3 Why Are ICTs Used in IE Activities? And Why Not?.......................................................................183.3.4 The Rate of Institutional ICT Adoption ...............................................................................................203.4 ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES OF ICT USE.........................................................................................................213.4.1 Which skills can students develop through the use of ICT resources?................................................213.4.2 Which aspects may be diminished by ICT use?....................................................................................244 DISCUSSION.........................................................................................................................................................264.1 RESPONDENT DEMOGRAPHICS REFLECT REGIONAL AND INSTITUTIONAL DIFFERENCES IN ICT USE...264.1.1 Technological Selection .........................................................................................................................264.1.2 Economic Selection (a Digital Divide) .................................................................................................274.1.3 Cultural and Content Selection............................................................................................................284.2 ICTS USED PREDOMINANTLY TO SUPPORT EXISTING PROGRAMS AND SERVICES ...................................294.3 EMPHASIS ON PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS VIA EMAIL, AND THE WORLDWIDE WEB AS ANINFORMATION RESOURCE..............................................................................................................................304.4 AWARENESS OF OPPORTUNITIES, EXPRESSIONS OF CONCERN...................................................................314.4.1 Enthusiasm ............................................................................................................................................314.4.2 Concerns ................................................................................................................................................325 CONCLUSION........................................................................................................................................................356 REFERENCES.........................................................................................................................................................37APPENDIX A:  SURVEY DESIGN AND DISTRIBUTION..............................................................................IAPPENDIX B:  EXAMPLE OF SURVEY (HARD-COPY)................................................................................IVAPPENDIX C:  SURVEY INVITATION LETTERS....................................................................................... XIVAPPENDIX D  COMPOSITE SURVEY DATA .............................................................................................XXIIAPPENDIX E:  PARTICIPATING INSTITUTIONS.................................................................................... XLII41.  EXECUTIVE SUMMARYCanadian post-secondary institutions have been facing the challenges of integratingICTs into the design, organization and delivery of educational programs and services,since the rapid proliferation of information and communication technologies (ICT)began in the mid-1990s. The Canadian Bureau of International Education, incollaboration with UBC Distance Education and Technology and FuturEd, haveundertaken a four-phase project to contribute to the knowledge base regarding the useand effectiveness of ICTs in international education (IE) activities in Canadian highereducation.  This report describes the findings of Phase One of the project ? a survey ofcurrent use of information and communication technologies in international educationactivities across Canada.  Invitations to participate in this online survey were sent tocontact individuals in every post-secondary institution in Canada, and both the surveyand invitations were distributed in both English and French.Survey respondents represent universities, colleges, university colleges and c?gepsfrom seven Provinces, and comprise a mixture of administrators, teaching staff,technology support or development staff, and student support/services staff.  Werecognize that by choosing to distribute an online survey, we probably reachedrespondents from institutions and regions with active IE programs and staff who haveaccess to the internet and basic ICT skills. Most respondents agreed that IE has medium or high priority in their institutions.International exchange and internship programs are the most common IE activities inresponding institutions, and the predominant uses of ICTs are email and websitedistribution of international education information, and the facilitation ofcommunications between students and instructors.  To a lesser extent, ICTs areemployed to deliver or supplement courses, or to support collaborative projects.  Fewerthan 25% of respondents regularly use any form of internet conferencing, or portals.Most respondents believe that ICTs can increase access to educational activities forstudents, and can improve the quality of learning,  but a majority note that staff time,skills with ICTs, attitudes towards technology, and cost, all impact the degree of ICTintegration into IE activities.  Nonetheless, most feel that ICT integration is progressingat an appropriate rate, indicating a general embracing of the educational potential of5ICTs.  In particular, roughly half of respondents feel that their ICT-mediated activitiesare already helping students develop personal, professional, technical and interculturalskills, and two thirds foresee that course and program design and delivery will benefitmost from further ICT use.  All predict that ICTs will be important in future IE activitiesin their unit or program.Our findings suggest that current use of ICTs is predominantly in support of pre-existing programs and activities, and is currently conservative in scope, being mostlyemployed for information distribution and exchange.  Innovative uses of ICTs, wherethey exist, are decentralized, and largely at the course or program level.  There is clearenthusiasm for future ICT innovations in the area of IE, but a number of concernsemerge.  Educators worry that the Anglo-American culture of the internet may actuallylimit student?s intercultural experiences online.  Economic and technological factors arealso a concern, with some cautioning that technology should not drive programcurriculum or design.  Most significantly, IE professionals worry that ICTs may be usedto replace rather than supplement in-person IE activities, and that this wouldsignificantly reduce the intercultural learning and relationship building that studentsexperience in face-to-face activities. It must be kept in mind, however, that a majority ofrespondents who expressed opinions about the educational effectiveness of ICTs mayhave limited experience of the range of possibilities offered by new educationaltechnologies.Despite some reservations about the choice and degree of ICT applications, IEpractitioners are strongly convinced of the importance of ICTs in the future ofinternational education programs and services. In the next phase of this study we willexplore in greater depth a number of innovative projects at Canadian Universities andColleges in which ICTs are used to deliver or supplement international educationprograms.  These projects are diverse in developmental design, educational objectives,field of specialization, funding and staffing.  When prepared as case studies, theseprojects will provide useful examples of lessons learned, preoccupations and problemsarising from the use of ICTs in IE, and assist in the identification of emerging innovativepractices in Canadian ICT-mediated IE activities.62  INTRODUCTIONThe uses of information and communication technologies (ICTs) are currentlytransforming many dimensions of social, economic and cultural organizationworldwide.  Higher education has been experiencing the impact of ICT use for decades,especially within the domains of academic research and institutional communication.The classrooms of Canadian post-secondary institutions, however, did not begin to feelthe effects of ICT use until the proliferation of internet technologies in the mid-1990s.Since that time, and with increasing levels of intensity, academic departments, studentservice providers, and senior managers alike have been facing the challenges associatedwith the growing use of ICTs in the design, organization and delivery of educationalprograms and services.2.1  Project GoalsThe primary goal of this four-phase research project is to contribute to currentknowledge about technology use and effectiveness in international education (IE)within Canadian post-secondary institutions.  To that end, the project also aims toprovide useful analytical frameworks and tools to assist international educationproviders in making decisions about the mix of educational approaches they wish toadopt in their IE programs and services.  More specifically, the project attempts toaccomplish the following:?  To provide a snapshot of current ICT use in international education  at the publicpost-secondary level across Canada?  To identify and evaluate lessons learned in the use of ICT for internationaleducation. These include perspectives on emerging problems andpreoccupations resulting from ICT use in IE programs and services, andexamples of successful innovation in the application of ICTs in internationaleducation.?  To assess the similarities and differences in personal receptivity (e.g., satisfactionlevels etc.) and skill acquisition of physical and virtual mobility and propose bestpractice approaches/models.72.2  Research Context and PartnersThis research project was initiated by the Canadian Bureau of InternationalEducation (CBIE) to study the use and impact of ICTs on IE practice in Canadian post-secondary education. The CBIE has undertaken this study with the support of HumanResources Development Canada?s (HRDC) Office of Learning Technologies (OLT), inpartnership with The University of British Columbia?s Distance Education andTechnology unit, and with FuturEd, an independent consultant firm specializing ineducation innovation. The project began in April 2001 and is scheduled to conclude inDecember 2002.2.3  Structure of the ProjectThe project has four main areas of focus:1.  The uses of ICTs in post secondary international education2.  Competency development through international education3.  Preoccupations and lessons learned4.  Assessing career impact and comparing forms of international educationdeliveryEach phase of the study entails literature and environmental reviews, data gatheringand analysis, and the synthesis of results into a report for wider dissemination and use.A combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches has been used throughout thestudy.2.4  The Management and Advisory CommitteesThe Project Management Team comprises researchers from the three collaboratingpartners (CBIE, UBC Distance Education and Technology, and FuturEd).  A ProjectAdvisory Committee was established at the outset with membership from the SouthernAlberta Institute of Technology (SAIT), New Brunswick Tele-Learning, IndustryCanada and The Commonwealth of Learning.  The advice of this committee providedcritical guidance and perspective for both the Project Management Team and for thecontributing research partners.8Phase One of the project was launched with a national survey on uses of ICTs in IEdeveloped by the research team of the UBC Distance Education and Technology unit.FuturEd undertook a general review of current literature related to the uses of ICTs inIE in post-secondary education in Canada (Barker, K., 2001).  While the UBC team tookprimary responsibility for the design, development and delivery of the survey, theanalysis of the data, and the drafting of this Phase One Survey Report, the ProjectManagement Team and Project Advisory Committee also contributed importantguidance.2.5  Why a Survey?Although there is active discussion in the IE field concerning the advantages anddisadvantages of ICT use, no actual data could be discovered in the literature to helpidentify current levels and types of technology use in international education programsand services in Canada (Barker, K., 2001).  During the development of the projectproposal, we therefore decided that a formal survey of post-secondary institutionsacross Canada would facilitate the creation of ?a snapshot? of ICT use in current IEpractice.This report includes a description of, and commentary on, the survey results, adiscussion section which highlights themes emerging from the survey data, and finally,some concluding remarks which identify questions to be answered by further research.93  RESULTS3.1  Respondent DemographicsWho responded to our survey? Where do they live and work?  What are their roles inthe development and promotion of international education?  And what can thisinformation tell us about where, and to what end, ICTs are currently being used inCanadian IE activities?Fifty two individuals completed the survey, either online, or, in a few cases, by fillingin a printed version by hand, between August and November 2001.  Unfortunately,technical difficulties related to software(Appendix A) rendered nine sets of responsesinvalid, leaving a pool of 43 valid sets for analysis.  While this number is lower than wewould have liked, we feel that the sample group may well be representative of therange of institutions and individuals across Canada who design or coordinate IEactivities at Canadian public post-secondary institutions.3.1.1  Distribution of Respondents by Type of InstitutionTwenty six respondents (60.5%) are employed by 16 Canadian universities inWestern, Central and Atlantic Canada; four respondents (9.3%) are employees ofuniversity colleges or other degree-granting non-university institutions; and 11respondents (25.6%) work in Canadian colleges across the country (Figure 1).UniversityUniversity College/InstituteCollege/C?gepUnknownFigure 1.  Distribution of Respondents by Type of Post-Secondary Institution(9.3%) (25.6%)(4.7%)(60.5%)10Although colleges, university colleges and c?geps significantly outnumber universitiesin Canada (Table 1), the most recent figures available from Statistics Canada (2002)show that Canadian universities are currently enrolling more than 60% of Canada?s full-time and part-time students, while colleges and other institutions enrol less than 40% ofthe total student body.  Consequently, the institutional distribution of our respondentseffectively represents the institutional distribution of students they serve.Table 1.  Publicly-Funded Post-Secondary Institutions in CanadaProvince/Territory Universities UniversityColleges/InstitutesColleges/C?gepsTotalBritish Columbia 7 14 11 32Alberta 4 3 18 25Saskatchewan 2 7 9 18Manitoba 3 1 7 11(16) (25) (45) 86Ontario 18 2 28 48Quebec 15 3 20 38(33) (5) (48) 86New Brunswick 5 0 12 17Newfoundland 1 0 8 9Nova Scotia 6 4 3 13PEI 1 0 3 4(13) (4) (26) 43Yukon 0 0 1 1Nunavut 0 0 1 1Northwest Territories 0 0 1 1(0) (0) (3) 3TOTAL 62 34 121 217These data were compiled by cross-referencing membership lists provided by theAssociation of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC, 2002) and the Association ofCanadian Community Colleges (ACCC, 2002) with information obtained from Provincial andTerritorial Ministries.  Geographically distinct campuses of a larger institution were counted asindividual institutions.  Figures in parentheses are regional institutional sub-totals.113.1.2  Geographic Distribution of RespondentsRespondents are employed in seven provinces, with the largest proportion (17, or39.5%) from British Columbia, and a similarly large proportion (14, or 32.6%) fromOntario.  Distribution by Province/Territory and by region are shown in Table 2 andFigure 2 , respectively.Table 2.  Distribution of Respondents by Province or Territory.Province/Territory # %British Columbia 17 39.5Alberta 49.3Saskatchewan 0 0Manitoba 0 0Ontario 1432.6Quebec 2 4.7Newfoundland 2 4.7Nova Scotia 1 2.3New Brunswick 1 2.3PEI 0 0Yukon 0 0NWT 0 0Nunavut 0 0Did not state 2 4.6TOTAL 43 100Both Central and Western Canada are centred around large and culturally diverseurban centres which attract international business, tourism, settlers and students ?features which we believe stimulate interest in intercultural and international exchange.For this reason alone, one might expect these regions to be at the leading edge ofCanadian IE activities, and this is confirmed by the predominance of respondents fromthese regions.120 5 10 15 20 25Western CanadaCentral CanadaAtlantic CanadaNorthern CanadaUnknownFigure 2.  Distribution of Respondents by Region of CanadaWhy does such a large proportion of respondents hail from Western Canada, whenit is relatively less populated compared to Central Canada?  Central Canada is almostthree times more populous than Western Canada, and caters to more than twice asmany post-secondary students as Western Canada (Statistics Canada, 2002).  On theother hand, it should be noted that Central and Western Canada have equal numbers ofpost-secondary institutions (Table 1).  (Central Canada has more large universities, theWest has a greater number of smaller colleges, university colleges and other non-university degree-granting institutions).  Because we invited institutions, irrespective ofstudent enrolment, to participate in the study, the similar number of responses fromCentral and Western Canada may well reflect a similar institutional response rate (20-25%) in both regions.Moreover, British Columbia hosts almost twice the proportion of internationalstudents as Ontario (AUCC, 2000), which may indicate that Western Canadianinstitutions employ proportionately more staff in IE activities (relative to absolutestudent numbers).Lastly, it is also possible that Western Canadian institutions may have given morecredence to a request for participation in a UBC-coordinated survey than non-Westerninstitutions, further boosting the number of Western Canadian respondents.Number of Respondents133.1.3  Distribution of Respondents by Professional Roles/ResponsibilitiesThe large majority of survey respondents (66.7%) stated that they representorganizational units serving their entire institution, while 26.1% come from specificacademic departments.Respondents were invited to list their title, the name and URL of their program, unitor office, and their institution, allowing us to infer some information about theirprimary roles and responsibilities in the area of IE (Table 3).Table3.  Professional Role(s) of Survey RespondentsProfessional Roles & Responsibilities # %Support of International Students 20 46.5Administration 9 20.9Faculty Member/Instructor 10 23.3Technological Support/ Development 2 4.65Student Services 1 2.3International Exchange Programs Coordination 16 37.2Did not state 3 7.0Interestingly, although our survey clearly outlines a definition of internationaleducation for the purposes of this survey as?courses, programs and support services developed for Canadian undergraduate studentsin Canadian post-secondary institutions?,almost half (20, or 46.5%) of respondents indicated that they are affiliated with a unit,department or program whose primary role (based on a survey of institutionalwebsites) appears to be the recruitment and support of international students.  Indeed,one respondent explicitly stated:?In our institution, international education mainly has to do with receiving internationalstudents?.Nonetheless, a significant number of respondents (16, or 37.2%) also indicated thatthey have responsibility for international programs (exchanges, internships, studyabroad programs) which involve Canadian students.Nine respondents (20.9%) indicated that their primary role is administrative - theyare Managers, Deans, Directors or Coordinators of programs, departments or centres -14while 10 respondents (23.3%) are faculty members or instructors in academic orteaching units.  Surprisingly, only two respondents describe their professional role asbeing one of technological support or development, suggesting that many institutionsare depending on existing staff to develop skills with ICTs, rather than employing ICTspecialists in the area of international education. (This is reinforced in Figure 8 whichshows that 37 respondents (87.8%) feel that ?staff skills with ICT? is a ?quite important?or ?very important? factor influencing the use of ICTs in their unit or program.)3.2  International Education Activities in Canadian Post-Secondary InstitutionsHow important is international education within Canada?s post-secondaryinstitutions?  A large majority (92.9%) of survey respondents rated IE as a high ormedium priority activity at their institution, suggesting that most institutions at leastprofess a strong commitment to international education and its value for Canadianundergraduates.Within the broad category of ?international education?, what kinds of IE activities arebeing promoted in Canadian post-secondary institutions?0 25 50 75 100International Education Info. for StudentsStudent Exchange Program(s)International Internship(s)On-campus Programs that Include Canadian StudentsSemester AbroadYear AbroadLess than Semester Abroad (e.g. Summer Programs, Study-Travel)International Field SchoolsWork Placement Abroad (including Co-op Programs)Online Discussion ForumsInternational Virtual ClassroomInternational Online Student ProjectsOtherFigure 4.  Types of International Education Activities Coordinated by Survey RespondentsAs is evident in Figure 4, there is considerable diversity in the types of IE activitiesavailable within institutions.  In addition to the categories shown, individualrespondents mentioned that their units, centres or programs also coordinate or support?international research assignments?, ?ESL programs for international students?, ?pre-program preparation and post-program debriefings for participants in international education% of Respondents15activities?, ?training programs for international teaching assistants?, and ?executive trainingprograms for international professionals in partnership with other faculties and organizations?,as well as ?emergency support services for outgoing and incoming students?.Nevertheless, respondents are, for the most part, working in units which provideinformation about IE programs and opportunities, rather than being involved in theactual delivery of ICT-supported IE activities such as online discussion forums (23.3%),virtual classrooms (11.6%) or online student projects (11.6%).3.3  Current Use of ICTs in International Education ActivitiesTo allow us to develop a ?snapshot? of current ICT use in IE activities in Canadianinstitutions, and the factors dictating current use, we asked respondents to tell us whichICT media they used frequently, and what kind of IE activities were supported by ICTsat their institutions.  Moreover, we gave respondents the opportunity to indicate whichfactors they felt were driving the adoption of ICTs by their institutions, and whichfactors might be limiting ICT use.  Finally, and to try to gauge respondents? level ofcomfort with the current rate of ICT integration into their institution, we asked them togive their opinion on ICT adoption rate.3.3.1  Uses of Different ICT MediaPriceWaterhouseCoopers (2000) found that 94% of Canadians use the internet forsending and receiving email, and for researching and getting information.  All otherpotential uses of the internet (such as reading online magazines or newspapers,participating in on-line chat rooms, two-way voice communications, shopping) areaccessed by fewer than 55% of Canadians and only 2% of Canadian respondents in thatstudy indicated that they access educational opportunities via the internet.It is perhaps not surprising, then, to discover that email and websites are the mostcommon ICTs employed by educators in the promotion of international activities inCanadian post-secondary institutions (Figure 5).160 25 50 75 100Email/Listserve(s)Website(s)Online CoursesCD ROMComputer ConferencingPortalsDigital AudioconferencingDigital Videoconferencing'don't know''never''rarely''sometimes''often'% of respondentsFigure 5.  ICT Media Used by Respondents to Enhance/Support International EducationPrograms and ActivitiesMore than 90% of survey respondents indicated that they use email and websites?sometimes? or ?often? to enhance or  support IE activities.  At the other end of thespectrum, more than half of respondents ?rarely? or ?never? use the more recentlydeveloped interactive ICTs such as computer-, digital audio- and digital video-conferencing.  These figures probably reflect current technical skill-level and financialrealities of educational institutions with regards to the various technologies.  Email andweb-browsing software packages are now well-established and ubiquitous, often free orvery cheap, increasingly user-friendly, and accessible by users with very limitedbandwidth connectivity, and low-memory/low-processor-speed hardware.Conversely, the hardware required for live conferencing communications is expensive,and both hardware and software still suffer from technical problems, are still in thedevelopmental stage, function best with high-speed high-bandwidth connections(unavailable to many users) and require acquisition of considerable new technical skillson the part of users.Only  1 (2.5%) respondent described that he/she uses CD ROMS ?often? (although40% indicated that they sometimes use CD ROMS).  Again, financial factors may be key:CD ROMS are expensive to buy or develop, and quickly become outdated.  Finally,45.5% of respondents told us that they never use portals, and in fact 30.3% indicated17that they did not know about Portal use.  We believe that this reflects the fact thatPortals are a very new technology that as yet have not entered the wider domain ofICTs.Finally, we note that 43.6% of respondents agree that they ?sometimes? or ?often? useonline courses (although one quarter, 25.6% responded that they never do).  While thisfigure does indicate an interest in developing and exploring the internet as aninteractive learning environment for students, it unfortunately gives us no informationabout the format or quality of these courses.  A closer examination of our survey datareveals that of 19 respondents who ?sometimes? or ?often? use online courses, only two?never? or ?rarely? use email or websites.  This suggests that many ?online courses? maysimply employ the ?basic technologies? of email and websites to distribute or shareinformation.3.3.2  International Education Activities Supported by ICTsFigure 6 shows the percentage of respondents who agree that they ?sometimes? or?often? use ICTs to support a variety of specific IE activities.0 255075100Providing International Education InformationPromoting International Education OpportunitiesSupporting Student-Instructor CommunicationsSupporting Student-Student CommunicationsSupporting Collaborative Projects and ResearchEnhancing Learning Materials and ResourcesDelivering Course Content 'sometimes''often'% of RespondentsFigure 6.  Applications of ICTs in International Educational ActivitiesConsistent with the high frequency of email and website use, the bulk of respondents(more than 90%) indicated that they used ICTs to provide information about andpromote international education opportunities.  Email, and to a lesser extent websites,are likely the media used most commonly in supporting student-student and student-18instructor communications, as well as in supporting collaborative projects and research,and perhaps even in delivering course content, as discussed above.  Again, only onethird of respondents reported that they often used ICTs to deliver course content orenhance learning materials and resources, and similar proportions (35.0% and 20.0%)reported that they never or rarely used ICTs in this way.  Although we gaverespondents the option of describing other possible applications of ICTs in their IEactivities, no further applications were described.3.3.3  Why Are ICTs Used in IE Activities? And Why Not?Almost 60% of respondents identified the changing learning needs of Canada?sstudent population as a significant driving force behind the introduction of ICTs into IEprogramming.  Close to 90% recognized that ICT use improves access to IEopportunities for a student population that is increasingly likely to have work or familycommitments, or to be located far from an institution offering IE activities (Figure 7).0 25 50 75 100Increase Access and Flexibility for StudentsImprove Cost-EffectivenessAddress Changing Learning NeedsImprove the Quality of LearningProvide Better Methods of InstructionIncrease Interaction Among studentsReduce Staff WorkloadRespond to Technological ImperativeSave Students Time and MoneyDevelop Technical SkillsOther% of RespondentsFigure 7.  Reasons for ICT Use in International Education ActivitiesAround 50% of respondents also agreed that ICTs ?provide better methods ofinstruction? and ?improve the quality of learning?, although it is unclear by whatmeasures they might be assessing instructional quality or learning outcomes.19Interestingly, 42.9% believe that ICTs are being introduced to ?help reduce staffworkload?, even though recent studies have found that online education requires agreater investment of staff time than more traditional face-to-face teaching (Sorg et al.,1999).  It is possible, however, that this perception is a result of redistribution ofworkload that may result from implementation of ICTs (for example, from studentservices staff to ICT developers and support staff).  In apparent contrast to the notion ofreduced staff workload, a majority of respondents (85.7%) also believe that ?Staff Time?(or, we deduce, the lack of) is the most significant factor limiting the integration of ICTsinto IE activities (Figure 8).  Clearly, there is a gulf between what IE educators believe tobe the positive benefits of ICT use, and the real time and skill demands ofimplementation that they are actually experiencing.0 25 50 75 100Staff TimeStaff Skills With ICTsAttitude Towards TechnologyCost of ICTsAdministrative StructuresInstitutional Prioritiesquite importantvery important% of RespondentsFigure 8.  Factors Limiting ICT Use in International Education ActivitiesIt remains to be seen whether staff workloads will truly be reduced after institutionshave passed the initial hurdle of ICT integration into their activities, or whetherongoing development and maintenance will continue to make heavy demands on stafftime and skills.Equally as important as workload issues, 87.8% of respondents cite ?staff skills withICTs? (or lack of skills) as a ?quite important? or ?very important?  factor impacting ICTuse in their unit or program ? perhaps a predictable response from a pool ofrespondents in which only two are technology specialists.  As described in section 3.2.1,20a significant proportion of Canadians continue to feel ?technologically incompetent?when faced with ICTs.We note that almost half (46.5%) of respondents believe that ICTs are being used toincrease interaction among students (with the implicit assumption that increasedinteraction in itself is both desirable and beneficial).  In addition, individualrespondents added that the potential for increasing student-instructor interaction andthe facilitation of distance learning are factors promoting the introduction of ICTs.3.3.4  The Rate of Institutional ICT AdoptionFigure 9 gives us a clear window on the attitudes of ?international educators? towardsthe introduction of ICTs into IE activities (Figure 9).05101520Number of Respondentsvery slowly moderately slowly moderately fast rapidlyRate of ICT Incorporationn/atoo fastabout righttoo slowFigure 9.  Perceptions of the Rate of Incorporation of ICTs into IE ActivitiesPersonal experiences of the rate of ICT adoption vary, but the majority (60.0%) ofrespondents characterize the rate of introduction of ICTs in their institutions as?moderately fast? or ?rapid?, and fewer (40.0%) characterize the introduction rate as?moderately slow? or ?very slow?.  Importantly, a majority (52.5%), whether they believethe rate is slow or fast, are comfortable with this rate, assessing it as ?about right?.  Onlytwo respondents feel that the rate of introduction is too fast.  Overall, this gives anPerceptions of Incorporation Rate21impression of a pool of educators who are embracing the introduction of ICTs into theirprofessional and educational activities.  This is reflected in the finding that 78.1% ofrespondents believe that ICTs will be ?very important? or ?quite important? in the futureeducational activities of their unit or program.3.4  Anticipated Outcomes of ICT Use3.4.1  Which skills can students develop through the use of ICT resources?Our respondents clearly anticipate increased application of ICTs in IE activities intheir institutions, and a significant proportion believe that ICTs will provide studentswith access to ?improved teaching strategies and learning opportunities? (Figure 7).  Inan attempt to elucidate more clearly the projected learning outcomes of ICT-mediatedIE activities, we asked respondents to indicate the skills they feel that their students aredeveloping using ICT resources.Table 4.   Skills Developed Using ICT ResourcesSkill Set Yes No Don?tKnowa)  Personal Skills?communications, tolerance, leadership18 (43.9%) 14 (34.1%) 10 (24.4%)b)  Technical/Professional Skills?problem-solving, technical knowledge,negotiation skills, strategic thinking19 (46.3%) 16 (39.0%) 6 (14.6%)c)  Intercultural Skills?ability to operate in other cultures,international job experience, languagecapabilities20 (48.8%) 12 (29.3%) 9 (22.0%)Interestingly, Table 4 shows an almost perfect split between respondents who believethat their students are acquiring personal, technical, professional and/or interculturalskills using ICT-mediated learning environments, and those who do not.  This split maywell illustrate the current division of opinion amongst educators regarding  ICT-mediated educational activities generally, and the quality of learning these activities22may provide.  Nonetheless, it must be remembered that a majority of respondentspreviously indicated that they have only limited experience incorporating use ofeducational technologies into design of IE activities.  This lack of experienceundoubtedly influences their understanding of the educational potential of newtechnologies. Below, we give examples of the positive and enthusiastic comments ofrespondents about the utility of ICT-mediated learning  (For a discussion of concernswith ICT-mediated IE activities, see the discussion).a)  Personal SkillsIn the area of personal skills, a number of respondents commented that ICT-mediated IE activities allow students to acquire and practice ?communication skills?,and specifically communication skills for an online environment.  With the rapidgrowth of ICT-mediated communication use in all areas ? education, business and?leisure? ? ?online communication? might rightly be considered a new form ofcommunication, with its own norms and pitfalls. Learning to be come a better onlinecommunicator might therefore be one of the most obvious benefits for a student ofparticipation in ICT-mediated activities.  Related to this, other respondents commentedthat ICT resources are being used in their institution to  help students ?develop teambuilding and group skills, especially when the team or group involves international students?and to encourage them to ?work effectively in cross-cultural groups? or ?developintercultural communication skills?, highlighting the fact that global electroniccommunications by definition will involve individuals from divergent cultural andlinguistic backgrounds ? factors which impact communication style (see Chase et al.,2002, and references therein).  Learning to be an effective online communicatortherefore encompasses the ability to recognize and work with different communicationstyles, as well as to maximize clarity and creation of shared meaning.Others pointed out that web-based resources originating from non-Canadian sources ?give widely varying perspectives on subjects that are traditionally viewed in anotherlight at home.  These varying view points can change students? orientation to thesubject.?In a similar vein, another notes that their institution?s online resources and programs[focus on] not just tolerance but inclusivity of different worldviews?.23In essence, these enthusiasts highlight the fact that ICT-mediated activities canchallenge students to become more effective communicators with the diversity of co-respondents they encounter ?electronically?, and to consider carefully the ideas andopinions offered by their global partners in communication.b)  Technical Professional SkillsRespondents identified ?ICT skills? as a primary area of learning for students usingICT resources, and rightly argue that these skills are now necessary prerequisites formost professional work in the modern world. Individuals variously noted that studentslearn to ?access information?via the web?, that they learn to ?use..technology to meetlearning needs? including ?conferencing, chat-rooms and web based learning?.  Others notedthat some online courses are now available whose primary purpose is to teach technicalskills, for example ?some online courses are available for learning to use programs that assist in presentingsubject matter or operating essential equipment?.Another notes that his/her institution offers online Computer Technician?scertification.With reference to the survey definition of technical/professional skills, eightindividuals added commentary describing skills in this category that they believe theirstudents are acquiring through use of ICT resources. These include ?problem solving andcritical thinking skills?, ?critical dialogue?, and ?constructivist [learning]?.  In other words,they feel that these important learning outcomes, which in the past have been deliveredsolely by face-to face teaching methods, are now accessible through ICT-mediatedroutes, although one educator laments:?somewhat this happens through the online discussions and feedback?[we] could domuch more?,giving an indication that supporters of ICT-mediated learning nonetheless recognizethat this medium is still under development, and that the full potential of ICT-mediatedactivities have yet to be explored.c)  Intercultural SkillsAlthough almost half of our respondents believe that students can acquire?intercultural skills? via ICT-mediated resources, a majority define such skills as simply24an acquisition of language skills or knowledge of ?cultural protocol?.  Two respondentsmentioned that their units offer ICT-mediated language programs, and others describeways that their units use ICTs to provide or distribute information about internationalopportunities, host countries and institutions, and ?pre-departure preparation?information for sojourners.However, a few recognize the importance of intercultural contact (?one learns byinteracting with other cultures?) and communication for complex learning about culturedifference, mentioning that their units use ?simulation games? and exercises to exposestudents to culturally different ideas and individuals.  In particular, one unit offersprogramming  specifically designed to teach ?strategies to communicate more effectivelyacross cultures? using ?case studies, critical incidents and personal stories?as the basis ofanalysis and exploration of alternate solutions?.  While this commentary suggest that it ispossible to teach intercultural communication skills and ideas using ICT-mediatedactivities, it remains to be determined whether simple ICT-mediated interculturalcontact allows acquisition of intercultural skills as a by-product of activities with adifferent academic focus.3.4.2  Which aspects may be diminished by ICT use?To take a measure of respondent concern about the use of ICTs in IE activities, weasked which aspects of IE they believed might be diminished by the introduction ofICTs.  One respondent pointed to the Anglo-American cultural hegemony of theelectronic medium, arguing that cultural immersion can actually be reduced  throughICT use, by allowing students to ?relate too often to the home culture? and making it easyfor students to ?communicate in their native language online?, reducing activity in the ?hostlanguage?.The most apparent concern, however, is clearly that ICT use will be introduced toreplace ?the actual cultural experience?.  ?Face to face contact? will be diminished, notesanother respondent, with ?virtual entertainment replac[ing] real experience?.  A number ofrespondents clearly fear that ICT use in international education will ?reduce interpersonalrelationships between Canadians and people from other countries?, diminishing the potentialfor true relationship-building that many feel is crucial for building good internationalrelations.  Another feels that ICT use risks diminishing25?establishment of lasting human relationships, limiting frequency and type of interactionbetween students and facilitators, complex communications?and significantly, a further respondent elaborates on the complexity of humancommunications by adding that opportunities for ?side bar discussions that occur incampus corridors and coffee shops? will be reduced, articulating a common feeling thatmeaningful relationship building often occurs ?outside of class?.  In all, respondentcommentary highlights a lasting concern, in the face of ICT marketing rhetoric, that ICTuse will be introduced to replace (rather than supplement) ?actual [inter]culturalexperience? and will in fact reduce ?opportunities for studying abroad?and deeperunderstanding of cultural diversity?.264  DISCUSSIONA number of themes relating to the adoption and use of ICTs in post-secondaryinternational education emerge from the survey data.  Some clearly arise fromindividual judgments and discriminations about the appropriateness of ICT use for IEpurposes.  Others can be linked more directly to organizational patterns and prioritieswithin the responding post-secondary institutions.4.1  Respondent Demographics Reflect Regional and Institutional Differences inICT UseBefore further discussion of the survey results, we would like to pause and considerthe broader implications of the data we did not collect with this survey, and therespondents whom we did not manage to recruit.  What can we learn about the use ofICTs in the international education sector by considering who did NOT respond?Based on a current estimate of 217 publicly-funded post-secondary institutions inCanada (Table 1), our pool of responses from 28 institutions represents a per-institutionresponse rate of only 12.8%. Moreover, and in spite of a comprehensive distribution andfollow up strategy (see Appendix A), we failed to recruit respondents from institutionsin the three northern territories, Manitoba, Saskatchewan or Prince Edward Island.  Therelatively low response rates from Quebec and from Atlantic Canada were alsodisappointing.  What factors may have contributed to this low response rate?4.1.1  Technological SelectionBy making this survey available almost exclusively in electronic form, accessible onlythrough the internet (except for a small number of surveys completed on paper at theAnnual Conference of the Canadian Bureau for International Education (Banff,November 2001)), we automatically selected against IE professionals who do not haveeasy internet access in their institution, or who are not confident using ICTs.  Since ourprimary interest was in the nature rather than the level of ICT use in post-secondaryInternational Education, the Project Management Team felt that online surveydistribution was appropriate.  The issue of technology adoption is non-trivial, however,27when attempting to draw a realistic picture of ICT supported educational practice in theIE field.One recent government-funded study of the remaining pool of "non-users" of theinternet (Reddick et al., 2000) found that for about half of all "non-users" of ICTs, lack oftechnical proficiency and understanding, and thus confidence, is a significant obstacle.Nor is the pool of non-users insignificant: in 2000, 59.5% of Canadian households didnot have internet access, and 72.5% of households had no members who accessed theinternet at work (Statistics Canada, 2000).  These investigators did find that internet useis more prevalent in the college-educated (51%) and university-educated (70%) sub-populations, suggesting that employees of post-secondary institutions are far morelikely to be technologically competent ICT users.Statistics regarding internet use are changing rapidly; nevertheless, it is likely thatsome potential respondents did not complete the survey due to access problems, orbecause they did not feel sufficiently knowledgeable to comment on general ICT use attheir institution.  Finally, hesitation to respond could also be attributed to individuals ininstitutions where ICTs are not being actively integrated into educational activities atthis time.4.1.2  Economic Selection (a Digital Divide)A number of economic factors are also likely to have influenced the response ratefrom other regions of the country.  A "digital divide" (Reddick et al., 2000) separateslarge institutions (primarily universities), where economies of scale make installationand maintenance of technological infrastructure cost-effective, from small colleges andschools whose budgets limit their capacity to implement ICT use widely (CampusComputing International/Industry Canada, 2000).  This may help explain why we wereable to recruit respondents from 25.8% of Canada's universities, but from only 7.7% ofthe smaller colleges and university colleges.Low response from Northern and Atlantic Canada is perhaps more difficult toexplain, and at this point we can only speculate on the combination of factorscontributing to our lack of data from these regions.  It is clear that these regions havefewer and smaller post-secondary institutions for whom the costs of managing a28technological infrastructure are likely more onerous, but in some cases, New Brunswickfor example, there has also been significant infrastructure and program development.Northern and Atlantic regions are relatively more culturally homogeneous, and lacklarge urban centres where intercultural and international exchange may have a higherprofile.  In addition, both regions serve communities with fewer economic resources(Statistics Canada, 2002), and potentially less ubiquitous access to the internet andassociated attitudes and skills.4.1.3  Cultural and Content SelectionLinguistic and cultural barriers likely also contributed to the relatively low responserate from Quebec and from Northern Canada (Reddick et al., 2000).  Compared to otherCanadians, Quebeckers are less likely to have internet access at home, and spend lesstime using the internet (PriceWaterhouseCoopers, 2000).  According to a 1998 studycommissioned by the Canadian Office of Learning Technology (GroupeCommunicom,1998), with the notable exception of centres such as the T?l?-Universit? ofthe Universit? du Qu?bec (T?luq), CITME at Laval University, the GRAIM, C?gep Bois-de Boulogne and C?gep de Maisonneauve,  ?blackboards, paper and pencil and lecture-discussion are the order of the day?(Groupe Communicom,1998) in public or privateQu?bec schools.In this same report on uses of new learning technologies and media in Qu?bec, theauthors note that ?the market for educational software and multimedia applications inQu?bec schools is not highly developed?With a limited Qu?bec market, the decline inpublic funding and the lack of vitality in the private sector, available financial resourcesfor the development and use of new learning media and technologies do not meetlearners? needs? (Groupe Communicom, 1998).Given that the English language, and Anglo-American culture and values, dominatethe technological infrastructure and content of the internet, it is perhaps not surprisingthat individuals and institutions in Canada?s non-English-speaking regions have notembraced ICTs with the same enthusiasm as those in Anglophone Canada, and areunder-represented in this survey of ICT use.294.2  ICTs Used Predominantly to Support Existing Programs and ServicesAnother significant theme is based in the recognition that ICTs  have been mostreadily adopted to support pre-existing activities, such as the provision of informationabout IE opportunities and services - perhaps not surprising given that the majority ofsurvey respondents cite IE information distribution as one of the roles of their unit orcentre. (Figure 4).  Such practical uses parallel those seen in Canadian society at largewhere government services, banking, travel and news media are increasingly accessedvia internet-based tools.  Email is used  instead of the telephone and websites are usedinstead of brochures, calendars and mail delivery services.One could imagine that international education, by definition, might lead the way intechnological innovation supporting international and intercultural learningexperiences for Canadian students.  Based on our survey results (collected at the end of2001), however, such wide spread innovation is not yet taking place.  IE programs andsupport services tend, like other areas of academic activity, to be embedded in thetraditional structures and attitudes of the home institution.Recently, many Canadian colleges and universities  have identified?internationalization? as an institutional and educational priority.  For example, the"Trek 2000 Academic Plan" at The University of British Columbia ranksinternationalization as the foremost of five influential trends shaping the future of theUniversity (University of British Columbia, 2000).  Internationalization is perceived as away in which the university can ?participate as an active member of the society of thetwenty-first century by educating future citizens to think globally and by advancinginternational scholarship and research.?  The two primary avenues of"internationalization" suggested by the Trek 2000 document are increased recruitmentof international students, and the promotion of study-abroad programs for Canadianstudents.  In addition, the document suggests that the University increase the numbersof international faculty and staff exchanges, and invite more international events ontothe campus.  Similar plans are being developed by institutions across Canada.  Whilesuch internationalization strategies are essential in 21st century academic life, they donot yet take into account the potential role for the creative use of ICTs in extending andexpanding the definition of international education activities.30It remains to be seen whether international education programs for Canadianstudents will be assigned as high a priority as the recruitment of higher fee payinginternational students, especially given the current limits of government funding.4.3  Emphasis on Personal Communications via email, and the WorldWide Web asan Information ResourceA second theme that is apparent from survey data is that by far, the most commonICTs in use by surveyed IE practitioners are email and the WorldWide Web (Figure 5),which are being used to support inter-personal communications and informationdistribution activities.  This pattern of conservative technology integration is not new:throughout history there has been a tendency to first employ new technologies tosimply replace older technologies - without immediately recognizing or accepting thenew possibilities that an emerging technology has to offer.   For example, when movingpictures were first introduced in Europe and North America the technology was firstused to record stage plays or present moving versions of photographic subjects. It wasnot until the creative work of cinema innovators like Eisenstein and Griffiths that thenew technological medium was understood as a radically new form of humancommunication. In essence, there is a time-lag between the appearance of a newtechnology, and the paradigmatic shift in thinking and creating that such technologiescan bring about.Based on the program-specific comments provided by survey respondents, currentinnovations in ICT use in IE appear to be taking place primarily at the course orprogram level, rather than as an integrated institution-wide tool to expand studentlearning options.  Instead, individual educators or administrators, often withouttechnological support, are implementing independent ICT-mediated courses, activitiesand programs in a decentralized way (ACCULT, 2000).  We hope to further investigatethese instances of 'hidden' innovations in ICT use in IE activities in Phase Three of thisproject, by carrying out detailed case studies.314.4  Awareness of Opportunities, Expressions of ConcernLastly, we observe that 'caution', or 'mixed feelings' on the part of IE practitioners is acommon theme.  Our respondents indicated both an awareness of the new teaching andlearning opportunities that ICTs may provide their students while at the same timeexpressing some concerns about wholesale or overly-rapid introduction of ICTs into IEactivities.4.4.1  EnthusiasmIt is clear that a significant proportion of respondents are now operating ininstitutions where the adoption of ICTs is well underway (see Figure 9), and some arealso using ICTs to deliver course content, enhance courses and resources, and facilitatecommunications among students and instructors.  More than half are convinced thatICTs are a vital tool for providing the kinds of learning that the ever-evolving learnercommunity needs, and a similar number indicate that they are convinced that ICTs canimprove the quality of learning.  As described, half of our respondents believe that theyare teaching their students personal, technical and intercultural skills through ICT-mediated activities.  Most telling are the responses given to Survey Question 3C, whichasks respondents to give ?example of IE activities that could be significantly enhancedby the creative use of ICTs?.  Almost half (20, or  47%) took the time to mention theirideas for innovative uses of ICTs.  While some suggested using ICTs to further improveaccess to information, and to facilitate and maintain connections with studentsparticipating in exchange programs and similar activities, others allowed theirimagination to travel further.One respondent noted that ?many students coming to Canada from overseas are not aware of Aboriginal issues inCanada except through the mainstream media?.He/she envisions that ICTs could allow Aboriginal perspectives to be made availableinternationally ? facilitating cultural exchange between aboriginal Canadian studentsand students worldwide.32Another respondent suggested that ICT-mediated programs may be an ideal way toaugment intercultural skill development for foreign-trained nurses, given the currentnursing shortage in Canada and ongoing international recruitment.A third adds an important qualifier, ?interactive?, to her suggestion that ICTs couldbe used to provide online pre-departure information for students preparing to traveloverseas, implying an increasing awareness that simple information distribution viaICTs may not be sufficient for effective student skill development.Our study does not give us actual information about ICT adoption rates in Canadianpost-secondary institutions ? a rate that may be impacted by many factors includinginstitutional priorities, financial realities, and staff time, skills and receptivity.  Instead,our data can only tell us how our respondents experience these adoption rates, and howthey feel about it.  We believe, however, that it is significant, and positive, that the vastmajority (84.0%) characterize the rate of adoption as ?about right? or ?too slow?,implying that a majority are comfortable with ICT integration, or, indeed, want to seemore.4.4.2  ConcernsOn the other hand, our findings suggest that, beyond email and informationdistribution and exchange via the Web, a significant proportion of our respondents arenot using ICTs in particularly innovative ways. While technical and economic realitiesare doubtless contributing factors to slower rates of ICT adoption in some institutions,we also suspect that many educators remain currently unconvinced of the benefits ofICT in international education activities. Comments made by some survey respondentsconvey three general areas of concern regarding the use of  ICTs in IE activities.One area of concern can be deduced from comments about the ?culturalhomogeneity? of the internet, and the negative impact this may have on internationaland intercultural exchange.  One respondent notes:?ICT can be used internationally, with the caution that local differences need to beplanned with local input as to what will work and what won?t?Clearly, there is recognition that for a multicultural student body such as Canada?s,and in a country where regional differences in language and culture can be large, ?one33size fits all? approaches to ICT-mediated learning will not be effective, and will notprovide the socially and culturally relevant content needed to engage and stimulate thewide range of Canadian students.Another respondent notes that ICTs ?increase opportunities for [English-speaking] students to communicate in their nativelanguage online, reducing activity in the host language?(the language of the country where they may be participating in an IE program).Both comments speak to the recognition that ?the internet? is not culture-free.  Like anytechnology, it is a cultural invention, with a social organization rooted in the worldsthat gave rise to it (Escobar, 1994) ? namely, a cohort of American, English-speakingscientists and engineers (Anderson, 1995) ? and embodying the values of its creators.Respondents are therefore highlighting the need to integrate ICTs into IE activities inways that do not exclusively promote Anglo-American language, culture and values,and reduce the intercultural experience of students.A second area of concern relates to technology itself.  It must be mentioned again that75% or more of respondents perceive that cost, staff skills, staff time and general?attitudes towards technology?  are significant factors impacting the integration of ICTsinto IE activities.  Moreover, one respondent writes: ?as with any other application of technology we must always be aware that we are thedrivers of the tech[nology], and its uses, we must not become slaves to the technology?.This comment suggests that while there exists important enthusiasm for ICT use inIE, the perceived practical barriers, and the untested nature of the medium as aneducational tool cautions against jumping blindly onto the technological bandwagon.The most significant concern voiced by survey respondents, however, is the worrythat introduction of ICTs into IE activities will reduce the face-to-face interculturalexperiences and encounters that they clearly identify as the preferred mode ofintercultural learning for students.  Why might such a concern have arisen?We suggest that it is significant that educational software companies marketingcourse management software systems (WebCT, Lotus Notes, Blackboard) areincreasingly and aggressively marketing online-teaching packages as a way ofresponding to ?greater student demands and expectations?[and] overburdened faculty34resources?, while also promising a high return on investment, increased revenue fromstudents and reduced faculty preparation time (WebCT Press Kit, 2001).  One recentprivate study, commissioned by Blackboard (Kaufman Research & Consulting Group,2002) prominently reports that ?institutions anticipate a 51% cost-savings in per-usersupport and maintenance costs? and that ?per-user training costs have alreadydecreased by 41%?.Simultaneously, many Canadian post-secondary institutions have come to viewinternational students as a significant source of revenue, and as discussed previously,many survey respondents indicated directly or indirectly that a major focus of?internationalization? on their campus was the recruitment of higher fee payinginternational students. In this light, it is understandable that IE practitioners harbourconcerns about ICTs being introduced into IE activities as a cost-saving and/orrevenue-generating measure, reducing apparently more costly ?face to face? activitiessuch as exchange programs.Moreover, survey comments reflect broader societal concerns that internetcommunications generally reduce the quality of human and intercultural interactions,lacking as they are in context perception, dynamic real-time conflict repair mechanisms,a parallel visual channel, eye contact, gestural information and the flexibility wenormally expect to obtain or emerge between conversational partners (Chase et. al.,2002).  One recent report notes that ?many [people] continue to divide themselves into?for? and ?against? camps?, when discussing the use of ICTs in education? (Institutefor Higher Education Policy, 2000). In our view, such active debate about the uses oftechnology in education is unlikely to subside in the near future.355  CONCLUSIONThe current global momentum in ICT development and use, and the views of oursurvey respondents about future importance of ICTs would argue for the growingintegration of these tools into international education activity of all kinds, although it isas yet unclear whether the increased use of ICTs will gradually lessen polarizedsentiment among IE professionals.  We suspect that issues of educational quality,creativity, adaptability and meaning will all play significant roles in cultivating greateropenness and curiosity about the value of ICTs in the international education field.This survey has provided a limited snapshot of ICT use in Canada?s post-secondaryIE sector.  It has not provided insight into actual rates of ICT integration into IE activityin individual Canadian post-secondary institutions, nor about actual numbers ofCanadian students currently using ICTs to access IE information and activities.  Moredetailed investigation into specific uses of ICTs in international education will beessential in order to determine which forms of ICT are being used most successfully.Our findings suggest that current use of ICTs is predominantly in support of pre-existing programs and activities, and is currently conservative in scope, being mostlyemployed for information distribution and exchange.  Innovative uses of ICTs, wherethey exist, are decentralized, and largely at the course or program level.  There is clearenthusiasm for future ICT innovations in the area of IE, but a number of concernsemerge.  Educators worry that the Anglo-American culture of the internet may actuallylimit student?s intercultural experiences online.  Economic and technological factors arealso a concern, with some cautioning that technology should not drive programcurriculum or design.  Most significantly, IE professionals worry that ICTs may be usedto replace rather than supplement in-person IE activities, and that this wouldsignificantly reduce the intercultural learning and relationship building that studentsexperience in face-to-face activities.We can conclude, however, that ICTs are clearly visible above the horizon ofinstitutional IE activities, and are currently being integrated in effective if cautiousways.  We look forward to the results of the next phase of this study which will explorespecific examples of ICT use in international education.  These case studies will36demonstrate the creative integration of educational design, learning technologies andintercultural understanding in support of international education?s most worthy goals.376  REFERENCESACCULT (University of British Columbia Academic Committee for the Creative Use ofLearning Technologies) (2000).  Available from:http://www.learningtechnologies.ubc.caAnderson, J. (1995).  Cybarites, Knowledge Workers and New Creoles on theSuperhighway.  Anthropology Today. 11 (4): 133-15.Association of Community Colleges of Canada (2002) http://www.accc.caAssociation of Universities and Colleges of Canada (2002) http://www.aucc.caBarker, K., 2001.  Information and Communication Technology in InternationalEducation at Canada?s Public Post-secondary Education system: Literature Review.http://www.futured.comChase, M., Macfadyen, L., Reeder, K & Roche, J. (2002)  Intercultural Challenges inNetworked Learning:  Hard Technologies Meet Soft Skills.  Proceedings, NetworkedLearning 2002, Berlin.  In Press.Campus Computing International (for Industry Canada) (2000) The Underbelly ofOnline Learning in Canadian Post-Secondary Education.  EvNet Working Papers # 17.http://evnet-nt1.mcmaster.ca/network/workingpapers/index.htmDziuban, C., Hartman, J., Juge, F., Moskal, P., Sorg, S., Truman-Davis, B.  (1999) FacultyDevelopment, Learner Support and Evaluation in Web-Based Programs.  InteractiveLearning Environments (7) 2&3: 137-154.Escobar, A. (1994) Welcome to Cyberia.  Notes on the Anthropology of Cyberculture.Current Anthropology. 35 (3): 211-231.Groupe Communicom (1998)  New Learning Technologies and Media in Quebec:Profile and positioning of the Main stakeholders. (Available from the CanadianOffice of Learning Technologies, http://olt-bta.hrdc-drhc.gc.ca )Institute for Higher Education Policy (2000).  Quality On The Line: Benchmarks forSuccess in Internet-Based Distance Education. http://www.ihep.com/PR17.html38Kaufman Research & Consulting Group (2002).  Reduce the Cost of e-Education with anEnterprise-Wide Solution.http://company.blackboard.com/docs/cp/orientation/Kaufman_Research.pdfKnight, J. (2000) Progress and Promise: The 2000 AUCC Report on Internationalizationat Canadian Universities (Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada,Ottawa)PriceWaterhouseCoopers (2000) Canadian Consumer Technology Study.  Availablefrom:http://www.pwcglobal.com/extweb/ncsurvres.nsf/docid/0AD8B61796C17A148525699700708245Reddick, A., Boucher, C. and Groseillers, M. (2000).  The Dual Digital Divide - TheInformation Highway in Canada (Public Interest Advocacy Centre, Canada;available from the Canadian Office of Learning Technologies, http://olt-bta.hrdc-drhc.gc.ca )Statistics Canada (2002) http://www.statcan.caUniversity of British Columbia (2000)  Trek 2000: Academic Plan.  Available athttp://www.vision.ubc.ca/index.htmlWebCT (2002) Transforming the Educational Experience (WebCT Press Kit).http://www.webct.com

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