British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposia

Assessment of pre- and post-mining wildlife habitat for the Window Pit development on Babcock Mountain.. Smyth, Clint R. 2009

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Proceedings of the 24th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium  in Williams Lake, BC, 2000. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation ASSESSMENT OF PRE- AND POST-MINING WILDLIFE HABITAT FOR THE WINDOW PIT DEVELOPMENT ON BABCOCK MOUNTAIN NEAR TUMBLER RIDGE, BRITISH COLUMBIA. Clint R. Smyth1, Dennis Sheppard2, Irene Teske3, Dale Paton4 and Kim Bittman5. 'Myosotis Ecological Consulting, P.O. Box 517, Blairmore, Alberta, T0K 0E0. email: myosotis@telusplanet.net 2 GEOTEC Mapping Solutions, 48 Chilcotin Road West, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 7G9. email: geotec@telusplanet.net. 3 Irene Teske, P.O. Box 442, Marysville, British Columbia, VOB 1Z0. email: iteske@cyberlink.bc.ca 4 Dale Paton, Anatum Ecological Consulting, P.O. Box 382, Blairmore, Alberta, T0K 0E0. email: ptarmig@telusplanet. net. 5 Environment Manager, Teck Corporation, 200 Btirrard Street, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6C 3L9. email: kbittman@teckcorp.ca. ABSTRACT Pre- and post-mining wildlife habitat capability assessments were conducted for the Window Pit development on Quintette Operating Corporation's Babcock Mountain. The British Columbia government Terrestrial Ecosystem Mapping (TEM) methodology for wildlife habitat capability was modified and implemented to conduct the assessment. The spatial and attribute data for these assessments were obtained from pre-disturbance black and white photography and post-disturbance colour photography. An orthophotomosaic with contours was also used to develop the post-mining base map. The aerial photography and field data were integrated within a Geographical Information System (GIS) environment using ARCINFO software. Spatial relationships were also analyzed using the Habitat Assessment and Modeling Software (HAMS). The maps and analyses undertaken by this assessment indicated a number of areas (polygons) where important habitat was affected by the development and a number of polygons upon which to focus mitigation efforts. The use of GIS was shown to be a very cost effective method of reclamation planning. This tool will enable environmental planners to minimize the impacts of the development on the grizzly bears, mountain goats, caribou, moose and mule deer. INTRODUCTION In 1996, the wildlife habitat suitability of Babcock Mountain was assessed for eleven species (Smyth et al. 1997). Aerial surveys and field sampling provided data required to rate wildlife habitats on Babcock Mountain. The focus of the 1996 project was to identify important wildlife habitats along the north end of Babcock Mountain within the proposed boundaries of Big Windy and Little Windy developments and provide mitigation recommendations. The objectives of this project were to identify important habitats along the southern end of Babcock Mountain (Window development area) and provide additional recommendations for reclamation planning. - 74- Proceedings of the 24th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium  in Williams Lake, BC, 2000. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation STUDY AREA The area surrounding the existing Quintette development and proposed development contains a variety of habitats and a high diversity of wildlife species (Quintette Coal Limited 1982). The diversity of landforms, soils, and vegetation as well as the relatively moderate continental climate has resulted in a variety of wildlife habitats. Landforms have a strong influence on local climatic conditions and, therefore, on the quality of wildlife habitats. The Quintette Development area is located within Wildlife Management Unit 7-21 (British Columbia Environment 1999). Quintette Operating Corporation is located in the Northeast Coal Block of British Columbia, approximately 25 kilometers southwest of Tumbler Ridge or 100 kilometers southwest of Dawson Creek. The operation is located east of the Rocky Mountain Cordillera and west of the Alberta Plateau in the Rocky Mountain Foothills physiographic region. Folding and faulting of lower Cretaceous strata, with subsequent glaciation and erosion, have created a series of northwest-southeast-trending elongated ridges (Quintette Coal Limited 1982). Babcock Mountain is a mesa approximately 4000 metres in length and 1500 metres in width with a general northwest-southeast alignment. The study area covers the east and southeast portions of Babcock Mountain. The northwestern boundary of the Babcock Mountain - Window Pit study area lies along the boundary of the existing Big Windy and Little Windy mines on Babcock Mountain, Colluvium is the dominant parent material within the study area. Glacial till covers much of the gently sloping ground surface of the northeast area of Babcock Mountain. Organic deposits in the study area are small and restricted to the small depressional areas over relatively impermeable tills or bedrock. The soils within the Window Pit study area are dominated by Brunisols. Brunisols occur on relatively coarse- textured parent materials at low- to mid-elevations. Humo Ferric Podzols occur at higher elevations on colluvial deposits and Regosols occur as shallow lithic soils at high elevations. Organic soils comprise a small area in proportion and are associated with depressional areas or areas of impermeable till. The ecosystems of the study area are floristically diverse and community patterns are complex. Six ecosystem units were mapped within the Engelmann Spruce / Subalpine Fir (ESSFmv2) biogeoclimatic zone and nine within the Alpine Tundra (AT). METHODS Wildlife Suitability and Capability Modeling Assignment of wildlife habitat suitability and capability ratings was based on the standards outlined in the British Columbia Wildlife Habitat Rating Standards (Resource Inventory Committee 1998). Habitat suitability is the ability of the habitat, in its current condition, to provide the life requisites of a wildlife species such as food, thermal cover and security cover. Habitat capability is the ability of the habitat, under optimal natural conditions, to provide the life requisites of a species, irrespective of its current habitat conditions. A rating is the value assigned to a habitat for its potential to support a particular species for a specified season and life requisite compared to the best habitat in the province, the provincial benchmark. The provincial benchmark is the highest capability habitat for a particular species in the province, against which all other habitats for that species are rated. This process ensures that habitats are rated consistently and uniformly across the province (Resource Inventory Committee 1998). Habitat suitability was rated for five species: woodland caribou, moose, mountain goat, mule deer and grizzly bear. However, only grizzly bears and mountain goats are described in this paper. In 1996 and 1999, wildlife data were recorded within each relevé and while traveling between relevés. Evidence of wildlife utilization included indirect 'sign' observations such as scats and pellet groups, feeding evidence, sounds, browse utilization, territorial markings and excavations. Circular subplots, 4.7 metres in diameter, were positioned at the center of the relevé and 20 metres away at each of the cardinal directions (N, S, E and W) (Luttmerding et al 1990). While in the field, habitat quality was rated according to quantity, quality and availability of food resources -75- Proceedings of the 24th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium  in Williams Lake, BC, 2000. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation and security and thermal habitats. Evidence and level of wildlife use assisted in the determination of wildlife habitat ratings. In 1996, habitats were rated according to a 4-class rating scheme: nil, low, moderate and high. In 1999, this was adjusted to a 6-class rating scheme to correspond with RIC standards (Table 1). Adjustments to the rating scheme were achieved by using wildlife habitat suitability field data, relevé photographs and vegetation data pertaining to percent coverage.  A literature review was undertaken to obtain species-habitat information from the study area, relevant areas within northern British Columbia and other areas within western Canada and United States. In addition, literature pertaining to the effects of human disturbance on the target species was reviewed. The text that follows describes the life requisites and habitat capability of the selected wildlife species. The mapped ecosystem units are listed in Table 2 while the structural stages are listed in Table 3. Post-mining potential natural communities (PNCs) were constructed from research completed at the existing Mesa/Wolverine and Shikano mines (Smyth 1995) and proposed operational reclamation provided by Quintette Operating Corporation.  - 76 - Proceedings of the 24th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium  in Williams Lake, BC, 2000. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Grizzly Bears The following text describes the habitat requirements for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos Linnaeus). Grizzly bears are blue-listed (sensitive/vulnerable) indigenous species that are not threatened but are particularly at risk (British Columbia Conservation Data Centre 1997). Five seasons were rated for grizzly bears: early spring, late spring, summer, fall and winter (hibernating). Food and security are required throughout the growing season while hibernating habitats are the only requirements for the winter months. Table 4 summarizes the life requisites required for each month of the year. Table 5 outlines how each life requisite relates to specific ecosystem attributes, e.g., plant species, canopy closure, age structure, slope, aspect and terrain characteristics.  -77- Proceedings of the 24th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium  in Williams Lake, BC, 2000. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  References: McLellan and Shackleton (1989), Fuhr and Demarchi (1990), Hamer et al. (1991), Bunnell and McCann (1993), McLellan and Hovey (1995), Mace et al. (1998). Mountain Goats The following text describes the habitat requirements for mountain goats (Oreamnos americaniis Blainville). Mountain goats are yellow-listed and not at risk in British Columbia (British Columbia Conservation Data Centre 1997). Four seasons were rated for mountain goats: spring, summer, fall and winter. Table 6 summarizes the life requisites required for each month of the year. Table 7 outlines how each life requisite relates to specific ecosystem attributes, e.g., site series/ecosystem unit, plant species, canopy closure, age structure, slope, aspect and terrain characteristics.  -78 - Proceedings of the 24th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium  in Williams Lake, BC, 2000. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  GIS Mapping The attribute data for the pre- and post-mining scenarios were obtained from pre-disturbance black and white photography, post-disturbance colour photography and field data. An orthophotomosaic with contours was also used to develop the post-mining base map. The aerial photography and field data were integrated within a Geographical Information System (GIS) environment using ARCINFO software. Much of the Quintette spatial data was provided in AutoCAD™ R14 (DWG) or AutoCAD™ R12 (DXF) formats. Each format has it own set of data structure/storage nuances so it was necessary to first consolidate the data into one system with a common projection, datum and coordinate system. CAD data is often only partially ready for use in a GIS and requires translation/rotation/projection, cleaning and attribute assignment. Once these conversions were made, GIS mapping proceeded relatively smoothly. Spatial relationships were also analyzed using the Habitat Assessment and Modeling Software (HAMS) (Roseberry and Hao 1995). The vector files were converted to raster images prior to analysis with the HAMS software. Final habitat capability and suitability maps incorporated the following: (1) landscape heterogeneity and connectivity, (2) habitats adjacent to significant anthropogenic disturbance regimes (e.g., roads and settlements) and (3) interspersion of different structural stages within the landscape. -79 - Proceedings of the 24th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium  in Williams Lake, BC, 2000. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Grizzly Bear Habitat Capability The Quintette Development area exists within the Ecosection unit of Hart Foothills (Cold, Moist Mountains) (Fuhr and Demarchi 1990). The overall rating for grizzly bear habitat potential for the Hart Foothills is moderate to high. The current grizzly bear habitat potential for the Boreal White and Black Spruce (BWBS) biogeoclimatic zone is moderate, high for the Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine Fir (ESSF) zone and moderate for the Alpine Tundra (AT) zone. Alpine areas upslope of W9 Creek and Five Cabin Creek and between Roman and Quintette Mountains have been documented as containing large expanses of excellent grizzly bear habitat (Quintette Coal Limited 1982). Pre-mining Grizzly Bear Habitat Moderately high berry producing habitats occur within ecosystem units ESSF:FO(6c) and AT:AH. Ecosystem unit ESSF:FO(6c) consists of 30 percent coverage of black huckleberry (Vaccinium membranaceum Dougl.) and is located in the Window Dump area. If possible, portions of this area should remain intact to provide future summer bear forage. Ecosystem AT:AH consists of 15 - 25 percent coverage of crowberry (Empetrum nigrum L.) and occurs in the alpine habitats above the Window Pit area. Ecosystem units FR(6c), FL(Sc and 6c) and FO(3b) that provide moderate huckleberry foraging opportunities, occur primarily at lower elevations outside the Window development area. Lush early serai habitats occurring within ecosystem units ESSF:WS, AT:GM, AT:AM, AT:AW, and AT:SL provide moderately high late spring habitat for grizzly bears. Ecosystem unit AT:SL presently exists within the Window dump development. If possible, this area should remain intact because it provides spring/summer foraging opportunities for ungulates and bears. Moderate late spring habitat for grizzly bears exists within ecosystem unit AT:WR and AT:DG. However, much of these units have and will be lost due to mining activity. Lower elevation clearcuts such as ecosystem unit ESSF:FO(3a), provide moderate late spring habitats for bears. The described map unit rankings are strictly an index to potential forage suitability for grizzly bears and should not be interpreted as habitat rankings of actual carrying capacity estimates. The study area within our terms of reference is small relative to the total area of bear home ranges. The high degree of subjectivity involved in this process requires considerable experiential-knowledge to be consistent with bear habitat carrying capacity estimation on a province-wide basis. The characteristics of denning habitat for bears are variable. No aspect, other than due south, appears to be avoided by bears for denning. However, the northern aspect of Babcock Mountain did provide mature conifer trees (possibly with large root masses), "diggable" soils, deep snow and late slow-melting conditions that are habitat features selected by bears for denning. Polygons that may provide suitable denning conditions have slopes >25°, contain moderately textured soils such as sandy loams with <50 percent coarse fragments, are moderately to well drained and occupy mid- to high-elevations. These criteria, most of which have been derived from the literature, may mean that polygons with these attributes provide a stable digging environment for dens. While in the field, marmot soil dens were located within ecosystem units AT:DS(3a). The presence of ground squirrel/marmot soil dens tends to indicate soil stability. No actual bear dens were located within the study area. Bear sign, i.e., scats, tracks and feeding evidence, was reported in 27 percent of the relevés sampled. Ecosystem units AT:DS and AT:AM had the most grizzly bear Hedysarum digging use with a total of 47 Hedysarum diggings. Hedysarum diggings were also encountered in units AT:DG and ESSF:FL(3). Marmots were excavated in several AT:DS ecosystem unit polygons. Grizzly bear scats were located within ecosystem units AT:AH, WR, and AW. Grizzly bear tracks were located within units AT:AK, BA and GM. Bear use, scats or ant feeding evidence, at lower elevations could not be distinguished between black bear or grizzly bear. Bear scats were located in units FR(5), FR(6), FL(5) and FL(6). Unit FO(3) contained bear insect feeding evidence in conifer stumps. Post-mining Grizzly Bear Habitat The development of Window Pit and Dumps will result in a temporary loss of early serai habitats. A permanent loss of habitat will occur due to the disturbance of high value black huckleberry or crowberry ecosystem units. If possible, ecosystem unit AT:SL should be excluded from the development area due to its high spring/summer forage -80- Proceedings of the 24th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium  in Williams Lake, BC, 2000. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation value for bears and ungulates. Ecosystem unit ESSF:FO(6c) consists of 30 percent coverage of black huckleberry and is located within the Window Pit development footprint. If possible, portions of this area should remain intact to provide future summer bear forage because black huckleberry is difficult to propagate (Smyth 1995). Thermal habitats, lost through development, will eventually be, replaced by the planting of shrubs and trees. Thermal shrub habitats will be lost for at least 15-20 years, while conifer forests will require at least 100 years before thermal habitat is re-created. Mountain Goat Habitat Capability Within the Quintette development area, goats are known to inhabit the following areas: (1) upper Canary Creek - Frame Mountain area, (2) upper Waterfall Creek - Kostiuk Mountain area, (3) Roman Mountain, (4) Turning Mountain and (5) Goat Mountain. The most valuable habitats for mountain goats in the Quintette development area consist of 889 square kilometers of Class 3 and Class 4 winter range (Quintette Coal Limited 1982). Class 3 winter range is located on the south- and southwest-facing slopes of Roman Mountain. Class 4 winter range is located in the upper Waterfall Creek drainage and the south- and southeast-facing slopes of Babcock Mountain (Quintette Coal Limited 1982). Most of this habitat will be excluded from the development area since it occurs above 1677 metres on the eastern slopes and 1768 metres on the southern slopes. Special use areas for ungulates include mineral licks, birthing areas, wallows and rutting areas. The only known mineral lick within the area is located in a valley bottom south of Kostiuk Mountain (Sopuck and Ferguson 1982). The Waterfall Creek drainage and W-5 canyon are the only two kidding ranges identified within the general area of Quintette Operating Corporation. Pre-mining Mountain Goat Habitat A number of good foraging sites for ungulates occur on Babcock Mountain during the growing season (spring, summer, fall). However, escape terrain is unavailable at most of these sites so the use of these lush habitats by mountain goats is limited. Moderately good growing season foraging areas with nearby escape terrain exist within ecosystem units AT:AM and AT:WR. Moderate growing season foraging habitat, within approximately 500 - 600 metres of escape terrain, is available in ecosystem unit AT:BA. Winter foraging/thermal sites which are within 400 metres of escape terrain are located along the southern slopes of Babcock Mountain near ecosystem units AT:AH and AT:DS and along the upper slopes of Waterfall Creek near the western end of Babcock Mountain (ecosystem unit AT:DG). Mountain goat sign, pellets and/or tracks, was observed within ecosystem units AT:AW, AH, DS and AM. The majority of use was in polygons classified as ecosystem unit AT: AH. Post-mining Mountain Goat Habitat Most of the disturbance occurring in the Window development area will occur outside of the mountain goat winter range. Several hectares of mountain goat habitat will be temporarily lost due to development. If possible, polygons classified as ecosystem unit AT: SL should be excluded from the development area due to its high spring/summer forage value for bears and ungulates. This unit may receive more mountain goat use in the future if escape terrain is created within 400 metres during the Window Pit development reclamation process. With the creation of highwalls along the northern face and eastern slopes of Babcock Mountain, an increase in escape terrain will be provided. Revegetation of slopes will also contribute significantly to the suitability of goat habitat. Reclamation of both Windy and Window areas will provide extensive early serai environments. These areas will provide suitable foraging habitats during all seasons. Revegetation should include grasses, forbs, and palatable shrubs. Suitable undisturbed foraging habitats located along the apex and northern sides of Babcock mountain may have increased use due to the creation of escape terrain (such as ecosystem units AT:GM, and AT:AW). Reclamation of Windy development area will provide growing season foraging (i.e., spring, summer, and fall) habitat for goats, while the reclamation of Window Pit dumps will provide both winter and growing season habitats for goats. After a period of 5 - 20 years, the overall habitat suitability for goats should increase from pre- mining conditions due to the reclamation of Windy and Window Development areas. -81 - Proceedings of the 24th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium  in Williams Lake, BC, 2000. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation Thermal cover will not be adequately established until conifer tree re-growth occurs (>100 years). The creation of overhanging ledges on north-facing slopes (i.e., Big Windy and Little Windy) should lessen the effects of reduced vegetative thermal cover and encourage use of new habitats. The loss of late serai conifer habitats on the south- facing slopes may affect use by goats during the winter. However, krummholz environments, such as AT:AK that exist above the Window development may provide sufficient winter thermal habitats. SUMMARY The objectives of the 1998 assessment were to identify important habitats along the southern end of Babcock Mountain (Window Development area) and provide recommendations for reclamation planning. Habitat information collected during 1996 field season was updated and converted to correspond with Resource Inventory Committee (RIC) and Terrestrial Ecosystem Mapping; (TEM) standards during 1999. Pre-disturbance ecosystem units were compared with post-mining potential natural communities (PNCs). GIS mapping and analysis software as well as HAMS landscape modeling software were very useful in examining pre- and post-mining landscape features relevant to reclamation planning for the target wildlife species. Spatial analysis of landscape heterogeneity and connectivity as well as interspersion of different structural stages within the landscape is a useful process for modeling reclamation scenarios. Grizzly Bears Grizzly bears are omnivorous and opportunistic in their feeding habitats and forage availability is the main factor influencing habitat selection during the growing season. Forest cover is required for security, but its importance varies according to individual vulnerability. The development of Window will result in a temporary loss of early serai habitats as well as a permanent loss of habitat due to the disturbance of high value huckleberry or crowberry ecosystem units. Mountain Goats Mountain goats require rugged terrain comprised of cliffs, ledges, pinnacles and talus slopes adjacent to foraging areas. Mountain goat habitat selection is primarily determined by the availability of escape terrain. Most of the disturbance occurring in the Window Pit development disturbance footprint will occur outside of the mountain goat winter range. Several hectares of mountain goat habitat will be lost temporarily due to development. With the creation of highwalls along the northern face and eastern slopes of Babcock Mountain, an increase in escape terrain will be provided. Revegetation of slopes will also contribute significantly to the suitability of goat habitat. REFERENCES British Columbia Conservation Data Centre. (1997). Provincial List Status and Conservation Data Centre Ranks. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria. 6 pp. British Columbia Ministry of Environment.   (1991).  British Columbia's Environment: Planning for the Future: Managing Wildlife to 2001: A Discussion Paper. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria.  152 pp. Bunnell, F.L. and R.K. McCann. (1993). Bears Majestic Creatures of the Wild. Rodale Press, Emmaus. 240pp. Fox, J.L. and C.A. Smith.    (1988).    Winter mountain goat diets in southeast Alaska.   Journal of Wildlife Management, 52, 362-365. Fuhr, B.L. and D.A. Demarchi. (1990). A Methodology for Grizzly Bear Habitat Assessment in British Columbia. Wildlife Bulletin No. B-67. Wildlife Branch, Habitat Inventory Section, Ministry of Environment, Victoria. 28 pp. -82- Proceedings of the 24th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium  in Williams Lake, BC, 2000. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation Gilbert, B. A., and KJ. Raedeke. (1992). Winter habitat selection of mountain goats in the North ToIt and Mine Creek drainages of the North Central Cascades. Biennial Symposium of the Northern Wild Sheep and Goat Council, 8, 305-324. Haynes, L.A. (1992). Mountain goat habitat of Wyoming's Beartooth Plateau: implications for management. Biennial Symposium of the Northern Wild Sheep and Goat Council, 8, 325-339. Luttmerding, H.A., D.A. Demarchi, B.C. Lea, D. V. Meidinger and T. Void. (1990). Describing Ecosystems in the Field. MOE Manual 11. Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Environment, Victoria. 213pp. Mace, R.D., J.S. Waller, T.L. Manley, K. Ake, and W.T. Wittinger. (1998). Landscape evaluation of grizzly bear habitat in western Montana. Conservation Biology, 13, 367-377. McLellan, B.N. and F. W. Hovey. (1995). The diet of grizzly bears in the Flathead River drainage of southeastern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 73, 704-712. Province of British Columbia. (1998). Field Manual for Describing Terrestrial Ecosystems. Land Management Handbook Number 25. British Columbia Ministry of Lands, Parks and Housing and the British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Victoria. 240 pp. Quintette Coal Limited. (1982). Quintette Coal Limited Stage II Report, Volume 111. Environmental Assessment. Denison Mines Limited. Vancouver. 458 pp. Resource Inventory Committee. (1998). British Columbia Wildlife Habitat Rating Standards. Prepared by the Wildlife Interpretations Subcommittee, Resource Inventory Committee, Victoria. 58 pp. Roseberry, J.L. and Q. Hao. (1995). HAMS. Habitat Analysis and Modeling System Software. Version 1. User Guide and Reference Manual. Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. 35pp. Smyth, C.R. (1995). Reclamation research at Quintette Operating Corporation. Reclamation in Extreme Environments. Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium. Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation, Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Victoria, pp. 1-13. Smyth, C.R., J.A. Poriz, I. TeskeandD.G. Paton. (1997). Environmental Impact Statement for Soils, Vegetation, Wildlife and Reclamation Planning for the Babcock Mountain Mine Project. Prepared for Quintette Operating Corporation by Environmental Insight, Blairmore. 354 pp. Sopuck, L.G. (1985). Movements and Distribution of Mountain Goats in Relation to the Quintette Coal Development. Report Prepared for Denison Mines Limited by Renewable Resources Consulting, Sidney. 31 pp. Sopuck, L.G. and S. Ferguson. (1982). Characteristics of the Frame Mountain and Waterfall Creek Goat Herds Prior to and During Adit Construction, June and July, 1982, with Additional Baseline Data on Wildlife in the Quintette Coal Development Area. Report Prepared for Denison Mines Limited by Renewable Resources Consulting, Sidney. 96 pp. von Esner-Schack, I. (1986). Habitat use by mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus, on the eastern slopes regions of the Rocky Mountains at Mount Hamell. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 100, 319-324. -83-

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