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Teaching towards social and ecological justice online: Introduction to Global Citizenship at UBC Macfadyen, Leah P.; Swanson, Dalene; Hewling, Anne 2006

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Teaching towards social and ecological justice online: Introduction to Global Citizenship at UBC  Leah P. Macfadyen Skylight (Science Centre for Learning and Teaching), Faculty of Science, The University of British Columbia  Dalene Swanson Department of Curriculum Studies, Faculty of Education, The University of British Columbia  Anne Hewling The Open University, UK  Proposal Summary (max 80 words) How can we help university students make connections between their ?academic learning? and the practical and ethical complexities of global challenges? In this working session, we will describe one ?global citizenship? course project, and facilitate a discussion about teaching strategies for transformative learning in higher education. What ?kinds? of transformative learning are we seeking and how can we facilitate and recognize it? Can technology and interdisciplinarity assist us? Which investigative approaches might help us move beyond lipservice to global education?  Abstract (max 250 words) How can we help university students make connections between ?academic knowledge?, and their roles as members of local and global communities? How do we create a forum for students to engage in issues of social and ecological justice through critical thought, moral commitment and meaningful engagement in their learning and coming to know as global citizens?  We are an interdisciplinary group of researchers and instructors who have collaboratively developed, and are now co-teaching an international, interactive, fully online university course: Introduction to Global Citizenship, available to students at five universities around the world. Our course combines academic rigour with personal reflection and group discussion. It provides students with a broad understanding of barriers and bridges to global citizenship, brings greater awareness of key global issues, and encourages individual and collective action and accountability on issues of sustainability and social justice. Pilot delivery of our course in 2005-2006 suggests that it offers students an extremely challenging, thought-provoking, international educational experience, as we learn about and discuss global issues together. In this working session, we hope describe our experiences with this course project, and to facilitate a productive dialogue with colleagues around teaching strategies for transformative learning in higher education. What ?kinds? of transformative learning are we seeking and how can we recognize it? Which instructional strategies facilitate deeper critical analysis and personal reflection? What roles might technology and interdisciplinarity play in this undertaking? Which investigative approaches might help us move our institutions beyond lipservice to global education?  Teaching towards social and ecological justice online: Introduction to Global Citizenship at UBC  Leah P. Macfadyen Skylight (Science Centre for Learning and Teaching), Faculty of Science, The University of British Columbia  Dalene Swanson Department of Curriculum Studies, Faculty of Education, The University of British Columbia  Anne Hewling The Open University, UK  Proposal Summary (max 80 words) How can we help university students make connections between their ?academic learning? and the practical and ethical complexities of global challenges? In this working session, we will describe one ?global citizenship? course project, and facilitate a discussion about teaching strategies for transformative learning in higher education. What ?kinds? of transformative learning are we seeking and how can we facilitate and recognize it? Can technology and interdisciplinarity assist us? Which investigative approaches might help us move beyond lipservice to global education?  Abstract (max 250 words) How can we help university students make connections between ?academic knowledge?, and their roles as members of local and global communities? How do we create a forum for students to engage in issues of social and ecological justice through critical thought, moral commitment and meaningful engagement in their learning and coming to know as global citizens?  We are an interdisciplinary group of researchers and instructors who have collaboratively developed, and are now co-teaching an international, interactive, fully online university course: Introduction to Global Citizenship, available to students at five universities around the world. Our course combines academic rigour with personal reflection and group discussion. It provides students with a broad understanding of barriers and bridges to global citizenship, brings greater awareness of key global issues, and encourages individual and collective action and accountability on issues of sustainability and social justice. Pilot delivery of our course in 2005-2006 suggests that it offers students an extremely challenging, thought-provoking, international educational experience, as we learn about and discuss global issues together. In this working session, we hope describe our experiences with this course project, and to facilitate a productive dialogue with colleagues around teaching strategies for transformative learning in higher education. What ?kinds? of transformative learning are we seeking and how can we recognize it? Which instructional strategies facilitate deeper critical analysis and personal reflection? What roles might technology and interdisciplinarity play in this undertaking? Which investigative approaches might help us move our institutions beyond lipservice to global education?  A Report on Introduction to Global Citizenship, a course offered by   The University of British Columbia, Canada, 2005-2006   Leah P. Macfadyen   leah.macfadyen@ubc.ca Anne Hewling    A.Hewling@open.ac.uk    Dalene Swanson   dalene@interchange.ubc.ca     Executive Summary................................................................................................................ 2 Background ............................................................................................................................. 3 What do we mean by Global Citizenship?........................................................................ 3 Goal of the Course: Transformative Learning, Transforming Perspectives.................... 3 Course Development: Multiple Layers of Collaboration.................................................... 4 Structure of the Course..................................................................................................... 4 Course Implementation and Launch .................................................................................... 5 Collaboration in Teaching................................................................................................ 5 The Students...................................................................................................................... 6 Student Learning .................................................................................................................... 7 Evidence of Transformative Learning .............................................................................. 7 Student Performance......................................................................................................... 8 Student Feedback and Course Evaluation ........................................................................... 9 Student Feedback.............................................................................................................. 9 Changes Made Based on Student Evaluation................................................................... 9 2 Executive Summary  UBC has developed Introduction to Global Citizenship, the core course of the new Universitas 21 Program in Global Issues, as a multidisciplinary online course designed to promote discussion and debate of the notion of ?global citizenship?, and to bridge students? disciplinary learning with questions of their role in the world. The course launched in September 2005, and two iterations of the course have now been completed, enrolling 63 students from UBC, Hong Kong University and the University of Melbourne. Students were culturally diverse, and drawn from many disciplines. Instructors were similarly diverse. Data suggests that the course has attracted high-achieving students. Instructors observed extensive inter-student discussion, idea-sharing and peer-teaching within the course. Student writing, discussion contributions and feedback suggest that the course was a challenging, inspiring and unusual learning experience. Students displayed evidence of increased critical thinking, understanding of linkages between ?global issues?, and reflection on their learning and experience. Many described an increased commitment to participatory action as citizens, locally and globally.  The mean student grade was 82% (A-), with a real grade range of 57% (C-) to 95% (A+). Most students were in Year 3 or 4 of an undergraduate degree program, but 15 were in Year 1 or 2. Year 1 students performed significantly more poorly than older students, achieving a mean grade of 63% (C). We suggest that these students may lack some of the academic maturity and study skills to manage a course at this level. Students evaluated the course via a tool administered by the UBC Faculty of Education, and rated the course with an overall mean score of 6.43, versus the Faculty average of 5.65. In anonymous prose feedback opportunities, students gave positive feedback, rating highly the value of group discussion with international peers, instructional support, and the challenge of synthesizing course topics with personal action. In semester 1, students expressed unhappiness with workload and a lack of clarity regarding assessment criteria. To address these concerns, in semester 2 we reduced the frequency of written assignments and rewrote information pages on coursework and grading. We also plan to continue upgrading and updating the course, in particular through integration of video and audio lecture materials on global issues topics. 3 Background Trek 20101, the Vision Statement of The University of British Columbia (hereafter, UBC) articulates the wish that UBC will  "prepare students to become exceptional global citizens, [and] promote the values of a civil and sustainable society " With this goal in mind, UBC has entered into a collaboration with four of its like-minded Universitas 21 partners (The University of Auckland, New Zealand; Hong Kong University; The University of Melbourne, Australia; and the University of Nottingham, England) to develop and jointly offer an interdisciplinary Program in Global Issues to enable students to complete a formal course of study that gives a global context to their degree.  The report describes the development and launch of the core introductory course, Introduction to Global Citizenship by the University of British Columbia. What do we mean by Global Citizenship? The meaning of ?global citizenship? is hotly debated and poorly defined. Developing an introductory course to this contested concept, and one that is so tightly connected to questions of global power, culture and values, was therefore no small undertaking. We also recognized that participating students would represent a great diversity of cultural and disciplinary backgrounds, necessitating attention to cultural assumptions underlying contemporary models of citizenship and worldview. Nor could we assume deep background knowledge in any one topic area. We resolved therefore that topics within the purview of ?global citizenship? would be presented for debate, discussion and critical analysis by each student cohort. Goal of the Course: Transformative Learning, Transforming Perspectives Introduction to Global Citizenship is now an interdisciplinary and highly interactive fully online course that hopes to ?equip graduates with knowledge and competencies which will enable them to work and participate as global citizens? (U21 MoU, 2005). The course has been designed to inspire students to: consider the concept of ?global citizenship? and develop their own definition of this complex and contested notion; acquire a broad understanding of barriers and bridges to global citizenship; acquire a broad understanding of issues of key concern to the international community; and consider the impact they may have, as global citizens, within their local, national and international communities. Importantly, in designing this course, we hoped to create a learning experience for students that was not simply one of ?acquiring new knowledge?. Rather, we aimed to achieve what Jack Mezirow2 and others have described in recent decades as ?transformative learning? ? a process in which learners participate in rational discourse                                                  1 http://www.trek2000.ubc.ca/  2 Mezirow, Jack. (1991). Transformative Dimensions of Adult Learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 4 about and critical reflection on their experience in ways that permit transformations of perspective.  Perspective transformation, says Mezirow (1991) ??is the process of becoming critically aware of how and why our assumptions have come to constrain the way we perceive, understand, and feel about our world; changing these structures of habitual expectation to make possible a more inclusive, discriminating, and integrating perspective; and, finally, making choices or otherwise acting upon these new understandings" In other words, we recognized that we would attract to this course a wide range of students who would bring with them large stores of knowledge. We hoped to harness their existing skills and experience to participate in critical reflection and discourse about the connections between their prior learning and their role in a globalizing world. Course Development: Multiple Layers of Collaboration Our commitment to developing a course that would be interdisciplinary, innovative, student-centred, highly interactive and representative of and receptive to many worldviews, motivated us to undertake an ambitious collaborative course development process.  We developed the initial course outline with input from a wide range of local and international colleagues and resources: faculty and staff at the Office of UBC International; reports and materials from previous ?global citizenship? activities on the UBC Campus; and interviews with faculty members across the UBC campus who had previously demonstrated an interest in the topic area (including individuals who have offered well-founded critiques and caveats regarding the concept of ?global citizenship?3). Topic areas were selected to create a course outline that would represent an introduction to a range of concepts and topics relevant to the discussion of ?global citizenship? (see below). Twelve different subject matter experts, located at UBC and elsewhere in the world, drafted content for the modules contained in the course. Intellectual property concerns on the part of content developers were allayed through the joint signing by UBC and each developer of an intellectual property agreement developed in consultation with the UBC Faculty of Education and UBC Faculty Relations. All modules were edited for continuity and coherence, and additional course materials (assessment schema, guidelines for students, etc.) were drafted. Finally, online course design and development was carried out by a web programmer in UBC?s Distance Education unit.  Structure of the Course Introduction to Global Citizenship now comprises twelve weekly thematic modules, presented via the WebCT course management system. Instructors make use of WebCT communication tools to promote critical thinking and reflection through course readings,                                                  3 See, for example: Roman, Leslie G. (2003). Education and the Contested Meanings of ?Global Citizenship, Journal of Educational Change (Special Issue, Guest Edited by Fazal Rizvi), vol. 4(3), pp.269-293. 5 facilitated (asynchronous) discussion with instructors and international peers, and regular written work.  Table 1: List of Course Modules Module 1: An ethics of global citizenship Module 2: What is ?citizenship?? Module 3: The challenge of global divisions: Race, ethnicity, nation, state Module 4: Challenging old conceptions of citizenship: Diversity and multiculturalism Module 5: The challenge of intercultural communication Module 6: The challenge of being informed: Media, communications and critical thinking Module 7: Globalization, world trade and poverty Module 8: The universal requirements for a healthy society Module 9: Consumerism and consumer choices Module 10: Human impact on the environment: Global climate change Module 11: Sustainability Module 12: Politics, participation and civil society   Course Implementation and Launch The pilot offering of Introduction to Global Citizenship launched in September 2005 with 42 students from UBC, Hong Kong University and the University of Melbourne. A second offering was delivered during UBC?s spring term (January-April 2006), and enrolled 21 students. The course has been hosted during the 2005-2006 academic year by the UBC Faculty of Education?s Office of External Programs and Learning Technology, which provided students and instructors with technical assistance and support. UBC's Go Global Office (http://students.ubc.ca/global/) assisted with promoting the course to UBC students, and helped non-UBC students with course registration. Collaboration in Teaching In line with the original vision of offering students a multidisciplinary and multi-voiced perspective on global citizenship and global issues, instructors have been selected from a range of disciplines as well as national and ethnic backgrounds.   Instructional Team, Fall 2005  Instructional Team, Spring 2006 Dr Leah Macfadyen (PhD Molecular Microbiology)  Dr Leah Macfadyen (PhD Molecular Microbiology) Dr Begum Verjee (EdD, Educational Leadership and Policy)  Dr Dalene Swanson (PhD in Mathematics Education) Sally McLean (BA Economics, MA in Liberal Studies)   Anne Hewling (PhD, Educational Technologies)   6 The Students Over the two semesters, a total of 63 students have completed Introduction to Global Citizenship, including 22 (35%) from HKU, 17 (27%) from Melbourne, and 24 (38%) from UBC. Of the total, 17 (27%) were male, and 46 (73%) were female. The vast majority (42, or 63%) of participating students were in Year 3 or 4 of an undergraduate degree, although fifteen students reported being in Year 1 or 2. In addition to students participating from their home universities in Vancouver, Hong Kong and Melbourne, the course also attracted U21 students based in Nottingham (while on exchange), Japan (while completing a study-related work placement), from Montr?al (while completing a Nursing internship) and from Bahrain and Bangkok, Thailand. In both semesters, students represented a diverse ethnic mix that is masked by simply considering university affiliation. For example, in addition to our Hong Kong Chinese students at HKU, seven UBC or Melbourne students characterized themselves as first- or second-generation immigrants from China, offering an interesting bridging perspective. Other UBC and Melbourne students self-identified as first-generation immigrants from Egypt, Singapore, the Philippines, the United States of America, South Africa, Iran, Korea, Poland and Thailand. Some described their East Indian or European ancestry. A number also noted religious affiliations that included Catholic or Protestant Christianity, Islam, Sikhism, Baha?i and Judaism. We were especially pleased that the course attracted students from a range of academic disciplines, as shown in Figure 1. In addition to four post-graduate students (all in education-related programs) and five ?unclassified? students, we enrolled undergraduate students from degree programs in Arts, Science, Social Sciences, Resource Management, Law, Government, Business, Education, and Nursing. Fourteen students were already registered in double degree programs (such as Arts/Law), and six indicated that they would complete their degree with a double major, suggesting that the course and Program appeal to academically successful students.  Figure 1. Distribution of registered students by degree specialization. 7 Student Learning  ?I absolutely love hearing from people all around the world - it is just great to have people chatting from Hong Kong, Canada, Australia... Have really enjoyed being able to learn about different countries and how the issues affect different regions differently.? (Student, October 2005) We embarked upon teaching such a diverse cohort of students with some trepidation, and indeed we have found that students vary tremendously in their academic sophistication and ability to consider ideas critically, in their language skills, in their cultural and religious backgrounds, and in their disciplinary training. Nevertheless, course design and approaches to assessment allow us to assess student work based on their individual achievement and progress. Most importantly, we happily observe a good deal of peer-teaching and exchange of ideas and experience in the weekly discussion forums.  Evidence of Transformative Learning ??this class was different in a big way. Whereas in other classes, you can do readings and assignments, get the 3 credits and that's it..walk away..I felt like suddenly we've identified ourselves not only as students but active participants in what we're learning through the concept of global citizenship. Global citizens seemed like an abstract idea at first but slowly I think we realized that we were talking about ourselves? (Student, April 2006)  ??interesting to make the connections between health, environment, media, poverty and see that in fact, everything is related, perhaps with the social and physical environment as the main link.? (Student, April 2006) ?The idea that impressed me most was "think global, act local"? (Student, April 2006) ?? the format of the course is not mere learning but it is REFLECTION. You are forced to reflect upon yourself and contextualize the learning experience. Basically I think that this course achieves well what ought to be the main goal of University; trigger critical thinking. This course allowed me to consolidate knowledge and relate to it. Very useful!? (Student, December 2005)  Through formal student feedback, and through continuing discussion threads, we feel we have witnessed at least the beginnings of perspective transformation that Mezirow (1991) and others have identified as central to a transformative learning experience. Not only did students become more practiced at critical assessment of global issues - making connections, identifying causes ? but they also increasingly showed evidence of being consciously aware of the need for such critical thinking. Students clearly relished the opportunity to discuss and reflect on their learning and their own experiences in the world, and often recognized that reflection was significant in their learning. 8 Most significantly, most students commented on the degree to which participation in this course is motivating them to consider their life choices carefully in light of new learning (for example, consumer choices) and to become more active citizens, locally and globally.   Figure 2. Thankyou card received from a student, December 2005 The value of this course/Program in developing a growing group of students and graduates motivated to contribute to positive social change and global development is also highlighted by students? expressed wish to remain in contact. We have now established an independent web-based discussion forum where course graduates can continue to discuss global issues, and exchange ideas. Student Performance Student performance in this course is carried out through continuous assessment of both participation in weekly discussions, and of regular ?short essay? style written work, such that grading is balanced between informal and formal writing. We found that this distribution of grades not only encouraged students to keep up with assignments and discussions, but also allowed students to be recognized for excellence in one or other area. In such a heavily discussion-oriented course, student leaders who effectively promoted and provoked discussion of difficult issues could be rewarded, as well as more research-oriented students who put more of their energies into drafting analytical papers. In semester 1, the mean student grade was 82% (A-), with a real grade range of 57% (C-) to 95% (A+). (Semester 2 grades were not complete at time of writing). With regards to grade distribution, the most notable correlation is with ?Year of Study?.  Year 1 students performed significantly more poorly, with a mean grade of 63% (C), while students in Year 3 or 4 of study achieved an average grade of 83% (A-).  9 This finding closely matches our observations as instructors. While we felt that all students, without exception, made progress in their critical thinking skills and conceptual understanding, we felt strongly that younger students were hampered by their relative academic inexperience. In part, we feel that this is simply the result of ?academic immaturity?, so that younger students have had less practice in connecting ideas, drafting effective arguments, and so on. It may also be due, in part, to lack of experience with the time management and study skills necessary for online learning, where students must be highly self-motivated. Student Feedback and Course Evaluation Each cohort of students had three opportunities to offer us anonymous feedback on their experience in, and opinions of, the course. As instructors, we offered students the opportunity to give feedback to us as course designers and instructors at both the midway and end-point of the course. We asked broad questions about course strengths and weaknesses, and recommendations for improvement. We asked students if they could identify their most significant learning in the course, and also to tell us if they though that any parts of the course were not valuable, or whether there was material or ?issues? that might be missing. Student Feedback In midway and end-of-course feedback, students offered overwhelmingly positive and thoughtful commentary on the course, too extensive to be compiled here. Overall, students tended to comment that they found the group online discussions extremely valuable; that they were surprised at how well the online discussions supported the development of ?community?; and that hearing from peers in other parts of the world was illuminating. Here, and elsewhere throughout the discussions, students commented on how much they were enjoying the multidisciplinary nature of the course, and how unusual the experience was for them to be asked to think directly about applying disciplinary learning to personal choices and behaviour. We also regularly saw evidence that students were carrying this course experience into other areas of their lives: One of the things that I love about this course is that it makes us see both sides of every issue. ... Around the dinner table last night I brought this up and we thought that the middle ground between assimilation and multiculturalism was integration. As with the SCET evaluation, the most common critique from students related to workload. In the first semester in particular many students felt that a weekly written assessment was too much, on top of the reading and discussions. A few students expressed a wish for greater in-depth exploration of topic areas, and for the possibility of focussed research and reading. We agree that further study in all areas is warranted, and trust that students will have the opportunity to explore topics of their choice in greater depth in later Program courses! Changes Made Based on Student Evaluation Based on our experience as instructors, and based on student evaluation and feedback offered at the end of the first offering, we made a number of modifications to course design and delivery before the course was offered in Spring 2006.  10 We rewrote the course information sections on course work and on assessment criteria and grading schemes, to try to ensure that students had clear guidelines regarding assignments and grading. We also significantly reduced the number of written assignments (from 12 to 6), and transformed most of the ?cut? essay questions into additional topics for group discussion. In advance of September 2006, the course will be reviewed again for any necessary updates.  We also plan to integrate into the course streaming video and audio recordings of guest speakers from UBC?s 2005-2006 Global Citizenship Speaker Series. We also plan to review the course reading materials, with the aim of eliminating the need for a hard-copy course reader.   Teaching towards social and ecological justice online: Introduction to Global Citizenship at UBC  Leah P. Macfadyen Skylight (Science Centre for Learning and Teaching), Faculty of Science, The University of British Columbia  Dalene Swanson Department of Curriculum Studies, Faculty of Education, The University of British Columbia  Anne Hewling The Open University, UK  Proposal Summary (max 80 words) How can we help university students make connections between their ?academic learning? and the practical and ethical complexities of global challenges? In this working session, we will describe one ?global citizenship? course project, and facilitate a discussion about teaching strategies for transformative learning in higher education. What ?kinds? of transformative learning are we seeking and how can we facilitate and recognize it? Can technology and interdisciplinarity assist us? Which investigative approaches might help us move beyond lipservice to global education?  Abstract (max 250 words) How can we help university students make connections between ?academic knowledge?, and their roles as members of local and global communities? How do we create a forum for students to engage in issues of social and ecological justice through critical thought, moral commitment and meaningful engagement in their learning and coming to know as global citizens?  We are an interdisciplinary group of researchers and instructors who have collaboratively developed, and are now co-teaching an international, interactive, fully online university course: Introduction to Global Citizenship, available to students at five universities around the world. Our course combines academic rigour with personal reflection and group discussion. It provides students with a broad understanding of barriers and bridges to global citizenship, brings greater awareness of key global issues, and encourages individual and collective action and accountability on issues of sustainability and social justice. Pilot delivery of our course in 2005-2006 suggests that it offers students an extremely challenging, thought-provoking, international educational experience, as we learn about and discuss global issues together. In this working session, we hope describe our experiences with this course project, and to facilitate a productive dialogue with colleagues around teaching strategies for transformative learning in higher education. What ?kinds? of transformative learning are we seeking and how can we recognize it? Which instructional strategies facilitate deeper critical analysis and personal reflection? What roles might technology and interdisciplinarity play in this undertaking? Which investigative approaches might help us move our institutions beyond lipservice to global education?  A Report on Introduction to Global Citizenship, a course offered by   The University of British Columbia, Canada, 2005-2006   Leah P. Macfadyen   leah.macfadyen@ubc.ca Anne Hewling    A.Hewling@open.ac.uk    Dalene Swanson   dalene@interchange.ubc.ca     Executive Summary................................................................................................................ 2 Background ............................................................................................................................. 3 What do we mean by Global Citizenship?........................................................................ 3 Goal of the Course: Transformative Learning, Transforming Perspectives.................... 3 Course Development: Multiple Layers of Collaboration.................................................... 4 Structure of the Course..................................................................................................... 4 Course Implementation and Launch .................................................................................... 5 Collaboration in Teaching................................................................................................ 5 The Students...................................................................................................................... 6 Student Learning .................................................................................................................... 7 Evidence of Transformative Learning .............................................................................. 7 Student Performance......................................................................................................... 8 Student Feedback and Course Evaluation ........................................................................... 9 Student Feedback.............................................................................................................. 9 Changes Made Based on Student Evaluation................................................................... 9 2 Executive Summary  UBC has developed Introduction to Global Citizenship, the core course of the new Universitas 21 Program in Global Issues, as a multidisciplinary online course designed to promote discussion and debate of the notion of ?global citizenship?, and to bridge students? disciplinary learning with questions of their role in the world. The course launched in September 2005, and two iterations of the course have now been completed, enrolling 63 students from UBC, Hong Kong University and the University of Melbourne. Students were culturally diverse, and drawn from many disciplines. Instructors were similarly diverse. Data suggests that the course has attracted high-achieving students. Instructors observed extensive inter-student discussion, idea-sharing and peer-teaching within the course. Student writing, discussion contributions and feedback suggest that the course was a challenging, inspiring and unusual learning experience. Students displayed evidence of increased critical thinking, understanding of linkages between ?global issues?, and reflection on their learning and experience. Many described an increased commitment to participatory action as citizens, locally and globally.  The mean student grade was 82% (A-), with a real grade range of 57% (C-) to 95% (A+). Most students were in Year 3 or 4 of an undergraduate degree program, but 15 were in Year 1 or 2. Year 1 students performed significantly more poorly than older students, achieving a mean grade of 63% (C). We suggest that these students may lack some of the academic maturity and study skills to manage a course at this level. Students evaluated the course via a tool administered by the UBC Faculty of Education, and rated the course with an overall mean score of 6.43, versus the Faculty average of 5.65. In anonymous prose feedback opportunities, students gave positive feedback, rating highly the value of group discussion with international peers, instructional support, and the challenge of synthesizing course topics with personal action. In semester 1, students expressed unhappiness with workload and a lack of clarity regarding assessment criteria. To address these concerns, in semester 2 we reduced the frequency of written assignments and rewrote information pages on coursework and grading. We also plan to continue upgrading and updating the course, in particular through integration of video and audio lecture materials on global issues topics. 3 Background Trek 20101, the Vision Statement of The University of British Columbia (hereafter, UBC) articulates the wish that UBC will  "prepare students to become exceptional global citizens, [and] promote the values of a civil and sustainable society " With this goal in mind, UBC has entered into a collaboration with four of its like-minded Universitas 21 partners (The University of Auckland, New Zealand; Hong Kong University; The University of Melbourne, Australia; and the University of Nottingham, England) to develop and jointly offer an interdisciplinary Program in Global Issues to enable students to complete a formal course of study that gives a global context to their degree.  The report describes the development and launch of the core introductory course, Introduction to Global Citizenship by the University of British Columbia. What do we mean by Global Citizenship? The meaning of ?global citizenship? is hotly debated and poorly defined. Developing an introductory course to this contested concept, and one that is so tightly connected to questions of global power, culture and values, was therefore no small undertaking. We also recognized that participating students would represent a great diversity of cultural and disciplinary backgrounds, necessitating attention to cultural assumptions underlying contemporary models of citizenship and worldview. Nor could we assume deep background knowledge in any one topic area. We resolved therefore that topics within the purview of ?global citizenship? would be presented for debate, discussion and critical analysis by each student cohort. Goal of the Course: Transformative Learning, Transforming Perspectives Introduction to Global Citizenship is now an interdisciplinary and highly interactive fully online course that hopes to ?equip graduates with knowledge and competencies which will enable them to work and participate as global citizens? (U21 MoU, 2005). The course has been designed to inspire students to: consider the concept of ?global citizenship? and develop their own definition of this complex and contested notion; acquire a broad understanding of barriers and bridges to global citizenship; acquire a broad understanding of issues of key concern to the international community; and consider the impact they may have, as global citizens, within their local, national and international communities. Importantly, in designing this course, we hoped to create a learning experience for students that was not simply one of ?acquiring new knowledge?. Rather, we aimed to achieve what Jack Mezirow2 and others have described in recent decades as ?transformative learning? ? a process in which learners participate in rational discourse                                                  1 http://www.trek2000.ubc.ca/  2 Mezirow, Jack. (1991). Transformative Dimensions of Adult Learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 4 about and critical reflection on their experience in ways that permit transformations of perspective.  Perspective transformation, says Mezirow (1991) ??is the process of becoming critically aware of how and why our assumptions have come to constrain the way we perceive, understand, and feel about our world; changing these structures of habitual expectation to make possible a more inclusive, discriminating, and integrating perspective; and, finally, making choices or otherwise acting upon these new understandings" In other words, we recognized that we would attract to this course a wide range of students who would bring with them large stores of knowledge. We hoped to harness their existing skills and experience to participate in critical reflection and discourse about the connections between their prior learning and their role in a globalizing world. Course Development: Multiple Layers of Collaboration Our commitment to developing a course that would be interdisciplinary, innovative, student-centred, highly interactive and representative of and receptive to many worldviews, motivated us to undertake an ambitious collaborative course development process.  We developed the initial course outline with input from a wide range of local and international colleagues and resources: faculty and staff at the Office of UBC International; reports and materials from previous ?global citizenship? activities on the UBC Campus; and interviews with faculty members across the UBC campus who had previously demonstrated an interest in the topic area (including individuals who have offered well-founded critiques and caveats regarding the concept of ?global citizenship?3). Topic areas were selected to create a course outline that would represent an introduction to a range of concepts and topics relevant to the discussion of ?global citizenship? (see below). Twelve different subject matter experts, located at UBC and elsewhere in the world, drafted content for the modules contained in the course. Intellectual property concerns on the part of content developers were allayed through the joint signing by UBC and each developer of an intellectual property agreement developed in consultation with the UBC Faculty of Education and UBC Faculty Relations. All modules were edited for continuity and coherence, and additional course materials (assessment schema, guidelines for students, etc.) were drafted. Finally, online course design and development was carried out by a web programmer in UBC?s Distance Education unit.  Structure of the Course Introduction to Global Citizenship now comprises twelve weekly thematic modules, presented via the WebCT course management system. Instructors make use of WebCT communication tools to promote critical thinking and reflection through course readings,                                                  3 See, for example: Roman, Leslie G. (2003). Education and the Contested Meanings of ?Global Citizenship, Journal of Educational Change (Special Issue, Guest Edited by Fazal Rizvi), vol. 4(3), pp.269-293. 5 facilitated (asynchronous) discussion with instructors and international peers, and regular written work.  Table 1: List of Course Modules Module 1: An ethics of global citizenship Module 2: What is ?citizenship?? Module 3: The challenge of global divisions: Race, ethnicity, nation, state Module 4: Challenging old conceptions of citizenship: Diversity and multiculturalism Module 5: The challenge of intercultural communication Module 6: The challenge of being informed: Media, communications and critical thinking Module 7: Globalization, world trade and poverty Module 8: The universal requirements for a healthy society Module 9: Consumerism and consumer choices Module 10: Human impact on the environment: Global climate change Module 11: Sustainability Module 12: Politics, participation and civil society   Course Implementation and Launch The pilot offering of Introduction to Global Citizenship launched in September 2005 with 42 students from UBC, Hong Kong University and the University of Melbourne. A second offering was delivered during UBC?s spring term (January-April 2006), and enrolled 21 students. The course has been hosted during the 2005-2006 academic year by the UBC Faculty of Education?s Office of External Programs and Learning Technology, which provided students and instructors with technical assistance and support. UBC's Go Global Office (http://students.ubc.ca/global/) assisted with promoting the course to UBC students, and helped non-UBC students with course registration. Collaboration in Teaching In line with the original vision of offering students a multidisciplinary and multi-voiced perspective on global citizenship and global issues, instructors have been selected from a range of disciplines as well as national and ethnic backgrounds.   Instructional Team, Fall 2005  Instructional Team, Spring 2006 Dr Leah Macfadyen (PhD Molecular Microbiology)  Dr Leah Macfadyen (PhD Molecular Microbiology) Dr Begum Verjee (EdD, Educational Leadership and Policy)  Dr Dalene Swanson (PhD in Mathematics Education) Sally McLean (BA Economics, MA in Liberal Studies)   Anne Hewling (PhD, Educational Technologies)   6 The Students Over the two semesters, a total of 63 students have completed Introduction to Global Citizenship, including 22 (35%) from HKU, 17 (27%) from Melbourne, and 24 (38%) from UBC. Of the total, 17 (27%) were male, and 46 (73%) were female. The vast majority (42, or 63%) of participating students were in Year 3 or 4 of an undergraduate degree, although fifteen students reported being in Year 1 or 2. In addition to students participating from their home universities in Vancouver, Hong Kong and Melbourne, the course also attracted U21 students based in Nottingham (while on exchange), Japan (while completing a study-related work placement), from Montr?al (while completing a Nursing internship) and from Bahrain and Bangkok, Thailand. In both semesters, students represented a diverse ethnic mix that is masked by simply considering university affiliation. For example, in addition to our Hong Kong Chinese students at HKU, seven UBC or Melbourne students characterized themselves as first- or second-generation immigrants from China, offering an interesting bridging perspective. Other UBC and Melbourne students self-identified as first-generation immigrants from Egypt, Singapore, the Philippines, the United States of America, South Africa, Iran, Korea, Poland and Thailand. Some described their East Indian or European ancestry. A number also noted religious affiliations that included Catholic or Protestant Christianity, Islam, Sikhism, Baha?i and Judaism. We were especially pleased that the course attracted students from a range of academic disciplines, as shown in Figure 1. In addition to four post-graduate students (all in education-related programs) and five ?unclassified? students, we enrolled undergraduate students from degree programs in Arts, Science, Social Sciences, Resource Management, Law, Government, Business, Education, and Nursing. Fourteen students were already registered in double degree programs (such as Arts/Law), and six indicated that they would complete their degree with a double major, suggesting that the course and Program appeal to academically successful students.  Figure 1. Distribution of registered students by degree specialization. 7 Student Learning  ?I absolutely love hearing from people all around the world - it is just great to have people chatting from Hong Kong, Canada, Australia... Have really enjoyed being able to learn about different countries and how the issues affect different regions differently.? (Student, October 2005) We embarked upon teaching such a diverse cohort of students with some trepidation, and indeed we have found that students vary tremendously in their academic sophistication and ability to consider ideas critically, in their language skills, in their cultural and religious backgrounds, and in their disciplinary training. Nevertheless, course design and approaches to assessment allow us to assess student work based on their individual achievement and progress. Most importantly, we happily observe a good deal of peer-teaching and exchange of ideas and experience in the weekly discussion forums.  Evidence of Transformative Learning ??this class was different in a big way. Whereas in other classes, you can do readings and assignments, get the 3 credits and that's it..walk away..I felt like suddenly we've identified ourselves not only as students but active participants in what we're learning through the concept of global citizenship. Global citizens seemed like an abstract idea at first but slowly I think we realized that we were talking about ourselves? (Student, April 2006)  ??interesting to make the connections between health, environment, media, poverty and see that in fact, everything is related, perhaps with the social and physical environment as the main link.? (Student, April 2006) ?The idea that impressed me most was "think global, act local"? (Student, April 2006) ?? the format of the course is not mere learning but it is REFLECTION. You are forced to reflect upon yourself and contextualize the learning experience. Basically I think that this course achieves well what ought to be the main goal of University; trigger critical thinking. This course allowed me to consolidate knowledge and relate to it. Very useful!? (Student, December 2005)  Through formal student feedback, and through continuing discussion threads, we feel we have witnessed at least the beginnings of perspective transformation that Mezirow (1991) and others have identified as central to a transformative learning experience. Not only did students become more practiced at critical assessment of global issues - making connections, identifying causes ? but they also increasingly showed evidence of being consciously aware of the need for such critical thinking. Students clearly relished the opportunity to discuss and reflect on their learning and their own experiences in the world, and often recognized that reflection was significant in their learning. 8 Most significantly, most students commented on the degree to which participation in this course is motivating them to consider their life choices carefully in light of new learning (for example, consumer choices) and to become more active citizens, locally and globally.   Figure 2. Thankyou card received from a student, December 2005 The value of this course/Program in developing a growing group of students and graduates motivated to contribute to positive social change and global development is also highlighted by students? expressed wish to remain in contact. We have now established an independent web-based discussion forum where course graduates can continue to discuss global issues, and exchange ideas. Student Performance Student performance in this course is carried out through continuous assessment of both participation in weekly discussions, and of regular ?short essay? style written work, such that grading is balanced between informal and formal writing. We found that this distribution of grades not only encouraged students to keep up with assignments and discussions, but also allowed students to be recognized for excellence in one or other area. In such a heavily discussion-oriented course, student leaders who effectively promoted and provoked discussion of difficult issues could be rewarded, as well as more research-oriented students who put more of their energies into drafting analytical papers. In semester 1, the mean student grade was 82% (A-), with a real grade range of 57% (C-) to 95% (A+). (Semester 2 grades were not complete at time of writing). With regards to grade distribution, the most notable correlation is with ?Year of Study?.  Year 1 students performed significantly more poorly, with a mean grade of 63% (C), while students in Year 3 or 4 of study achieved an average grade of 83% (A-).  9 This finding closely matches our observations as instructors. While we felt that all students, without exception, made progress in their critical thinking skills and conceptual understanding, we felt strongly that younger students were hampered by their relative academic inexperience. In part, we feel that this is simply the result of ?academic immaturity?, so that younger students have had less practice in connecting ideas, drafting effective arguments, and so on. It may also be due, in part, to lack of experience with the time management and study skills necessary for online learning, where students must be highly self-motivated. Student Feedback and Course Evaluation Each cohort of students had three opportunities to offer us anonymous feedback on their experience in, and opinions of, the course. As instructors, we offered students the opportunity to give feedback to us as course designers and instructors at both the midway and end-point of the course. We asked broad questions about course strengths and weaknesses, and recommendations for improvement. We asked students if they could identify their most significant learning in the course, and also to tell us if they though that any parts of the course were not valuable, or whether there was material or ?issues? that might be missing. Student Feedback In midway and end-of-course feedback, students offered overwhelmingly positive and thoughtful commentary on the course, too extensive to be compiled here. Overall, students tended to comment that they found the group online discussions extremely valuable; that they were surprised at how well the online discussions supported the development of ?community?; and that hearing from peers in other parts of the world was illuminating. Here, and elsewhere throughout the discussions, students commented on how much they were enjoying the multidisciplinary nature of the course, and how unusual the experience was for them to be asked to think directly about applying disciplinary learning to personal choices and behaviour. We also regularly saw evidence that students were carrying this course experience into other areas of their lives: One of the things that I love about this course is that it makes us see both sides of every issue. ... Around the dinner table last night I brought this up and we thought that the middle ground between assimilation and multiculturalism was integration. As with the SCET evaluation, the most common critique from students related to workload. In the first semester in particular many students felt that a weekly written assessment was too much, on top of the reading and discussions. A few students expressed a wish for greater in-depth exploration of topic areas, and for the possibility of focussed research and reading. We agree that further study in all areas is warranted, and trust that students will have the opportunity to explore topics of their choice in greater depth in later Program courses! Changes Made Based on Student Evaluation Based on our experience as instructors, and based on student evaluation and feedback offered at the end of the first offering, we made a number of modifications to course design and delivery before the course was offered in Spring 2006.  10 We rewrote the course information sections on course work and on assessment criteria and grading schemes, to try to ensure that students had clear guidelines regarding assignments and grading. We also significantly reduced the number of written assignments (from 12 to 6), and transformed most of the ?cut? essay questions into additional topics for group discussion. In advance of September 2006, the course will be reviewed again for any necessary updates.  We also plan to integrate into the course streaming video and audio recordings of guest speakers from UBC?s 2005-2006 Global Citizenship Speaker Series. We also plan to review the course reading materials, with the aim of eliminating the need for a hard-copy course reader.   “Introduction to Global Citizenship”The University of British Columbia, Canada2005-2006Course Home PageCourse menu gives access to content and communication toolsTransformative Learningtransformative learning: “a process in which learners participate in rational discourse about and critical reflection on their experience in ways that permit transformations of perspective”Perspective Transformation“perspective transformation…is the process of becoming critically aware of how and why our assumptions have come to constrain the way we perceive, understand, and feel about our world; changing these structures of habitual expectation to make possible a more inclusive, discriminating, and integrating perspective; and, finally, making choices or otherwise acting upon these new understandings”Mezirow (1991)Mezirow, Jack. (1991). Transformative Dimensions of Adult Learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Course Learning ObjectivesConsider the concept of "global citizenship" and develop your own understanding of this complex and contested notion.Acquire a broad understanding of barriers and bridges to global citizenship.Acquire a broad understanding of issues of key concern to the international communityConsider the impact you may have, as a global citizen, within your local, national and international communities.Weekly Course Topic ModulesModule 1:   An ethics of global citizenship Module 2:   What is 'citizenship'?Module 3:   The Challenge of Global Divisions: Race, Ethnicity, 	     	      Nation, State Module 4:   Challenging Old Conceptions of Citizenship: 	  	     	      Diversity and Multiculturalism Module 5:   The Challenge of Intercultural CommunicationModule 6:   The Challenge of Being Informed: Media, 	  	  	      Communications and Critical Thinking Module 9:   Consumerism Module 10: Human Impact on the Environment - Global 	   	      	      Climate ChangeModule 11: Sustainability Module 12: Options for action: Politics, participation and civil 	       	      societyWeekly Content ModulesContent Module Front PageModule ContentWeekly ReadingAudio LectureVideo PresentationsLinks to Additional ResourcesDiscussion QuestionsDiscussion ForumsInside a Topic ForumStudent Diversity by Area of StudyEthnic/Cultural/Religious DiversityEthnic/Cultural/National DiversityHong Kong Chinese (in Hong Kong)Immigrants of Chinese origin (1st or 2nd gen.)1st gen. immigrants from Egypt, Singapore, the Philippines, the United States of America, South Africa, Iran, Korea, Poland and ThailandCanadians/Australians of East Indian or European ancestryReligious AffiliationCatholic or Protestant ChristianityIslamSikhismBaha’IJudaism“…the multidisciplinary nature of the curriculum [is definitely a strength]. We are exposed to many different topics, an interest is triggered and it is up to us to pursue further knowledge.” Student Feedback“I've really enjoyed thinking about ideas of global citizenship and the structure of the course (both the discussion questions and the essays) has really helped me to apply the readings to situations in my own life / experience. This personal connection that we have to make every week has really brought home the readings to me and I feel I've learned a lot more than in other courses where there is only one big assessment at the end.”Student Feedback“I have found myself easily spending days following links and thinking about the issues and reading/writing - I'm not sure if this is a "bad" thing (I'm really enjoying all the reading and research etc!)”Student Feedback“I'm still loving the fact that I share a virtual classroom with such a mix of students from all over the world… great interactive discussions & exposure to others' ideas. Being part of a group of students committed to learning, global citizenship & social justice was also really exciting. The teaching was also outstanding - the obvious passion for the teaching material was contagious!”Student Feedback“Your time, energy and enthusiasm has made this a truly memorable learning experience. Thanks for opening my eyes to global citizenship - I hope I can live up to the responsibility it entails!”“I just wanted to say thanks for all you have done in this course, it has taught me so much and has been more rewarding than I ever believed it could be. So thank you for that, it has been such a valuable experience and I’ve taken it into my heart and my own life, thanks to you.Student Feedback“I am feeling REALLY enthusiastic and feel I am learning HEAPS! I'm really enjoying all the weblinks, practical examples, provocative discussions, useful feedback on my essays and most of all, working and learning from a team of staff and students who are really dedicated to making the world a better place. Thanks for giving me this opportunity.”Student FeedbackStudent Feedback“This is the best course I have ever taken at UBC, and the first that has ever bridged the knowledge I’ve learned in the institution with my own life and what is relevant in my community and the world. I can now understand my  local responsibilities as a global citizen.”  “This is the first time I have ever had the knowledge I’ve learned in classes at UBC connect with my life and my community. It has held me accountable in ways that I had never thought of and are practical. I feel I can do something now as a global citizen.”  Student Feedback“Thanks again for a great and inspiring course, Dalene. It was somewhat life-changing!!!! I have signed up to volunteer for a group that supports young, teenage mothers (one girl had a baby at 12, her own mom is a heroin addict).  They are living in poverty and just need a support system to help them become functioning and contributing members of society.     http://www.steppingstonesbc.com I am not sure if I would have given it any thought before. So, I am trying to think global - act local. Who knows, maybe the skills I learn I can take somewhere else one day.”Nature of the Data“on-task” threaded discussions from content-related discussion forums“off-task” threaded discussions from informal and open discussion forumsprivate student email exchanges instructors/facilitators(anonymous) student responses to midway and end-of-course feedback surveysstudent essays (various styles)Areas for Investigation“citizenship  education”“globalcitizenship”transformative learningteaching and learning onlineThe Big QuestionWhat do we want to know?Question 1What is the role of reflection in student learning in this course? How can we investigate and characterize student reflective practices?Reflection“Being a fourth year student in political sciences and environmental studies...I wasn't exposed to "new" information. However, the format of the course is not mere learning but it is REFLECTION. You are forced to reflect upon yourself and contextualize the learning experience. Basically I think that this course achieves well what ought to be the main goal of University; trigger critical thinking. This course allowed me to consolidate knowledge and relate to it. Very useful!”Subject: Culture groupsHi all!After reading the Singer article, and also the Campbell quote, I feel unsatisfied. They both seem to contend that every different identity group you identify with has its own culture. This implies that there can be an infinite number of cultures, or to be more precise, the can potentially be a separate culture for every combination of two or more people (depending on how one defines a group).For example, can my boyfriend and I, because we spend so much time together and have very similar perceptions of the world, be said to have our own culture? What about my house-mates and I (there's only 3 of us)? I think a line needs to be drawn as to what can constitute a culture/identity group because it seems to lose meaning if there are so many allowed by such an open definition. I don't know why I have such a problem with this, just gut instinct, but maybe the answer will come to me as discussions progress, so please let me know what you all think.Subject: Re: Culture groupsHey [name]I can see what you mean about "culture" losing its meaning after being used in so many different ways. Personally, I am finding the same problem with this module. I don't quite know where to draw the line when it comes to culture and identity. I consider myself a Canadian/Indian/African, but is that an identification of three separate cultures, or am I identifying with a hybrid culture that fuses the three? I suppose it would be the second option because the values I learn from each of those three cultures influence my behaviour in all contexts, regardless of who I am speaking to or engaging with. The values I relate to that can be dubbed "Canadian" influence the way I conduct myself at religious functions. And in the same way, the values I have adopted from my religious community affect the way I engage with non-Muslims at school.Basically, "culture" is like the word "nation". The discussion begins be accepting that there is no concrete definition, and the discussion ends with the same conclusion.Those are my thoughts on it.Subject: Culture groupsHi all!After reading the Singer article, and also the Campbell quote, I feel unsatisfied. They both seem to contend that every different identity group you identify with has its own culture. This implies that there can be an infinite number of cultures, or to be more precise, the can potentially be a separate culture for every combination of two or more people (depending on how one defines a group).For example, can my boyfriend and I, because we spend so much time together and have very similar perceptions of the world, be said to have our own culture? What about my house-mates and I (there's only 3 of us)? I think a line needs to be drawn as to what can constitute a culture/identity group because it seems to lose meaning if there are so many allowed by such an open definition. I don't know why I have such a problem with this, just gut instinct, but maybe the answer will come to me as discussions progress, so please let me know what you all think.Subject: Re: Culture groupsHey [name]I can see what you mean about "culture" losing its meaning after being used in so many different ways. Personally, I am finding the same problem with this module. I don't quite know where to draw the line when it comes to culture and identity. I consider myself a Canadian/Indian/African, but is that an identification of three separate cultures, or am I identifying with a hybrid culture that fuses the three? I suppose it would be the second option because the values I learn from each of those three cultures influence my behaviour in all contexts, regardless of who I am speaking to or engaging with. The values I relate to that can be dubbed "Canadian" influence the way I conduct myself at religious functions. And in the same way, the values I have adopted from my religious community affect the way I engage with non-Muslims at school.Basically, "culture" is like the word "nation". The discussion begins be accepting that there is no concrete definition, and the discussion ends with the same conclusion.Those are my thoughts on it.Question 2Can transformative learning take place in a virtual learning environment?“I thought that there was a risk with an online subject that people wouldn't give it much effort or thought because you can hide behind a computer screen, but in reality the involvement level is probably better than in most of the 'real' classes I have been in.”					[Student Feedback]Student Feedback“Wow... We're at the end of the course! It has really "flown" by. I really learned a lot and I can truly say that this course was super! The best part was the interaction that we had together as students and the support we received from Dalene. Please keep in touch ! If you are ever in Bangkok or if you need info on Bangkok for a project etc, please contact me at any time! I'd be more than happy to help any of my fellow "global citizens." I think we've just started our "transformation process" and I would like to thank everyone for making this "trip" so memorable! Take care! B”  Key Ideas on Embodiment and LearningDewey et al.: experiential learning, the ‘inert knowledge problem’, importance of application/action and learning in context.Role of relationships and personal encounter in learningDreyfus: role of embodiment, vulnerability and risk in learning; “transactional authenticity”, importance of establishing ‘presence’What possibilities exist for “re-articulation of the body” (Bayne)?Key  Ideas in Transformative LearningEducation as ‘political’Questioning one’s fundamental assumptions about societyNew systemic perspectives on complex social problems“New ways of thinking” and “disorienting dilemmas”Critical assessment of orientation to society and role as citizensRole of reflection in problem solving and critical thinking When students log in, they arrive at the course home page, which gives access to all course materials and tools via the course menu.Content modules are accessed from the course menu. Each module opens with a table of contents showing the work for the week - this includes a statement of objectives, and introduction to the topic, and a note of which readings (and sometimes listenings or ‘viewings’ are required for the week. Other pages detail assignment questions and questions to think about.Content module materials are broken up by ‘Think’ boxes which ask students to consider the ideas presented and encourage them to share ideas with their peers.Some content modules make use of available online educational video.Each module offers an additional reference and reading list for reading and research.Discussion forums - where all the action happensStudents post response to weekly discussion questions, and respond to classmates ideas, within these threaded asynchronous discussion forums (sometimes called ‘bulletin boards’). “Introduction to Global Citizenship” The University of British Columbia, Canada 2005-2006  Course Home Page  Cour se menu gi ves access t o cont ent and communi cat i on t ool s  Transformative Learning  transformative learning: “a process in which learners participate in rational discourse about and critical reflection on their experience in ways that permit transformations of perspective”  Perspective Transformation  “perspective transformation…is the process of becoming critically aware of how and why our assumptions have come to constrain the way we perceive, understand, and feel about our world; changing these structures of habitual expectation to make possible a more inclusive, discriminating, and integrating perspective; and, finally, making choices or otherwise acting upon these new understandings” Mezirow (1991) Mezirow, Jack. (1991). Transformative Dimensions of Adult Learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.  Course Learning Objectives  • Consider the concept of "global citizenship" and develop your own understanding of this complex and contested notion. • Acquire a broad understanding of barriers and bridges to global citizenship. • Acquire a broad understanding of issues of key concern to the international community • Consider the impact you may have, as a global citizen, within your local, national and international communities.  Weekly Course Topic Modules  Module 1: An ethics of global citizenship Module 2: What is 'citizenship'? Module 3: The Challenge of Global Divisions: Race, Ethnicity, Nation, State Module 4: Challenging Old Conceptions of Citizenship: Diversity and Multiculturalism Module 5: The Challenge of Intercultural Communication Module 6: The Challenge of Being Informed: Media, Communications and Critical Thinking Module 9: Consumerism Module 10: Human Impact on the Environment - Global Climate Change Module 11: Sustainability Module 12: Options for action: Politics, participation and civil society  Weekly Content Modules  Content Module Front Page  Module Content  Weekly Reading  Audio Lecture  Video Presentations  Links to Additional Resources  Discussion Questions  Discussion Forums  Inside a Topic Forum  Student Diversity by Area of Study  Ethnic/Cultural/Religious Diversity  Ethnic/Cultural/National Diversity • Hong Kong Chinese (in Hong Kong) • Immigrants of Chinese origin (1st or 2nd gen.) • 1st gen. immigrants from Egypt, Singapore, the Philippines, the United States of America, South Africa, Iran, Korea, Poland and Thailand • Canadians/Australians of East Indian or European ancestry Religious Affiliation • Catholic or Protestant Christianity • Islam • Sikhism • Baha’I • Judaism  Student Feedback  “…the multidisciplinary nature of the curriculum [is definitely a strength]. We are exposed to many different topics, an interest is triggered and it is up to us to pursue further knowledge.”  Student Feedback  “I've really enjoyed thinking about ideas of global citizenship and the structure of the course (both the discussion questions and the essays) has really helped me to apply the readings to situations in my own life / experience. This personal connection that we have to make every week has really brought home the readings to me and I feel I've learned a lot more than in other courses where there is only one big assessment at the end.”  Student Feedback  “I have found myself easily spending days following links and thinking about the issues and reading/writing - I'm not sure if this is a "bad" thing (I'm really enjoying all the reading and research etc!)”  Student Feedback  “I'm still loving the fact that I share a virtual classroom with such a mix of students from all over the world… great interactive discussions & exposure to others' ideas. Being part of a group of students committed to learning, global citizenship & social justice was also really exciting. The teaching was also outstanding - the obvious passion for the teaching material was contagious!”  Student Feedback  “Your time, energy and enthusiasm has made this a truly memorable learning experience. Thanks for opening my eyes to global citizenship - I hope I can live up to the responsibility it entails!” “I just wanted to say thanks for all you have done in this course, it has taught me so much and has been more rewarding than I ever believed it could be. So thank you for that, it has been such a valuable experience and I’ve taken it into my heart and my own life, thanks to you.  Student Feedback  “I am feeling REALLY enthusiastic and feel I am learning HEAPS! I'm really enjoying all the weblinks, practical examples, provocative discussions, useful feedback on my essays and most of all, working and learning from a team of staff and students who are really dedicated to making the world a better place. Thanks for giving me this opportunity.”  Student Feedback  “This is the best course I have ever taken at UBC, and the first that has ever bridged the knowledge I’ve learned in the institution with my own life and what is relevant in my community and the world. I can now understand my local responsibilities as a global citizen.” “This is the first time I have ever had the knowledge I’ve learned in classes at UBC connect with my life and my community. It has held me accountable in ways that I had never thought of and are practical. I feel I can do something now as a global citizen.”  Student Feedback  “Thanks again for a great and inspiring course, Dalene. It was somewhat life-changing!!!! I have signed up to volunteer for a group that supports young, teenage mothers (one girl had a baby at 12, her own mom is a heroin addict). They are living in poverty and just need a support system to help them become functioning and contributing members of society. http://www.steppingstonesbc.com I am not sure if I would have given it any thought before. So, I am trying to think global - act local. Who knows, maybe the skills I learn I can take somewhere else one day.”  Nature of the Data  • “on-task” threaded discussions from contentrelated discussion forums • “off-task” threaded discussions from informal and open discussion forums • private student email exchanges instructors/facilitators • (anonymous) student responses to midway and end-of-course feedback surveys • student essays (various styles)  Areas for Investigation  transformative learning  “citizenship education”  “global citizenship”  teaching and learning online  The Big Question  What do we want to know?  Question 1  What is the role of reflection in student learning in this course? How can we investigate and characterize student reflective practices?  Reflection  “Being a fourth year student in political sciences and environmental studies...I wasn't exposed to "new" information. However, the format of the course is not mere learning but it is REFLECTION. You are forced to reflect upon yourself and contextualize the learning experience. Basically I think that this course achieves well what ought to be the main goal of University; trigger critical thinking. This course allowed me to consolidate knowledge and relate to it. Very useful!”  Subject: Culture groups Hi all! After reading the Singer article, and also the Campbell quote, I feel unsatisfied. They both seem to contend that every different identity group you identify with has its own culture. This implies that there can be an infinite number of cultures, or to be more precise, the can potentially be a separate culture for every combination of two or more people (depending on how one defines a group). For example, can my boyfriend and I, because we spend so much time together and have very similar perceptions of the world, be said to have our own culture? What about my house-mates and I (there's only 3 of us)? I think a line needs to be drawn as to what can constitute a culture/identity group because it seems to lose meaning if there are so many allowed by such an open definition. I don't know why I have such a problem with this, just gut instinct, but maybe the answer will come to me as discussions progress, so please let me know what you all think.  Subject: Re: Culture groups Hey [name] I can see what you mean about "culture" losing its meaning after being used in so many different ways. Personally, I am finding the same problem with this module. I don't quite know where to draw the line when it comes to culture and identity. I consider myself a Canadian/Indian/African, but is that an identification of three separate cultures, or am I identifying with a hybrid culture that fuses the three? I suppose it would be the second option because the values I learn from each of those three cultures influence my behaviour in all contexts, regardless of who I am speaking to or engaging with. The values I relate to that can be dubbed "Canadian" influence the way I conduct myself at religious functions. And in the same way, the values I have adopted from my religious community affect the way I engage with non-Muslims at school. Basically, "culture" is like the word "nation". The discussion begins be accepting that there is no concrete definition, and the discussion ends with the same conclusion. Those are my thoughts on it.  Subject: Culture groups Hi all! After reading the Singer article, and also the Campbell quote, I feel unsatisfied. They both seem to contend that every different identity group you identify with has its own culture. This implies that there can be an infinite number of cultures, or to be more precise, the can potentially be a separate culture for every combination of two or more people (depending on how one defines a group). For example, can my boyfriend and I, because we spend so much time together and have very similar perceptions of the world, be said to have our own culture? What about my house-mates and I (there's only 3 of us)? I think a line needs to be drawn as to what can constitute a culture/identity group because it seems to lose meaning if there are so many allowed by such an open definition. I don't know why I have such a problem with this, just gut instinct, but maybe the answer will come to me as discussions progress, so please let me know what you all think.  Subject: Re: Culture groups Hey [name] I can see what you mean about "culture" losing its meaning after being used in so many different ways. Personally, I am finding the same problem with this module. I don't quite know where to draw the line when it comes to culture and identity. I consider myself a Canadian/Indian/African, but is that an identification of three separate cultures, or am I identifying with a hybrid culture that fuses the three? I suppose it would be the second option because the values I learn from each of those three cultures influence my behaviour in all contexts, regardless of who I am speaking to or engaging with. The values I relate to that can be dubbed "Canadian" influence the way I conduct myself at religious functions. And in the same way, the values I have adopted from my religious community affect the way I engage with non-Muslims at school. Basically, "culture" is like the word "nation". The discussion begins be accepting that there is no concrete definition, and the discussion ends with the same conclusion. Those are my thoughts on it.  Question 2  Can transformative learning take place in a virtual learning environment? “I thought that there was a risk with an online subject that people wouldn't give it much effort or thought because you can hide behind a computer screen, but in reality the involvement level is probably better than in most of the 'real' classes I have been in.” [Student Feedback]  Student Feedback  “Wow... We're at the end of the course! It has really "flown" by. I really learned a lot and I can truly say that this course was super! The best part was the interaction that we had together as students and the support we received from Dalene. Please keep in touch ! If you are ever in Bangkok or if you need info on Bangkok for a project etc, please contact me at any time! I'd be more than happy to help any of my fellow "global citizens." I think we've just started our "transformation process" and I would like to thank everyone for making this "trip" so memorable! Take care! B”  Key Ideas on Embodiment and Learning  • Dewey et al.: experiential learning, the ‘inert knowledge problem’, importance of application/action and learning in context. • Role of relationships and personal encounter in learning • Dreyfus: role of embodiment, vulnerability and risk in learning; “transactional authenticity”, importance of establishing ‘presence’ • What possibilities exist for “re-articulation of the body” (Bayne)?  Key Ideas in Transformative Learning  • Education as ‘political’ • Questioning one’s fundamental assumptions about society • New systemic perspectives on complex social problems • “New ways of thinking” and “disorienting dilemmas” • Critical assessment of orientation to society and role as citizens • Role of reflection in problem solving and critical thinking  

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