British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposia

Propagation and use of native woody plants in northern latitudes McTavish, Bruce; Shopik, Tim 1983

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th  Proceedings of the 7 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1983. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  PROPAGATION AND USE OF NATIVE WOODY PLANTS IN NORTHERN LATITUDES  Paper presented by Bruce McTavish Reid Collins Limited and T. Shopik Suncor Limited  th  Proceedings of the 7 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1983. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  PROPAGATION AND USE OF NATIVE WOODY PLANTS IN NORTHERN LATITUDES INTRODUCTION The use of native plant materials in mine reclamation is an attempt to reproduce the initial stages of natural succession. With the initiation of a stand of native shrubs and trees the process of natural succession is significantly speeded up. This results in an earlier return to a self-sustaining ecosystem both in terms of flora and fauna. To be able to make the first step in establishment of native trees and shrubs, they must be produced on a commercial scale at a reasonable cost. Then, the survival on outplanting must be at a high enough level to warrant their use. In addition to initial survival these trees and shrubs must be able to successfully out-compete the agronomic grasses and legumes that are in many cases planted as the first step of the reclamation process. This paper addresses the above mentioned problems, in terms of how to successfully propagate many native trees and shrubs useful for mine reclamation in B.C. and Alberta. The success in the field of these species is discussed in relation to planting at the Suncor Oil Sand site near Fort McMurray, Alberta. PROPAGATION OF NATIVE TREES AND SHRUBS The propagation and production of most conifers is widely understood, therefore this paper will deal only with woody shrubs and several species of deciduous trees. Most of the native shrubs and trees can be propagated with varying degrees of success from seed and/or cuttings. Propagation from Seed Two of the major problems associated with propagation of many woody shrubs from seed is overcoming embryo dormancy and hard seed coats. The degree of hardness of seed coats is extremely variable between species and even within different seedlots of the same species. Such factors as weather, seed maturity, harvesting conditions, seed source, inherited tree differences and other intangibles are responsible for this variability (Heit, 1967).  159  th  Proceedings of the 7 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1983. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Sulfuric Acid Treatment for Overcoming Hard Seed Coats Soaking in sulfuric acid is the most commonly used technique for breaking down hard seed coats. The process involves immersion of the seeds for varying lengths of time in concentrated sulfuric acid, Figure 1 shows the effect of acid treatment on the seed coat of Rosa acicularis.  Figure 1 Effect of sulfuric acid immersion for 45 minutes on seed coat of Rosa acicularis Advantages of sulfuric acid: a) b) c)  Need little specialized equipment except for acid resistant containers, acid resistant gloves and concentrated sulfuric acid. Cost is reasonable. Treatment is effective on a wide variety of species.  Disadvantages of sulfuric acid: a) b)  160  Contact with flesh can cause severe injury to employees. If seed is left too long in acid the embryos are destroyed.  th  Proceedings of the 7 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1983. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  -Hot Water Soak This treatment involves soaking of seed in water varying in temperature from 70 degree C to 100 degree C for varying lengths of time depending on the species. Heit,1967 reports that this method is not well adapted to large seed lots. This is due to the difficulty in handling and sowing of the swollen seed and difficulty in standardizing all factors of temperature, water volume, cooling time, etc. Mechanized Scarification This method involves mechanical methods of wearing down the seed coat. Methods include hand filing, sandpaper or tumbling in sandpaper lined drums. Advantages of mechanical scarification: a) b) c)  Requires no temperature controls. There is little danger to employees. Seeds are dry and thus may be immediately sown.  Disadvantages of mechanical scarification: a) b) c) d)  Specialized equipment is needed for large seedlots. Seeds must be free from resin or pulp. Seeds are easily damaged by overtreatment. Scarified seeds seem to be susceptible to pathogens.  Other Methods to Break Down Hard Seed Coats Treatments other than the above mentioned methods have been used on a species specific basis by various researchers. These methods include gibberellic acid soaking (Biswas et al, 1972), kinetin treatment (Hogue and LeCroix, 1970) and soaking in KNO., or thiourea (Frankland, 1961). These treatments, in some cases, have shown promising results. The use of sulfuric acid however is usually the most effective method of overcoming the problems of hard seed coats. EMBRYO DORMANCY Many seeds have physiological mechanisms which cause dormancy in the embryo. These usually are the consequence of growth regulator interactions such as inhibiting substances or promoting substances (Leopold, 1964). To overcome dormancy the most commonly used method is the placing of seeds in a cool moist environment for varying periods of time. This process is commonly called stratification. Figure 2 shows several seedlots prepared for naked stratification.  161  th  Proceedings of the 7 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1983. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Figure 2 Seedlots to be placed into naked stratification for 90 -120 days. For most native trees and shrubs from northern latitudes the period of time to break dormancy has been found to vary from a few days to four or five months. Some species such as Rosa acicularis and Rosa woodsii need alternating periods of cold and warm stratification taking nine to twelve months. Table 1 shows the germination response of different species to various chemical and stratification procedures, VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION Several species of trees and shrubs propagate easily from both hardwood, semi-hardwood and softwood cuttings. Several advantages are obtained from production by cuttings. A well rooted large plant can be obtained much faster than when propagating by seed. In some species such as poplar and willow, seed handling, collecting and storage can be a problem whereas cuttings can be easily collected throughout most of the year. Figures 3 and 4 show root initiation by hardwood cuttings of poplar and juniper. Tables 2 and 3 show percentage rooting of various species under different hormone treatments and various cutting types.  162  th  Proceedings of the 7 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1983. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Figure 3 Root initiation in Pojjulus balsamifera hardwood cuttings.  Figure 4 Root initiation in Juniperus communis and Juniperus horizontal is hardwood cuttings.  163  th  Proceedings of the 7 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1983. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  TABLE 1 Effectiveness of seed pretreatments on various shrub species.  outside over winter  164  th  Proceedings of the 7 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1983. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  TABLE 1 continued  A  This data derived from general observations from sowing into containers for the period, 1979 to 1983.  B  This data based on controlled experiments based on methods described by International Society of Seed Analysists. Experiments consist of germination trials of either 50 or 100 seeds replicated four times.  165  th  Proceedings of the 7 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1983. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  TABLE 2 Results from propagation trials on hardwood cuttings of various poplars 40 days after sticking.  166  th  Proceedings of the 7 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1983. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  TABLE 3 Success in rooting for various species propagated by vegetative means.  Note: Hardwood cuttings are propagated in a mixture of one part horticultural grade peat, one part sand and one part reground styrofoam chips. Bench heat is set at 16 C and water is applied as needed. Softwood cuttings are propagated in the mix described above. Bench heat is not needed, misting is usually 30 seconds of mist every 30 minutes.  167  th  Proceedings of the 7 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1983. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  SUMMARY From Tables 1 and 2 it can be seen that there is a varying degree of success in germination between species and within species. Application of the proper pregermination treatment in most cases gives reasonable germination. Even with the proper pregermination pretreatments poor results can result due to immature embryos, if collected too early, or poor weather during fertilization resulting in no embryo development. The following summarizes and discusses., on a species basis, the results from work done in native propagation at Reid, Collins and material by other researchers. Alnus sp. Alnus crispa, Alnus tenuifolia, Alnus sinuata and Alnus rubra have all been grown at Reid, Collins Nurseries with very good success. Average germination with no pretreatment averages 50 to 60 percent. Some researchers have indicated that cold stratification is necessary {McLean, 1967) (Schopmeyer, 1976). Dick, 1979 attributes the need of cold stratification due to seed storage with moisture content less than 10 percent. Amelanchier alnifolia Amelanchier can be successfully grown by seed stratification 90 to 100 days. Most authors report germination success of 70 percent or greater after cold stratification. Amelanchier does not have true hard seed coat and acid scarification reduces seed germination (Cram 1978). Heit 1971 obtained 95 percent germination from a 4 month warm stratification followed by a 4 month cold stratification. This procedure however, seems unnecessary. Cornus stolonifera Cornus stolonifera can be propagated both by seed and vegetative means. The data on seed germination pretreatments indicates that good germination can be obtained from cold stratification from 30 to 120 days. Experience at Reid, Collins shows that with simple cold stratification for 90 days germination should be 50 to 60 percent. This figure however was shown to vary widely with different seedlots (see Table 1). With acid scarification and 90 day cold stratification germination was 97 percent. Nurseries in Montana obtained germination of 80 to 90 percent with cold stratification (50C) for 60 to 90 days (Anon 1979). Heit 1967 states that Cornus stolonifera does not exhibit a true dormant embryo and no treatment is necessary. Until a definitive answer is available on pretreatments, the recommended method should be 60 to 90 day cold stratification.  168  th  Proceedings of the 7 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1983. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Propagation of C. stolonifera from both softwood and hardwood cuttings is very successful. With hardwood cuttings treatment with Seradix #2 or similar IBA hormone is recommended. Softwood cuttings should also be dipped in #2 hormone and left under periodic misting until rooting has taken place. Elaeagnus commutata Most of the data available indicates that a 60 to 90 day cold stratification gives greater that 70 percent germination (Anon, 1979) (Cram, 1972). There is some contradiction in the literature however with both Heit, 1968 and Simonson, 1976 indicating that pretreatments were not necessary. King, 1980 states "The embryo may be non-dormant and not require after ripening. However, the breakdown of the endocarp germination inhibitor and inhibition through the water restricting seedcoat may be aided by cold stratification." Therefore the recommended method is to cold stratify for 60 to 90 days. Juniperus sp. The three junipers native to Alberta and B.C. are J. communis, J. horizontalis and J. scopulorum. All three exhibit similar difficulties in propagation, particularly from seed. The literature is contradictory on seed pretreatments. Dick, 1979 recommends warm stratification for 45 to 90 days followed by cold stratification for 90 plus days. Anon, 1966 recommends cold stratification for 90 days for J. communis. Stoeckler and Slaubough, 1964 recommend 30 minute acid treatment followed by cold stratification for 6 months for J. scopulorum. Probably the best method is to sow juniper into outside beds and allow nature to take its course. Hermon, 1958 and Johsen and Alexander, 1974 recommend this method with germination taking place in the second spring. Propagation of junipers from cuttings is probably a better approach than by seed, given the problems with seed germination. All ornamental varieties of juniper are propagated by cuttings (usually hardwood) and experience at Reid, Collins has indicated that propagation by cuttings is reasonably successful. The 25 to 30 percent figure reported in Table 2 can probably be increased considerably by the application of the appropriate hormones, bottom heat, and moisture. Work on this is presently being carried out to determine if rooting percentages can be increased. Populus balsamifera This species can be propagated from seed as the seed shows no embryo dormancy (King, 1980). Howevers collection of seed can be difficult due to the short period of dispersal and the extremely short life of the  169  th  Proceedings of the 7 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1983. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  seed. Seed must be sown immediately after collecting. For these reasons propagation by cuttings is the preferred method. Both the hybrid poplars and the native poplars (excluding P. tremuloides) are easily propagated by direct sticking of hardwood or softwood cuttings. Rooting percentages are normally in the 80 to 90 percent range. Some authors recommend presoaking of hardwood cuttings in water for up to three weeks (Peterson and Phipps, 1975) (Hansen et.al., 1979) to improve rooting. Populus tremuloides P. tremuloides is grown from seed which requires no pretreatment. This seed, however, is similar to that of P. balsanrifera and must be handled quickly. Storage of seed is also difficu11 with the necessity of dessicators to keep moisture content low (Denheyer and Deymor, 1978). This species is not propagated from stem cuttings. There is evidence that propagation from root cuttings is possible, or else by tissue culture, Potentilla fruticosa This species can be grown from seed with no pregermination treatments. Anon, 1970 reported 76 percent germination with no treatment. This was increased to 80 to 100 percent with 18 hour watersoak at 80 F (Anon, 1979) Experience at Reid, Collins has indicated reasonable germination when seeded into flats with no pretreatment. P. fruticosa seed is however, difficult to extract and difficult to judge degree of seed maturity from field observations. Propagation from both hardwood and softwood cuttings is relatively simple and is the recommended method of propagation. Rooting percentage is usually greater than 80 percent with both hard and softwood. Rosa acicularis R. acicularis is difficult to germinate due to hard seedcoat on deep dormancy. Experience at Reid, Collins has indicated cold stratification alone is not adequate to obtain high germination. This finding corresponds to that of King, 1982 and Densmore and Zasada, 1973. The most effective means of germinating the seed is a dual warm and cold stratification. King,1983 reports maximum germination from a 60 day warm stratification followed by a 120 day cold stratification. Sowing Rosa acicularis into outside seed beds in early September or late August resulted in good germination the following spring. The same seed beds showed a full crop of rose again the second spring without reseedinq. This would indicate a double dormancy in the rose, possible explaining low germination (40 percent) even with dual warm and cold stratification.  170  th  Proceedings of the 7 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1983. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Rosa woodsii Rosa woodsii responds very similarly to Rosa acicularis with dual warm and cold stratifications needed. Both these species of rose can also be easily propagated from root cuttings. Salix sp. Most species of salix germinate well with no seed pretreatment. Zasada and Viereck, 1975 report 94 to 98 percent germination from S. bebbiana. Brinkman, 1974 reports that dormancy has not been observed in any species. Salix sp. are also very easy to propagate from either hardwood or softwood cuttings with usually 70 to 95 percent rooting success. Sheperdia canadensis The literature on S. canadensis presents a wide range of conflicting results. Experience at Reid, Collins has also indicated that pregermination treatments that gave good results one year will not necessarily give the same results with different seedlots or seed from the same provenance collected in different years. Heit, 1970 reports that acid treatment for 20 to 30 minutes with no stratification gave 71 to 80 percent germination. McLean, 1967 reports 68 percent germination with cold stratification for 60 days. Dick, 1974 found that dual treatments of acid and cold stratification were necessary. The present recommended method would be 5 to 15 minute acid treatment followed by 30 day cold stratification.  171  th  Proceedings of the 7 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1983. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  OUTPLANTING OF NATIVE TREE & SHRUBS  INTRODUCTION Suncor's oil sand mine is located about 40 km north of Fort McMurray. The plant, produces an average of 58,000 barrels of synthetic crude per day. The area receives a yearly average precipitation rate of 44 cm, of which approximately 30 cm falls as rain. The frost free period is less than 70 days. As a result of this open pit mining operation, mineral overburden, and tailing sand are exposed to wind and water erosion. Mineral overburden, while it ranges from coarse gravel to silts and clays, includes lean tar sand. Lean tar sand is extremely low grade ore and is the only overburden member inhibitory to plant establishment. Tailing sand is a very fine sand, which has the following characteristics: -  hydrophobic infertile sterile poor water holding capacity low CEC.  To reduce wind and water erosion of overburden and tailing sand and to speed up the return of the disturbed land to a wildlife habitat, a set reclamation procedure is followed. A 15 cm amendment layer of peat and clay is spread over the area to be reclaimed. A starter fertilizer, specific to tailing sand or overburden, is then applied. In the case of overburden, the fertilizer is incorporated into the amendment layer using either harrow or a klodbuster. For tailing sand, fertilizer, amendment and underlying sand are mixed using either a disc or chisel plow. Following these mixing processes, an imprinter is run over the areas to perform two functions: first, to compact the seedbed; and second, provide favourable microsites. The area is then hydroseeded, a grass-legume mix for tailing sand and barley for overburden. The areas are then ready for stocking by woody plants. While Suncor's afforestation program has been underway for over a decade, our experience with native species is limited. Suncor took the first shipment of native plants in 1980 from Reid, Collins. That year, Suncor planted 21 species of which 15 were propagated from materials collected near Fort McMurray. These seedlings were planted both in overburden and tailing sand and, for both soil types, in well established ground cover and newly seeded areas. All tree and shrub data will be presented in  172  th  Proceedings of the 7 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1983. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  this format. Data presented were collected in late August for all planting sites. 1980 Planting Program The following data on Table 4 is a portion of the survivals and increment growth data from seedlings planted on tailing sand. Overall seedling survival responds negatively to established ground cover, although white spruce is surviving well at 78 percent. Effects on ground cover on incremental growth however are less clear.  TABLE 4 Portion of 1980 survival data: Seedlings planted in amended tailing sand.  Container Type Trial The same year a trial was set up to compare seedlings reared in hilsons to those reared in paperpots. White spruce and lodgepole pine were planted in both an overburden and tailing sand site. Both areas had well established ground cover primarily of brome grass. As seen in Table 5, both containers produced very similar white spruce stock although the root collar diameter was 1 mm thicker for the hilson stock. Lodgepole pine was marginally smaller in hilson container than paperpots,  173  th  Proceedings of the 7 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1983. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  TABLE 5 Seedling measurement prior to planting.  Data on incremental growth, shoot/root ratio, and root collar diameter were collected in May, 1982 prior to flush. These measurements therefore represent growth after the second growing season. An ANOVA was carried out on all three parameters. Only the growth analysis showed anything significant. Interaction between soil and container types and between species and container types were significant at 95 percent. Figure 3 illustrates this interaction. Figure 3A Interaction between species and container type on incremental growth.  174  th  Proceedings of the 7 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1983. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  As seen in Figure 3, hilsons had better growth for both species. Lodgepole pine reared in hilsons had the greatest growth at 15.1 cm while the same species reared in paperpots had the poorest at 7.2 cm. Hilson containers had better growth than paperpot when looking at soil. Tailing sand had both the best and poorest growth at 13.6 and 5.7 cm. These were attained by hilson and paperpot stock respectively. Table 6 presents survival data for these seedlings. Both species in both containers in both planting sites had good initial survival. By the fall of 1980 the lowest survival was still at 86 percent. However, by the end of the third growing season seedlings planted in overburden had very poor survival. For both species, hilson reared stock had lower survival than paperpot reared stock. In tailing sand, hilson reared stock had slightly higher survival than those reared in paperpots. Overall, white spruce and lodgepole pine seedlings reared in hilsons outperformed those reared in paperpots on Suncor's reclamation sites.  175  th  Proceedings of the 7 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1983. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  TABLE 6 Comparison of seedling survival at the end of the first and third growing season.  1981 Planting Program Table 7 presents survival rates and incremental growth rates for seedlings planted in 1981 in sparse overburden. Plots planted in dense overburden were not surveyed and those planted in tailings sand did so poorly in 1981 they were not surveyed in 1982. Of the conifers, Jack Pine had the highest survival at 82 percent with an incremental growth of 9.2 cm. Walker Poplar had the highest survival rate of all tree species at 89 percent and a mean leader growth of 26.1 cm. Northwest Poplar, while having a slightly higher leader growth of 27.8 cm, had a poor survival of 34 percent. Overall, leader growth for willows are good, ranging from 16 to 29 cm. Survival rates for this group however, are just as variable. The better performers are acute and Laurel willow. Of the remaining shrub species, buffaloberry has a good survival and growth rate of 77 percent and 13 cm respectively. The only small shrub species, shrubby Cinquefoil, is doing very well with a survival rate of 83 percent and a growth rate of over 4 cm.  176  th  Proceedings of the 7 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1983. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  TABLE 7 Performance summary of seedlings planted in 1981: Sparse ground cover.  1982 Planting Program Last year, Suncor planted over 77,000 seedlings on various reclamation sites. All stock was planted at a density of 2500 stems per hectare. All planting stock, except conifers, were grown in tinus. The conifers were grown in hilson containers. Tree planting started in late June but was postponed until early August due to drought conditions. The area planted in June was in dense ground cover on tailing sand. Table 8 shows the survival of these seedlings at the end of the growing season. The survival rate for seedlings planted in dense ground cover on tailing stand has been poor. This of course, was due to the dry soil during planting.  177  th  Proceedings of the 7 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1983. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  TABLE 8 Survival summary of seedlings planted in 1982.  These planting sites will be monitored over time to follow species performance. Our past data indicates that after 4 or 5 years, seedling loss levels off. Conclusion and Recommendations -  White spruce and lodgepole pine seedlings reared in hilsons outperformed those same species reared in paperpots.  -  Planting should be carried out at spring thaw to take advantage of soil moisture recharge. An alternative to this is to plant in the fall when moisture requirements are low.  -  Plant woody species in sparse ground cover and exclude aggressive species such a brome grass.  178  th  Proceedings of the 7 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1983. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Bibliography  Anonymous 1979. Native Shrub Project. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, S.E.A.M. Program. 40 pp. Biswas, P.K., P.A. Bonamy and K.B. Paul. 1972. Germination Promotion of Loblolly Pine and Baldcypress Seeds by Stratification and Chemical Treatments. Brinkman, K.A. 1974. Amelanchier Med. serviceberry in: Schopmeyor, C.S. (ed) Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States. U.S.D.A. Forest Service Agriculture Handbook No. 450. 883 pp. Cram, W.H. 1972. PFRA Tree Nursery Annual Report, 1972. Department of Regional and Economic Expansion, Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration. 77 pp. Cram, W.H. 1978. PFRA Tree Nursery Annual Report, 1978. Department of Regional and Economic Expansion, Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration. 77 pp. DenHeyer, J. and N. Seymour. 1978. Aspen and balsam poplar seed collection and storage. Tree Planters Notes 29(2):35. Densmore, R. and J.C. Zasada. 1977. Germination requirements of Alaskan Rosa acicularis. Canadian Field Naturalist 91(l):58-62. Dick, J.H. 1979. A Management Plan for the Rehabilitation of Surface Mined Coal Lands in the East Kootenays, British Columbia. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Forestry, University of British Columbia. 338 pp. Frankland, B. 1961. Effects of fibberellic acid, kinetin and other substances on seed dormancy. Nature 192: 678-679. Hanson, H.A., H.A. McNeal, D.A. Netzer, H.M. Phipps, P.S. Roberts, T.F. Strong, D.N. Tolsted and J. Zavitkouski. 1979. Short Rotation Intensive Culture Practices for Northern Wisconsin. In 1979 Annual Meeting of the North American Poplar Council. Heit, C.E. 1967. Propagation from Seed - Part 6: Hardseededness - a Critical Factor. New York Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, N.Y. 5 pp.  179  th  Proceedings of the 7 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1983. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Heit, C.E. 1970. Germination characteristics and optimum testing methods for twelve western shrub species. Proceedings of the Association of Official Seed Analysts 60:197-202. Heit, C.E. 1971. Propagation from Seed - Part 22: Testing and Growing Western Desert and Mountain Shrub Species. New York Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, N.Y. 7 pp. Herman, F.R. 1958. Silvical Characteristics of Rocky Mountain Juniper. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Station Paper 29. 20 pp. Hogue, E.J. and L.J. LaCroix. 1970. Seed Dormancy of Russian Olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.). Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 95:449-452, Johnsen, T.W. and R. Alexander. 1974. Juniperus L. juniper, in: Schopmeyer, C.S. (ed) Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States, U.S.D.A. Forest Science Agriculture Handbook No. 450. 883 pp. King, P.O. 1980. Review of Seed Pretreatments Required for Germination of Candidate Native Tree and Shrub Species in the Eastern Slopes of the Rocky Mountains and Foothills of Alberta. ENR Report No. 154. 50 pp. King, P.O., G. Grainger and A. Straka. 1983. Testing of Seed Pre-germination Treatments for Four "Rosaceae" Native to Alberta. Proceedings 1983 Alberta Reclamation Conference. In Publication. Leopold, A.C. 1964. Plant Growth and Development. McGraw-Hill, N.Y. 466 pp. McLean, A. 1967. Germination of forest range species from southern British Columbia. Journal of Range Management 25(5):321-322. Peterson, L.A. and H.A. Phipps. 1975. Water soaking pretreatment improves rooting and early survival of hardwood cuttings of some populus clones. Tree Planters Notes 27(1): 12, 22. Schopmeyer, C.S. 1974. Alnus B. Ehrh. alder in: Schopmeyer, C.S. (ed) Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States. U.S.D.A. Forest Service Agriculture Handbook No. 450. 883 pp. Simonson, G. 1976. Seed technology study. Revegetation Research Progress Report of Work Accomplished in 1975. Alberta Oil Sands Environmental Research Program. 350 pp.  180  th  Proceedings of the 7 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1983. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Stoekler, J.H. and P.E. Slabaugh. 1965. Conifer Nursery Practice in the Prairie Plains. U.S.D.A. Forest Service Agriculture Handbook No. 279. 93 pp. Zasada, J.C. and L.A. Viereck. 1975. Effect of temperature and stratification on Alaskan Salicaceae seeds. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 5:333-337.  181  

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