British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposia

Reclamation in the mountains of northeastern New Mexico Wolfe, Marcia Hamann 1981

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th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  RECLAMATION IN THE MOUNTAINS OF NORTHEASTERN NEW MEXICO  by Marcia Hamann Wolfe Kaiser Steel Corporation  47  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  RECLAMATION IN THE MOUNTAINS OF NORTHEASTERN NEW MEXICO ABSTRACT Initial reclamation efforts in the mountainous area of northeastern New Mexico have proven successful at Kaiser Steel Corporation's York Canyon Coal Mines. The use of all native plant species for revegetation and a special mulching technique have minimized erosion problems. Partial highwall retention is being used to blend mined areas into the rugged physiognomy of the surrounding country. In addition to the placement of rock highwall and outcrop, rock piles have been located to create additional edge effect for the primary postmine land uses of wildlife habitat and native rangeland for cattle grazing. INTRODUCTION The York Canyon Surface and Underground Coal Mines, owned and operated by Kaiser Steel Corporation, are located in the Southern Rocky Mountains about 40 miles (64 km) west of Raton, New Mexico (Figure 1). The region is generally rugged and mountainous, highly dissected by many ephemeral/intermittent streams and arroyos. Elevations of the mine permit area range from 7,300 feet (2224 m) in the valley bottoms to 8,600 feet (2620 m) on the highest ridges. The mine permit areas are found within the ponderosa pine vegetation zone. This zone is economically important because of its wide variety of resources and uses. Concomitantly it is one of the most difficult zones to manage because of the numerous interactions among users and user effects on the ecosystem as a whole. The historically important land uses of this zone are native cattle range and mining (Maker et al 1972). Other local and adjacent land uses encompass forestry, watershed, recreation, and wildlife, including hunting and fishing (Wolfe 1977). Kaiser Steel Corporation owns coal reserves on over 160,000 acres (64,800 ha) in northeastern New Mexico. Thus, there is the potential for a number of additional underground mines as well as several more surface mines. With the enactment of recent legislation and bonding requirements, it has become imperative that mining companies determine the best, economical method of establishing a diverse, effective vegetative cover capable of succession.  49  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  FIGURE 1  THE YORK CANYON MINES ARE LOCATED IN THE RATON COAL FIELD ABOUT 40 MILES (64 KM) WEST OF RATON, NEW MEXICO  50  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Use of introduced plant varieties in early reclamation efforts resulted in marginal success prompting a change to the utilization of primarily native species for revegetation. Initial positive results have been obtained in reclamation with an intensification of study, research, and planning. CLIMATE A cool, mountain climate predominates over the region. The average annual precipitation at the York Canyon Mine, based on a 5 year record, is 10.4 inches (26.4 cm). A study of monthly and seasonal precipitation records illustrates the primary season to be the summer months of June through August (Figure 2). Precipitation during this season falls primarily as high-intensity rain storms and comprises almost half of the average annual precipitation. Only 2.4% of the precipitation falls as light snow in winter. These dry snowfalls frequently sublimate. However, drifts may remain all winter on north facing slopes and in narrow valleys and canyons. The balance of the precipitation comes as rain which is nearly equally divided between the spring and fall seasons. Additional long term weather data is currently unavailable from the York Canyon area, but a complete weather station was recently installed at the mine site. Validity of interpolation from the closest long term records from Raton, New Mexico, is limited because of the mountainous terrain and localized weather patterns. Wind records for one year at York Canyon indicate the average wind speed ranges from 6 mph to 8 mph, with the stronger average winds occurring in the spring and most of the gusty weather occurring in the fall. The monthly average temperatures for 1980 are presented in Figure 3. The average maximum is 76.40F (24.70C) and the average minimum is 120F (-11.10C). The days are generally warm during the growing season but are countered by cool evenings; for example, in June 1980, the daily minimum is frequently less than half of the daily maximum. Evapotranspiration of the region is generally unknown. The Eagle Nest weather station 30 miles (48 km) to the southwest records 25 inches (63.5 cm) evaporation for the months of June, July and August. GEOLOGY AND MINING  The mineable coals of the Raton coal field are found in the Upper Cretaceous Vermejo formation and in the Raton formation. The coal is a  51  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  FIGURE 2 AVERAGE MONTHLY PRECIPITATION AT THE YORK CANYON MINES, BASED ON A FIVE YEAR PERIOD  52  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  FIGURE 3 AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPERATURE AT THE YORK CANYON MINES, NEW MEXICO, FROM A SINGLE YEAR'S DATA  53  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  high quality, low sulfur, bituminous product. The primary stratum being mined at York Canyon is the York Canyon seam which is found in the Raton formation of Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Age. It is located in the coal bearing strata approximately 1,100 feet (335 m) stratagraphically above the base of the Raton formation (Figure 4). The sediments exposed or found near the surface of the Raton Basin are shallow sea and continental alluvial deposits of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary Age. Pierre Shale forms the foundation of the plains east of the mines and is exposed to the west of the mines. It is found beneath the Trinidad Sandstone with which it is interbedded. Trinidad Sandstone is comprised of shallow water beach deposits of a Late Cretaceous Sea (Gill and Cobban 1969). Coal mining began in York Canyon with the opening of the underground mine. About 800,000 tons (725,760 metric tons) of coal per year are produced by longwall and continuous miner. Coal from the underground mine is washed and used for metallurgical purposes. Surface coal mining began in 1972, with full production not beginning until 1978. Approximately 700,000 tons (680,400 metric tons) of coal per year are crushed and used for steam coal. The surface mine is a combination dragline/ shovel/truck operation. Coal is removed primarily with the use of loaders and trucks or an Easi-miner. GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS  Since the adoption of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act in 1977, the state of New Mexico has updated its State regulations to equal those of the federal government. This process has taken about three years. However, at the present time the federal regulations are being revised under the direction of President Reagan and most state governments intend to follow suit. This process will undoubtedly take several additional years, meanwhile creating uncertainty and complications for many mining companies. As some of the regulations pertaining to reclamation and revegetation are ecologically unsound, it is appropriate they are being rewritten. However, constant change in regulation presents problems in reclamation and permit planning, but that is a topic outside the realm of this discussion. The general revegetation requirements for the State of New Mexico are as follows:  54  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  FIGURE 4 GENERALIZED LITHOLOGICAL SECTION ON THE RATON COAL PROPERTY0  55  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  70-111 Revegetation: B17.111)  General  Requirements  (B16.111  and  a.  Each person who conducts surface coal mining operations shall establish on all affected land a diverse, effective, and permanent vegetative cover of the same aspection native to the area of disturbed land or species that supports the approved postmining land use. For areas designated as prime farmland, the requirements of Part 24 shall apply.  b.  All revegetation shall be in compliance with the plans submitted under Sections 9-18 and 9-23, as approved by the Director in the permit and carried out in a manner that encourages a prompt vegetative cover and recovery of productivity levels compatible with the approved postmining land use. 1.  All disturbed land, except water areas and surface areas of roads that are approved as part of the postmining land use, shall be seeded or planted to achieve a permanent vegetative cover of the same aspection native to the area of disturbed land.  2.  The vegetative cover shall be capable of stabilizing the soil surface from erosion.  3.  Vegetative cover shall be considered of the same aspection when it consists of a mixture of species of equal or superior utility for the approved postmining land use, when compared with the utility of naturally occurring vegetation during each season of the year. If both the premining and postmining land uses are crop land, the reclaimed land shall have the capability of meeting or exceeding the premining crop production.  RECLAMATION AND REVEGETATION PLANNING The major problems and challenges Kaiser Steel Corporation has encountered in reclaiming mountainous terrain in the Southwest are: a 56  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  complex postmine land use; steep slopes; thin, rocky, discontinuous topsoil; low annual precipitation; high intensity rainfall; uncertainty of available irrigation water; lack of published studies concerning plant succession (Wagner et al 1978); and the natural ecosystems in northeastern New Mexico. Kaiser Steel Corporation is attempting to eliminate these problems through planning, study of baseline data, monitoring of the environment, implementation of new reclamation techniques, record maintenance, and research. There are four general phases of reclamation planning and management (Murdock 1980): 1. 2. 3. 4.  designation of postmine land use goals baseline data accumulation reclamation/revegetation postmine management  POSTMINE LAND USE One of the first decisions to be determined is that of a goal for postmine land use. In many instances this goal will determine how and what type of baseline data is collected. Land use is also of primary importance in determining the direction of reclamation and revegetation planning. The proposed postmine land uses of the mines at York Canyon are fish and wildlife habitat and native rangeland as defined by the New Mexico State Surface Mining Regulations.* These uses constitute the historical and current land uses as well as being the primary land uses of the surrounding properties owned by Santa Fe Mining, Inc., Vermejo Park Corporation, and Kaiser steel Corporation. Vermejo Park Corporation conducts hunting, fishing, and recreation on a commercial basis on over 479,000 acres (201,285 ha) surrounding the York Canyon Mines (Wolfe 1977).  *Fish and Wildlife Habitat; Means land dedicated wholly or partially to the production, protection or management of species of fish or wildlife. Rangeland; Means land on which the natural potential (climax) plant cover is principally native grasses, forbs and shrubs valuable for forage. Except for brush control, management is primarily achieved by regulating the intensity of grazing and season of use.  57  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  As the York Canyon Mines are a comparatively small property within the Vermejo Park Ranch and elk have large home ranges, the ranch wildlife management practices affect the big game animals which range throughout the mine properties (Jansen 1980). Practicality and utility limit the possibility of alternative postmine land uses. Physiographically the reclaimed land would not be suited as crop or pastureland. The area is not accessible to flood irrigation and the general scarcity of water limits both the potential of a developed water resource and a residential development which is not compatible with surrounding land uses. Non-consumptive recreation is a possible alternative land use. An analysis of postmine land use alternatives indicates that wildlife habitat and native rangeland are the most appropriate postmine land uses. But in terms of reclamation, land use should be even more critically evaluated. For example, as it is impractical and difficult to address all types of wildlife habitat in reclamation and revegetation, specific wildlife use should be postulated. Therefore, because of their economic importance (Wolfe 1980) elk and deer have been selected as the game species for which reclamation efforts are directed. The area is used by wildlife year-round and also serves as winter cattle range. This use pattern increases the necessity of revegetating with plants which can supply protein during the winter. Multiple uses complicate planning. It must be realized that although cattle (Stoddart et al 1975) and elk (Murie 1951) are primarily grazers, they also consume many forbs and shrubs. For elk, however, forbs are only important in the summer. Gates (1967) reported a year-round diet for elk was comprised of 85% grass. Deer are primarily browzers (Taylor 1956), although they use grasses frequently in the spring and summer. Recent studies have found high quality summer range important for deer (Urness et al 1975). Protein and digestible energy are important for cattle (Cook et al 1977) as well as for deer and elk (Welch and Andrus 1977; Wallmo et al 1977). Others (Lay 1969, Zeedyk 1969) imply forage diversity to be the key to habitat quality while Clary and Larson (1971) found deer use patterns in the ponderosa pine habitat type to be random. Clary and Larson (1971) also found elk showed preference for areas with low timber basal area and high herbage yields. But use cannot be defined only in terms of forage. Habitat value is also important and is a function of food, cover, water, land form, and inter-  58  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  spersion (WELAT 1978). It is apparent, then, that designing a plan to fulfill postmine land uses becomes very complex. BASELINE DATA ACCUMULATION  After a postmining land use has been chosen, baseline studies should be addressed. The following discussion pertains only to studies pertinent to reclamation and revegetation planning. Reclamation requires sitespecific knowledge of the structure and function of the surrounding ecosystems (Wali 1980). Baseline information is necessary for planning revegetation, predicting potential reclamation success, and monitoring plant and animal succession. Baseline data in some format is also used for comparison to reclaimed sites or to set up a system for the determination of reclamation success. The vegetation survey, normally one of the first studies to be instigated, was conducted at York Canyon during 1980. Each community was mapped; then statistically valid intensive sampling was completed. Slope and aspect were measured and each sampling site was correlated with soils. The plant cover in each community was measured. Density of trees and shrubs was determined as well as height, age and diameter of timber species. This information was used to determine timber volumes. All plant species were identified to characterize each community and to assure the presence or absence of any rare or endangered species. The vegetation data was analyzed to study the structure and development of each community. Community structure aids in the determination and mapping of habitat types. A habitat type (Daubenmire 1968) represents all the land areas which support, or are capable of supporting the same vegetation or plant association. This concept proves extremely useful in reclamation planning. About 19 different Canyon Mines (Table species components considering what to  plant communities have been delineated at the 1). No doubt some represent seral communities. and successional status become very important include in the revegetation seed mixes.  York The when  The soils were also mapped and studied in conjunction with vegetation. The soils at York Canyon were formed from interbedded shales and sandstones as described by Pillmore (1976). As a result, the soils reflect very complex development (Sellnow 1979). Most of the mapping units of the first order survey consist of soil complexes. The soil series units  59  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  TABLE 1  VEGETATION TYPES AT THE YORK CANYON MINES, NEW MEXICO  Grassy bottoms, main valley  Agropyron smithii/Atriplex canescens  Grassy bottoms, side valley  Agropyron smithii/Bouteloua gracilis  Grassy top  Bouteloua gracilis/Festuca arizonica  Grass/winterfat  Bouteloua gracilis/Eurotia lanata  Riparian sedge meadow  Carex spp.  Riparian cottonwood grove  Populus angustifolia  Riparian willow patch  Salix spp.  Pinyon/juniper  Pinus edulis/Juniperus scopulorum, Juniperus monosperma  Pinyon-juniper/grass  Pinus edulis/Juniperus scopulorum, Bouteloua gracilis  Pinyon-juniper/oak  Pinus edulis/Juniperus scopulorum/Quercus undulata  Ponderosa pine  Pinus ponderosa  Ponderosa pine/oak  Pinus ponderosa/Quercus undulata  Ponderosa pine/Douglas fir  Pinus ponderosa/Pseudostuga menziesii  Mixed conifer  Pinus ponderosa/Pseudostuga menziesii/Pinus edulis  Ponderosa pine/pinyon-juniper/grass  Pinus ponderosa/P. edulis/J. scopulorum/ Bouteloua gracilis  Ponderosa pine/pinyon-juniper/oak  Pinus ponderosa/P. edulis/J. scopulorum/Quercus undul  60  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  are so intricately mixed or small in area that they cannot practically be shown separately on a map. The soils typically contain numerous inclusions and rock outcrops (Table 2) which increase the difficulty of planning. Additionally, these intricate and rocky soils often occur on steep slopes, which makes complete removal difficult and unsafe. All soils to be disturbed were sampled and chemically analyzed (Appendix 1) and no toxicities were found to occur. The soils generally tend toward textures of sandy clay or sandy clay loams with medium permeabilities. Similar analyses have been completed on overburden cores. No toxicities of heavy metals were noted, but some shales showed high SAR values. However, dilution of the overburden is expected to eliminate any salt problem. Weather records are being developed and studied. Because of the variability in local and regional weather patterns, several remote precipitation gauges were also located within the permit area to determine the range of variability in the precipitation. Surface water and ground water systems are also studied. Numerous monitoring wells or piezometers have been installed as well as crest stage gauges and surface water quality sample locations have been established above and below the mine sites on the major drainages. Study of the groundwater has failed to identify any groundwater aquifers as defined by the Surface Coal Mining Regulations; however, alluvial aquifers are present. Water monitoring is to continue throughout the life of the mine, to assure mining does not deteriorate water quality and to show reclamation maintains sediment from reclaimed sites in quantities similar to those from unmined areas. After consultation with the New Mexico State Game and Fish Department wildlife studies were instigated. In 1979, a study of the movements of deer and elk in relation to mining activity was begun in cooperation with the research established at the Vermejo Park Ranch (Wolfe 1980). Kaiser Steel Corporation personnel have placed a number of cloth identification collars and radio transmitting collars on both deer and elk and trace their movements with the use of radio telemetry. Preliminary data indicate that elk have such large home ranges that their movements are unaffected by the present mining operation; however, other types of impact may occur. Deer have also apparently acclimatized to the disturbance. Collared animals of both sexes spend their life year-  61  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  TABLE 2 CHARACTERISTICS OF SOILS OVER THE COAL SEAM AT THE YORK CANYON SURFACE MINE  The acreages shown are as planimetered and are believed accurate to +5% 62  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  round within the permit areas (Jansen 1981). Collared does have been producing healthy twin fawns which indicates they are not under a nutritional (Robinette 1956) or reproductive stress. Additionally, seasonal bird surveys are conducted and daily wildlife checklists are maintained of all wildlife observations. RECLAMATION/REVEGETATION Our methods and knowledge of reclamation and revegetation are currently in the evolutionary process. Information gleaned from baseline studies of the adjacent ecosystems and research is integrated in the formulation of the reclamation plan. Study of these ecosystems can be the key to successful reclamation. Reclamation should be considered as an integral part of the mining operation, both in planning and during production, but this is not always an easy situation to establish. In attempts to find answers to reclamation problems many researchers and biologists have failed to develop solutions practicable to the everyday mining situation. This failure has created skepticism concerning some reclamation methods among many engineers and mine managements. Reclamation must work within the framework of the mine plan. The combination shovel/truck/dragline operation at York Canyon dictates a delayed revegetation procedure as shovel/truck overburden is placed upon graded dragline spoils. Initially, the land is cleared and topsoil which has been removed after clearing must be stockpiled. Nevertheless, reclamation is contemporaneous to this particular method of mining. The first major step in reclamation after overburden placement is backfilling and grading. Because of the rugged mountainous nature of the landscape at York Canyon, grading recreated some steep slopes. Study of the natural physiognomy was used as a guideline for slope reconstruction and problem solving. Of the 20 soil types overlying the coal outcrop at the York Canyon Surface Mine, six contain scattered rock outcrop, four contain 10% rock outcrop, two contain 30% rock outcrop, three contain 40% rock outcrop, and one contains 90% rock outcrop (Sellnow 1979). Topographic variation can be a positive by-product of surface mining in that specific habitat types can be recreated.  63  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Reconnaissance surveys of premined areas indicate that the following plant communities are characteristic of rocky habitats: oak, mixed shrub, pinyon-juniper, pinyon-juniper/oak, pinyon-juniper/grass. In fact, many of the species found within these communities grow exclusively in rock outcrop areas or on thin rocky soils at York Canyon. These plants are apparently unable to compete in deep soiled areas (Wolfe et al 1980) (Table 3). Outcrops and escarpments created by leaving sections of highwall intact are often the only areas where some raptors can nest and rear young without frequent harassment (Klimstra et al 1979). Such raptors endemic to the York Canyon Mine area include the prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), pigeon hawk (Falco columbarius), and the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus). The redtailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), and the marsh hawk (Circus cyaneus) utilize outcrops around the mine site as hunting perches (Wolfe 1978 personal observation). Rocky areas also provide nest and cover sites for the following avian species common to the area: cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), violet-green swallow (Tachycineta thai assina), common raven (Corvus corax), pinyon jay (Gymnorhinus cyanocephala), rock wren (Calpinctes dbsoletus), canyon wren (Catherpes mexicanus), common bushtit (Psaltriparus minimus), and Townsend's solitaire (Myadestes townsendi) (Peterson 1961). The shrub species most important to big game for browse and cover are among those plants typical of rocky areas. It is of concern that without sufficient shrubs for cover and browse, the postmine land will be unable to continue support of present mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) populations. Other wildlife species endemic to the mine site which utilize habitat types found exclusively in rocky areas include: gray fox (Urocyon cineroargenteus), bobcat (Lynx rufus), coyote (Canis latrans), weasel (Mustela erminea, M. frenata), skunks (Mephitis mephitis, Conepatus leuconotus), badger (Taxidea taxus), rock squirrel (Citellus variegatus), Mexican woodrat (Neotoma mexicana), deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), rock mouse (Peromyscus difficilis), Colorado chipmunk (Eutamias quadrivittatus), mountain lion (Felis concolor), black bear (Ursus americanus), (Patton, 1978), and Merriam's turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), Frischtenecht (1975) summarized literature indicating the use of rock areas by numerous insectivorus and cannibalistic lizards, horned lizards, and snakes, including the prairie rattler (Crotalus  64  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  TABLE 3 PLANT SPECIES CHARACTERISTIC OF ROCKY AREAS  Common Name  Scientific Name  Big bluestem  Andropogon gerardi  Little bluestem  A. scoparius  Fourwlng saltbush  Atriplex canescens  Sideoats grama  Bouteloua curtependula  Mountain mahogany  Cercocarpus montanus  Hedgehog cactus  Echinocereus spp.  Eriogonom  Eriogonum spp.  Cliff jamesia  Jamesia americana  One-seeded juniper  Juniperus monosperma  Rocky Mountain juniper  Juniperus scopulorum  Colorado four-o-clock  MirabiIis multiflora  Penstemon  Penstemon barbatus torreyi  Pinyon  Pinus edulis  Gambel oak  Quercus gambelii  Wavey leaf oak  Quercus undulata  Skunkbush sumac  Rhus trilobata  Scribner's needlegrass  Stipa scribneri  Yucca  Yucca glauca/Yucca baccata  65  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  viridis viridis) and western diamondback (Crotalus atrox), all common at the mine site. Leaving rock outcrops within portions of the highwall and at other locations is not only essential for the re-establishment of the many plant communities which occur naturally on the mine site as well as for the wildlife which depend on them, but also reduces reclamation cost through a reduction of regrading requirements. To these ends a highwall plan was considered ecologically appropriate and economically feasible. Figure 5 illustrates a previously existing portion of the highwall. A plan was designed to simulate pre-mine landscape and habitat types by allowing portions of the upper parts of the highwall comprised of horizontal sandstone bedding to remain as rock outcrops and talus areas. The highwall retention plan was instigated where it appeared appropriate. Figure 6 shows a diagrammatic sketch of the final configuration of a portion of the site. The vertical bedrock blends well with the rocky terrain of the hillside. Bedrock is exposed in numerous areas above the highwall and the rock outcrop blends into the bedrock in two locations. The approximate height of the outcrop varies from 2 feet to 23 feet. The outcrop is almost continuous and is approximately 220 feet long. It has a vertical face, but the rock surfaces tend to be rounded, although there are also a few angular surfaces. The ground surface at the base of the outcrop is rocky. This increases infiltration, lessens raindrop impact and slows the velocity of runoff. Talus was used to blend the highwall with the surrounding landscape. The outcrops are not expected to become unstable outside of a long term geological sense. When the geologic structure consists of horizontal bedding with vertical to subvertical jointing, the possibility of a failure is essentially eliminated, therefore the static safety factor would be far greater than 1.5 (Dames and Moore 1978). The bedrock outcrop, therefore, would be very stable. Those areas which are left as talus slopes or simulated rock outcrops also reflect a static safety factor much greater than 1.5. In fact, an analysis of a typical situation predicts that the rocks would have a static safety factor of 8 (see calculations in Appendix 2). This number  66  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  67  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  68  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  indicates that the talus is extremely stable. Therefore, these rocky slopes do not represent any greater potential danger to humans or wildlife than do natural outcrop areas. Rock piles have also been selectively placed on portions of the reclaimed site for habitat diversity and wildlife cover, as it would take trees years to provide similar hiding areas. These rock piles also act as windbreaks and ameliorate the immediate environment in terms of temperature and moisture (Harju 1980). The rock piles are large in size because elk and deer require cover capable of blocking 90% of the animals from human view at a distance equal to or less than 200 feet (61 m) (Thomas et al 1979). Reclamation plans also include placement of fallen logs on reclaimed sites. Pinyon jays prefer to stash seeds next to rocks and fallen logs (Ligon 1978). Downed logs are excellent hiding cover for smaller forms of wildlife. Again they may act as snow harvesting devices and further ameliorate the immediate environment. After the second year of establishment it is also planned to install posts as perches for birds which hunt rodents. A certain amount of landscaping is necessary to design steep slopes to blend with the surrounding undisturbed area. Additionally, except for specially designed drainages, the hillsides should be sloped such that water will not accumulate at any one point. Thus, natural water spreading is created, benefitting vegetation establishment and minimizing erosion. Rough bed channels similar to those invented by Lorenz (Schiechtl 1980) are planned for drainages. These drainages closely simulate those I have observed in the forested slopes of the mine permit area. In these channels water flows over large sandstone rocks wedged tightly against each other, which minimizes soil erosion. After grading, stockpiled topsoil is redistributed on the slopes. At York Canyon, the soils removed prior to mining usually represented the A and B horizons. The rocky character of the topsoil (Table 2) proved to be serendipitous, helping to minimize a number of reclamation problems. A one inch (2.5 cm) layer of rock can act as a mulch and is an excellent method of erosion control (Kay 1978). The baseline vegetation data also indicated ground covers of rock on undisturbed sites ranged from 5% to 30% (Wolfe et al 1980).  69  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Intuitively, the rock present in the soil also acts as a water harvesting mechanism. Evans and Young (1972) found conditions in soil depressions more conducive to seed germination. Thus, by redistributing rocky topsoil on steep slopes, erosion can be minimized and germination enhanced when precipitation is low and irrigation water availability uncertain (Harthill and McKeIl 1979). This procedure appears to be successful at York Canyon. Because the topsoil is thin, discing prior to seeding is used to improve infiltration and plant growth. Ripping would gouge large boulders of overburden to the surface. The goal of the revegetation plan is to plant once and successfully establish a seral plant community capable of self-replication, succession and able to support the postmine land uses. Until an irrigation regime for plant establishment can be developed, major plantings are done in May and June, prior to the months of major precipitation. The general schedule for revegetation is shown in Table 4. June is a relatively dry month which could kill young seedlings planted in April or May. The last frost can also occur during these months, as late as the first week in June. Experimentation with fall seeding has failed. Less than 3% of the annual precipitation comes in winter and there is little, if any, protective snow cover. Apparently, seed predation and seed mortality are too high for sufficient germination to produce an effective vegetation cover capable of erosion control. Prior to planting, and after soil analyses, the postmine contours are mapped according to potential habitat type. This facilitates selection of seed mixes to be planted for a specific area and the location of future tree and shrub plantings. It is virtually impossible to replace all plant species because of lack of seed availability, economics, practicality, and efficiency. Seed mixtures used have been designed to include large proportions of some species, primarily grasses which are relatively economical and capable of providing quick, effective vegetative cover to control erosion and provide a base for initiating succession. Small amounts of forb and shrub seeds have been added to the mixtures to provide additional diversity.  70  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  TABLE 4 GENERAL REVEGETATION SCHEDULE  *1 designates first week of the month; 2 designates second week of the month, etc.  71  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  All seed species selected for revegetation presently occur at the mine site and most are found to be valuable for supporting the postmine land use of native rangeland for deer, elk, and cattle. They have been derived from existing plant communities and various literature sources. Commercial sources have been obtained from the Cross Reference Nursery Index of Native Plant Species (Wolfe 1979). They consist of both warm and cool season perennials. Presently the seed mixtures contain only two "introduced" species, Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) and redtop (Agrostis alba). These species are widely naturalized in the United states (USFS 1937) and are components of the present vegetation in York Canyon. They are good forage for horses, cattle, sheep, and elk. Kentucky bluegrass is one of the better forages for deer (USFS 1937), as it withstands heavy grazing pressure well and is valuable as a soil stabilizer (Gay and Dywer 1970). Although A. alba is probably an introduced species (Hitchcock et al 1969), Boivin and Love (in Hitchcock 1969) contend P. pratensis is native to the United States. Undisturbed vegetation at high elevations similar to the mine site normally contain very few annuals. The majority of annuals that are present in the pre-mine vegetation are weedy increaser species. These will not be seeded, since they are amply self-perpetuating. Furthermore, most of these native annuals are commercially unavailable. Choosing forage species compatible for big game use may be of greater importance than formerly thought. Although mining regulations stress importance of creating high productivity, Devlin and George (1979) found elk forage utilization was not constantly proportional to plant productivity, but was related to physiological need and succulence of the vegetation. Nearly every species of tree, shrub, grass, or forb provides some type of nesting, escape, cover, or food value to wildlife. Known forage values of major revegetation species used are presented in Appendix 3 (Gay and Dywer 1970, Kufeld et al 1973, and USDA 1937). Three different seed mixtures have been developed to establish a diverse, effective cover of vegetation (Tables 5 and 6). These seed mixtures form the basis for seeding several different habitat types. The bottomland mix was designed for all mesic valley floors. The slopes mix was selected for all hillsides, regardless of aspect, and the flats  72  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  73  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  74  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  mix was developed for flat to gently rolling areas on hilltops and mesas. The percent of Arizona fescue (F. arizonica) and blue grama CB. gracilis) was appropriately altered to make one dominant, depending on the elevation and whether the habitat type to be planted was associated with ponderosa pine or pinyon/juniper. Experience in recent revegetation at York Canyon has indicated employment of three different mixtures to be successful. Species in the mixes best suited to the various microenvironments within each site are those which initially dominate the habitat type. The seed mixtures will vary from year to year depending upon seed availability and the development of new species. Research concerning the adaptability of native species is currently ongoing at the mine site in cooperation with the U.S. Soil Conservation Service Plant Material Center in Los Lunas, New Mexico (Oaks 1980) and the U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station in Albuquerque, New Mexico (Aldon et al 1979). Kaiser Steel Corporation has also begun its own work in the collecting and development of seed sources for wolftail (Lycurus phleoides), mountain muhly (Muhlenbergia montana), and white prairie clover (Petalostemon candidum) and in planting trees and shrubs. Site-specific soil tests indicate small amounts of phosphorous need to be added to all areas at York Canyon prior to planting. Phosphorous is frequently important for germination and establishment (Berg 1978). This nutrient is spread during site preparation and is disced into the soil when possible. Heretofore, phosphorous has been applied at a rate of 30 lbs./acre P2°5 (34 kg/ha). Any nitrogen fertilization is delayed until the beginning of the second growing season following seeding. This minimizes the establishment of annual weeds. Between 80 to 100 lbs./acre of NH4NO3 (90 to 112 kg/ha) is applied according to recommendations indicated by soil tests. Nitrogen maintenance will be applied only for establishment and application amounts will be kept to a minimum whenever possible as Sindelar (1980) has found nitrogen reduces species variety. Considering the current controversy concerning fertilizing, study concerning the use of fertilizers is planned. Studies have shown fertilizing of native range to increase productivity (Dwyer and Schickendanz 1971). Abbott (1981) has found phosphorous and nitrogen improved germination of native species on tailings in southern Colorado.  75  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  The following three methods are used in revegetation: drilling, broadcasting, and transplanting. When drilling, two times the normal rate is used. Three times the normal rate is used when broadcasting. These rates are based upon those recommended for critical areas (Merkle and Herbel 1973, EPA 1975). It is best to drill seed because of the proven higher rate of success in southwestern climates (Vallentine 1977, Merkle and Herbel 1973), even though results are often considered less aesthetic. Interseeding lightly with the hydroseeder can improve that aspect. A Truax Native Seed Drill is used for seeding flat areas and gentle slopes. This drill is especially designed for planting native species. For that purpose it has two different sized seed boxes with agitators. A hydroseeder is used on slopes too small or too steep for the drill. The seed is dispensed only with water as ground contact is essential for establishment in arid regions. Establishment of trees and shrubs from seed takes many years in the arid southwest. Transplanting tree and shrub seedlings as well as larger trees provides a more immediate seed source to the area (Frizzell et al 1980). Transplanting also hastens succession by ameliorating the local environment and draws birds and animals to the site, thus augmenting seed dispersal. Transplanting may either be of containerized nursery stock or clumps of native materials acquired on site by front end loaders or other means. Transplanting has proven difficult at York Canyon. Transplanting is normally completed during the early spring or late fall when trees and shrubs are dormant. Because of the long dry period after fall planting in this area, spring planting has shown the highest survival rates. To date, best success has been obtained by transplanting native stock with a front end loader. Experimentation with planting tree seedlings in the summer and using a drip irrigation system is currently being conducted under the direction of Dr. James Fischer of New Mexico State University. In 1980, Kaiser Steel Corporation initiated field trials testing irrigation and a big game repellent on transplanted tree and shrub seedlings, but evaluation is not complete. Initial observations indicate success with conifers to be poor. Additional research on this subject is planned for the immediate future.  76  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  As wildlife is also a land use of this native range, placement and interspersion of various lifeforms must also be considered. Deer apparently have four preferred habitat types at York Canyon: pinyonjuniper, ponderosa pine, ponderosa pine/pinyon-juniper, and pinyonjuniper/oak. These communities all represent structural complexities, created by layers of forbs, grasses, shrubs, and trees (Jansen 1981). It is best to plant trees and shrubs in such a manner as to create a good edge effect by placing groups with irregular boundaries (Thomas et al 1979). All seeded areas were mulched to reduce erosion, increase germination, improve ground moisture and reduce surface soil temperatures. The primary method used was an application of native hay, normally applied with a blower at the rate of about two tons/acre (4.8 metric tons/ha). The hay was either crimped or sprayed with wood fiber and Terra Tac II* or both. Terra Tac II is a semi-refined seaweed extract. The rates used are those recommended by Terra Tac: a slurry of 2,500 gallons of water, three cases of Terra Tac and 9 bales of wood fiber for three acres. For slopes greater than 3:1 the mixture can be increased. Terra Tac was found by Kay (1968) to be one of the best tackifiers on straw when compared to 11 other treatments and it also increased seed germination. Wood fiber or straw alone has not been sufficient at York Canyon to both enhance germination and control erosion. Studies at the mine site by the U.S. Forest Service indicated all methods of seeding were enhanced when a straw mulch was used (Aldon et al 1979). Furrows were also tested on slopes. Although seed establishment along furrows was improved compared to a control site (Aldon et al 1979), the furrows have caused serious erosion problems. Intense summer rains fill the furrows, causing them to burst, creating gullies. Rodent burrows also may cause the banks to fail. Furrowing also created contamination of the topsoil with overburden. In the spring of 1981, an area mulched with two tons hay per acre was compared to one receiving a complete treatment of two tons hay, wood  *Registered Trademark of Grass Growers, 424 Cottage Place, Plainfield, N.J. 07060.  77  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  fiber, and Terra Tac II. The areas were both characterized by southeast facing slopes and gentle sloping ridgetops. The sites were judged to be potential pinyon-juniper/oak habitat types which have an average herbaceous ground cover of about 12%. The complete mulch treatment established a 10 times greater vegetation cover, had 800% less bare ground and 2.6 times greater litter cover. Rock cover was similar in both cases (Table 7). The hay/wood/fiber Terra Tac II mulch has proven capable of eliminating rill and gully formation on slopes up to 37% and establishing an initial vegetation cover without irrigation. Although relatively expensive, the intensive treatment enhanced vegetation growth and ultimately resulted in cost savings from reduction in erosion repair. Observations over two years of sites planted with the techniques described herein indicate the methods to be successful. Cover of three sites planted in 1979 were randomly sampled by belt transects in the fall of 1980. Of the grasses seeded (Table 5), all the major species were established. Two seeded forbs were also established as well as fourwing saltbush. Surprisingly 22 other forbs and a half-shrub were also established. Of these, 25% were perennials. The many annuals were primarily native pioneer species, although Kochia scoparia was abundant. In terms of species number, species diversity rivaled that of most adjacent unmined habitat types. Species diversity of areas seeded with native plants was twice that of areas formerly seeded with introduced species. Ground cover sufficient to prevent the formation of rills and gullies was also established (Table 8) and was greater than that found in unmined pinyon-juniper/oak habitat types. Conclusive evidence concerning the success of reclamation methods must be developed from long term data. However, preliminary conclusions drawn from observations over two years indicate these reclamation methods to be successful at York Canyon. The need for applied research is apparent. Problems still exist in the establishment of trees and shrubs. Reclamation techniques for vegetation establishment on the coal refuse and tailings from the underground mine preparation plant need to be developed. Irrigation for plant establishment should also be tested as it could become necessary to irrigate should precipitation fall below the annual average.  78  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  TABLE 7 COMPARISON OF MULCH TREATMENTS  TABLE 8 INITIAL GROUNDWATER OF THREE RECLAIMED SITES  79  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  POSTMINE MANAGEMENT  A record is maintained of each site which is planted. This record delineates the seed mix used, date seeded, planting methods, fertilizer used, results of soil analyses etc. and any other treatment a site has received. If a failure occurs, an analysis of the record may reveal potential reasons, and adjustments to future reclamation plans can be designed. At this point neither small mammals nor weeds have developed into a management problem. Rabbit and other rodent signs on the reclaimed sites are recorded. Personal observation has also shown these areas are frequented and hunted by such predators as the coyote, red tailed hawks, marsh hawks, and the American Kestrel. No livestock grazing will be allowed on the reclaimed sites until bond release, unless it is used experimentally at a later date. There is some evidence that the Savory short duration grazing method enhances plant succession (Allen Savory, personal communication). A method such as this may prove useful for future reclamation management. Pellet transects have been installed on the reclaimed areas to monitor seasonal trends of deer and elk use. Pellet group counting is the process of estimating by fecal pellet group counts and the actual or relative numbers of big game animals or their number of days use in a given area. Although various difficulties are involved with pellet group counts, this method has the distinct advantage of having an inert kind of evidence which can be subjected to field plot sampling and statistical analysis (Neff 1968). Big game movement studies are ongoing during the mining operation and data review is on a biennial basis. Monitoring is necessary to determine if deer and elk establish use patterns on the reclaimed sites to be expected of areas in a similar state of succession. Some small mammal trapping is planned to trace succession and development of species diversity. Population trends will be monitored to avoid detrimental impact on the reclaimed areas. Annual vegetation sampling is conducted on each reclaimed site. Comprehensive species lists are accumulated in addition to ground cover data.  80  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Permanent photo points have been set up around the mine site. Soil samples are also taken on each site to document successive changes in the chemical constituents. After reclamation efforts have been successfully completed and bond is released, it will be up to the individual land owners to implement and maintain good management practices on the reclaimed lands. CONCLUSION Initial reclamation efforts by Kaiser Steel Corporation in the mountains of northeastern New Mexico have been successful. Achieving reclamation goals for the postmine land uses of wildlife habitat and cattle grazing on native rangeland is a complex and challenging process. Study of surrounding ecosystems and their components can provide clues for solving many reclamation problems and can aid in creating a landscape better suited for the postmining land uses, such as the use of partial highwalls, talus, rock piles and bird perches. Utilization of rocky soil on steep slopes and a high profile mulch used with tackifiers can prevent erosion and enhance germination of native species under an average precipitation regime of 10 inches (26.4 cm). Continued analyses of adjacent ecosystems, wildlife monitoring, and careful record of succession on reclaimed sites are being used to evaluate and improve reclamation technology in the mountains of the southwest. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Acknowledgements and appreciation are due to Kaiser Steel Corporation, especially including Susan Baker for typing the manuscript, and to Ron Jepson, Kevin Lackey, and Robert Georgieff for their patient editing.  81  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  APPENDIX 1  82  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  APPENDIX 1 CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PRE-MINE SOILS  83  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  APPENDIX 2  84  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  APPENDIX 2 DETERMINATION OF STABILITY OF TALUS ON THE HIGHWALL  Assume:  W= 110 lb/ft3, Ø = 35° for sandstone talus.  Take the geometry as sketched below. Determine the factor of safety for the talus overlying the highwall top. The talus bed is approximately 800 ft. long x 50 ft. wide. It tapers from 15 ft. deep at the top of the talus to O ft. at the highwall crest.  W = 1/2 WHL = 1/2 (50'-15'-30O') W = 112 500 ft3 at 110 lb/ft3 W = 12 375,000 lbs. The basal area of the talus pile is 50 x 300 = 15,000 ft2. stress on this base plane is: δ = W cos  The normal  Ψ/A = 12,375,000 Ib. cos 5'/15,0OO ft2 = 821.86 lb/ft2  The shear across this plane is:  τ= W  sin Ψ/A = 12,375,000 Ib. sin  /15,000 ft2 = 71.90 lb/ft2  Limiting equilibrium is defined by: W sin  Ψ /A = W cos Ψ /A (tan Ø)  So that: F (Factor of Safety) = W cos Ψ tan Ø W sin F = 821.86 lb/ft2 (tan 35”) 71.90 lb/ft2 F = 8.0 - reflecting the behaviour of the talus pile as a mass moving across the highwall top. That is, the talus pile is extremely stable.  85  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  APPENDIX 2  (Continued)  As a check on the above, we know (Smith, Elements of Soil Mechanics for Civil and Mining Engineers, Gordon and Breach 1969) for Granular Material in the Geometry described that the Material (Talus) itself will behave according to:  F = tan Ø tan θ  Where θ is the angle at which the talus surface reposes. Thus:  F = tan 35°/tan 30° F= 1.21  This reflects the behaviour of individual talus particles. That is, slope ravelling may occur but the talus pile is still shown to be stable. With a less conservative friction angle (greater than 35°), the safety factor would increase accordingly.  86  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  APPENDIX  3  87  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  APPENDIX 3 KNOWN FORAGE VALUE OF MAJOR SPECIES USED FOR REVEGETATION  Plant Species  Animal Species  Value to Wildlife and Livestock  Elk  4% of summer diet, 4% of winter diet, 8% of spring diet  Mule Deer  19% to 38% of summer diet  Mule Deer  Can be an important winter food source  Birds  Important food and cover for pinyon jay. Also important for songbirds and turkey  Deer and Elk  Browsed some; used for cover  Turkey  Preferred roosting cover. Also important for many songbirds and squirrels  Elk  Cover  Elk  Up to 34% of winter diet and cover for deer and elk  Mule Deer  Listed as a food item  Livestock  One of the most preferred shrubs  Mule Deer  Browsed moderately during the summer  Mule Deer  26% of the summer diet, 5% to 45% of fall diet, 6% to 16% of winter diet, 10% of spring diet  Pinyon Mouse  Important food source  Livestock  Good to very good browse; withstands grazing well  Trees Juniperus spp.  Pinus edulis  Pinus ponderosa  Pseudostuga menziesil  Populus angustifolia Shrubs Atriplex canescens  Cercocarpus montanus  88  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  APPENDIX 3 (Continued) Plant Species  Animal Species  Value to Wildlife and Livestock  Livestock  Flowers and new growth palatable  White-Tailed  Important food source  Shrubs (Continued) Chrysothamnus nauseosus  Jackrabbit Elk  A food source  Mule Deer  An important food source  Songbirds  Used some  Erotia lanata  Livestock  Valuable winter forage. Highly palatable and nutritious. High in crude protein  Quercus spp.  Turkey  Principal winter food source  Mule Deer  12% to 21% summer diet, 24% of fall diet, 21% of spring diet  Elk  4% of yearly diet  Small Mammals  Acorns provide an important food source  Cattle  Browse oak leaves to a limited extent  Mule Deer  15% of summer diet. Browsed moderately throughout the year  Small Mammals  Young shoots highly preferred  Mule Deer  20% of winter diet, 7% of spring diet  Livestock  Succulent flowers highly palatable. Especially Important during drought  Elk  Up to 34% of summer diet, 1% to 67% of fall diet, 27% of winter diet  Livestock  Palatable; produces moderately large amounts of forage and cures well 89  Rhus trilobata  Yucca spp.  Grasses Agropyron smith!i  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  APPENDIX 3 (Continued)  Plant Species  Animal Species  Value to Wildlife and Livestock  Grasses (Continued) A. trachycaulum  Andropogon gerardi  Livestock  Livestock Turkey  Bouteloua curtipendula  Bouteloua gracilis  Livestock  One of the most palatable wheatgrasses. Relished by all livestock Highly palatable during the spring and summer Eat seeds Palatable and productive. High value year round  Kangaroo Rat  Important food source  Northern Grasshopper Mouse  Important food source  Livestock, Mule Deer, Elk  Northern Grasshopper Mouse, Plains Pocket Gopher, Ord's Kangaroo Rat  Highly palatable. Cures well. May maintain 50% of nutritive value while dormant Important food source  Bromus marginatus  Livestock  Relished by all classes  Hilaria jamesii  Livestock  Moderately good food value for cattle  Festuca arizonica  Livestock and Wildlife  Palatable; important because of abundance  Muhlenbergia richardsonis  Livestock  Palatable  Panicum obtusum  Livestock  Fair to good forage for all livestock  Turkey  Important food source  Songbirds  Seeds important for many species  Muskrat  Important food source  Livestock and Wildlife  Extremely palatable for all livestock. Especially important to seed eating birds  Poa pratensis  90  Chipmunk, Pocket Gopher and Mule Deer  Important food source  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  APPENDIX 3 (Continued)  Animal Species  Value to Wildlife and Livestock  Sitanion hystrix  Livestock  Moderate palatability for cattle  Sporobolus cryptandrus  Livestock and Wildlife  Palatable to cattle, cures well  Turkey  A food source  Junco  Important food source  Livestock  Highly palatable before seed production  Achillea lanulosa  Livestock  Grazed moderately  Artemisia frigida  Livestock  Fair to good forage, especially fall through spring  Mule Deer  18% of winter diet, 9% of spring diet  Mule Deer  26% to 38% of winter diet  Pinyon Mouse  Important food source  Northern Pocket Gopher  Important food source  Plant Species Grasses (Continued)  Stipa comata Forbs  Penstemon strictus  91  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  LITERATURE CITED  Abbott,  John  P.  1981.  Revegetation  of  three  disturbed  sites  in  Colorado. Unpublished Masters thesis. Colorado State University. Fort Collins, Colorado. Aldon, Earl F., David G. Scholl and Charles P. Pase. 1979. Establishing cool-season grasses on coal mine spoil in northeastern New Mexico. To be published in Reclamation Review. Berg, W.A. 1978. Limitations in use of soil tests on drastically disturbed lands. In; Reclamation of drastically disturbed lands. Eds; Schaller, Frank W. and Paul Button. ASA. CSSA. SSSA. Madison, Wisconsin. Clary, William P. and Frederic R. Larson. 1971. Elk and deer use are related to food sources in Arizona Ponderosa Pine. USDA Forest Service Research Note RM-202. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. Fort Collins, Colorado. Cook, C. Wayne, R. Dennis Child and Harry Larson. 1977. Digestible protein in range forages as an index to nutrient content and animal response. Colorado State University Range Science Department Science Series No. 29. Dames and Moore. 1974. Highwall and spoil pile stability studies, York Canyon Mine, New Mexico. For Kaiser Steel Corporation. Daubenmire, Rexford. 1968. Plant Communities. Harper and Row, New York. Devlin, Daniel A. and John L. George. 1979. Forage utilization by elk and white tailed deer on two clearcuts in Elk County, Penn. In; North American Elk: Ecology behavior and management. Eds; Mark S. Boyce and Larry D. Hayden-Wing. University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming. Dwyer, Don D. and J.G. Schickendanz. 1971. Vegetation and cattle response to nitrogen fertilized rangeland in south central New Mexico. New Mexico Agr. Exp. Sta. Research Report 215.  92  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Evans, R.A. and J.A. Young. 1972. Microsite requirments for establishment of annual rangeland weeds. Weed Sci. 20: 350-356. Frischknecht, N. C. 1975. Native faunal relationships within the pinyon-juniper ecosystem. In; The pinyon-juniper ecosystem: a symposium. May 1975. Utah State University. Logan, Utah. Frizzell, Earl M., James L. Smith and Kent A. Crofts. 1980. Transplanting native vegetation. Surface coal mining reclamation equipment and techniques. Proceedings: Bureau of Mines Technology Transfer seminar. Denver, Colorado. June 5, 1980. Information Circular 8823. Gates, G.H. 1967. Elk. Pages 31-41. In: New Mexico wildlife management. New Mexico Department of Game and Fish, Santa Fe, New Mexico. Gay, C.W. and D.D. Dywer. 1970. New Mexico range plants. Cooperative Extension Service Circular 374. New Mexico State University. Gill, J.R. and W.A. Cobban. 1967. Paleogeographic maps of Telgraph Creek, Eagle, Claggett, Judity River, Bearpaw, and Fox Hills. Times of Late Cretaceous Epoch in the Western Interior Region, USGS open file report, 6 sheets. 1969. Harju, Harry. 1980. Reclamation for wildlife: The Wyoming viewpoint. In; Adequate reclamation of mined lands, a symposium. March 26 27, 1980. Billings, Montana. Harthill, M. and C.M. McKiIl. 1979. Ecological stability - is this a realistic goal for arid land rehabilitation? In; Ecology and coal resource development. Vol. II. Ed. Mohan K. WaIi. Pergamon Press, New York. Hitchcock, Leo C., Arthur Cronquist, Marion Ownbey and J.W. Thompson. 1961. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press. Seattle, Washington. Jansen, Curt. 1980. Revised final report. Vol. I and II. November, 1978 Wildlife Contract. York Canyon Mines, Kaiser Steel Corporation. Raton, New Mexico.  93  th  Proceedings of the 5 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Cranbrook, BC, 1981. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Jansen, Curt. 1981. The effects of coal mining on deer and elk movement. Paper presented at the 26th annual summer conference of the Central Mountains and Plains section of the wildlife Society. August, 1981. Laramie, Wyoming. Kay,  Burgess L. 1978. Mulch and chemical stabilizers for land reclamation in dry regions. In; Reclamation of drastically disturbed lands. Eds; Schaller, Frank W. and Paul Sutton. ASA. CSSA. SSSA. Madison, Wisconsin.  Klimstra, W.D., S.G. Martin, et al. 1979. Energy mining impacts and wildlife mangement: which way to turn. North American wildlife and natural resources conference. March 1979. Toronto, Ontario. Kufeld, R., O.C. Wallmo and C. Feddema. 1973. Foods of the Rocky Mountain mule deer. USDA Forest Service Research Paper RM-111. Lay, Daniel W. 1969. Foods and feeding habits of white tailed deer. White tailed deer in southern forest habitat symposium. Proc. 1969: 8-13 S. Forest Exp. Sta., Nacagdoches, Texas. Ligon, David. 1978. Reproductive interdependence of pinyon jays and pinyon pine. Ecol. Monographs 48(2):111-1261. Maker, J.J., G.W. Anderson and J.U. Anderson. 1972. Soil Associations and land classification for irrigation, Colfax County. 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