British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposia

From test plot to nest box : an overview of reclamation research at a coal mine in southeastern British.. 2010

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Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation FROM TEST PLOT TO NEST BOX: AN OVERVIEW OF RECLAMATION RESEARCH AT A COAL MINE IN SOUTHEASTERN BRITISH COLUMBIA by David F. Fraser Introduction The previous three papers have dealt with specific, short term projects that have been undertaken at Westar Minings Balmer Operation. The intent of this paper is to describe several of the long term research and monitoring programs that are also going on with this company in order to give some idea of the range of research activities that are being carried out. Due to limitations of time and space, three specific projects were chosen in order to portray this range of research interests. The first is the history of the oldest recla- mation research test plot that is on the Balmer mine site, including some of the results that have been extracted from this ten-year-old species trial plot. The second describes some of the findings that have been taken from the oldest operationally (i.e., not test plot) reclaimed site, regarding species biomass dynamics and the response in species composition to the cessation of maintenance fertilizer. The third section will deal with the direction of the effort in reaching the stated end land use goal of wildlife habitat by presenting some excerpts from the current mine plan for the Balmer Property. In many ways, these three projects, along with the research topics discussed by the previous three speakers, represents the evolution of reclamation research at Westar Mining. Moving from early survival plots, through research on ecosystem functioning, stability and environmental impact to defini- tion of end land use goals and operational testing of these findings. Test Plot Number One Test plot number one was established at the highest point on Harmer Knob (2100 m) in 1972. The area chosen for the plot is very exposed to both sun and wind. Parent material consists of very dark fine carbon- aceous shales mixed with coal. The original experiment had 53 varieties of commercially available grasses, forbs and legumes seeded directly into I square meter plots, one culti- var per plot. No topsoil was added to any plot. The species chosen for the original seedings are shown in Table I. It quickly became apparent that only a small number of species that were originally tried were going to become established and survive for long periods of time at these elevations in such an exposed harsh site. By I960, the only species that were left were Brome Grass, Canada Bluegrass, Kentucky Bluegrass, Meadow Fox- tail, Redtop, Creeping Red Fescue, Spike Trisetum, Timothy and Yarrow. In addition, one species of native Poa had also invaded the plot as well as Fireweed Epilobium an- gustifolium. Up until 1979 the plot had been as- sessed by recording the percent cover of the species that had been originally sown into the plot. In 1979 it was decided that a visual estimate of the percent cover of all species that were present in each grid within the plot would be recorded in order to better map the species dynamics of this plot. The maps of species distribution for this test plot for the years I960, 1982, and 1983 are shown in Figures I, 2, and 3. Several interesting trends can be seen from these maps. The most "successful" species has been the Creeping Red Fescue. Originally sown in 6 of the original 55 test plots, by 1980 it had spread to 45 of the I-meter square grids. This expansion had increased over time, and by 1983 the species was present in every grid in the test plot. This is a similar pattern to 95 Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation Table 1 Showing the species and cultivars originally sown in Test Plot number one 1. Yarrow 2. Yarrow 3. Crest wheatgrass cv. Nordan 4. Crest Wheatgrass 5. Tall wheatgrass 6. Tall Wheatgrass 7. Pubescent Wheatgrass 8. Redtop 9. Redtop 10. Meadow Foxtail 11.   Alpine columbine 12. Rockcress cv Snowcap 13. Rockcress cv "white" 14. Rockcress cv "rose" 15. Alpine aster 16.   Smooth Brome cv. Manchar 17.   Smooth Brome cv. Baylor 18. Poplar Brome 19. Harebell 20. Cornflower 21. Cornflower 22. Oxeye Daisy cv. Alaska 23. Oxeye Daisy cv. May Queen 24. Crown vetch cv. Pennigift 25. Chinook Orchardgrass 26. Tall Fescue 27. Creeping Red Fescue cv. Dawson 28. Creeping Red Fescue cv. Erica 29. Creeping Red Fescue 30. Creeping Red Fescue 31. Chewings Fescue cv. Highlight Achillea millefolium Achillea millefolium Agropyron cristatum Agropyron cristatum A. elongatum A. elongatum A. trichoparum Agrostis alba Agrostis alba Alopecurus pratensis Aquilegia alpina Arabis alpina Arabis alpina Arabis alpina Aster alpinus Bromus inermis Bromus inermis Bromus sp. Campanula carpatica Centaurea cyanus Centaurea montanus Chrysanthemum leucanthemum Chrysanthemum leucanthemum Cornonelia varia Dadtylis glomerata Festuca arundinaceae F. rubra F. rubra F. rubra F. rubra Festuca spp. 96 Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation 32. Pea vine 33. Perrenial Ryegrass cv. Norlea 34. Birdsfoot trefoil cv. Maitland 35. Birdsfoot trefoil 36. Birdsfoot trefoil var Les. 37. Russel Lupine mix 38. Russel Lupine Blue and White 39. Timothy cv. Astra 40. Timothy cv. Sport 41. Timothy cv. Climax 42. Canada Bluegrass 43. Canada Bluegrass cv. Canon 44. Kentucky Bluegrass cv. Primo 45. Kentucky Bluegrass cv. Sydsport 46. Kentucky Bluegrass 47. Kentucky Bluegrass cv. Nugget 48. Kentucky Bluegrass 49. Statice 50. Alsike Clover 51. Alsike Clover cv. Tetra 52. Sainfoin 53. Cicer Milk Vetch  54. Not seeded 55. Not seeded Table I continued Lathyrus latifolius LoIium perenne Lotus cornicultus Lotus cornicultus Lotus cornicultus Lupinus polyphilus Lupinus polyphilus Phleum pratense Phleum pratense Phleum pratense Poa canadensis Poa canadensis P. pratensis P. pratensis P. pratensis P. pratensis P. pratensis Sinuata hybrid Trifolium hybridum Trifolium hybridum Lotus corniculatus Astragalus cicer  Original configuration of test plot showing location of seeded species 97 Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation Figure 1 Showing Percentage Cover of Each Species in all Plots (1980) Distribution of Plant Species on Plot I of Hammer Il (seeded I 972)  98 Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation Figure 2 Showing Percentage Cover of Each Species in all Plots (1982) Distribution of Plant Species on Plot I of Hammer Il (seeded 1972)  99 Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation Figure 3 Showing Percentage Cover of Each Species in all Plots (1983) Distribution of Plant Species on Plot I of Hammer Il (seeded 1972)  100 Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation Figure 3 continued  101 Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation that which occurs on operationally reclaimed sites at high elevations on the Balmer Mine. Creeping Red Fescue is usually a highly suc- cessful species in harsh sites. It should be noted, however, that in those grids within this test plot that received Creeping Red Fescue, it is the only species within that test plot. If the reclaimer desires a diverse stand of vegetation, then perhaps Creeping Red Fescue should be avoided or included in seed mixes in small amounts only. Other species have shown trends that are more difficult to interpret. Meadow Fox- tail, for example, had become widespread by the summer of 1980 (Figure 1), however, showed a tremendous decrease in the number of grids it occupied in 1982 (Figure 2). In 1983, however, the species showed a marked increased in the area it covered again (Figure 3). Since its initial establishment, the test plot has had several species of native grasses, forbs, and one species of moss and one Carex invade the site naturally. By 1983 there were 19 species of plants present within the test plot. Of these 19 species, 10 were species that had been seeded in the original experi- ment: one is an agronomic grass that has moved in from other reclaimed sites (Reed Canary Grass), the remaining species are native or widely naturalized species. Interestingly, the grids with the highest number of different species in them are the grids that either received no seed at all or those grids that had no or poor survival of the seeded species. The information that has been extract- ed from this 10-year-old test plot is very different from what it was originally set up to indicate. It shows that the systems that exist on the reclaimed sites are far more dynamic than had been previously thought, with active recruitment and rapid replace- ment of older individuals taking place very rapidly. It shows some signs of allowing native species to encroach upon the sites (albeit somewhat slowly), and indicates that some "successful" species may hinder the reclaimer's aim of re-establishing stands with high species diversity. Reclamation Assessment Every reclaimed site on the Balmer Property is assessed at the end of each growing season. The assessment consists of clipping all the above-ground vegetation in & square meter plots, separating out each indi- vidual species, drying and weighing each species to give estimates of total biomass and percent biomass contribution by each species. Figure 4 shows the data that has been collected for a high elevation reclaimed site (2100 m A.S.L.) that was reclaimed in 1974. Data has been collected annually since 1975. The  site   received  maintenance  ferti- lizer  applications  every  year   except   1979, 1981, 1982 and 1983. It can be seen from Figure 4 that there have been tremendous shifts in the major contributors to the total above-ground bio- mass from one year to the next, despite the fact that there has been no significant change in above-ground biomass levels on this site since 1977. As expected, there has been an increase in the importance of the legume component of the system following the withdrawal of maintenance fertilizer. Initial fears that legumes could not fix nitrogen at these ele- vations appear to be unfounded, with the nodules on both Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and Alsike Clover (Trifolium repens) show being bright pink and have been shown to be active using the acetylene reduction technique (Fyles, unpublished data). While Alfalfa was the most important legume in the system for the initial years after the fertilization was stopped, Alsike Clover appears to be increasing in the per- cent contribution it makes to the system. It is expected that the importance of Alsike Clover in this system will increase. Seed collected from Alsike Clover collected in 1983 showed an average of nearly ninety percent germination. Wildlife Habitat The end land use of the Balmer mine site is wildlife habitat. The framework in which research findings are interpreted is governed by this end land use goal. The 102 Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation remainder of this paper deals with satisfying the end land use goal in light of the research that has been carried out, both on the Balmer property per se, as well as the large body of literature that deals with this topic. This information is presented here as excerpts from a recently submitted mine plan, as an example of the application of a wide body of research findings to the stated end land use of the Balmer Mine Site. The End Land Use The final end land use of the mine land is accomplished by fulfilling a succession of specific objectives. These objectives include restoration of watershed values, control of surface erosion, aesthetics and encouraging ecosystem development to a point of total self-sufficiency. These initial objectives may be achieved in a number of ways. After consultation between the com- pany and government in 1974, it was agreed that the final end land use of the land dis- turbed by mine activity was wildlife habitat. Wildlife includes a variety of organisms, in- cluding both game and non-game animals. The potential for wildlife on reclaimed sites is high. Sufficient forage is produced in the summer time, none of the materials show toxic qualities, pH ranges of the spoil material is suitable for many plant species, colonization by insects is relatively fast (Lawrence, 1981), elk use in existing re- claimed sites on some sites is very high (Courtney, 1971; Gould, 1980; Stanlake et al, 1978). At the same time, limitations to wildlife use are many. Plant species diversity is low (usually less than 20 species). Struc- tural diversity is low, and forest cover is virtually non-existent, which obviously limits the use of the reclaimed sites by many species. Major Target Species While we are managing the reclaimed sites for many different species, the two "featured species" are elk and mule deer. Optimum habitat for deer and elk has been characterized as land containing the maxi- mum possible proper use of the maximum possible area by the animals. For elk, the ratio of 40 percent of a land type in cover and 60 percent in forage approximates opti- mum cover, based on several studies (Reynolds, 1962, 1966; Harper, 1969; Thomas, 1979). Deer and elk also require water, particularly on summer range (Schmidt- Nelson and Schmidt-Nelson, 1952). Reclaimed sites that contain areas of potable water on Westar's property within relatively short dis- tances tend to be heavily used (Gibson, pers. comm; Gould, 1981; Courtney, 1974). Small pockets of water on high elevation sites are also commonly used, as evidence by tracks and pellet groups. Optimum habitat has potable water within 0.8 km of any point (Mackie, 1970). The reclaimer has many options to con- sider when reclaiming large tracts of land. The pattern of vegetation, tree and shrub species used, drainage patterns and to some extent, topography, may all be controlled. Deer and elk respond dramatically to some topographic features and to the arrangement and pattern of different vege- tation types (Thomas, 1979). For example, steep south facing slopes at low elevations are used as winter range. Stringer forest stands interdigitating with grasslands are heavily used as thermal cover and travel corridors. The reclamation process, there- fore, must take into account the topography, the vegetation that is established on the reclaimed site, as well as the behaviour of elk and deer. There are several assumptions made re- garding the role that the reclaimer can play in the management for the use of sites by elk and deer (adapted from Thomas et al, 1979). 1. Forage, water and cover are the habitat factors that limit deer and elk populations. 2. The amount, type and interspersion of forage, water and cover can be manipulated to increase deer and elk use. 3. The     capacity     for     summer     range creation far exceeds the capacity for winter range creation. 4. Habitat suitability can be judged by the ratio of cover areas to forage areas and their size and arrangement in time and space. 103 Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation 5. Proper location and management of ac- cess roads is an essential part of deer and elk habitat management, especially if the re- claimed sites are to be opened to hunting after mining. Hiding Cover Hiding cover is defined as cover capable of hiding 90% of an animal from the view of a human at distance equal to or less than 61 m (Thomas, 1979). Based on Lodge- pole pine and spruce growth on the Harmer reclaimed sites, and spacing at approximately 2 m, this should be attainable within a IO to 20 year period with these species, given cur- rent growth rates. Improved tree planting techniques and better attention to site prep- aration and increased maintenance should en- able this time to be shortened. Low ele- vation sites planted with faster growing species can be expected to reach this stage earlier. Topography has not been demonstrated to serve as a substitute for vegetation cover; however, it can have an impact on how suitable a stand of vegetation is as cover (Thomas, 1979). In addition, topography manipulation can be used to increase the survival of trees and shrubs and reduce costs in the reclamation procedure. The effect that topography has upon the value of vegetation as hiding cover can be seen in Figure 4. Size of Hiding Cover Reynolds (1966) and Harper (1969) have shown that heavy use by elk and deer occurred within 183 m of the edge between cover and forage areas. Therefore, circular patches with a diameter of 2 x 183 (366 m) are the minimum size of a useful patch of hiding cover where the animal has hiding cover from all sides. In areas where visibility occurs from one side only, the size of the patch can be correspondnigly decreased. Thermal Cover Thermal cover permits an animal to conserve energy by allowing the animal to choose sites that are near its thermoneutral zone (Black et al, 1976). The effect cover has on air temperatures, radiation inputs and wind effects has been well documented. In addition to vegetative cover, topographic sit- uation and general climatic patterns play a major role in changing thermal regimes. Summer thermal cover is required to keep the animals cool, winter thermal cover to protect the animals from excessive wind chill and radiational heat loss. Tree trunks, low vegetation and presumably topographic fea- tures can reduce animals' radiational heat loss by reducing air movement (Moen, 1973; Ozaga and Gysel, 1972). By the same token, summer thermal cover tends to be north facing slopes with high canopies, but low understory development that provides shade with air movement (Shaw, 1977). Optional thermal cover for elk is re- garded as stands of coniferous trees I 2 m or more tall. Since it is unlikely that 12 m tall trees will become established on reclaimed sites within a reasonable time frame, these sites must be maintained at the edge of reclaimed sites, and be accessible to the animals. Stringers of woody vegetation will be established as hiding cover from adjacent undisturbed stands of thermal cover to allow access onto the reclaimed sites. Thermal cover for deer is regarded as being much more easily established. The thermal cover requirements of deer include small trees and shrubs at least 1.5 m tall with 75% crown closure and are used on spring, summer and fall range. Winter thermal cover is similar but, of course, must be evergreen. In addition, deer social groups are generally smaller than those of elk, and thermal cover requirements are met by stands of forest only 0.8 to 2.0 ha in size (Loveless, 1964). Calving and Fawning Areas Calving and fawning areas contain for- age, hiding cover and thermal cover. Hiding cover usually contains downed logs, stumps, shrubs or root wads. Slopes are usually less than 15 percent and often they occur as benches on more steeply sloping topography. Water is usually found within 305 m, and succulent forage is available for Iactating 104 Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation Figure 4 Showing how topography can change effective hiding cover. From Thomas et al (1979).  105 Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation cows (Thomas, 1979). Fidelity to calving grounds is not known, nor has their value been thoroughly studied. Since areas that have the characteristics of good calving grounds would also make good hiding cover and thermal cover, several such areas will be included in the system of tree islands and stringers on the reclaimed sites. Roads and Habitat Use Road access is generally regarded as a factor that decreases habitat use (Leege, 1976; Thiessen, 1976; Perry and Overly, 1977). However, on the Balmer Property road edge, use appears to be very high, probably because the area is closed to hunting (Gibson, M.Sc. thesis in prep.). Since the reclaimed sites have the potential to be opened up to hunting once mine activity has finished, the planning and control of road access should be considered with potential detrimental effects in mind. Spoil dumps and slash piles will be windrowed to decrease visibility along access roads, and tree and shrub plantings can be placed to serve the same purpose. Travel Corridors Timbered stringers along travel lanes provide hiding cover for movement between areas that provide different habitat compon- ents. Timbered draws between foraging areas and potable water can be very impor- tant if both habitat components are to be used to their full advantage. The Balmer Properly as Deer and Elk Habitat The diverse topography created during the mining process has the potential to in- crease wildlife use (e.g., Steele and Grant, 1982; Allaire, 1979; Tyus and Lockhart, 1979; Harju, 1980; Karr, I960). Topographic varia- tion will be further increased in the resloping procedure, when economically feasible. Where possible, water catchment areas will be created in order to provide potable water for deer and elk. These ponds are anticipated to be most easily created in the flat-topped, heavily compacted areas at the tops of large wrap-around dumps and in the bottom of pits. If necessary, these areas may be treated with Bentonite in order to increase water holding capacity. Pools and ponds have several special considerations in the revegetation procedure. Other Target Species In reclamation of the Balmer Mine, there is potential for a wide variety of habi- tats and, therefore, wide variety of wildlife. Topographic relief has been shown to be important in the cration of diverse wildlife habitat (Steele and Grant, 1982; Allaire, 1979; Tyus and Lockhart, 1979; Harju, 1980; Karr, 1980). Several different types of "habi- tat" will be created in the mining and re- clamation process. Appendix Il shows the species of birds and mammals that are con- sidered "target species" — that is, species that could potentially use the reclaimed sites. The lag period between the initial reclamation phase and use of the reclaimed site varies from species to species. For example, Water Pipits use high elevation sites for breeding relatively quickly after reclamation (Fraser, 1983) where the potential for the creation of red squirrel habitat at similar elevations may take 40 or more years. For some species the long period will have to be accepted; however, the intent of the program is to create the potential for each of the target species. The habitat requirements for many of the species found in the Blue Mountains of Washington and Oregon were summarized by Thomas (1979); many of these species are the same as those found in southeastern British Columbia, and habitat requirements for these species have been extrapolated from Thomas and other literature sources as well as based on field observations by Westar Mining personnel. For other species, habitat features that restrict use of reclaimed sites can be quickly created or simulated. For example, a 1982 experiment at Westar Mining included the placement of a "snag" and several logs usable as perching sites on a two-year-old reclaimed site. It took less than 20 minutes for the 106 Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation perching site to be used, and nesting on the snag by tree swallows occurred within the first year. The materials used were free and labour costs minimal to recreate the habitat requirement for several species. Some types of disturbance produced in the mine process are impossible to economic- ally reclaim. Head walls and foot walls are such disturbances, and while these will not be "reclaimed" in the strictest sense of the word, they can be made into "useful" areas for wildlife. Other Land Uses The primary end land use is as wildlife habitat. However, managing for this partic- ular goal will result in the potential for recreational land uses. These include game viewing, hunting, hiking, snowmobiling, fish- ing, cross country skiing, photography. While these are not specific goals, they are end land uses compatible with our primary goal. Major Vegetation Types That Will Be Created Revegetating the Disturbance Resloping. Dumps are resloped to dis- tribute fines over the area and to reduce dump steepness. Seeding. The initial revegetation steps will be accomplished using a mixture of com- mercially available grasses and legumes. Seed mixes currently used at Westar's Balmer Operation are in Appendix I. For large areas, seeding will be carried out using a helicopter to spread the seed. Smaller areas may be seeded using hand-held cyclone seeders, and very steep "problem" areas will be hydro- seeded. After seeding, the areas are harrowed using a large pipe harrow pulled by a dozer. Trees and shrubs will be planted the year after seeding. This will allow the trees and shrubs to become established before grass competition becomes a problem. Grassland Vegetation Based on vegetation currently growing on reclaimed sites, it is anticipated that two types of grassland will be created: I.       Short grass stands— these stands tend to develop on the reclaimed sites on exposed ridge tops and dry sites at high elevations. They tend to be dominated by Creeping Red Fescue and several Poa species. Where pre- sent, the clovers form the major legume species. These sites will be used by species in Group A (Appendix II). They simulate high alpine grasslands, although they have much lower species diversity. Forage production generally varies from 800 to 1500 kg/ha (above-ground dry weight). 2. Tal l grass/ legume stands — these stands tend to develop on reclaimed sites below 1500 m in elevation and in moister sites at higher elevations. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Brome grass (Bromus inermis) and Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomeratg) are impor- tant species with the Wheatgrass (Agropyron spp) forming important components on lower elevation sites. Forage production varies from 1000 to 3000 kg/ha (above-ground dry weight) and spring, summer and fall use on this vegetation type by elk is high (Gould, 1980). Ecological Functioning: The Role of Shrubs in Grassland Vegetation Types The need for shrubs in reclaimed grass- lands arises for several reasons. They provide floristic and structural diversity in grass- lands, the lack of which is thought to be a limiting factor for some birds (Krementz and Sauer, 1982). Shrubs also can be important in slope stabilization (Schiechtl, 1980). They are important in ungulate nutrition, providing a source of essential vitamins in winter months and, in the case of heavy snow years, pro- viding most of the available forage (Leege and Hickey, 1977; Gaffrey, 1941 reviewed by McLelland, 1978). In areas that have the potential to be used as winter range (low elevation south facing slopes), it is important to re-establish the shrub component, especially as winter range is generally re- garded as the limiting factor governing elk and deer populations in the East Kootenays. Stocking Rates The stocking rates of shrubs in the areas that are designated as summer forage 107 Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation areas (i.e., not tree islands) will be low. The role shrubs serve in these areas is primarily for passerine bird perches, nest sites for birds and small mammals and to increase floristic diversity. Shrubs will be placed at IO to 20 m spacings to accomplish this goal. Microsite considerations will be given high priority to encourage growth and survival of shrub plant- ings. Species selections will be based on Table 2. For winter range areas, stocking densities are much higher, and shrubs will be spaced at 3 - 5 meter spacings. Both pala- table and non-palatable browse species will be used. Grassland Management The success and stability of the soil/ plant systems established during the recla- mation procedure have been under investi- gation at Westar Mining for several years. The incorporation of dead plant material into the spoil material, and its sub- sequent decomposition and release of nutri- ents, is essential for the development of a self- sustained grassland. Fyles (I960) indicated that useful pools of organic matter are built up in the reclaimed spoil over a period of 6 years. Lawrence (unpublished thesis, in prep.) has shown good colonization of these sites by a variety of soil organisms, important in organic matter decomposition and soil struc- ture formation. However, vermiform organ- isms are absent from these sites, and re- search is underway investigating the feasi- bility of introducing Lumbricid worms onto the sites, as well as investigating their poten- tial in increasing decomposition rates. There is also some concern regarding innoculation sources for soil organisms. Winged forms colonize the sites actively; however, non- winged forms, and forms with functionless wings, do so possibly by wind or more often by downslope movement through drainage and surficial runoff. If natural sources of these organisms are not present close enough to the reclaimed site, then the placement of small pockets of fresh (unstockpiled) topsoil may be required to serve as innoculating sites. Tending     (maintenance     fertilization) activities will continued for 5 to 8 years after the vegetation stand is established, after which time maintenance fertilizer plays a relatively small role in the nitrogen dynamics of the vegetation (Fyles, unpublish- ed thesis, jn prep.). The systems that have been createa1 so far appear capable of sus- taining relatively heavy grazing presence by elk (Gould, 1981). Forested Islands and Corridors Forested lands will cover approximately 30 percent of the area disturbed by the Balmer operation. "Forested" here refers to areas with dense tree and shrub cover. Cor- ridors are long stringers of forested vege- tation planted as hiding cover for wildlife species travelling to and from reclaimed areas, to aid in the initial colonizing of tree islands. The position, size and species composi- tion of islands depends on the following cri- teria: 1. Species suitability for a particular site, based on slope, aspect, elevation, spoil char- acteristics. 2. Structural characteristics desired in the stand. 3. Cost and availability of planting stock. 4.       Road access.  5. The  size   and  shape  of  the  reclaimed site. 6.      The anticipated routes of travel by un- gulates. 7.       Aesthetic considerations Species Selection Species were chosen on the basis of their ecological suitability and ease of propa- gation. For planning purposes, the entire mine site was divided into 4 units based on elevation and aspects. Stand Structure The structural makeup of a stand (the number and height size of understories) af- fects its use by wildlife (Thomas, 1979). However, prediction of stand structure on island plantings on reclaimed sites is not possible at this time. Monitoring of these 108 Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation stands over time, their internal structure, and their use by wildlife will be required before predictions of how stand structures affect wildlife use can be made. Site Selection A few guidelines for selecting island sites will be kept in mind. 1. Sites   with   good   road   access   will   be chosen,  since   long  haul distances can  raise costs substantially. 2. Sites  with   friable,   uncompacted   spoil will  be  chosen.   If  necessary,   the  site  may have   to  be  ripped.  Planting  on   loose  spoil material  is approximately  five times  faster than  planting   on   compacted   spoil  material (Westar Mining, unpublished data). Tree sur- vival and subsequent growth has been shown to be  markedly  better  on   loose compacted spoil (Kolar and Ashby, 1982) and ripping to a depth of 80 cm  is standard practice  to  in crease   tree   survival  and  growth  on  untop- soiled   mine   spoils   in   the   United   Kingdom (Fourt, 1981). Future research efforts will be directed at investigating the role that site preparation and stock type has on the economics of aforestation. Optimum Mix of Types of Cover Thomas (1979) gives the following re- commendations for deer: 20% hiding cover, 10% thermal cover, 5% fawning cover, 5% hiding, thermal or fawning cover, and 60% foraging areas. Many areas qualify as several types of cover. For elk, Thomas recommends 20% hiding cover, 10% thermal cover, 10% hiding or thermal cover and 60% foraging areas. Hiding cover for elk and deer should be attainable in IO to 15 years from planting, given growth rates of experimental plantings on Harmer. Summer thermal cover require- ments, however, will be harder to meet. Thomas outlines these for the Blue Mountains of Oregon as stands of conifer trees 12 m or more with an average canopy closure of 70%. Minimum size is 12 hectares. In the area near the Harmer minesite, however, growth rates of trees and shrubs planted on the site are too slow to create this type of habitat quickly. At the same time, however, it is recog- nized that the guidelines discussed by Thomas (1979) represent "optimal thermal cover", and it is possible to have useful wildlife habitat, albeit at some sub-optimal level. The prob- lem of summer thermal cover will be solved in two ways. Stands of coniferous vegetation will be planted on north facing dumps, sites where growth occurs quickly, and microsite conditions are such that the areas might become useful as thermal cover before reaching the 12 m in height and 70% crown closure outlined by Thomas. The second is to create stands of cover along travel corridors that wi l l  a l low ef f ic ient  movement of animals onto the reclaimed sites from adja- cent, undisturbed stands of summer thermal cover. There are other factors that also pre- sent problems in providing "optimum" habitat for elk and deer. The first and major problem is the lack of available winter range. The areas that are to be reclaimed contain little land that has the potential to become winter range, due to snow accumulation, the result of slope, aspect and valley position limit- ations. For this reason, the "sub-optimal" ratio of 30% cover and 70% forage areas has been chosen. Of this, 10% will be planted in sites that show good potential for thermal cover production, 20% will serve as hiding cover, and the remainder will serve as foraging areas. The Shape of Stands: Edge Considerations An edge is the line where different plant communities or successional stages meet. An ecotone is the area along this line where transition between one vegetation zone and another occurs. Edges and ecotones are generally richer in wildlife than homogeneous areas, for both small animals and large game (Harper, 1969; Reynolds, 1966). Two factors are important in deter- mining the use an edge receives. One, of 109 Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation course, is the amount of edge, and the amount of interspersion between edges, i.e., how the edge is arranged (Thomas, 1979). In addition to island/grassland juxtapo- sition, edges can be created within island plantings. Planning for edges and ecotones within stands will also create spatial diver- sity. One of the benefits of island planting of trees and shrubs is the potential for the creation of many such edges. In addition, because edge contrast will increase as the island stands age, it should be possible to create patterns of vegetation that will in- crease in wildlife values through time. Table 2 shows the proposed species to be used in island plantings on the Balmer minesite, along with relative percentiles for the species. Stands will be planted at approx- imately 2000 stems/ha. Structure and Size of Islands The structure of the final vegetation pattern was designed using the following cri- teria: 1. The major vegetation patterns are de signed for ungulate use, primarily mule deer and elk. 2. Native trees and shrubs will be used. 3. Where economically possible, the area will be made suitable for other wildlife use. The following quantitative guidelines from Thomas et al (1979) will be referred to: 1. If    properly    arranged,    the    optimum cover-to-feeding area ratio is approximately 2:3, i.e., 40% cover, 60% foraging area. 2. Deer and elk use declines dramatically at  distances greater  than   137   meters   from cover. Therefore,  the cover requirement can be calculated. Road Access Road access is important in determinng the costs of establishing tree and shrub is- lands, and island creation will generally be confined to areas that have good road access, it will be remembered, however, that road access can limit the use of hiding cover by deer and elk (literature reviewed in Thomas, 1979, p. 122-123). Presumably, this couid be particularly important in the design of hiding cover in treed stringers that are intended to serve as travel corridors. In travel corridors that are anticipated to receive heaviest use, roads that are used for planting access should be ripped and planted. If retention of access in corridors is essential, then they should have island plantings to the edge of the road, and no section of the road should be straight for greater than 0.4 km (0.25 miles) or closed to all but emergency traffic. In addition, road access that goes through reclaimed sites will be modified to prevent long line-of-site distances (Figure 5). Size and Shape of the Reclaimed Site Deer and elk use of a foraging area is limited by the distance from cover. If a minesite already has a forested edge, then this cover can be used by deer and elk. Obviously, the use of the reclaimed site de- pends largely on the size of the grassland created. This effect can be mediated by the shape of the forest-reclaimed site edge. Ir- regular edges and intrusions into the re- claimed site by cover will increase the area useful to wildlife and decrease the number of island plantings required to increase use of the reclaimed site. Travel Corridors Travel corridors for deer and elk tend to be areas that follow topographic lines of least resistance, such as valley bottoms, or ridge tops. Cover along these routes in- creases their usefulness. Travel corridors will be created by using timbered stringers of irregularly sloped islands that will connect major habitat features. In general, they will be placed along the bottom of the reclaimed dumps and along north facing slopes to im- prove tree survival and subsequent growth. Aesthetics Increasing the aesthetic value of the mined lands is one of a reclaimer's goals. It is desirable to reduce the visual impact of the disturbance in the reclamation process. An important part of this process is to inte- grate the reclaimed site into the surrounding landscape by reducing the regularity of the 110 Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation Table 2 Proposed Tree and Shrub PIaings for Island Plantings (Numbers refer to proposed proportions (%) of species)  111 Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation Figure 5 Where road access must be maintained after mine activity has ceased, long line-of-sight distances will be avoided by the creation of bends in roads and strategic placement of island plantings and single-load dumps of overburden material, a) before and b) after line-of-sight distances have been decreased.   112  Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation topography and emulating surrounding vege- tation patterns. Softening the regular topog- raphy of wraparound dumps with trees and shrubs increase the aesthetic appeal of the revegetated site (Figure 6). In addition to increasing the "natural- ness" of the site by mimicking observed vege- tation patterns, this should increase survival rates of tree and shrub plantings and reduce costs as well as improving tree growth rates. The Herbaceous Components in Cover Islands The herbaceous component of forest stands varies from stands with virtually non- existent herbaceous cover to stands with a herbaceous cover that has high diversity and substantial biomass associated with it. The role that this component plays in terms of a stand's nutrient cycling and the wildlife use of a site is poorly understood. Understory herbaceous plants are con- sidered important components in aforestation of reclaimed sites in Britain, insofar as non- palatable nitrogen fixing legumes are used to eliminate the need for nitrogen fertilization (Fourt, 1981). Increasing light penetration to increase forb production and thereby increase wildlife values is a technique mentioned in Thomas (1979) and Yoakum et al (I960). A thorough literature review on this topic is required. Other Habitat Components Habitat components other than the major vegetation types are also important for many species of wildlife. These include such specifics as nesting, roosting and perching sites, and specific habitat features such as talus slopes for pikas, rock outcrops for mar- mots, etc. Terrain Considerations There are a few areas of activity that have as great an impact on topography as open pit mining in a mountainous area. Eco- nomics govern the formation of the major terrain pattern; however, within the frame- work left the reclaimer there is a tremendous amount of flexibility at the meso and micro- topographic stages. The Balmer operation will consist of a series of terraces, the top of which is at 2100 m in elevation, stepping down at approximate 30 m intervals to a low elevation of 1580 m. Within the 2600 ha of total disturbance, there will be large expanses of flat areas, both long and short slopes occurring with a wide variety of aspects. Dumps will be resloped in the recla- mation process (except for a few small areas). The surface terrain will be left rougher than in previous reclamation efforts, as the seed catch is higher in these areas. More microsites for arthropods and small mammals are created and results in less surface compaction, an important consider- ation for tree and shrub growth (Fourt, 1981; Kolar and Ashby, 1982). In general, the areas will be resloped to give a hill and swale topography. This should increase snow accumulations, decrease line of sight visibility and provide microsites pro- tected from wind. Large f lat  areas wi l l  have "free dumped" overburden placed on them to cut down wind affects on high elevation sites, and increase topographic diversity. Where possible, small pockets of com- pacted material will be left to serve as pools to increase the amount of open water avail- able to deer and elk on the sites. Areas adjacent to these pools will be backfilled or ripped in order to plant tree and shrub cover near water sources. Areas that are intended to become "winter range" will be left to encourage wind action that blows off or sublimated accumu- lated snow loads. Large areas of this type of topography have not been reclaimed at Westar as of this time, and some experiment- al work may have to be attempted on these sites when they become available if the "standard" reclamation approach proves to be unsuitable. Rocks Up until the present, large rocks were dumped or buried in the reclamation process. Observations of natural systems indicate that large rocks may well serve as perching sites 113 Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation Figure 6 Shows how the regular topography of a terraced dump can be softened by island planting of trees and shrubs. Figure 3a) shows the dump before planting and 3b) shows the dump after planting.  Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation for a number of birds, especially gallancious birds, raptors and grassland passerines. Rock piles placed on high elevation reclaimed sites have been used by American Kestrels, Blue Grouse, Water Pipits and Horned Larks. They also may provide cover for rodents and pro- vide cover for arthropods, especially during periods of drought, where microsite pro- tection may be important. Small piles of rock will be left on the reclaimed sites to provide this habitat component. Relatively large rocks of irregular shape will be used to provide interstitial spaces to serve as hiding cover. It is not known what density is "opti- mum"; however, several piles per hectare will be tried on an experimental basis. Logs Elton (in Maser et al, 1979) estimated that systems with no dead or down woody material lost more than 1/5 of its fauna. Down and woody material is present in all the forested systems occurring in and around the Balmer mine property, including those that are predominently grasslands (Fraser, unpub- lished M.Sc. thesis, in prep.). In addition, they are felt to be important in mineral cycling, and mycorrhizal colonization of new areas (Harvey et al, 1976). Maser et al out- lined several other important features as- sociated with logs. In an experimental re- claimed site on Harrner, Westar Mining found increased tree survival on spruce outplanted on the leeward side of logs (Environmental Services, Westar Mining, unpublished data). In addition, logs have been used in recla- mation of bauxite spoil in Australia to en- courage arthropod recolonization (Maser et al, 1982). Generally speaking, the larger the log, the more useful it is as wildlife habitat (Maser et al, 1979). Because of their mycorrhizal colon- ization properties, their wildlife value and increased tree survial associated with log- created microsites, logs will be placed on the reclaimed sites in those areas that will be planted into tree and shrub islands. Log placement will be along the con- tour of the hill (rather than up and down a slope) to collect moisture, organic matter, nutrients and fines on the upslope side of the log (Ausmus, 1977 in Moser et al, 1979). Logs have been classified into 5 groups based on degree of composition (Fogel et al, 1973), see Table 3. Wildlife use of logs in- creases as the log decomposes and moves from Class I to Class 5. Class I and 2 logs can easily be transported onto tree island sites; however, Class 3, 4 and 5 logs will probably break, causing Class 4 and 5 logs to lose much of their wildlife value (although they still serve as fugal innoculation sources and nutrient pools). Islands will have approximately five Class I or Class 2 logs per hectare, following the recommendations by Moser et al (1979). Species that are expected to use logs are listed in Table 4. Where found, hollow logs will be taken over sound logs, as these show higher wildlife use than sound logs (various authors cited in Thomas, 1979). Brush Piles For some wildlife species, brush cover can supply many of the habitat components that would be supplied by a cover of woody vegetation (Warrick, 1976). They can be used to encourage upland bird use of an area (Yoakum et al, 1980), as well as other species such as White-crowned Sparrows (Yoakum et al, 1980), rabbits (Shomon et al, 1966), porcu- pines (Taylor, 1933 cited in Maser et al, 1979) and fishers (Couler, 1966 cited in Maser et al, 1979), as well as being useful cover for a variety of other small mammals. Slash and brush piles can also be used as hiding cover for large ungulates (Thomas, 1979). Brush piles also serve as germinating sites for a number of trees and shrubs (Yoakum et al, I960). Brush piles have the advantage of being cheap, quickly established hiding cover when compared to revegetating sites with trees and shrubs. They decompose quickly, how- ever, and therefore serve in the interim period between the initial reclamation stages and the stages where good vegetation cover is attained. 115 Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  116 Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation Table 4 Species Expected to Use Logs Placed on Reclaimed Site In addition to those listed, there are a number of other passerine expected to use Class I   logs as perching sites. Largely adapted from Thomas (1979).  117 Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation Size and spacing of brush piles depends on the species that is being managed for (Yoakum et al). However, most species re- quirements can be met with brush piles I - 2 m high and at least 1.5 m in diameter. Piles will be placed at a rate of approximately I pile for every 2 ha of reclaimed site. Snags Snags, in the natural environment, are standing dead trees from which the leaves and most of the limbs have fallen. In the BaImer property, over twenty species of ver- tebrates use cavities in snags for nesting or shelter (Species Group I). In general, they fall into two categories, those that make their own cavities and those that utilize cavities made by others. Snags can be classified into hard or soft (Thomas et al, 1979) depending upon their state of decay. Different species use hard and soft snags, and good forest management includes retention of both types of snags (Thomas et al, 1979). Numerous literature reviews indicate that shortage of suitable nesting areas limits breeding bird use in forests (Thomas et al, 1975). Most birds that nest in snags are insectivorous, and represent a major part of the insectivorous fauna in coniferous forests. The role of insectivorous birds in regulating and controlling tree and shrub pests has voluminous literature as- sociated with it. In addition to providing nesting sites for cavity nesting birds, snags also provide nest- ing sites and perching sites for raptors and a variety of other small passerines. A test installation of a snag on the Balmer minesite has received high use by both raptors (Redtail Hawks, American Kestrels and Northern Har- riers) as well as a variety of passerines (Fraser, 1983). The installation of suitable perching posts for raptors has been suggested as a method of controlling mice populations on reclaimed sites (Schiectl, 1980). Hard snags can be placed on the re- claimed sites relatively easily. They will serve as perching sites and nesting sites for primary excavators. Soft snags, however, will not  wi thstand moving and habi ta t requirements for soft snag requiring species as well as species that nest in existing cavi- ties will be partially mitigated with the in- stallation of nest boxes. The number of species that can use a snag depends on the size of the snag as well as its state of decay (Thomas et al, 1979). Generally speaking, the larger the snag, the greater the use. The largest and most com- mon excavator that can be expected to use the reclaimed site is the Common Flicker. The minimum snag size required by this species is 30.5 cm (12 inches) or larger, and this will be the minimum snag size that will be used on the reclaimed site. Snags will be between 3 and IO m in height in order to satisfy habitat require- ments for a variety of species (Thomas et al, 1979). Soft snag requirements can be partially filled by the installation of nest boxes. In general, two sizes of nest boxes will be used, one using the size recommended by Campbell and Hosford (1978) for kestrels, the other the size recommended for bluebirds. This will satisfy nesting requirements for a large num- ber of species. There will be I - 2 snags placed on each tree island. "Special Areas" — Capitalizing on Areas With Unique Constraints Headwalls and Footwalls Several types of areas created in the mining process are regarded as being econo- mically "unreclaimable" in the traditional sense. Headwalls and footwalls that are not backfilled are not capable of being revege- tated. However, these areas can be made useful in terms of wildlife habitat. Steele and Grant (1983) reported that manmade cliffs contributed significantly to bird popu- lations on reclaimed sites in Colorado and New Mexico. Cliffs near water (within .25 miles) are used more than cliffs further away from water (Maser, Rodick and Thomas, 1979). Talus Talus    slopes    are    natural    landscape 118 Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation Table 5 Target Species for Talus Slope Areas on the Westar Minesite   features of the BaImer area. While it is recognized that large acreages of talus is not an acceptable reclamation goal, several small areas of steep, large-diameter rubble will be left in order to satisfy the habitat require- ments of those species listed in Table 5. Of the species listed, one is an obligate talus species, the Pika; two are seldom found in any other habitat type on the Balmer property (Golden Mantled Ground Squirrel and Neotoma Wood Rat). These species have colonized two reclaimed slide areas on the Balmer property that satisfy the habitat component of large, loose rubble. Areas that will be left as steep, unrevegetated talus for pikas will have to be deep in order to satisfy the thermal requirements described by Krear (1965) in Maser, Rodick and Thomas (1979). Water Pools Based on ungulate requirements in the literature (Thomas, 1979), it is expected that availability of water will be the limiting factor affecting the summer use of the Balmer minesite. To alleviate this, water ponding will be encouraged in several areas of the reclaimed mine. Two ponds are ex- pected to be formed in the mine process. In addition, it may prove to be feasible to create others on flat compacted areas. All ponds will be small, and will not affect dump stability. The following guidelines (from Allaire, 1979) will be used to increase wildlife use of ponds created in the mining process: 1. Water areas of at least 0.5 ha should be built wherever possible. 2. Water   areas   should   be   terraced   just below the surface wherever possible. 3. Ponds   should   have   at   least  one  side shallowing sloping (preferably more). 4. Perching sites should be placed near, or preferably over the water. 5. Areas  intended  for  use  by Loons  and Grebes should be at least 200 m long to allow for take-off flights. 6. Increase    seeding    rates    adjacent    to water. 7. Emergent   vegetation  (reeds,  cattails), an   important  habitat   component   for   some species, should be encouraged. In addition, efforts will be made to intensively plant areas adjacent to water as these will be heavily used by ungulates. Logs will be placed partially submerged to serve as physical links between aquatic and terrestrial habitats, as they are con- sidered important habitat components (Maser et al, 1979; Gore and Johnson, 1979). In the Balmer minesite, it is anticipated that two ponding areas of any size will be left. To increase wildlife values, these areas will not be backfilled, so that open water will be available. Where possible, overburden will be placed to create a bench area with water standing no more than I m deep around the 119  Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation edge so as to allow an area for the establish- ment of emergent vegetation. 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Reynolds. 1966. Use of openings in spruce fir forests of Arizona by elk, deer and cattle. USDA Forest Service Research Note, Rocky Mountain 66. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experi- mental Station. Fort Collins, Colorado. 4 p. Schiechtl, H. 1980. Bioengineering for land reclamation and conservation. Trans- lated into English by N.K. Horstmann. University of Alberta Press. 404 pp. Schmidt-Nelson, K. and B. Schmidt-Nelson. 1952. Water Metabolism of desert animals. Physiol. Review. 32(2) 135- 166. Shaw, R.H. 1977. Secondary wind speed maxi- ma inside plant canopies. Journal of Applied Meterology. 16(5) 514-521. Shomon, J.J., Asbaugh, B.L. and C.D. Tolman. 1966. Wildlife habitat im- provement. National Audubon Society. New York. 69 p. Shopenmeyer, C.S. (ed). 1974. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agricul- ture Handbook No. 450. Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 883 p. Simmerling, H. 1982. Winter range produc- tivity and utilization (Balmer minesite) in B.C. Coal Annual Reclamation Re- port for 1981 and Proposed Program for 1982. Environmental Services Dept. B.C. Coal. p. 41-44. 122 Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation Singleton, J.M. 1977. Natural succession on tailings ponds and associated sites at nine mine sites in British Columbia. Unpublished report, Directed Studies, University of Victoria, Victoria, B.C. Stanlake, E.A., D.S. Eastman and M.G. Stanlake. 1978. Ungulate use of some recently reclaimed strip mines in Bri- tish Columbia. Fish and Wildlife Report No. R-I. Steele, B.C. and C.V. Grant. 1982. Topo- graphic divesity and islands of natural vegetation; aids in the reestablishment of bird and mammal communities on reclaimed mines. Reclamation and Re- vegetation Research. Vol. I(4):367-38I. Thiessen, J.L. 1976. Some relations of elk to logging, roading (sic) and hunting in Idaho's game management unit 39. In Proceedings of the elk-logging-roads symposium. Hieb, S.R. (ed). Moscow, Idaho, p. 3-5. Thomas, J.W., R.G. Anderson, C. Maser, and E.L. Bull. 1979. Snags in Wildlife Habi- tats in Managed Forests, the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington. Thomas, J.W. (ed.) U.S. Department of Agriculture Handbook 553: p. 60-77. Thomas, J.W., G.L. Crouch, R.S. Bumstead, L.D. Bryant. 1975. Silviculture options and habitat values in coniferous sys- tems. In Proceedings of the symposium in management of forest and range hab- itats for nongame birds. D.R. Smith, ed. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-I, p. 272-287. Washington, D.C. Tyus, H.M. and Lockhart, J.M.   1979.    Miti- gation and research needs for wildlife on western surface mined lands in: The Mitigation Symposium; A national workshop on mitigating losses of fish and wildlife habitats. USDA Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-65, Rocky Mountain For. and Range Exp. Stn. Fort Collins, CO, pp. 252-255. van Drimmelin, B. 1979. Revegetation for wildlife use in Reclamation of Lands Disturbed by Mining. Proceedings of the Third Annual British Columbia Recla- mation Symposium. Vernon, B.C. 169- 178. Warrick, D.W. 1976. Artifical brush piles. USDI Bur. Land Management Tech. Note 290. Denver, Colorado. 5 p. Watson, L.W., Parker, R.W. and D.F. Polster. 1980. Manual of Plant Species Suitabil- ity for Reclamation in Alberta. Land Conservation and Reclamation Council. Reclamation Research and Technical Advisory Committee Report — 80-5:2 VoIs. Westar Mining. 1983. Westar Mining Ltd. 1982 Annual Report and Proposed Pro- gram for 1983 Reclamation Permit No. 2. Environmental Services Dept. Westar Mining. Unpublished report available at British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Re- sources, Victoria. 49 p. Yoakum, J., W.P. Dasmann, H.R. Sanderson, C.M. Nixon and H.S. Crawford. 1980. Habitat improvement techniques jn Schemnitz, S.D. (ed). Wildlife Manage- ment Techniques Manual. The Wildlife Society, p. 329-409. 123 Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation Appendix I Seed Mixes Currently Used at Westar Mining's Balmer Operations High Elevation Seed Mix Creeping Red Fescue 15% Meadow Foxtail 15% Orchardgrass (Chinook) 15% Canada Bluegrass (Canon) 10% Kentucky Bluegrass (Geronimo) 5% Redtop 5% Timothy (Climax) 10% Smooth Brome (Manchar) 5% Alsike Clover 5% White Clover 15% South Facing Coarse Refuse Mix Crested wheatgrass 20% Creeping Red Fescue 10% Bromegrass 30% Intermediate Wheatgrass 10% Canada Bluegrass 5% White Clover 20% Kentucky Bluegrass (Troy) 5% (This seed mix is used in conjunction with seed oats as a nurse crop. Rate of 25 kg/ha) Special Gravel Pit Mix Orchardgrass 30% Brome-Carlton 15% Timothy 5% White Clover 10% Creeping Red Fescue (Boreal) 10% Tetraploid Italian Ryegrass 20% Canada Bluegrass 5% Alsike Clover 5% Low Elevation - Lagoon Mix Smooth Brome (Manchar) 20% Intermediate Wheatgrass 10% Crested Wheatgrass 10% Canada Bluegrass (Canon) 5% Timothy (Climax) 5% Creeping Red Fescue 5% 124 Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Red top 5%  Alfalfa 30%  Alsike Clover 5%  (Used with  Fall   Rye as  a cover  crop  at  an  application rate of 55 kg/ha)  Low Elevation Seed Mix  Smooth Brome (Manchar) 20%  Intermediate Wheatgrass 10%  Crested Wheatgrass 10%  Canada Bluegrass (Canon) 5%  Timothy (Climax) 5%  Creeping Red Fescue 5%  Redtop 5%  Perennial Ryegrass 5%  Alfalfa 10%  Sainfoin 10%  Cicer Milkvetch (Oxley) 10%  Alsike Clover 5% 125 Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation Appendix II  Target Wildlife Species for Balmer Mine Site TARGET SPECIES GROUP "A":   Reproduce on ground, in short grass, high elevation grasslands with little or no shrub component. Birds:        Water Pipit Mammals:     Deer Mouse Horned Lark Meadow Vole Jumping Mouse Columbia Ground Squirrel Yellow Badger TARGET SPECIES GROUP "B": Reproduce on ground,  in grassland vegetation with tall and legume grass species. Birds:        Northern Harrier Mammals:     Deer Mouse Short Eared Owl Meadow Vole Vesper Sparrow Jumping Mouse TARGET SPECIES GROUP "C": Reproduce on ground in grassland vegetation with scattered shrub component. Birds:        Horned Lark Savannah Sparow Vesper Sparrow Mammals:       Deer Mouse Meadow Vole Jumping Mouse Columbia Ground Squirrel Yellow Badger TARGET SPECIES GROUP "D": Reproduce on ground in grassland/tall shrub association. Birds:       Blue Grouse Ruffed Grouse Hermit Thrush Veery Townsends Solitaire Wilson's Warbler Orange-crowned Warbler Nashville Warbler Mammals:    Deer Mouse Meadow Vole Jumping Mouse Long- tailed Weasel Short-tailed Weasel Least Weasel Columbia Ground Squirrel Yellow Badger Coyote White tail Deer Mule Deer Rocky Mountain Elk TARGET SPECIES GROUP "E":  Reproduce in shrubs or deciduous trees. Birds:       Calliope Hummingbird Great Horned Owl Mourning Dove 126 Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation Cedar Waxwing Willow Flycatcher Dusky Flycatcher Least Flycatcher Eastern Kingbird Common Crow American Robin Swainsons Thrush Red eyed Vireo Warbling Vireo Soliary Vireo American Redstart MacGillvarys Warbler Red-winged Blackbird Brown-headed Cowbird Lazuli Bunting American Goldfinch Chipping Sparrow Brewers Sparrow White-crowned Sparrow Fox Sparrow Song Sparrow TARGET SPECIES GROUP "F": Reproduce on ground, in coniferous vegetation. Birds:       Blue Grouse Mammals:     Deer Mouse Ruffed Grouse Red-backed Vole Spruce Grouse Long-tailed Vole Hermit Thrush White tail Deer Dark eyed Junco Mule Deer Rocky Mountain Elk Moose Lynx Coyote TARGET SPECIES GROUP "G":  Reproduce in coniferous vegetation. Birds:       Goshawk Mammals:     Red Squirrel Sharpshinned Hawk Pine Martin Coopers Hawk Merlin Long-eared Owl Great Horned Owl Rufous Hummingbird Hammond's Flycatcher Western Wood Peewee Gray Jay Steller's Jay Clark's Nutcracker 127 Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation Common Crow Varied Thrush American Robin Ruby-crowned Kinglet Golden-crowned Kinglet Evening Grosbeak Cassins Finch Pine Grosbeak Pine Siskin TARGET SPECIES GROUP "H":  Make their own excavations in snags placed on reclaimed site. Birds:       Common Flicker Pileated Woodpecker Yellow bellied Sapsucker Hairy Woodpecker Downy Woodpecker White breasted Nuthatch Red breasted Nuthatch TARGET SPECIES GROUP "I":  Reproduce in hole made in snag by another species in a natural cavity or in an artificial nest box. Birds:       Wood Duck Barrows Goldeneye Bufflehead Hooded Merganser Common Merganser American Kestrel Pygmy Owl Barred Owl Saw Whet Owl Boreal Owl Vaux's Swift Violet-green Swallow Tree Swallow B lack-capped Chickadee Mountain Chickadee Boreal Chickadee Brown Creeper House Wren Mountain Bluebird Starling House Sparrow Mammals:    Myotis spp. Northern Flying Squirrel Pine Martin 128 Proceedings of the 8th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Victoria, BC, 1984. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation TARGET SPECIES GROUP "J":  Utilize cliffs (headwalls, cut faces) or outcrops. Birds:        Peregrine Falcon Mammals:   Bushy tailed Wood Rat Black Swift Golden Mantled Ground Squirrel Barn Swallow Hoary Marmot Cliff Swallow Puma Common Raven Mountain Goat Rock Wren Bighorn Sheep Gray-crowned Rosy Finch TARGET SPECIES GROUP "K":  Utilize talus (large diameter-sized overburden dumps). Birds:        Grey-crowned Rosy Finch Mammals:   Bushy tailed Wood Rat Golden Mantled Ground Squirrel Pika 129


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