British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposia

Use of agronomic species in mine reclamation Richardson, Angus S. 1980

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
1980 - Richardson - Use of Agronomic Species in Mine.pdf [ 120.96kB ]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0042030.json
JSON-LD: 1.0042030+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0042030.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0042030+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0042030+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0042030+rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 1.0042030 +original-record.json
Full Text
1.0042030.txt
Citation
1.0042030.ris

Full Text

th  Proceedings of the 4 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1980. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  USE OF AGRONOMIC SPECIES IN MINE RECLAMATION  Paper presented by Angus S. Richardson, P.Ag. General Manager Richardson Seed Company Limited Burnaby, British Columbia  219  th  Proceedings of the 4 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1980. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  USE OF AGRONOMIC SPECIES IN MINE RECLAMATION  INTRODUCTION Agronomic is the nomenclature given to plant species that, over time, have become domesticated native species; therefore, the term distinguishes a plant from a current native plant. For this discussion I have included all commercially harvested seed crops of grasses and legume species.  The purpose of establishing grass and legumes on a reclamation site is: - to revegetate a disturbed area, - to provide forage for native or domestic animals, - to provide surface erosion control, - to provide esthetic satisfaction, and - to provide a cash crop for income where feasible. In the first four objectives a satisfactory ground cover is what is being sought, rather than an agricultural income from the forage. With the former in mind, we must concern ourselves with the choice of the agronomic species for seeding, since the choice is between: - the common seed types which have a wide genetic base, and - the selected seed variety with a narrower genetic base. The majority of plant breeders select varieties capable of providing high agricultural yield under good soil conditions. Such varieties often have high nutritional requirements and must be carefully selected for a specific situation. However, when disease threatens an area, or winter hardiness is a necessity, then varieties having these attributes can benefit the reclamation situation.  221  th  Proceedings of the 4 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1980. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  In British Columbia, common seed, which is closest in origin to the original native material, is used because it has the widest genetic base and is adaptable to variable soil types and climates. In selecting common seed it is important that the origin of the plant be known, in order to determine if the plant will adapt successfully to the area where it is to be sown. Recently, importations of wheatgrass and alfalfa from Argentina have been introduced into Canada, an origin that would not be suitable for use in British Columbia.  THE CANADA SEEDS ACT This Federal Act, administered by the Plant Products Division of the Food and Marketing Branch, Agriculture Canada, describes the conditions under which all seeds can be sold. The Seeds Act specifies what information must be provided to describe the seed, which must then be given to the buyer. By means of grade tables the Act specifies how clean the seed must be; how many weeds, if any, are allowed; and the minimum  germination  rate  that  a  seed  must  have.  Seed  is  thereby  classified as Canada No. 1, Canada No. 2, or Canada No. 3. The Seeds Act also describes which species of grasses and legumes can be sold in Canada, and which varieties are licensed for sale in Canada. Many of the so-called "native species" of seed cannot be sold under the terms of the Seeds Act, and special permission for the use of such species must be obtained from Ottawa.  PRINCIPLES OF SEED MIXTURE DESIGN Because soils are not always homogeneous and weather patterns do not repeat themselves consistently, there is a distinct advantage in using a seed mixture that has been blended to suit the variables of the site. The following considerations are applicable to seed mixture design:  222  th  Proceedings of the 4 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1980. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  - The seed must be adapted to the climate and soils of the area. - The  seed  must  be  the  land  and  the  adapted  to  the  end  use  of  desired longevity of the stand. - The mixture must be economically viable. - The mixture must be balanced: a.  the plants  should be able  to withstand competition  from  one another (bio-compatability), b.  it is usually desirable to blend legumes with grasses,  c.  enough  seed  of each major  ingredient should  be  included  to establish a stand if some species fail, d.  the  formulation  by weight,  must reflect  ingredients by population. EXAMPLE:  expressed as a percentage of ingredients seed  the  desired  count,  ie.  percentage end  of  plant  See following example calculations:  End Plant Population  Purity % (Weight)  Seeds/Pound  Seeds/Pound in Mix  25% Smooth Brome  X  125,000  =  31,250  25% Canada Bluegrass  X  2,500,000  =  625,000  25% Creeping Red Fescue  X  600,000  =  150,000  10% Timothy  X  1,300,000  =  130,000  5% Red Top  X  5,000,000  =  250,000  X  800,000  =  80,000  10% White Clover  1,266,250 e. consideration must be given in the formulation for the rate of establishment and germination of each kind of seed.  SPECIE AVAILABILITY AND ADAPTATION Because agronomic species are principally used in agricultural situations, adequate inventories are maintained and planned production as seed crops is undertaken, so there is seldom a serious shortage of seed. During certain years when drought prevails or bad weather is 223  th  Proceedings of the 4 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1980. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  experienced at harvest time, certain shortages can occur. If any reclamation user is concerned about seed availability, contract arrangements can be made with any seed merchant to produce his requirements to ensure a supply. Classification of species normally available, subclassified as to their end adaptation, is given below: 1.  Rapid Developing, Short-Lived Grasses  Humid Areas:  Annual Ryegrass (sometimes called Common or Italian) Westerwolds Ryegrass  Dryland Areas: Slender Wheatgrass Tall Oatgrass 2.  Rapid Developing, Long-Lived Grasses for Sub-Humid and Irrigated Areas  Orchardgrass Intermediate Wheatgrass 3.  Slow to Establish Hard Fescue  Tall Wheatgrass  Streambank Wheatgrass Red Top  Canada Bluegrass Creeping Red Fescue  Streambank Wheatgrass Creeping Foxtail  Slender Wheatgrass Tall Fescue Russian Wild  Acid Tolerant Grasses  Red Top Red Fescue Creeping Bentgrass  224  Russian Wild Ryegrass  Big Bluegrass  Saline and Alkali Tolerant Grasses  Tall Wheatgrass Crested Wheatgrass Ryegrass 6.  Bluebunch Wheatgrass  Drought Tolerant, Long-Lived Sod Grasses  Pubescent Wheatgrass Kentucky Bluegrass 5.  Perennial Ryegrass (Diploid and Tetraploid)  Drought Tolerant, Long-Lived Bunch Grasses  Crested Wheatgrass  4.  Tall Fescue Smooth Bromegrass  Meadow Foxtail Colonial Bentgrass Hard Fescue  Canada Bluegrass Tall Fescue  th  Proceedings of the 4 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1980. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  7.  Dense Deep-Rooted Grasses  Crested Wheatgrass Orchardgrass 8.  Dense Shallow-Rooted Grasses  Red Top Canada Bluegrass 9.  Kentucky Bluegrass Creeping Bentgrass  Canada Bluegrass  Timothy  Red Top  Reeds Canarygrass  Legumes  Alfalfa Clovers 12.  Creeping Red Fescue Hard Fescue  Wet Land Grasses  Meadow Foxtail 11.  Creeping Red Fescue  Fine Leaved Multi-Purpose Grasses  Kentucky Bluegrass Chewings Fescue 10.  Intermediate Hard Fescue Wheatgrass Russian Wild Ryegrass  Alsike Clover White Clovers  Sainfoin Red Clovers  Bird's-foot Trefoil Sweet Cicer Milk Vetch  Special Agronomics  Bearded Wheatgrass Alaska Brome Siberian Wheatgrass Thickspike Wheatgrass  Blue Wild Rye Basin Wild Rye Beardless Wheatgrass Big Bluegrass  Mountain Brome Alkali Sacaton Harding Grass Upland Bluegrass  SEED APPLICATION RATES  The application rate for seed to be used in reclamation in British Columbia is determined by the following factors: - strength of establishment required, - seed bed preparation, - soil temperature (time of seeding), - soil moisture, - method of application, - ingredients in seed mixture, - companion crop. 225  th  Proceedings of the 4 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1980. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  As a rule of thumb In the dryer areas of the Province, less seed is used than in the moist areas. When agricultural equipment is used, a seeding rate of 30 - 75 Ib/acre is used. When hydro-seeding is the method of application, the seeding rate is usually increased by 25%. When seeding is carried out by aircraft, the seeding rate is increased by 50%.  COATED SEED Coated seed, a relatively new product, is being promoted, therefore it warrants a few comments. Coated seed originated in New Zealand where much of the seeding on native ranges is done by aircraft. The ballistic weight  of  the  coating  material  to  the  seed  has  benefit  in  this  situation. When the seed is coated, the product becomes: In grasses: 50% of the weight is seed, 50% is coating material In legumes: 66% of the weight is seed, 34% is coating material The coating usually used for grasses is a lime based polymer with approximately 5% available nutrients. This means that when the entire product is applied at 50 lb/acre, 1-1/2 pounds of actual plant food is applied per acre. In legumes, the coating is usually a humus-lime mix containing the correct strain of rhizobia bacteria. The benefits of coated seed are as follows: - price per pound of the seed mixture is reduced, - the specific weight of the seed is increased, - there is marginal nutrient benefit, - the coated seed usually withstands deeper planting than raw seed. The disadvantages of coated seed are as follows: - in grasses, you only get half as many actual seeds per pound, compared to raw seed; 226  th  Proceedings of the 4 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1980. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  - coating usually reduces the germination of the seed; - costs per acre are much higher; - product is difficult to handle and, generally does not flow very easily; - coated seed is not as readily available as ordinary seed. During an initial trial period with coated seed, the Richardson Seed Company has supplied over 100,000 lbs. of the product to the industry, and generally, the feedback we have received has indicated disappointing results. We are of the opinion that to achieve the most economical and satisfactory results, raw seed should be used wherever possible. Only in site-specific situations do we see a place for coated seed, such as the benefits of having the extra ballistic weight around the seed.  SEED PRODUCTION British Columbia imports, either from the United States, or from other regions of Canada, most of the seed used within the Province. As indicated earlier, it is important that the origin of the seed to be used should be adaptable to B.C. conditions. Seed merchants aware of local  agronomic  shows  the  conditions,  commonly  used  comply  species,  accordingly. complete  with  The  following  their  most  list  common  source of origin: LEGUMES Alfalfa: Idaho, Washington, Southern Alberta Alsike and S.C. Red Clovers: Peace River, Saskatchewan White Clover: B.C., Idaho, Oregon, New Zealand GRASSES Creeping Red Fescue: Peace River Wheatgrasses: Alberta, Saskatchewan, South and North Dakota, Montana Orchardgrass: Oregon, Southern Alberta Ryegrass: Oregon 227  th  Proceedings of the 4 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1980. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Timothy: B.C., Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Minnesota Bluegrass: Washington Red Top: Mississippi, Poland, B.C., and the Prairies Provinces  228  th  Proceedings of the 4 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1980. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  DISCUSSIOM RELATED TO A. RICHAROSON’S PAPER Art Bomke - University of British Columbia: I've read somewhere that the coating of legume seeds with Time has a beneficial effect on the survival of rhizobium. It could be significant in the acidic materials we're trying to vegetate. Can you tell us something about that? Answer: I think the coating of legumes is generally more acceptable and more widely practised than is the coating of grasses. Of course, the legume seed is always coated to some degree with the rhizobia; but in what I call the "coating process", we get a definite coat containing the rhizobia around the seed. There are many people using  the  coated  legume  product.  It  was  used  extensively  in  Ontario last year, and it has also been used in California. I think that there may be some real benefits to coating legumes this way; but at the present time, the general concensus by farmers is that the coating is perhaps not giving them any greater benefits than  they  had  before.  The  other  interesting  thing  is  the  introduction of newer rhizobia strains that may allow us to get better  innoculation  of  our  legumes  and  consequently  more  nutritional benefits.  Duane Johnson - Hardy Associates Ltd.: We tested coating winter seed in the Arctic and found there were many problems with fungal infestation. I was wondering if you have had any experience with that? Answer: I, personally, have not. We have not worked in the Arctic and I have not heard of the problem of increased fungal attack. But we have had experience sowing the coated seed in the late fall of the year, just before the snow came in, and waiting for spring germination. In those instances we felt that we gained no benefit from the coated program. The idea basically was that it would be  229  th  Proceedings of the 4 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1980. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  our "pop up" fertilizer, if you will; but it seems that one needs our fertilizer program. I'm sure coated seed will be used to a much wider extent, and there may yet be benefits which we still haven't seen in our coated seed.  Duane Johnson: Do you find that you coat all varieties of seed? Answer: Coatings can be done on any species. It's just a simple matter of putting a solution around the seed. In legume innocula-tion, it's a little bit more difficult because the innoculant is only good for a certain period of time. Also, the seed is wrapped up in that coating, it's more difficult to reinnoculate it.  S. Parmar - B.C. Research: In the formation of seed mixtures we consider the number of seeds per pound. Don't you think it would also be good to consider the purity of the seed? Answer: Sohan pointed out, and very rightly so, that in the formulation of  seed  mixtures,  you  should  also  consider  the  living  seed  aspects. What this really means is that some seeds will have a 90% purity because they are chaffy, whereas, other seeds will have a 99%  purity  because  they  have  a  very  low  chaff  content.  Ad-  ditionally, some seed species will grow at 90% germination or 95% germination very easily and rapidly, whereas, with others, it is difficult to get them higher than perhaps 80%. So, you multiply the  pure  seed  aspect  with  the  germination  to  take  this  into  account. Sohan, I chose to ignore that factor here because when you work the pure-living seed into the particular table I showed you, it will alter the percentage by about half to three quarters of a percent in the final instance. It's a rather complicated process, but it is an extremely useful point, and it is one we do consider in seed mixture design.  230  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
United States 4 0
China 3 0
Russia 1 0
City Views Downloads
Ashburn 4 0
Shenzhen 3 0
Saint Petersburg 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}
Download Stats

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.50878.1-0042030/manifest

Comment

Related Items