British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposia

Development of an environmental effects monitoring program for the Eskay Creek Mine Raggett, E. Jolene; Bailey, Howard C.; Murphy, P. M.; Chapman, Peter M. 2001

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Proceedings of the 25th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Campbell River, BC, 2001. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS MONITORING PROGRAM FOR THE ESKAY CREEK MINE E.J. Raggett1, H.C. Bailey1, P.M. Murphy2, P.M. Chapman1 1EVS Environment Consultants 195 Pemberton Avenues North Vancouver, BC, Canada, V7P 2R4 Website: www.evsenvironment. com Phone: (604) 986-4331 Email: hbailey@evsenvironment.com 2 Homestake Canada, Inc. 1100-1055 West Georgia Vancouver, BC, Canada, V6E 3P3 Phone: (604) 684-2345 Email: mmurphy@homestake.com ABSTRACT Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) is an important component of metal mining operations which is used to determine if mine discharges are causing adverse effects to the aquatic receiving environment. In 1997, prior to the publication of Environment Canada's draft EEM guidance document, Homestake Canada, Inc. requested that EVS Environment Consultants (EVS) implement an EEM Program for the Eskay Creek Mine. Mining operations at this site result in the production of mine water, waste rock and tailings, which Homestake is authorized to discharge. The Eskay Creek Mine EEM program was designed to assess whether mine discharges cause exceedances of the BC Freshwater Aquatic Life Criteria in the receiving environment and/or adverse effects to resident aquatic biota. The program includes monitoring of water, sediment, periphyton, benthic invertebrate communities, and bioaccumulation studies (no fish are present in the creeks draining the mine site). Results of the EEM studies show that water and sediment chemistry appear to be minimally impacted by mine discharges, with several criteria exceedances due to naturally high metal concentrations from the mineral rich drainage. Elevated sediment metal concentrations are present in Ketchum Creek downstream of mine discharges. However, the benthic invertebrate community increases in both abundance and number of taxa, which suggests that metals are not adversely affecting the community. Overall, discharges from the mine do not appear to be impacting sediment or water quality in the Unuk River as this system contains naturally high metals concentrations due to the mineralized drainage. Following the conclusion of each annual EEM program, results are reviewed to ensure that the objectives of the program are being met. This program is an excellent example of how science and adaptive management can be used to help mines achieve their environmental monitoring goals. 54 Proceedings of the 25th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Campbell River, BC, 2001. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation BACKGROUND Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) is a valuable tool for mine operators to ensure that pollution control systems are effectively protecting environmental resources. The development of EEM for metal mining began in 1993 with a multi-stakeholder process known as the Assessment of the Aquatic Effects of Mining in Canada (AQUAMIN). This process examined whether the Metal Mining Liquid Effluent Regulations (now know as the Metal Mining Effluent Regulations [MMER]) were an effective regulatory instrument for ensuring that mines could operate effectively while still protecting aquatic biota. In 1996, the AQUAMIN process produced detailed recommendations to Environment Canada on where improvements could be made to the national environmental protection framework for metal mining. Included in these recommendations was one key requirement: the development of detailed guidance for a metal mining EEM program. In response to this recommendation, a second multi-stakeholder consultation was initiated by Environment Canada. Subsequently, in 1999, a draft EEM guidance document was published that included information on fish and benthic invertebrate monitoring, and testing of effluent, water and sediment. The proposed EEM requirements as they appear in the MMER are based on this document and are available for public review until December 31, 2001 (Environment Canada, 2001). In 1997, prior to the publication of the draft guidance document, a new mill and tailings disposal system was commissioned at Homestake Canada Inc.'s Eskay Creek Mine. In response to the proposed development, the British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks (BCMELP) requested that an EEM program be conducted at the mine. EVS Environment Consultants (EVS) responded to this request and, in consultation with Homestake, provincial and federal regulatory agencies, and the local First Nation, designed and implemented an annual EEM Program for the Eskay Creek Mine. Study Area The Eskay Creek Mine is a gold and silver mine located within the Unuk River watershed approximately 80 km north of Stewart, BC (Figure 1). The underground mine has been in operation since 1995, with the bulk of mined ore crushed, blended and sold directly to smelters. A portion of the mined ore is processed on-site in a gravity and flotation mill to produce concentrates, which are shipped for processing. In 2000, the Eskay Creek Mine processed approximately 212,000 tonnes of ore, producing over 333,000 ounces of gold (Homestake, 2001). 55 Proceedings of the 25th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Campbell River, BC, 2001. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation Figure 1. Location of the Eskay Creek Mine, BC. Mining operations at the Eskay Creek mine generate mine water, waste rock, and tailings. These are discharged according to conditions of a permit issued under the Waste Management Act into Albino Lake, while treated mine water, treated mill effluent, and surface run-off from the mine site are released via the D7 discharge into Ketchum Creek, which subsequently flows into the Unuk River (Figure 2). The Eskay Creek Mine has received authorization for tailings disposal in Tom MacKay Lake, which is scheduled to begin during the fall 2001. The drainage of the lakes and creeks surrounding the Eskay Creek Mine is also shown in Figure 2. Albino Lake feeds into an outflow creek that drains into Lesser Tom MacKay Creek. This creek then drains into Tom MacKay Creek, which originates upstream at the outflow of Tom MacKay Lake. Tom MacKay Creek then drains into Ketchum Creek upstream of the D7 discharge. The D7 discharge flows downhill from the mine site for approximately 500 m before joining Ketchum Creek, which ultimately drains into the Unuk River. Fish passage to the creeks draining the mine site is prevented at this point by a waterfall barrier that prevents upstream migration into Ketchum Creek. The transboundary Unuk River empties into Burroughs Bay, Alaska and supports an important fishery that includes cutthroat trout, Dolly Varden, chinook, chum, coho, sockeye, and pink salmon (BC Fisheries, 2001). The passage of anadromous salmonids in the Unuk River below the confluence with Ketchum Creek is limited by fast flowing water, which creates a high velocity barrier. STUDY DESIGN EVS began the development of the Eskay Creek Mine EEM program in 1997. This process included identifying objectives, selecting monitoring stations, and choosing monitoring parameters. The recent MMER draft guidelines for metal mining EEM (Environment Canada, 2001) state that the objective of EEM programs for mines regulated under the MMER should be "to evaluate the effects of mine effluent on fish, fish habitat and the use of fisheries resources. " 56 Proceedings of the 25th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Campbell River, BC, 2001. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation As the Eskay Creek Mine site drainages are not populated by fish the objectives of the Eskay Creek Mine EEM program were tailored to address site-specific aquatic resources. The purpose of the Eskay Creek Mine EEM program was to provide a cost-effective, scientifically defensible study design that achieved the following objectives: • determine whether there are BC Freshwater Aquatic Life Criteria (BC Criteria) (Nagpal et. al.,  1995; updated 200la, b) exceedances in the receiving environment due to mine discharges; and • assess whether resident aquatic biota in Tom MacKay and Ketchum Creek are adversely affected by mine discharges. Site Selection Original monitoring stations for the EEM program were selected in 1997 during a reconnaissance trip to the Eskay Creek Mine that included representatives from Homestake, DFO, and BCMELP. Using aerial surveys and ground truthing, the team selected discharge and receiving environment stations (Figure 2). To    assess    potential    impacts resulting      from      mine-related discharges,   monitoring   stations are   located   in   Tom   MacKay Creek and its tributaries, as well as Ketchum Creek and the Unuk River. Stations in Tom MacKay Creek and tributaries include one site within the Albino Lake outlet creek to provide a "worst-case" assessment of the Albino Lake discharge,     reference     stations located in Lesser Tom MacKay Creek and Tom MacKay Creek (below Tom MacKay Lake), and two stations downstream of the discharge. Four monitoring stations are located in Ketchum Creek, including an upstream reference station, a station below the confluence with Tom MacKay Creek (to isolate the far field influence of Albino Lake tailings disposal on Ketchum Creek), a station below the D7 discharge (to monitor the combined 57 Figure 2.   Different drainages, discharges, and sampling stations related to the Eskay Creek Mine EEM program.Proceedings of the 25th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Campbell River, BC, 2001. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation influence of discharges from Albino Lake and D7), and a far-field station located halfway between the mine site and the Unuk River. Two additional monitoring stations located in the Unuk River were added to the annual EEM program in 2000 in response to a request from Alaska agency staff. These stations were selected upstream and downstream of Ketchum Creek to determine whether mine related inputs contribute to metals loadings in the Unuk River, which discharges into Alaskan waters. Monitoring Parameters Physical and biological monitoring parameters were selected to fulfill the EEM program objectives (Table 1). Each parameter is reassessed annually to ensure they continue to provide useful and appropriate information to the EEM program. Table 1 : Monitoring parameters for the Eskay Creek Mine EEM program.  Water quality monitoring of receiving environment and discharge stations is conducted annually to ensure that discharges are compliant with permit limits and to verify that metals of concern (silver, aluminum., arsenic, cadmium, iron, nickel, lead, antimony, and zinc) meet BC Criteria. Water quality monitoring at discharge stations is conducted by mine personnel daily, weekly, or monthly, as specified by the effluent permit. Water quality criteria provide a conservative estimate of "safe" levels of different parameters in the aquatic environment. To ensure that these conservative estimates predict safe levels for stream biota, it is useful to combine chemistry results with biological monitoring. To assess the potential for mine-related impacts to resident aquatic species, water column toxicity tests are conducted on a quarterly basis using samples collected from discharge and reference stations. Chronic toxicity tests include both Ceriodaphnia dubia 7-day tests (Environment Canada, 1992a) and Selenastrum capricornutum 72-hour tests 58 Proceedings of the 25th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Campbell River, BC, 2001. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation (Environment Canada, 1992b). Acute toxicity tests are conducted using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (Environment Canada, 1990). The new MMER will require toxicity testing using different test organisms, including an aquatic macrophyte (Lemna minor) and cladoceran (Daphnia magna). These species were not initially selected for the Eskay Creek Mine EEM program as it was felt they were not biologically relevant (i.e., indigenous) organisms. Aquatic macrophytes, such as Lemna, have not been found in the fast flowing oligotrophic creeks surrounding the mine site. The cladoceran Ceriodaphnia was selected over Daphnia as the test results from the 7-day chronic test provide a better indication of sub-lethal effects. Sediment chemistry monitoring is also conducted at discharge and receiving environment stations to determine if there are BC Sediment Quality Guideline (SQG) exceedances related to mine discharges. Sediments can act as a sink for contaminants such as metals, providing a long-term record of contamination. As with water quality guidelines, SQGs provide a conservative assessment of "safe" levels of different parameters in sediments (Chapman and Mann, 1999). To supplement these results and determine if sediment metal concentrations may impact benthic organisms, sediment toxicity tests are conducted annually using the freshwater midge, Chironomus tentons (ASTM, 1996). The tests assess whether exposure to sediments affects the survival or growth of this organism. Analyses of benthic invertebrate communities are also conducted annually as part of the EEM program to determine if mine discharges are causing changes to benthic community structure. Benthic invertebrates inhabit the substrate and are relatively sedentary. Because of this, they tend to integrate and reflect changes in water quality and environmental conditions and, thereby, provide a long-term record of contamination. Periphyton communities were added to the EEM program in 1998 in the request of BCMELP. Initially, concern was expressed regarding the usefulness of periphyton studies, as periphyton show high natural variability and can adapt to metals contamination. Moreover, it was felt that effluent toxicity testing using a sensitive algal species would demonstrate "worst case" scenarios and would be protective. Nonetheless, in response to concerns expressed by BCMELP, periphyton monitoring was included and is now conducted annually in Tom MacKay Creek and tributaries only (no periphyton has yet been found in Ketchum Creek). Samples are analyzed to 59 Proceedings of the 25th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Campbell River, BC, 2001. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation determine if mine discharges are impacting periphyton species diversity and/or chlorophyll a concentrations. Bioaccumulation studies were added to the EEM program in 1999 in response to stakeholder concerns regarding metals accumulation, specifically mercury, in the aquatic biota of Ketchum Creek. Methylmercury is of particular concern to aquatic biota as it can biomagnify through food webs. Bioaccumulation.studies were conducted using caged freshwater mussels (Margaririfera falcata) collected from the Nass River and placed in Ketchum Creek. Mussels were collected and analyzed after approximately eight weeks exposure to determine if metals accumulated in tissues. STUDY RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  Results of water quality monitoring generally demonstrate that receiving environment water quality is good, with most metals below BC Criteria on all occasions. In Tom MacKay Creek, only antimony (Sb) has exceeded BC Criteria downstream of the Albino Lake discharge. In response, a speciation study was conducted using direct chemical measurements and modelling to determine which chemical form of Sb was present in Albino Lake and the outlet creek. This study found Sb (V) dominated (99.4%), with Sb (III) accounting for less than 0.6% (EVS, 2001). Changes in oxidation states of an element significantly change its toxicity. For example, it has been demonstrated that arsenic (As) (V) is less toxic than As (III) (Eisler, 1994). Similar toxicity differences also occur for Sb, since Sb and As are sister elements (located in the same Group [VA] in the Periodical Table); however, the toxicity of Sb (V) has not been well studied (EVS, 2001). In Ketchum Creek and the Unuk River, analyses of water quality have found some metals that exceeded BC Criteria at both upstream and downstream stations (two metals in Ketchum Creek and ten metals in the Unuk River). These results suggest some metals are present at naturally high concentrations in the Ketchum Creek and Unuk River watersheds unrelated to mine inputs. One isolated exceedance of mercury, slightly above the detection limit, was found in Ketchum Creek below the D7 discharge that was only. This station will continue to be closely monitored to ensure that mercury remains below the criterion. The results of water column toxicity tests found no effects with rainbow trout; however, intermittent chronic effects to both Ceriodaphnia and Selenastrum have been measured on 60 Proceedings of the 25th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Campbell River, BC, 2001. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation samples collected from both discharge and reference stations. At the D7 discharge, intermittent toxicity to both test organisms was recorded during 1998 and the first half of 1999. To address concerns regarding this toxicity, a Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) was conducted to determine the cause of toxicity (Elphick et al., 2001). TIEs are based on guidelines presented in U.S. EPA (1991) and involve physical and chemical manipulations of the sample, followed by toxicity testing of the treated and untreated sample. Changes in toxicity in response to the treatments provide an indication of the contaminant responsible for toxicity. The TIE identified a chemical used in the metals flotation process as the cause of toxicity. Following reductions of its use in mine operations, the frequency of toxicity at D7 is now similar to that found at the reference station. The highest concentration of sediment metals was found in the Albino Lake outlet creek, with a number of BC SQG exceedances. However, high concentrations of these metals do not appear to be reflected in any of the downstream receiving environment stations. As with water chemistry, analyses of sediment chemistry found high concentrations of a number of metals at both reference and receiving environment stations in Ketchum Creek and the Unuk River. This appears to be due to naturally high metal concentrations in the watersheds surrounding the Eskay Creek Mine, rather than to mine-related inputs. However, a number of BC SQG exceedances in Ketchum Creek: were found only at stations located downstream of the confluence with Tom MacKay Creek and the D7 discharge. This suggests that these two inputs may contribute to sediment metal concentrations in Ketchum Creek. Sediment toxicity tests found that, despite sediment metal concentrations at each station that exceeded BC SQGs, there generally were no adverse effects on Chironomus. In fact, with one exception, growth of these organisms exposed to receiving environment sediments has exceeded growth in both the reference station and control sediments each year. Benthic community assessments have found differences in the benthic community in the Albino Lake outlet creek when compared with the reference and receiving environment stations in Tom MacKay Creek and tributaries. However, there are intrinsic differences in habitat associated with the outlet creek, compared with upstream and downstream stations in Tom MacKay Creek and tributaries (e.g., substrate, flow, depth) which makes it problematic to establish relationships between the mine discharge and biological effects. Consequently, this site will often appear 61 Proceedings of the 25th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Campbell River, BC, 2001. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation "different" in a statistical analysis of the data. The situation is further complicated by the influence of Tom MacKay Creek which appears to dominate the far-field monitoring point for the Albino Lake discharge (Station FF-2), irrespective of the upstream influence of the Albino Lake discharge. Notwithstanding these difficulties, the location of sampling stations is constrained by the relative proximity of the junction of Tom MacKay Creek and the Albino Lake discharge. Consequently, there is little or no opportunity to differentiate between the effects of the discharge and different habitat on community structure. However, the results of sediment toxicity tests show no evidence of toxicity at this site. In Ketchum Creek, results of the benthic community assessment indicate no relationship between community structure and metals concentrations. In fact, based on a comparison with the upstream reference station, Ketchum Creek appears to exhibit a depauperate fauna that increases in abundance and number of taxa moving progressively downstream (Figures 3 and 4). This increase is consistent with increased sediment metal concentrations, which suggests that the metals are not adversely affecting the community. This suggests that overall, lower faunal numbers associated with Ketchum Creek are a function of this particular drainage and not related to the mine discharge.  Periphyton studies in Tom MacKay Creek and tributaries have shown communities typical of BC streams (Stein and Border, 1979). In general, the number of taxa at the upstream reference station was similar to the downstream station. However, as with the benthic invertebrate communities, the number of taxa differed in the Albino Lake outlet creek (Figure 5). As previously discussed, this difference is likely due to intrinsic habitat differences between these creeks, which makes it difficult to associate relationships between mine discharges and biological effects. However, a comparison of the number of taxa present at each station between 1998 and 2000 shows no 62 Proceedings of the 25th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Campbell River, BC, 2001. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation apparent decline in the number of taxa at any of the stations (Figure 5). Despite differences in numbers of periphyton taxa, chlorophyll a values were not statistically different between the stations, suggesting that periphyton biomass was similar among the stations.  Figure 5.   Total number of periphyton taxa at stations located in Tom MacKay Creek and tributaries. Results of the bioaccumulation studies found that caged bivalves in Ketchum Creek did not accumulate mercury or methylmercury in tissues. However, caged bivalves exhibited a strong propensity to accumulate lead and antimony and, to a lesser extent, cadmium. The extent to which the bioconcentration of these metals may affect resident biota will depend on the receptors present and the proportion of potentially contaminated food items present in their diet. These relationships are largely speculative at this time, but available evidence suggests the contribution of invertebrates originating from Ketchum Creek to the diet of fish downstream in the Unuk River is likely to be small (EVS, 2000). Moreover, because concentrations of metals of concern are comparable or higher in the Unuk River compared with Ketchum Creek, the potential contribution of Ketchum Creek to the tissue metal concentrations in food organisms in the Unuk River should be comparatively low. The only exception to this pattern is antimony, which does not appear to be naturally elevated in the Unuk River system. However, since the concentrations in Ketchuni Creek are below BC Criteria, this should not be an issue. Based on these considerations, as well as the potential for introducing a new species into the Unuk River system, this monitoring parameter was excluded from the 2001 EEM program. CONCLUSION Results of the Eskay Creek Mine EEM program found that water and sediment chemistry appear to be minimally impacted by mine discharges, with several criteria exceedances due to naturally high metal concentrations from the mineral rich drainage. Elevated sediment metal concentrations in the Albino Lake outlet creek appear to be limited in areal extent and do not appear to be 63 Proceedings of the 25th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Campbell River, BC, 2001. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation associated with adverse effects on resident aquatic biota. Elevated sediment metal concentrations are present in Ketchum Creek downstream of mine discharges. However, the benthic invertebrate community increases in both abundance and number of taxa, which suggests that the metals are not adversely affecting the community present. Overall, discharges from the mine do not appear to be impacting sediment or water quality in the Unuk River as this system contains naturally high metals concentrations due to the mineralized drainage. The Eskay Creek EEM program is undergoing review and revision on an annual basis to ensure that monitoring sites and parameters are fulfilling the program's objectives to maximize the effectiveness of the EEM program in terms of meeting the needs of the mine and stakeholders. This program is an excellent example of how science and adaptive management can be used to help mines achieve their monitoring goals in terms of identifying and ameliorating potential adverse effects in the receiving environment. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors wish to express their appreciation to several people who contributed to field work and data analyses in earlier stages of this project, including Alena Fikart, Lee Grapentine, François Landry, and Iain Watson (EVS). Thanks are also extended to Lee Nikl (EVS) for providing review and comments on this manuscript. 64 Proceedings of the 25th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Campbell River, BC, 2001. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation REFERENCES ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). 1996. Standard test methods for measuring the toxicity of sediment-associated contaminants with freshwater invertebrates. Method E1706-95b. In: 1996 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Water and Environmental Technology, Volume 11.05. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA. BC Fisheries, 2001. Fisheries Inventory - FISS Fish Distributions Report. Located at: http://www.bcfisheries.goy.bc.ca/fishinv/fiss.html Chapman, P.M. and O.S. Mann. 1999. Sediment Quality Values (SQVs) and Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA). Marine Pollution Bulletin 38:339-344. Eisler, R. 1994. A review of arsenic hazards to plans and animals with emphasis on fishery and wildlife resources. In: Arsenic in the Environment, Nriagu, J.O. (éd.). John Wiley, New York, N.Y., USA. pp. 185-259. Elphick, J.R., H.C. Bailey, and P.M. Murphy. 2001. Toxicity Identification Evaluation of effluent from a mine. In: 25th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium, September 24 - 27, 2001, Campbell River, BC. Environment Canada. 1990 (with May 1996 amendments). Biological test method: acute lethality test using rainbow trout. Environmental Protection Series, Report EPS l/RM/9, July 1990. Environment Canada, Conservation and Protection, Ottawa, ON. 51 pp. Environment Canada. 1992a (with 1997 amendments). Biological test method: test of reproduction and survival using the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia. Environmental Protection Series, Report EPS l/RM/21, February 1992. Environment Canada, Conservation and Protection, Ottawa, ON. 50 pp and appendices. Environment Canada. 1992b (with 1997 and 1998 amendments). Biological test method: growth inhibition test using freshwater algae Selenastrum capricornutum. Environmental Protection Series, Report EPS/l/RM/25, November 1992. Environment Canada, Conservation and Protection, Ottawa, ON. 41 pp. Environment Canada, 2001. Metal Mining EEM - Guidance. Available at: http://www.ec.gc.ca/eem/English/MetalMining/Guidance/default.cfm. EVS. 2000. Eskay Creek Mine: Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program - 1999 Interpretive Report. Prepared for Homestake Canada Inc., Smithers, BC by EVS Environment Consultants, North Vancouver, BC. EVS. 2001. Antimony Speciation at Albino Lake. Prepared for Homestake Canada Inc., Smithers, BC by EVS Environment Consultants, North Vancouver, BC. 65 Proceedings of the 25th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Campbell River, BC, 2001. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation Homestake Mining Company (Homestake). 2001. 2000 Annual Report. Produced by Perceive LLC, Long Beach, California. 60 pp. Nagpal, N., L.W. Pommen, and L.G. Swain. 1995. Approved and working criteria for water quality - 1995. Water Quality Branch, Environmental Protection Department, BC Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks. Nagpal, N., L.W. Pommen, and L.G. Swain. 2001. Approved water quality guidelines (criteria) -1998 edition (updated January 17, 2001). Water Management Branch, Environmental and Resource Management Department, Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks. Nagpal, N., L.W. Pommen, and L.G. Swain. 2001. A Compendium of Working Water Quality Guidelines for British Columbia - 1998 edition (updated April 24, 2001). Water Management Branch, Environmental and Resource Management Department, Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks. Stein, J. R. and C. A. Border. 1979. Checklist of freshwater algae of British Columbia. Syesis 12: 3-39. U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 1991. Methods for aquatic toxicity identification evaluations. Phase I toxicity characterization procedures. Second Edition. EPA/600/6-91/003. Duluth, MN, USA. 66 

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