British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposia

The northern native grass seed industry, Spring 1992 2009

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Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  THE NORTHERN NATIVE GRASS SEED INDUSTRY - SPRING 1992 Manivalde Vaartnou M. Vaartnou & Associates 11520 Kestrel Drive Richmond, B.C. V7E 4E2 604-271-2505 ABSTRACT The use of native plants is often suggested as a potential answer to problems associated with revegetation in boreal, alpine and arctic regions. However, to date there has minimal use of native selections of grasses and legumes in reclamation of disturbed sites in western Canada. A major factor in the lack of utilization of native selections has been the shortage of available seed. This deficiency has been recognized and in 1986 the first steps were taken to establish a native northern and alpine grass and legume seed industry in Whitehorse, Yukon. This industry has now progressed to the point where seed of some northern grasses will be available for purchase in the fall of 1992. This paper is primarily intended as an information bulletin to the reclamation industry regarding the current status of the native seed industry. Long-term survival data from one northern Canadian revegetation trial site are also presented to show the potential of northern selections for reclamation of sites subject to severe climatic conditions. 75 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  INTRODUCTION Native species are species indigenous to a given area. The term contrasts with "exotic species", which refers to species introduced directly or indirectly by man into any given area. A northern population, on the other hand, is a naturally occurring northern selection from within a species which may well have a continental or circumpolar range. The population specific to a northern region has evolved in response to its environment. Thus, when reference is made to "native species", most speakers or writers doubtless mean local populations of native species. Native selections are often deemed optimal for revegetation of northern and alpine areas (Berger, 1977; Thirgood and Ziemkiewicz, 1978; Vaartnou, 1988) regardless of whether the objectives of revegetation pertain to erosion control, aesthetic enhancement, improvement of wildlife habitat, agricultural development or promotion of long-term ecosystem recovery. Native selections are favoured over exotic agronomic cultivars because: - they have adapted to the winter climate and will less often winterkill; - they have adapted to the local photoperiod and thus have a greater reseeding potential; - they will blend in easily with the landscape, thereby allowing a more harmonious end vista; - they often require less fertilization and allow for use of lower seeding rates. Some grasses native to northern regions, such as polar grass (Arctagrostis latifolia [R.Br.] Griseb.) and bluejoint reedgrass (Calamagrostis canadensis [Michx.] Beauv.), are known to have a slow early growth rate. These are poor candidates to provide initial erosion control, but are useful for long-term soil stabilization. Others, such as violet wheatgrass (Agropyron violaceum [Hornem.] Lange) and fowl bluegrass (Poa palustris L.), which are among the primary invader species of disturbed areas, have a very rapid early growth rate and are extremely useful for initial erosion control. Both types of grasses are useful for successful revegetation if seed is available, while native legumes and other forbs also have a place in reclamation. Despite acceptance of these factors there has been little use of northern or alpine native selections of grasses in field-scale reclamation in British Columbia to date. Some trials have been initiated by Parks Canada in the Rocky Mountains, and B.C. Parks personnel have used native species in Garibaldi Park since 1990. However, despite expressions of interest from many individuals in the industry, there has been no substantial use of native grasses and legumes by the B.C. Mine Reclamation Industry. The primary reasons for this have been the lack of readily available seed and the cost of any seed which was available. In the past fifteen years there have been several attempts to 76 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  initiate a native northern grass seed industry in western North America. Unfortunately, with the exception of the work done in Alaska, this has not culminated in significant field-scale production of grass seed for use by the reclamation industry. However, since 1986, there has been an attempt in the Yukon to establish such an industry. This program has now reached the field-scale stage for some selections which will be available for purchase, in limited quantities, in the fall of 1992. Thus, the primary objective of this paper is to inform the industry of the current status of the Yukon northern seed industry and to alert them of native seed possibilities for the future. However, in order to illustrate the potential for native northern grasses in revegetation, ten (10) year results are first presented from a revegetation trial site located in the Richardson Mountains near the border of Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories. FIELD TRIAL EXAMPLE In the last fifteen years numerous revegetation trial sites which have included northern selections of grasses and legumes have been established in British Columbia and Yukon Territory (Vaartnou, 1982a; 1982b; 1982c; 1991). Long-term results have been similar at these sites; thus data from only one site is presented below. Location and Methods The site is located north of the Arctic Circle at approximately 67° N.Lat. It is in the Richardson Mountains on the south-east side of the Dempster Highway where the highway intersects with the Yukon-Northwest Territories border. The slope is level and the growth medium is the dark shale typical of overburden storage areas and borrow pits throughout the region. At the time of seeding, the vegetative cover was nil. Twenty-one selections of grass seed were seeded to the site on June 7, 1979. Four were commonly used commercially available agronomic cultivars and the remainder were northern selections previously collected from northern British Columbia, northern Alberta, Yukon Territory or the Northwest Territories. Seed from the initial northern collections had previously been increased in northern Alberta (Vaartnou, 1977). The candidate grasses were hand-seeded to microsites in rows. At each microsite from five to ten seeds were placed within a 1 cm3 area into a small depression and were then covered lightly with soil. Each entry was seeded to ten microsites per row. Row order was by random selection and spacing between rows and between micro-sites within each row was 1 m. All seeding was replicated three times. Soil sampling had indicated a deficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus, but sufficient potassium, for growth of grasses. Thus, the site was fertilized with 16-20-0 fertilizer at the rate of 80 kg/ha at the time of seeding. The test site was not refertilized in subsequent years. 77 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  The entries were evaluated in 1979, 1980, 1981, 1985 and 1988 for emergence in the year of seeding; subsequent survival, plant vigour as expressed through gross morphology, and phonological development as expressed through production of seed. The field data have been previously presented for the 1979, 1980, 1981 and 1985 evaluations (Vaartnou, 1982b; 1985; 1988). At this time only the data collected for the survival and emergence evaluations will be presented to demonstrate the long-term survival of some northern selections. These emergence and survival evaluations consisted of an exact count of all possible microsites which had a live plant. Totals were then converted to percentages. Results Emergence in the year of seeding (1979) was successful, as fourteen of seventeen northern selections and all four agronomic cultivars had plants in at least 93% of their microsites (Table 1). After one winter, the 1980 evaluation indicated that many entries were unsuited to this harsh environment as only 63% of the microsites contained live plants, in contrast to the original emergence of 93%. Plant mortality was near ubiquitous as the northern wheatgrasses (Agropyron spp.) decreased from 88 to 52%, the northern fescues (Festuca spp.) decreased from 100 to 86%, the northern bluegrasses (Poa spp.) decreased from 99 to 72% and the agronomic cultivars decreased from 99 to 47%. This downward trend continued in 1981 and by the time of the 1985 evaluation it was apparent that those selections which had high survival percentages and vigour ratings in 1981 continued to thrive while those which had experienced decreases in survival or vigour by 1981 had, in many cases, completely died out by 1985. The successful entries had increased through natural reseeding and, in most instances, were now approaching solid rows with minimal spacing between individual plants. Results from the 1988 evaluation were similar to those of the 1985 evaluation. After seven (1985) and ten (1988) growing seasons the most successful entries were tickle grass (Agrostis scabra Willd.), hairgrass (Deschampsia caespitosa [L.] Beauv.), sheep fescue (Festuca ovina L.), alpine bluegrass (Poa alpina L.) and glaucous bluegrass (Poa glauca M. Vahl). These five entries were nearly solid rows by 1985 and remained so through the 1988 evaluation. By 1988, survival of the other entries ranged from 23% to total failure. In all, eleven of the twenty-one selections seeded in 1979 had been eliminated from the site by 1985 and five others were close to 100% mortality by 1988. The entries eliminated by 1985 included seven northern selections and all four of the agronomic cultivars. 78 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Table 1. Emergence and Long-term Survival of Grasses Sown at the Richardson Mountains Revegetation Trial Site on June 7, 1979.  * Stock No. refers to number in the M. Vaartnou & Associates botanical collection. 79 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  DEVELOPMENT OF THE SEED INDUSTRY General The long-term goal of this program is development of licensed northern cultivars for use as reclamation, turf and forage grasses for northern and alpine/subalpine sites. However, certification is a lengthy procedure, and there is a need for seed of native, northern and alpine species, prior to eventual certification of the northern selections as licensed cultivars. Thus, to meet this demand, a northern and alpine/subalpine grass and legume seed industry was initiated in 1986. The industry has progressed to the stage that some seed will be available for purchase by the fall of 1992. Nonetheless, it must be emphasized that, until more seed is available in the mid 1990's, to increase chances of any specific order being filled in 1992, considerable advance notification is prudent. Inquiries regarding the price and availability of any given selection can be addressed to: Mr. Randy Lewis Arctic Alpine Seed Company c/o Decora Landscaping (1980) Ltd. 105 Granite Road Whitehorse, Yukon Y1A 2V8 403-667-2756 Alternatively, detailed provenance and adaptability information can be obtained by contacting the developer of the seed: Dr. Manivalde Vaartnou M. Vaartnou & Associates 11520 Kestrel Drive Richmond, B.C. V7E 4E2 604-271-2505 Selection Nursery In 1986, a selection nursery of northern grasses and legumes was established 30km west of Whitehorse. The initial entries in this nursery were selections previously collected by M. Vaartnou & Associates personnel from northern British Columbia, northern Alberta, Yukon Territory or the Northwest Territories. In some cases, seed from the initial northern collections had previously been increased in northern Alberta (Vaartnou, 1977). The selections were seeded, using a Planet Junior seeder, into rows 100m long, if there was sufficient seed. For selections for which there was insufficient seed for a 100m row, the rows were as long as possible. A portable irrigation system was installed and 80 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  the site was fertilized with 17-34-0 at 400kg/ha. In subsequent years new entries have been added as seeds or plants of promising selections were collected by the author, and some of the initial entries which failed to live up to their promise have been deleted. Also, some potentially useful northern wildflowers such as Jacob's ladder (Polemonjum pulcherrimuro L.), have been subsequently added to the nursery. Maintenance, consisting of weeding, fertilization and irrigation, has been continued on an annual basis and seed has been hand harvested. In general, seed production of the grasses has remained high from 1987 to 1991, while vigour and seed production of legumes and wildflowers has increased. The field plan of the nursery, as of spring, 1992, is presented in Appendix A. Breeder's Seed Plots In 1988, 0.5ha breeder's seed plots were established using seed harvested in 1987 from the most successful entries in the selection nursery. The plots were seeded to rows 1m apart to facilitate cultivation and were fertilized and irrigated as necesssary. In 1990, some of the initial plots were deemed unsuccessful. These were replaced with another seeding of the same entry or a different selection. By the fall of 1991, the breeder's seed plots consisted of the following species. Deschampsia caespitosa Poa glauca  Festuca ovina  Festuca saximontana Puccinellia Nuttalliana Agropyron pauciflorum Phleum commutatum  Bromus sp. cv. Polar Descriptions of all selections which have been in breeder's seed plots over the last five years are found in Appendix B. Sufficient seed has been retained to establish new breeder's seed plots of these selections if there is an apparent demand for any of them. Field-scale Seeding In early June, 1990, 4 selections were seeded to larger plots in order to increase the amount of seed available for the market by 1992. The plots were fertilized with 17-34-0 fertilizer at the rate of 400kg/ha at the time of seeding. The selections which were seeded to field-scale plots are: Poa alpina 3 ha & 2 ha Festuca saximontana 2 ha Agropyron violaceum 2 ha Poa glauca 3.5 ha 81 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  The alpine bluegrass, fescue, and violet wheatgrass have proven very successful and seed from these selections will be available in the fall of 1992. Emergence in the glaucous bluegrass plot was less successful and this plot may be replaced in the future with another seeding of the same species. However, this decision will not be made until the fall of 1992, and there will be some glaucous bluegrass seed available in 1992. DISCUSSION The data from the Richardson Mountains trial lead to three major conclusions regarding the long-term utility of the agronomic cultivars and northern selections seeded to the site. These are: 1) The four agronomic cultivars included in this trial are not adapted to northern Yukon Territory. 2) Most northern native selections are equally ill- adapted for survival in northern Yukon Territory. 3) Five native northern selections; two bluegrasses (Poa alpina L. and P. glauca M. Vahl), hairgrass (Deschampsia caespitosa [L.] Beauv.), tickle grass (Agrostis scabra Willd.) and sheep fescue (Festuca ovina L.) are adapted for long-term survival and can be considered suitable candidates for northern revegetation projects. The fact that the 1985 and 1988 survival percentages of the very successful entries were, in most cases, higher than the 1979 original emergence percentages is attributable to two concurrent factors. The minor portion of these increases is a function of natural delayed germination, but the major component is a result of the prolific seed production and emergence of progeny of the original plants. While the original planting allowed for 1 m gaps between plants to avoid confounding of results, the extremely high seed production rates of the successful entries have resulted in a near block plot effect on many sections of the site. Thus, the survival values of the original plants are confounded, but, from a practical aspect, long-terra ground cover maintenance by the five successful entries has been even more dramatically emphasized. These data confirm the results of a shorter study done in the MacMillan Pass area of Yukon Territory. Brown (1985) used twelve northern selections, eleven agronomic cultivars and one agronomic cultivar mixture as candidate grasses. In the year of seeding (1982), of the ten grasses with the highest emergence percentages, eight were agronomic cultivars. However, after four years (1985), of the ten grasses which now had the highest survival percentages, seven were northern selections. Two other considerations are of prime importance if native, northern selections are to be used in large-scale reclamation programs. These are the viability of seed, and the economics of seed production and concomitant cost of seed. 82 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Since the Richardson Mountains study was undertaken only to assess survival, vigour and amount of seed production in a natural environment, seed germination percentages could not be ascertained from these data. Regardless of germination percentages achieved in controlled test conditions, plant emergence in the field will only be a small fraction of germination achieved in the laboratory. Brown (1985), in his count study, found that only 19% of 37,200 seeds produced plants in the year of seeding. After four years, only 2.6% of the seeds had produced plants which were still alive. From this data, one can infer that site-specific environmental conditions are the major factors which will determine the amount of seedling emergence, not a laboratory germination percentage difference of 1 to 5%. Nevertheless, eight lots of seed of entries successful at various northern revegetation trials were sent to Agriculture Canada for germination testing. Of the eight, six can be deemed suitable for multiplication as four were graded as eligible for Canada No.l, one for Canada No.2 and one for Canada No.3. Thus, while it is clear that each northern selection considered for seed increase should be tested for germination and purity of seed, it is also clear that seed having high germination percentages can be obtained from progeny of carefully chosen northern stock material. The economics of northern seed production are also dependent upon choice of appropriate selections. Experience with northern grass selections indicates that seed production difficulties and quantity of seed produced vary tremendously. Problems associated with northern native seed production have included limited seed production (Klebesadel, 1974; Mitchell, 1972), inappropriate growth form (Mitchell and McKendrick, 1975), and seed harvesting problems (Klebesadel et al. 1962). Other difficulties may include hairs and awns, seed shattering, intermittent flowering, low fertility and uneven flowering. Some of these difficulties can be overcome by research developments in agricultural engineering technology or by genetic improvement (Walker et al. 1977). Nonetheless, the most practical method is by appropriate selection, thereby minimizing the above difficulties through their avoidance. The necessity for judicious choice of northern selections for economic seed production is illustrated by the wide range in seed yield from three registered cultivars chosen from native Alaskan populations. Seed production of 300-1000 kg/ha is reported for Tundra bluegrass (Poa glauca M. Vahl) (Mitchell, 1980a), 125-200 kg/ha for Alyeska polar grass (Arctagrostis latifolia (R. Br.) Griseb.) (Mitchell, 1980b) and a meager 20-35 kg/ha for Sourdough bluejoint reedgrass (Calamagrostjs canadeflsis (Michx.) Beauv.) (Mitchell, 1980c). Our own experience with northern seed production for the proposed Alaska Highway Natural Gas Pipeline reclamation program confirmed this situation. Some northern selections produce only minimal amounts of seed and should be omitted from reclamation programs because of their cost unless they are the only solution 83 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  to a site-specific problem. However, in northern Alberta, we achieved seed production rates as high as 800 kg/ha with some wheatgrasses (Agropyron spp.) and most bluegrass (Poa spp.) seed production rates ranged from 300-500 kg/ha (author's unpublished data). Comparable production rates in Yukon Territory would allow for competitive marketing. However, at the present time the cost of the northern native selections which will be available in the fall of 1992 will be somewhat greater than that of commercially available southern agronomic cultivars. This will be necessary because the northern industry is still at the "fledgling" stage. Minor seed production problems have been overcome and the area seeded to field-scale plots can easily be increased if the market demand warrants an increase. However, optimal harvesting methods for each selection have yet to be ascertained and a seed cleaning facility has yet to be built in the Yukon. Thus, in addition to the lack of economies of scale, seed harvesting and cleaning is very labour intensive, and costs are considerably higher than at more southerly locales. If these problems can be surmounted the price of seed will decrease. However, when one considers that the cost of seed and fertilizer can be as small as 5% of a total northern reclamation package (D.M. Wishart* pers. com.), it is easy to see that the cost of seed could be increased without substantially affecting the economics of northern/alpine reclamation. Also, it is quite conceivable that total seed and fertilizer costs may decrease with the use of adapted native selections if their use results in less touch-up seeding and less frequent fertilization. In conclusion, it is necessary to remember that the phrases "native species" and "northern selection" do not constitute a panacea which guarantees revegetation success north of the 60th parallel or in harsh environments at lower latitudes. However, the data presented herein indicates that several native northern selections have outstanding potential for use on sites subject to severe climatic conditions. Therefore, while some currently available agronomic cultivars developed from northern stock are likely to be useful at some southern subalpine sites or north of the 60th parallel, the preferred strategy must be the inclusion of native northern grasses in northern/alpine revegetation seed mixtures. Through the use of this strategy, the instant green-up followed by rapid vegetation disappearance, such as has occurred on the banks of the Alaska Highway in the vicinity of Whitehorse, may be minimized in the future. The ongoing development of the Yukon grass and legume seed industry allows such an approach for the first time. * Environmental Manager, Interprovincial Pipeline Company Ltd, at time of construction of the Norman Wells pipeline. 84 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  LITERATURE CITED Berger, T.R. 1977.  Northern Frontier Northern Homeland.  The Report of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry. Volume Two, Terms and Conditions.  Ministry of Supply and Services. English Edition CP32-25/1977-2: 268pp. Brown, G. 1985. Results of Revegetation Experiments 1981-1985 MacMillan Pass, Yukon Territory.  Prepared for Northern Affairs Program, Yukon.  42pp. Klebesadel, L.J., C.I. Branton and J.J. Koranda 1962.  Seed characteristics of bluejoint and techniques for threshing. Journal of Range Management, 15(4):227-229. Klebesadel, L.J. 1974.  Sweet holygrass, a potentially valuable ally.  Agroborealis, 6(1):17-20. Mitchell, W.W. 1972.  Adaptation of species and varieties of grasses for potential use in Alaska, pp 2-6 In Proceedings of the Symposium on the Impact of Oil Resource Development on Northern Plant Communities.  Occasional publications on northern life No. l.  Institute of Arctic Biology. University of Alaska, Fairbanks.  95pp. Mitchell, W.W. 1980a.  Registration of Tundra bluegrass.  Crop Science, 20(5):669. Mitchell, W.W. I980b.  Registration of Alyeska polargrass.  Crop Science, 20(5):671. Mitchell, W.W. 1980c.  Registration of Sourdough bluejoint reedgrass.  Crop Science, 20(5):671-672. Mitchell, W.,W. and J.D. McKendrick 1975. Tundra rehabilitation research: Prudhoe Bay and Palmer Research Centre, 1973-4 Summary Report to Alyeska Pipeline Service Co., ARCO, Canadian Arctic Gas Study Ltd., Exxon, Shell Oil and Union Oil.  Institute of Agricultural Science, University of Alaska, Fairbanks.  84 pp. Thirgood, J.V. and P.P. Ziemkiewicz 1978.  Reclamation of coal surface-mined land in western Canada.  In Reclamation of Drastically Disturbed Lands.  (F.W. Schaller and P. Sutton, Eds.). ASA, CSSA and SSSA.  Madison, Wisconsin, USA. pp 537- 552. Vaartnou & Sons Enterprises Ltd. 1977.  Native seed multiplication.  A progress report on work accomplished in multiplying seed stock of native ecotypes useful for northern revegetation.  Prepared for Foothills Pipe Lines Ltd.  20pp. 85 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Vaartnou, M. 1982a. Pipeline revegetation research: Alaska highway test sites progress report 1981. Prepared for Foothills Pipe Lines (Yukon) Ltd. 70pp + appendices. Vaartnou, M. 1982b.  Pipeline revegetation research: Dempster lateral test sites progress report 1981.  Prepared for Foothills Pipe Lines Ltd.  64pp + appendices. Vaartnou, M. I982c. Pipeline revegetation research - northern B.C. test final report. Prepared for Foothills Pipe Lines Ltd. and Westcoast Transmission Ltd.  41pp. Vaartnou, M. 1985. Dempster highway revegetation. Prepared for Department of Community and Transportation Services and Department of Renewable Resources, Yukon Territorial Government.  131pp. Vaartnou, M. 1988.  The potential of native populations of grasses in northern revegetation.  In Northern Environmental Disturbances.  (P. Kershaw, Ed.). Occasional Publication Number 24. Boreal Institute for Northern Studies, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta.  Original paper presented at the 25th Anniversary Conference of the Boreal Institute of the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta; November 20-22, 1986. Vaartnou, M. 1991.  Yukon revegetation demonstration project. Prepared for Department of Renewable Resources and Department of Community and Transportation Services, Yukon Territorial Government; and Arctic Alpine Seed Company. 39pp. Walker, D., R.S. Sadasiviak and J. Weijer 1977. The utilization and genetic improvement of native Alberta grasses from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains. Department of Genetics, University of Alberta, Edmonton.  52 pp. 86 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation        APPENDIX A FIELD PLAN OF THE SELECTION NURSERY 87 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Field Plan Of Selection Nursery (Spring 1992)  ROW Botanical Name Comments 1 Deschampsia caespitosa Richardson Mts. test Also in breeders 2 Poa alpine North Ogilvie Mts. 3 Deschampsia sp. (1) Trisetum spicatum (1) Calamagrostis sp. (1) Deschampsia brevifolia (5) Alopecurus aequalis (11) Deschampsia brevifolia (4) Poa alpigena (2)  Agropyron pauciflorum (1) This entire row was collected from the Richardson Mountains and points north. 4 Empty 5 Agrostis scabra (15) Agrostis scabra (41) Agrostis tenuis (1) Bromus inermis (7)  Bromus Pumpellianus (40) Poa alpigena (15) Haines Road Klondike Highway Whitehorse Klondike Highway Carcross  Haines Road 6 Poa sp. (glauca?) (9)  Poa sp. (pratensis?) (9) Agrostis gigantea (8) Deschampsia caespitosa(S) Hierochloe alpina (7) Agropyron violaceum (12) Deschampsia sp. (18) Festuca altaica (6)  Poa sp. (glauca) (11) Trisetum spicatum (3) Polemoniura acutiflorum(7) Hedysarum Mackenzii (3)  Not pratensis seed  All but end of row was collected from the Haines Road (alpine and subalpine)    from Alaska (white) Whitehorse (white) 7 Poa compressa Festuca rubra High Level Haines Junction 8 Agropyron violaceum 5 acres field scale 9 Poa pratensis Haines Junction 10 Festuca ovina Also in breeders 11 Agropyron yukonense Alaska Highway 88 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Field Plan Of Selection Nursery (Spring 1992) (Cont.)  ROW Botanical Name Comments 12 Astragalus alpinus Alaska Highway 13 Festuca saximontana Also in breeders 5 acres field scale 14 Oxytropis splendens (1) Oxytropis nigricans? (8) Oxytropis campestris (3) Oxytropis campestris (13) Oxytropis splendens (4) Hedysarum a 1 pi man (21) North Ogilvie Mts.   South of Eagle Plain 15 Oxytropis Maydelliana? Becoming very healthy 16 Poa glauca Also in breeders 9 acres field scale 17 Alopecurus pratensis Smithers 18 Hierochloe odorata Haines Junction 19 Agropyron violaceum Eagle Plain 20 Poa palustris Teslin 21 Phleum coramutatum Haines Road 22 Festuca altaica (12) Puccinellia Nuttalliana Alaska Highway Also in breeders Tends to lodge 23 Agropyron pauciflorum Eagle Plain 24 Poa pratensis Mountainview G.c. 25 Agropyron pauciflorum Late seed production Also in breeders 26 Empty 27 Astragalus eucosmus (2) Hedysarum alpinum (5) Astragalus tenellus (4) Astragalus williarasii(8) Anemone multifida (1) Lupinus arcticus (1) Astragalus sp. (10) All transplants. Collected from the greater Whitehorse area. Becoming stronger 89 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Field Plan Of Selection Nursery (Spring 1992) (Cont.)  ROW Botanical Name Comments 28 Agropyron subsecundum Stewart crossing 29 Agropyron X (macrourum) North Ogilvie Mts. 30 Agropyron yukonense Highway 3 31 Hedysarum Mackenzii Row filling in, strong32 Elymus innovatus Few but healthy 33 Alopecurus arundinaceus 34 Astragalus alpinus Alaska highway 35 Polemoniura pulcherrimum Whitehorse 36 Hedysarum Mackenzii Mertensia paniculata Lupinus arcticus (1) Spiraea Beauverdiana Myosotis sp. Stewart Crossing Whitehorse Whitehorse  Eagle Plain Alaska 37 Poa glauca  Poa arctica? Poa arctica? Poa glauca Beckmannia sp. Carcross  Eagle Plain  North Ogilvie Mts. Whitehorse  30km west of W. horse 38 Setaria sp. Puccinellia sp. Puccinellia sp. Oxytropis campestris Haines Road Whitehorse Whitehorse Whitehorse 39 Hedysarum Mackenzii Whitehorse 40 Oxytropis campestris (17)  Whitehorse Oxytropis maydel liana? (14) Whitehorse 41 Polemonium acutiflorum Alaska (blue) 42 Empty 43 Agropyron violaceum Selected from Row #8 44 Empty (tried to seed to Agrostis gigantea from #6) 45 Puccinellia Nuttalliana From Row #22 90 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Field Plan Of Selection Nursery (Spring 1992) (Cont.)  Row Botanical Name Comments 46 Poa alpina 12 acres field-scale origin - Cassiar Mts. 47 Festuca saximontana From Row #13 upright 48 Festuca saximontana From Row #13 blueish 49 Poa glauca From Row #16 50 Festuca scabrella (32) Waterton 51 Poa arctica spp Grayana (56) Elf in Lk (Garibaldi) 52 Agropyron Smithii (49) Old Man River Dam 53 Koeleria cristata (73) Waterton 54 Agrostis gigantea (75) McLeod Meadows (Jasper) 55 Agropyron dasystachyum (44) Mt. Assiniboine 56 Danthonia intermedia (35) Mt. Assiniboine 91 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation         APPENDIX B DESCRIPTIONS OF MAJOR SPECIES 92 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  SHEEP FESCUE - FESTUCA OVINA L. SELECTION # (identifier) - MV1  93 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  NORTHERN SHEEP FESCUE - FESTUCA SAXIMONTANA RYDB. SELECTION # (identifier) - MV2  94 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  ALPINE BLUEGRASS - POA ALPINA L. SELECTION # (identifier) - MV3  95 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  GLAUCOUS BLUEGRASS - POA GLAUCA M. VAHL SELECTION # (identifier) - MV4  96 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  FOWL BLUEGRASS - POA PALUSTRIS L. SELECTION # (identifier) - MV5  97 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  NUGGET KENTUCKY BLUEGRASS - POA PRATENSIS L. CV NUGGET SELECTION # (identifier) - NUGGET  98 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  VIOLET WHEATGRASS - AGROPYRON VIOLACEUM (HORNEM.) LANGE SELECTION I (identifier) - MV6  99 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  MEADOW FOXTAIL - ALOPECURUS PRATENSIS L. SELECTION # (identifier) - MV7  100 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  WHEATGRASS - AGROPYRON SP. SELECTION # (identifier) - MV8  101 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  SLENDER WHEATGRASS - AGROPYRON PAUCIFLORUM (SCHWEIN.) HITCHC. SELECTION # (identifier) - MV9  102 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  BEARDED WHEATGRASS - AGROPYRON SUBSECUNDUM (LINK) HITCHC, SELECTION # (identifier) - MV10  103 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  NUTTALL'S ALKALIGRASS - PUCCINELLIA NUTTALLIANA (SCHULT.) HITCHC, SELECTION # (identifier) - MV11  104 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  TUFTED HAIRGRASS - DESCHAMPSIA CAESPITOSA (L.) BEAUV. SELECTION # (identifier) - MV12  105 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  MOUNTAIN TIMOTHY - PHLEUM COMMUTATUM Gandoger SELECTION # (identifier) - MV13  106 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation      APPENDIX C BOTANICAL AND COMMON NAMES OF PLANT SPECIES 107 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  BOTANICAL AND COMMON NAMES OF PLANT SPECIES GRASSES BOTANICAL NAME* Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. Agropyron dasystachyum (Hook.) Scribn. Agropyron pauciflorum (Schwein.) Hitchc. Agropyron Smithii Rydb. Agropyron subsecundum (Link) Hitchc. Agropyron violaceum (Hornem.) Lange Agropyron yukonense Scribn. & Merr. Agrostis gigantea Roth Agrostis scabra Willd. Agrostis tenuis Sibth. Alopecurus aequalis Sobol. Alopecurus pratensis L. Alopecurus arundinaceus Poir. Arctagrostis latifolia (R.Br.) Griseb. Beckmannia erucaeformis (L.) Host Bromus inermis Leyss. Bromus Pumpellianus Scribn. Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Beauv. Danthonia intermedia Vasey Deschampsia brevifolia R. Br. Deschampsia caespitosa (L.) Beauv. Elymus innovatus Beal Festuca altaica Trin. Festuca ovina L. Festuca rubra L. Festuca saximontana Rydb. Festuca scabrella Torr. Hierochloe alpina (SW.) Roem. Schult. Hierochloe odorata (L.) Wahlenb. Koeleria cristata (L.) Pers. Phleum commutatum Gandoger Poa alpigena (E. Fries) Lindm. Poa alpina L. Poa arctica R. Br. Poa arctica R.Br. ssp. grayana Vasey Poa compressa L. Poa glauca M. Vahl Poa palustris L. Poa pratensis L. Puccinellia Nuttalliana (Schult.) Hitchc. Setaria viridis   (L.) Beauv. Trisetum spicatum (L.) Richt. COMMON NAME Crested wheatgrass Northern wheatgrass Slender wheatgrass Western wheatgrass Bearded wheatgrass Violet wheatgrass Yukon wheatgrass Redtop  Ticklegrass  Bentgrass  Short-awn foxtail Meadow foxtail  Black foxtail Polargrass Sloughgrass  Smooth brome  Northern brome Bluejoint reedgrass Timber oatgrass Hairgrass  Tufted hairgrass Hairy wild ryegrass Altai fescue  Sheep fescue  Red fescue  Northern fescue  Rough fescue  Alpine sweetgrass Sweetgrass  Junegrass  Mountain timothy Northern bluegrass Alpine bluegrass Arctic bluegrass Arctic bluegrass Canada bluegrass Glaucous bluegrass Fowl bluegrass Kentucky bluegrass Nuttall's alkaligrass Green foxtail  Spike trisetum *Nomenclature follows;  Hulten, E.  1968.   Flora of Alaska and Neighboring Territories, Stanford University Press. 108 Proceedings of the 16th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  BOTANICAL AND COMMON NAMES OF PLANT SPECIES (CONT.) LEGUMES AND OTHER FORBS BOTANICAL NAME* Astragalus agrestis Dougl. Astragalus alpinus L. Astragalus americanus (Hook.) M.E. Jones Astragalus eucosrous Robins. Astragalus tenellus Pursh Astragalus umbellatus Bunge Astragalus Williamsii Rydb. Hedysarum alpinum L. Hedysarum Mackenzii Richards. Lupinus arcticus S. Wats. Mertensia paniculata (Ait.) G. Don Oxytropis campestris (L.) DC. Oxytropis Maydelliana Trautv. Oxytropis nigrescens (Pall.) Fisch. Oxytropis splendens Dougl. Polemonium acutiflorura Willd. Polemonium pulcherrimum Hook. COMMON NAME Field milk vetch Alpine milk vetch American milk vetch Elegant milk vetch Pulse milk vetch Tundra milk vetch William's milk vetch American hedysarum Mackenzie's hedysarum Arctic lupine  Tall bluebell  Yellow locoweed Maydell's locoweed Blackish oxytrope Showy locoweed  Tall Jacob's ladder Jacob's ladder *Nomenclature follows;   Hulten, E.   1968.    Flora of Alaska and Neighboring Territories, Stanford University Press. 109

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