British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposia

Sediment impact on fisheries Bietz, Brian Frank, 1952- 1989

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
1989 - Bietz - Sediment Impact on Fisheries.pdf [ 238.45kB ]
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0056582.json
JSON-LD: 1.0056582+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0056582.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0056582+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0056582+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0056582+rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 1.0056582 +original-record.json
Full Text
1.0056582.txt
Citation
1.0056582.ris

Full Text

th  Proceedings of the 13 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1989. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  193  SEDIMENT IMPACT ON FISHERIES  . BRIAN F. BIETZ, PH.D BEAK ASSOCIATES CONSULTING LTD.  Presented at the Thirteenth Annual Mine Reclamation Symposium  June 7-9, 1989 Vernon, British Columbia  th  Proceedings of the 13 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1989. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  194  I WOULD LIKE TO BEGIN BY THANKING JIM LANT, MURRAY GALBRAITH AND THE OTHER ORGANIZERS OF THIS SYMPOSIUM FOR THE OPPORTUNITY TO ATTEND AND PARTICIPATE. THE CONTROL AND REDUCTION OF SEDIMENT IS AN IMPORTANT PART OF MINE WATER MANAGEMENT, AND IS CRITICAL TO THE MAINTENANCE OF PRODUCTIVE FISHERIES IN THE LAKES AND RIVERS THAT MINE WATERS ARE DISCHARGED INTO.  WORLD-WIDE, A SIGNIFICANT AMOUNT OF WORK HAS BEEN DONE ON THE IMPACTS OF SEDIMENT ON FISHERIES. MUCH OF IT HAS BEEN DONE IN EUROPE AND THE U.S. WEST COAST, HOWEVER, THERE IS NO REASON TO BELIEVE THAT THE AVAILABLE DATA IS NOT ALSO APPLICABLE TO B.C. AND TO WESTERN CANADA IN GENERAL.  IN THEORY SUSPENDED SOLIDS ARE ALL NON-DISSOLVED MATERIALS IN A WATER SAMPLE, IN PRACTICE THE CUT-OFF BETWEEN DISSOLVED AND SUSPENDED MATERIALS IS BASED ON THE ABILITY OF THE MATERIALS TO PASS THROUGH A 0.4 MICRON FILTER. TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS CAN BE FURTHER SUBDIVIDED INTO SETfLEABLE AND NON-SETTLEABLE SOLIDS, WITH SETTLEABLE SOLIDS DEFINED AS A VOLUME OF PARTICLES THAT WILL SETTLE WITHIN AN ARBITRARY TIME PERIOD. THE SETTLEABLE SOLIDS TEST GENERALLY PROVIDES A MEASURE OF THE CONCENTRATION OF SOLIDS GREATER THAN APPROXIMATELY 10 MICRONS IN DIAMETER. COLLOIDAL SOLIDS SO SMALL THAT THEY REMAIN IN SUSPENSION DUE TO BROWNIAN MOTION ARE THUS NOT INCLUDED. THE SETTLEABLE/NON-SETTLEABLE DISTINCTION IS SIGNIFICANT AS THE TWO FRACTIONS HAVE DIFFERENT IMPACTS ON AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS.  th  Proceedings of the 13 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1989. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  195  THIS DISTINCTION IS PARTICULARLY IMPORTANT IN B.C. WHERE RIVERS REGULARLY RECEIVE HEAVY LOADS OF SEDIMENT DURING SNOW MELT. THE SEDIMENTS ARE USUALLY TRANSPORTED WITH LARGE VOLUMES OF FAST FLOWING WATER AND THEREFORE REMAIN IN SUSPENSION UNTIL REACHING A LAKE OR OTHER SLOWER MOVING WATER BODY. THE GREATEST RISK FOR RIVERS THEN, IS IF ANTHROPROGENICALLY CREATED SEDIMENTS OCCUR DURING LOW FLOW PERIODS, OR ARE DISCHARGED IN LARGE AMOUNTS CONTINUOUSLYOVERAN EXTENDED TIME PERIOD.  THE DIRECT IMPACTS OF SUSPENDED SEDIMENTS ON FISH OVN INCLUDE DEATH, USUALLY DUE TO GILL DAMAGE AND SUBSEQUENT SUFFOCATION. LETHAL SEDIMENT LEVELS RARELY OCCUR, BUT LEVELS WHICH HAVE BEEN SHOWN TO PRODUCE SERIOUS SUB-LETHAL EFFECTS ARE KNOWN TO OCCUR ON A REGULAR BASIS IN MANY RIVERS. REDUCED GROWTH RATES, DECREASED RESISTANCE TO DISEASE AND DOWNSTREAM DISPLACEMENT ARE THREE OF THE MORE SIGNIFICANT SUB-LETHAL EFFECTS. REDUCED VISIBILITY DUE TO SUSPENDED SEDIMENT HAS BEEN SHOWN TO MAKE FOOD LOCATION SIGNIFICANTLY MORE DIFFICULT FOR FISH (ALABASTER AND LLOYD, 1980; McLEARY ET AL, 1984). THIS IN TURN INCREASES ENERGY EXPENDITURES AND RESULTS IN A REDUCED GROWTH RATE IN AFFECTED FISH. THE INCREASE IN ENERGY EXPENDITURES AND CHANGES IN BLOOD COMPONENT LEVELS DUE TO INCREASED SUSPENDED SEDIMENT ARE ALSO BOTH CONNECTED WITH DECREASED RESISTANCE OF FISH TO OTHER STRESSORS. McLEARY ET AL (1984) REPORTED ALL OF THE ABOVE SUB-LETHAL EFFECTS IN ARCTIC GRAYLING EXPOSED TO SUSPENDED SEDIMENT LEVELS GREATER THAN 100 MG/L BUT NOT IN THOSE FISH EXPOSED TO LESS OR NO SUSPENDED SEDIMENT.  th  Proceedings of the 13 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1989. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  196  INDIRECTLY, FISH POPULATIONS WILL ALSO BE AFFECTED IF SUSPENDED SEDIMENTS INTERFERE WITH THE VIABILITY OF THEIR FOOD SOURCE. DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF SEDIMENT, DAMAGE TO INVERTEBRATE POPULATIONS HAS BEEN RECORDED FOR SUSPENDED SEDIMENT LOADS OF 82 MG / L ( COAL SEDIMENT ) TO SEDIMENT) (ALABASTERAND LLOYD,  1980).  1500  MG / L ( POND  AQUATIC PLANT COMMUNITIES ARE ALSO  AFFECTED BY SUSPENDED SEDIMENT LEVELS, WITH LIGHT SENSITIVE SPECIES BEING ELIMINATED OR REPLACED BY MORE "SHADE" TOLERANT SPECIES.  THE MORE SIGNIFICANT RISKS OF IMPACTS OF SEDIMENTS ON FISHERIES RESULT WHEN HYDRAULIC CONDITIONS ARE SUCH THAT THE SEDIMENT CAN SETTLE TO THE BOTTOM. IN B.C., MOST OF THE RIVER SPAWNING SPECIES OF FISH LAY THEIR EGGS ON OR BELOW THE RIVER GRAVELS. THESE EGGS DEPEND ON WATER CIRCULATION TO BRING OXYGEN AND TO REMOVE METABOLIC WASTES. IF SOLIDS SETTLE ON THE BOTTOM, WATER FLOW IS REDUCED, LEADING TO SUFFOCATION OF THE EGGS AND EVEN OF NEWLY HATCHED EMBRYOS IN THE GRAVELS. A RECENT STUDY IN NEW ZEALAND FOUND THAT AN ENTIRE SMELT FISHERY HAD BEEN ELIMINATED FROM A LAKE DUE TO POOR OR LOW REPRODUCTION FOLLOWING INCREASED SEDIMENT LOADING FROM UPSTREAM MINES  (WARD  ET AL ,  1987).  SALMONID EGGS ARE PARTICULARLY SENSITIVE TO SEULED  SEDIMENT LEVELS . ALABASTER AND LLOYD  (1980)  REPORT THAT THE GREATEST  MORTALITY OF TROUT EGGS OCCURRED IN REDDS WITH A GREATER PROPORTION OF SOLIDS LESS THAN 8MM IN DIAMETER. SEVERAL STUDIES HAVE SHOWN THAT SALMONID FISH WILL NOT DIG REDDS IN CHOKED GRAVELS AND WILL ABANDON A REDD IF THEY ENCOUNTERSILTWHILE DIGGING. THIS IS LESS LIKELYTO BEA PROBLEM IN B.C. RIVERS WHERE SPAWNING IS LIKELY TO OCCUR IN RIVERS WHERE SILTS WILL HAVE BEEN FLUSHED OUT OF THE GRAVEL BY HIGH, FAST FLOWS.  th  Proceedings of the 13 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1989. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  197  A LESS DIRECT, BUT PERHAPS EVEN MORE SIGNIFICANT IMPACT OF SETTLED SOLIDS IS THE DESTRUCTION OF FOOD ORGANISMS FOR THE FISH. BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES ARE OFTEN A MAJOR FOOD SOURCE. HOWEVER, MANY INVERTEBRATE SPECIES ARE EXTREMELY SENSITIVE TO SUBSTRATE CONDITIONS AND ARE EITHER KILLED OR FORCED TO DRIFT DOWNSTREAM BY THE DEPOSITION OF FINE MATERIALS. ALABASTERAND LLOYD  (1980)  REPORTED ON EARLIER WORK WHICH INDICATED THAT REDUCTIONS IN BENTHIC ORGANISM NUMBERS DUE TO INCREASED SEDIMENT CAN RANGE FROM  40  TO  60%.  CHANGES IN THE TYPE AND DIVERSITY OF BENTHIC SPECIES ALSO OCCUR IN AREAS SUBJECT TO SEDIMENT DEPOSITION. THESE SORTS OF CHANCES IN INVERTEBRATE POPULATIONS HAVE BEEN DOCUMENTED UNDER BOTH FIELD AND LABORATORY CONDITIONS (MCLEARY ET AL,  1989; McCART  ET AL,  1980).  WHILE NEW SUBSTRATES MAY EVENTUALLY BE  RECOLONLZED, THE NEW ASSEMBLAGES OF SPECIES OF INVERTEBRATES ARE OFTEN NOT AS VALUABLE TO THE FISH, AND THE FINER SUBSTRATES WILL BE MUCH LESS STABLE, PERIODICALLY FURTHER REDUCING THEIR VALUE IN PRODUCING FISH FOOD.  AS WITH SUSPENDED SEDIMENT, PLANT COMMUNITIES ARE ALSO AFFECTED BY INCREASED SEDIMENT DEPOSITION . INITIALLY , SOME SPECIES WILL BE CHOKED OUT AND A REDUCTION IN PLANT NUMBERS MAY OCCUR. GLVEN SUFFICIENT TIME AND SEDIMENT DEPOSITION, AN ENTIRELY NEW VEGETATIVE COMMUNITY MAY DEVELOP WHERE LITTLE OR NONE PREVIOUSLY EXISTED. THIS IN TURN AFFECTS FISH, FAVOURING THOSE SPECIES WHICH THRIVE IN AREAS OF HEAVY PLANT COVER.  FIGURE  1  SUMMARIZES THE RESULTS OF A NUMBER OF STUDIES EXAMINING THE IMPACTS  OF SEDIMENT ON FISHERIES. FROM THIS FIGURE IT CAN BE SEEN THAT SOME INCREASE IN SEDIMENT LEVELS ABOVE NATURALLY OCCURRING LEVELS CAN BE TOLERATED BY FISH. THE MAXIMUM TOLERABLE LEVEL OCCURS SOMEWHERE BETWEEN  100 AND 500 MG / L  th  Proceedings of the 13 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1989. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  198  th  Proceedings of the 13 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1989. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  199  SUSPENDED SOLIDSX AND IS DEPENDENT ON THE FISH SPECIES, TYPE OF SEDIMENT AND THE DEPOSITIONS ENVIRONMENT . THIS MAXIMUM IS IN KEEPING WITH THE RECOMMENDATIONS OF A SUBCOMMITTEE OF THE U.N. FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION  (FIRST  MADE IN 1964 AND REVISED IN 1980 AND 1984). THEIR  RECOMMENDATIONS ARE:  1.  SUSPENDED SEDIMENT LEVELS BELOW 25 MG/L: NO HARMFUL EFFECTS.  2.  SUSPENDED SEDIMENT LEVELS FROM 25 - 80 MG / L :  FISHERY WILL BE  MAINTAINED WITH SOME SMALL DECREASES IN NUMBERS AND GROWTH RATES.  3.  SUSPENDED SEDIMENT LEVELS FROM 80 - 400 MG / L : A GOOD FISHERY CANNOT BE SUPPORTED ALTHOUGH FISH MAY BE FOUND.  4.  SUSPENDED SEDIMENT LEVELS OVER 400 MG/ L: FEW OR NO FISH.  THE FAO GUIDELINES ARE JUST THAT, GUIDELINES, THAT INDICATE THE PROBABLE EFFECTS ON FISHERIES OF VARIOUS SUSPENDED SEDIMENT LEVELS.  IN WESTERN CANADA, THESE SORTS OF RECOMMENDATIONS HAVE BEEN TRANSLATED INTO SURFACE WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR VARIOUS INDUSTRIAL USERS. IN ALBERTAX THE SURFACE MINE WATER QUALITY CRITERIA HAS GENERALLY BEEN SET AT 50 MG/L TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS, WHILE IN B.C. THE OBJECTIVE LEVEL IS 25 TO 75 MG/L DEPENDING ON THE SENSITIVITY OF THE AQUATIC SYSTEM AND THE SPECIFIC MINE INVOLVED. IN BOTH PROVINCES PERMITS TO DISCHARGE ARE USUALLY GRANTED ON AN INDIVIDUAL BASISX AND DESIGN CRITERIA FOR SETTLING PONDS ARE USUALLY PART OF THE PERMIT. IN THE YUKON TERRITORY, PILACER MINING OPERATIONS ARE RESTRICTED TO SETTLEABLE SEDIMENT DISCHARGES OF 0.2ML / L OR A CEILING OF 200MG/ L TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS, WHICHEVER IS LESS, IN WATERBODIES OF MODERATE BIOLOGICAL IMPORATNCE  th  Proceedings of the 13 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1989. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  200  (TYPE Il STREAMS). FOR WATERBODIES OF LOW BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE (TYPE IV STREAMS) SETTLEABLE SOLIDS DISCHARGES ARE RESTRICTED TO  5.0ML/L WHILE NO  SEDIMENT DISCHARGES ABOVE NATURAL BACKGROUND ARE PERMITTED FOR WATERBODIES OF HIGH BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE (TYPE I STREAMS). TYPE  I AND II  STREAMS ARE SALMONID SPAWNING AND REARING STREAMS RESPECTIVELY AND TYPE IV STREAMS ARE THOSE WITH NO FISH OR FISH OF NO SIGNIFICANT VALUE TO SPORT, COMMERCIAL  OR  AUTHORIZATION,  WHILE  DOMESTIC  FISHERIES  ( YUKON FISHERIES PROTECTION  1988).  I AM NOT EXTREMELY FAMILIAR WITH THE SITUATION IN B.C., OUR FIRM  CONDUCTED AN EXTENSIVE REVIEW OF ALBERTA'S SURFACE MINE WATER QUALITY CRITERIA  IN  1985. SEVERAL POINTS RAISED IN THAT REVIEW ARE APPLICABLE HERE. THE FIRST is  THAT NEITHER B.C. NOR ALBERTA LEGISLATION OR CRITERIA, DISTINGUISH BETWEEN SUSPENDED SOLIDS AND SETTLEABLE SOLIDS, A DISTINCTION THAT, AS I HAVE DISCUSSED, IS SIGNIFICANT WITH RESPECT TO SEDIMENT IMPACT ON FISHERIES. THE YUKON PLACER MINING GUIDELINES DO MAKE THE DISTINCTION, BUT UNFORTUNATELY THE SETTLEABLE SOLIDS CRITERIA WAS ADDED BECAUSE IT IS EASIER TO MEASURE, NOT BECAUSE IT PROVIDED BETTERENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.  SECOND, THOSE MINE EFFLUENTS MEETING A GUIDELINE OF 50 MG/L TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS, WERE LIKELY TO HAVE A SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER PROPORTION OF SETTLEABLE SOLIDS THAN OCCURRED NATURALLY IN THE RECEIVING STREAMS. THIS WAS BECAUSE THE SOLIDS WHICH PASSED THROUGH THE SETTLING POND WERE, OF COURSE, THE FINEST PARTICLES, THAT IS, THOSE PARTICLES TOO SMALL TO SETTLE OUTAND WHICH WILL REMAIN IN SUSPENSION. THIS SUGGESTED TO US THAT ALBERTA CRITERIA WERE PERHAPS OVERLY CONSERVATIVE, IN THAT A TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS MEASUREMENT FROM A  th  Proceedings of the 13 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1989. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  201  MINE DISCHARGE POINT CANNOT NECESSARILY BE COMPARED WITH TSS MEASUREMENTS FROM NATURAL STREAMS. COMPARISONS ARE MEANINGLESS GIVEN THE DIFFERENT PROPORTIONS OF SETTLEABLE SOLIDSX AND HENCE, THE DIFFERENT IMPACT OF THE SEDIMENT ON AQUATIC SYSTEMS.  THIRD, WE FOUND THAT CURRENT SETTLING POND TECHNOLOGY, EVEN WITH THE USE OF FLOCULANTS, WAS INSUFFICIENT TO ALLOW ALBERTA MINES TO CONSISTENTLY MEET THE GUIDELINES. WHILE EXEMPTION GUIDELINES EXIST FOR TSS WITHIN 48 HOURS OF A 10 YEAR - 24 HOUR STORM , MINES WERE UNABLE TO MEET U . S . EPA TSS CRITERIA FOLLOWING SIGNIFICANTLY SMALLER STORM EVENTS. RECENT RESEARCH HAS SHOWN THAT NOT ONLY ARE SETTLING PONDS DESIGNED TO CURRENT STANDARDS UNABLE TO MEET TSS CRITERIA DURING SOME STORM EVENTS, IT IS NOT EVEN THEORETICALLY POSSIBLE TO MEET THE CRITERIA, USING ANY REASONABLE SIZE OF SETTLING POND (ETTINGER  AND LICHTY,  1979;  POE ETAL,  1983). THE EPA EVENTUALLY SOLVED ITS NON-  COMPLIANCE PROBLEM BY SETTING AN ALTERNATIVE SETTLEABLE SOLIDS CRITERION OF 0.5ML/L TO BE USED FOR RAINFALL ON SNOWMELT EVENTS SMALLER THAN THE 10 YEAR- 24 HOUR STORM. THIS ALTERNATIVE REQUIREMENT WAS BASED ON STUDIES SHOWING THAT SETTLEABLE SOLIDS CAN BE CONSISTENTLY CONTROLLED IN STORM CIRCUMSTANCES , EVEN WHEN TSS CANNOT ( U . S . EPA , 1982).  ALBERTA DOES NOT HAVE SUCH AN ALTERNATIVE CRITERIA, BASED ON CONTROLLING SETTLEABLE SOLIDS, WHICH IS THE MORE DAMAGING COMPONENT OF SEDIMENT. MLNES THEREFORE CONTINUE TO REGULARLY FAIL TO COMPLY WITH EXISTING ALBERTA WATER QUALITY GUIDELINES FOR SEDIMENT. THIS SITUATION, IN MY VIEW, IS NOT CONSISTENT WITH GOOD ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE, SINCE IT CREATES AN UNTENABLE SITUATION FOR THE MINING COMPANIES, AND ONLY ENCOURAGES ENVIRONMENTALLY MEANINGLESS  th  Proceedings of the 13 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1989. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  202  CONFRONTATIONS WITH THE GOVERNMENT. THIS IS PARTICULARLY TRUCE SINCE THE SITUATION COULD LIKELY BE READILY RESOLVED. TWO POSSIBLE OPTIONS WOULD BE TO EITHERSETA NEW AVERAGE SUSPENDED SOLIDS CRITERIA, RATHERTHAN MAXIMA, ORTO SETALTERNATIVE SETTLEABLE SOLIDS CRITERIA.  B.C. GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS HAVE INDICATED THAT THEY FEEL THAT FOR THE MOST PART, GUIDELINES OF 50 MG/L ARE BEING MET WITH CURRENTLY AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY BY MINES IN B.C.. THIS DISCREPANCY BETWEEN THE TWO PROVINCES IN MINES MEETING THE WATER QUALITY CRITERIA CAN PERHAPS BE CREDITED TO DIFFERENCES IN SOILS, SLOPES AND OVERALL RIVERINE ECOSYSTEMS BETWEEN B.C. AND ALBERTA.  FASTER, MORE REGULAR FLOW IN B.C. RIVERS, AND DIFFERENT SEASONAL FLOW PATTERNS WOULD ALSO CONTRIBUTE TO A MINES ABILITYTO MEET THE 50 MG/L GUIDELINE.  WHILE IT IS ENCOURAGING TO LEARN THAT THE 50 MG /L GUIDELINE IS BEING MET, THE ISSUE OF SUSPENDED AND SETTLEABLE SOLIDS REMAINS. WLTH THE FAST FLOW AND REGULAR NATURAL HEAVY LOADS OF SUSPENDED SEDIMENT OF MANY B.C. RIVERS AND STREAMS, NEITHER SUSPENDED NOR SETTLEABLE SEDIMENTS ARE LIKELY TO BE A SERIOUS PROBLEM. WHERE BOTH, AND ESPECIALLY SETTLEABLE SEDIMENTS, BECOME OF CONCERN IS IN LAKES AND THOSE RIVERS WHOSE FLOW IS NOW REGULATED, AND WHERE SEDIMENT LADEN EFFLUENTS ARE DISCHARGED DURING PERIODS OF LOW FLOW.  IN CONCLUSION, I HOPE IT IS CLEAR THAT WHILE INCREASES IN BOTH SUSPENDED AND SEULED SEDIMENT CAN NEGATIVELY AFFECT RIVERS AND LAKES AND THEIR NATIVE FISHERIES, IT IS POSSIBLE FOR BOTH MINES AND FISHERIES TO OPERATE ON THE SAME WATERSHED, GIVEN THAT THE PROPER SEDIMENT CONTROL TECHNIQUES ARE EMPLOYED. HOWEVER , IT APPEARS THAT SOME GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS MAY, UNDER CERTAIN  th  Proceedings of the 13 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1989. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  203  CIRCUMSTANCES, BE UNREALISTIC AND NOT SCIENTIFICALLYJUSTIFIABLE. THIS SITUATION NEEDS TO BE RECTIFIED IF UNNECESSARY CONFLICTS ARE TO BE AVOIDED.  th  Proceedings of the 13 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1989. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  204  REFERENCES  Alabaster, J.S. and R. Lloyd. 1982. Water Quality Criteria for Freshwater Fish. Second Edition. FAO, Butter-worths. 361 pp. Beak Associates Consulting Ltd. 1987. Review of the Scientific Basis of Water Quality Criteria for the East Slope Foothills of Alberta. Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council Report #RRTAC 87-5. 46pp. EIFAC. 1964.  Water quality criteria for European freshwater fish. Report on finely divided solids and inland fisheries. Tech. Paper No. 1, European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission, FAO. 21 pp. Ettinger, C.E. and J.E. Lichty. 1979 Evaluation of performance capability of surface mine sedimentation ponds. U.S. EPA Report EPA -440/1-79/200 Cincinnati, Ohio. Government of Canada. 1988. Yukon Fisheries Protection Authorization. Applicable to Placer Mines in the Yukon Territory. Yukon Placer implementation Review Committee. Queen's Printer, Government of Canada. 60 pp. McCart, P.J., P.M. Cross, R. Green, D.W. Mayhood, P.T.P. Tsui, and R.H. Green. 1980. Effects of siltation on the ecology of Ya-Ya Lake, N.W.T. Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa. Publication No. R7119/13-1979. 286pp. McLeay, D.J., Gl. Ennis, LK. Birtwell and G.F. Hartman. 1984. Effects on Artie Grayling (Thymalius articus) of prolonged exposure to Yukon Placer mining sediment: a laboratory study. Department OT Fisheries and Oceans. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences No. 1241. 96pp. Poe, M.W., R.P. Betson and R. Singh. 1983. Can sediment ponds meet effluent limitations? Proceedings of the Symposium on Surface Mining, Hydrology, Sedimentoloey and Reclamation. Publication UKYBLJ 133, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. Ward, F.J., T.G. Northcote and MA Chapman. 1987. The effects of recent environmental changes in Lake Waahi on two forms of the common smelt Retropinna retropinna, and other biota. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 35:427-443.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
China 3 0
United States 2 0
City Views Downloads
Shenzhen 3 0
Ashburn 2 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}
Download Stats

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.50878.1-0056582/manifest

Comment

Related Items