British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposia

Mine waste dump management study : a progress report Hawes, Robert A. 2009

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Proceedings of the 10th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation MINE WASTE DUMP MANAGEMENT STUDY: A PROGRESS REPORT ROB HAWES JACE STANDISH NORECOL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS LTD.  Proceedings of the 10th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation BACKGROUND STUDY FOR THE TECHNICAL AND RESEARCH COMMITTEE ON RECLAMATION, FUNDED LARGELY BY THE CANADA-BRITISH COLUMBIA MINERAL DEVELOPMENT SUBSIDIARY AGREEMENT, CONDUCTED BY:  NORECOL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS LTD ASSISTANCE:    WRIGHT ENGINEERS LIMITED  THURBER CONSULTANTS LIMITED  POLSTER ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES Proceedings of the 10th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation OBJECTIVES OF STUDY O  TO DEVELOP CRITERIA FOR WASTE DUMP MANAGEMENT  FOR FUTURE AS WELL AS PAST DUMPS O  EVALUATE THE MAJOR ENGINEERING (MATERIALS  HANDLING, COST) STABILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL  FACTORS IMPORTANT FOR CONSIDERATION o  CONSIDER THE NEED FOR AND WHEN RESLOPING MAY  BE REQUIRED Proceedings of the 10th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation OBJECTIVES OF THIS PRESENTATION O  STUDY IS IN PROGRESS AND RESULTS ARE NOT  COMPLETE o  PRESENT INTERIM RESULTS FROM LITERATURE  SURVEY, INTERVIEWS AND INDUSTRY QUESTIONNAIRE O  PRESENT SOME INITIAL FINDINGS AND OBTAIN  FEEDBACK FROM AUDIENCE Proceedings of the 10th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation OVERVIEW OF PROBLEM LEGISLATION:  GENERAL REQUIREMENT FOR RECLAMATION UNDER O  MINES RECLAMATION ACT (1969) 11(1)  O  COAL MINES REGULATION ACT (1969) 8 (1)  O  MEMPR GUIDELINE (1984) O  "ALL WASTE DUMPS SHALL BE RECLAIMED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAND USE OBJECTIVES" O  "WASTE DUMPS SHALL BE RECONTOURED SO THAT THE ANGLE OF REPOSE DOES NOT EXCEED 27 DEGREES, UNLESS PROVED THROUGH FIELD SCALE TRIALS THAT LAND USE AND PRODUCTIVITY OBJECTIVES CAN BE OTHERWISE ACHIEVED" …CONT’D Proceedings of the 10th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation COST: O  RESLOPING CAN BE LARGEST RECLAMATION COST  ITEM O  OUTSTANDING RECLAMATION COSTS ON ACTIVE MINING  SITES TOTAL MILLIONS OF DOLLARS -COSTS WILL BE  GREATLY AFFECTED BY RESLOPING DECISIONS … C O N T 'D Proceedings of the 10th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation ENVIRONMENTAL O  BENEFITS DIFFICULT TO QUANTIFY O  MUCH VARIABILITY IN CONDITIONS FROM MINE  TO MINE O  NEED TO PROVIDE GUIDELINES - REASONABLY SIMPLE FOR ADMINISTRATION, ETC - BUT, BY NATURE, CAN TEND TO BE: ARBITRARY AND INFLEXIBLE OR TOO VAGUE AND GENERAL O  EXTREMES ARE LESS DIFFICULT: E.G. - LIFE OR PROPERTY ENDANGERED - VERY HIGH VALUE SPAWNING STREAM - REMOTE AREAS WITH ONLY LOW WILDLIFE HABITAT VALUES O  IN BETWEEN CASES CAN BE PROBLEMATIC INSTITUTIONAL o  TOO MANY INDIVIDUAL COMPANIES AND GOVT  AGENCIES ACTING IN RELATIVE ISOLATION ? Proceedings of the 10th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation PROGRESS - WHAT HAS BEEN DONE ? O  LITERATURE SEARCH CAN MET DATA BANK 30,000 SOURCES >200 "POTENTIAL" REFERENCES 116 REVIEWED 28 DIRECTLY RELEVANT REFERENCES OTHER SOURCES LIBRARIES INFORMATION ON HAND (PROCEEDINGS,ETC) … CONT'D Proceedings of the 10th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation QUESTIONNAIRES TO INDUSTRY - 30 SENT 11 RESPONSES TO DATE (EXPECT SOME MORE TO COME) SOME VALUABLE DESCRIPTIVE DATA ( SEE TABLE FOR EXAMPLE)  … CONT'D Proceedings of the 10th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Proceedings of the 10th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Proceedings of the 10th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation WASTE DUMP CLASSIFICATION - 5 CONFIGURATIONS - USEFUL FOR COST ANALYSIS - MAY ALSO BE APPLIED TO OTHER CONSIDERATIONS - EXAMPLES (FIGS, 1 - 5) COST ANALYSIS - FRAMEWORK DEVELOPED - NEEDS SOME REFINEMENTS - NEED GOOD INPUT DATA FOR COSTS AND VALUES ! - SEE EXAMPLE Proceedings of the 10th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation CONCLUSIONS (INTERIM) O  IN GENERAL, CRITERIA ARE WIDELY DOCUMENTED IN  LITERATURE; NEED TO KNOW HOW TO WEIGHT VARIOUS  CRITERIA IN VARIOUS SITUATIONS AND NEED A FRAME  WORK FOR GUIDING DECISION MAKING O END LAND USE AND COSTS ARE COMMONLY THE MOST  IMPORTANT CRITERIA IN DETERMINING WHETHER OR NOT  AREAS SHOULD BE RESLOPED O  SHOULD NOT LOOK AT WASTE DUMPS IN ISOLATION -  CONSIDER LAND USE AND PRODUCTIVITY IN PERSPECTIVE  OF THE TOTAL MINE AREA O  ANY ONE, RIGID, BLANKET RULE SUCH AS -  ALL DUMPS MUST BE SLOPED TO 26 DEGREES - MAY  NOT BE JUSTIFIABLE o  WASTE DUMP CLASSIFICATION AND COST ANALYSIS  METHODS MAY BE USEFUL AIDS FOR RECLAMATION  DECISION MAKING O  RESLOPING CONSIDERATIONS REQUIRE ENGINEERING,  COST AND GEOTECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS AS WELL  AS ENVIRONMENTAL Proceedings of the 10th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  I. Valley Bottom / Internal Pit Operation • PIT AND WASTE DUMPS ESTABLISHED ON FLAT LAND • DEVELOPMENT  OF  PIT  RIMS • HAULS   BECOME   MORE   ADVERSE  AS   OPERATIONS MATURE • DUMP  CAN  BE  TERRACED ECONOMICALLY  TO CREATE   FLATTER ANGLES EXAMPLE:  COMINCO’S   VALLEY COPPER OPERATION Proceedings of the 10th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  2.  Mountain Bench / Daylighted Pit Operation • OREBODY   ON   SIDE OF   MOUNTAIN, SLOPE GRADIENTS 20 DEGREES APPROX. • OREBODY   SHALLOW   AND  IT'S  PLUNGE   PARALLEL TO   SLOPE OF GROUND • MOST   OF   BENCH   DAYLIGHTED • HAULAGE  OF WASTE   FLAT  TO  DUMP • NECCESITY   FOR   MAINTAINANCE   OF   HAULAGE   BERMS   RESULTS IN   DUMP   FACE   SLOPES   16-23    DEGREES EXAMPLE:  ABANDONED DUMPS OF CRAIGMONT MINES Proceedings of the 10th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  3.  Mountain Bench/Internal Pit Operation • SITUATION   OF OREBODY  EXCLUDES POSSIBILITY OF   DAY- LIGHTING   THE   BENCHES • PIT  RIM  ESTABLISHED   EARLY • WASTE   HAUL  IS  ADVERSE   TO   PIT RIM   THEN   FLAT TO   DUMP • DUMP  BERM  ADVANCED   BY  END DUMPING, CREATING   A 37  DEGREE   SLOPE   FROM   DUMP CREST   TO  TOE • TOO   EXPENSIVE  TO  CONSTRUCT  AT   FLATTER   ANGLES EXAMPLE:  GIBRALTER   MINES Proceedings of the 10th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  4.  Mountainous Terrain/Daylighted Pit Operation • HIGH ON MOUNTAIN SIDES   ( > 37 DEGREES,   > 100 M) • SHALLOW   OREBODY   ENABLING   DAYLIGHTED  BENCHES • NEED   CONSIDERABLE   WASTE   DUMPAGE   TO  ESTABLISH  A CONTINUOUS   SLOPE    BACK   FROM  VALLEY   FLOOR    TO DUMP ELEVATION • HIGH   TENDENCY   FOR   CREEP   IN   UNSTABLE    WASTES   (EG. OVERBURDENS)   WHICH   SPILL   ACROSS   VALLEY   FLOOR • THUS,   POSSIBLE   NEED   FOR TOE   DYKES   OR   OTHER   MEANS OF  CONTAINMENT • UPON   ESTABLISHMENT   OF   DUMP   BERM,    DUMPS   MAY   BE BUILT  AT  A  REDUCED   SLOPE   ANGLE EXAMPLE:  FORDING COAL   (EAST KOOTENAYS) Proceedings of the 10th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  5. Terraced Slopes • IDENTICAL TO  N0.4,   ONLY   BENCHES  NOT   DAYLIGHTED • SINGLE   DUMP  ELEVATION  AT   PIT   RIM • SHALLOW   OREBODY,   NEED   CONSIDERABLE   WASTE   DUMPAGE TO  ESTABLISH   A  CONTINUOUS   SLOPE   AND   UNSTABLE WASTES   TEND   TO   CREEP • TOO EXPENSIVE  TO CONSTRUCT    DUMP SLOPE   AT  FLATTER ANGLE • POST-OPERATIONAL   RESLOPING   (ONCE   DUMP  INACTIVE) • CONTAINMENT    MAY   BE   PROVIDED   BY   TOE  DYKES EXAMPLE:  BETHLEHEM   MINES Proceedings of the 10th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation VARIABLES   CONSIDERED   IN   COST ANALYSIS • SLOPE   ANGLE , CONTINUOUS   OR   TERRACED • RESLOPING    COST   ($/m3   MOVED) • REVEGETATION    COST • CONSTRUCTION   COST   (INCREMENTAL   $ / HA   DUE TO   $/+ HAULED    DURING   CONSTRUCTION   OF   DUMP TO   INITIAL   27°)   NOT   USED  IN  EXAMPLE • DUMP  HEIGHT • GROUND SLOPE • SLOPE LENGTH • TOE LAND • RESLOPE   VOLUME    ( VOL.  MOVED  IN   RESLOPING PER METRE   LATERAL   DUMP   TO   DISTANCE) • REHANDLE (APPROX. %  OF   ABOVE   THAT MUST   BE   REHANDLED   IN   RESLOPING   THE    DUMP) • LAND    VALUES ORIGINAL ASSESSED   VALUE   OR    END  USE OF   LAND OCCUPIED   BY    DUMP RECLAIMED VALUE  OR   POTENTIAL   LAND USE   OF  RESLOPED   DUMP SURFACE • NOTE (COST AND LAND VALUE DATA USED IN EXAMPLES ARE   ORDER   OF   MAGNITUDE   ESTIMATES) Proceedings of the 10th Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation 

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